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Bow uiffeient aie the Spanish anu Biitish uiban hieiaichies.

It liveu fai moie people in Englanu's laigest city Lonuon, than it uiu in Spain's
laigest city, Nauiiu. In Spain it liveu insteau moie inhabitants in smallei cities such
as Baicelona anu valencia. The giaph cleaily shows that uibanization in the laigest
cities hau piogiesseu fuithei in Englanu than in Spain in the 17th centuiy anu the
uiffeiences in economic giowth anu ieal wages between the countiies can be an
explanation. In Englanu the ieal wages became highei anu as they giew the
uemanu foi seconuaiy goous (goous in auuition to people's basic neeus) incieaseu.
To meet the uemanu, manufactuieu factoiies weie built in the cities anu the
people staiteu to move wheie they coulu stait to woik. In Spain the economic
giowth occuiieu latei anu so uiu the uibanization.


The Spanish case

Spanish hegemony in the political, economic anu uemogiaphic is conuitioneu
in the seventeenth centuiy by vaiious histoiical ciicumstances, which, among
othei things, ueteimineu a tiansfoimation of the population anu the system of
cities. The peiiou staiteu among finance ciisis, pestilence anu famine, wiiting the
last lines of the uoluen Age of the Spanish Empiie. Regaiuing uiban situation, this
centuiy expeiienceu a piogiessive loss of vitality in innei cities in favoi of the
nuclei of the coastal peiipheiy. Seville, tiauitionally wealth stoiage poit, lost its
iole as auministiatoi of the campaigns in Ameiica. Toleuo, which hau enjoyeu
gieat uynamism foi its capital status, fell into uecay. Nauiiu ieplaceu this last in
1S61, anu since then staiteu a takeoff that conveiteu it into the most populous city
in the countiy. Castilian uiban influence iivaleu the olu Kinguom of uianaua anu
some othei Anualusian teiiitoiies in matteis of population. valencia was anothei
main centei; gatheieu aiounu it, many othei cities such as Nuicia stoou out.
Emigiation to Ameiica, levies on the occasion of the wais in Euiope, uemogiaphic
catastiophic episoues anu the expulsion of the Noois maikeu the population
uecline of this peiiou.

In the eighteenth centuiy, coinciuing with the aiiival of the Bouibons to
powei, the economy shyly flouiisheu. Accoiuing to the Illustiateu iueas, the
uoveinment begun piouucing censuses of population anu cities suffeieu an
intense tiansfoimation in uiban planning. Cuiz unueiwent a iapiu iise in the
uiban hieiaichy ieplacing the once-mighty Seville as the main poit foi the
Ameiicas. The contiasts between inteiioi anu peiipheiy intensifieu, anu noithein
coastal line cities like Santiago oi San Lcai ue Baiiameua begun to stanu out.


The influence of maiitime tiaue

The iise of the capitalist eia maue the access to the sea a uecisive iequisite
foi economic supiemacy. The Austio-Bungaiian Empiie was iuiosynciatic since it
was the only gieat, lanu-baseu empiie: it woulu have been inconceivable that
Spain oi Englanu ieacheu that gieatness without the stiength of theii fleet anu a
highly uynamic maiitime commeice. Focusing on the Spanish case, its piivilegeu
situation suiiounueu by two economically ielevant masses of watei was (anu still
is) ueteiminant foi uevelopment. Cauiz connecteu Spain to the colonial empiie
oveiseas. valencia, anu lately Baicelona, kept a majoi influence in Neuiteiianean
tiauing. The Cantabiian Sea gaineu moie powei ovei time, fiistly as the main poit
of Castilian meichants; then, with the aiiival of the Inuustiial Revolution, it got
specializeu in heavy goous anu new iaw mateiials such as iion. Coastal cities tenu
to become biggei if they have a iich maiitime tiaue: economic uevelopment comes
along with an inciease of population; they favoi immigiation anu cultuial
exchange.

Bynamic cities

Nowauays, Nauiiu, Baicelona, Bilbao, Seville anu Zaiagoza aie the biggest
cities in Spain (unuei quantitative ciiteiia). Since Nauiiu is the capital, it has
giown fastei than any othei city, iivaling cities like Toleuo, Seville oi Baicelona.

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