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Delhi - 110009.

\\'h:H is (' (hi('S'?
I' I h il'$ is a S)'SI""' 0 r mora I pri nci pks and a branch 0 r Phi losophy !hat de fines what is good
indi' iduals and society.
1\t its simplest, ethi cs is a sysrem of moral principles. They affec( how people make deci sions
nnd lead their li ves.
Ethics is concerned with what is good for individuals and society and is also described as
moral philosophy.
The term is deri veo from the Greek \\' Ord ethos whi ch can mean custom, habit, character or
di sposition.
Et hi cs covers the following dilemmas:
ho'v to li ve a good life
our rights and responsibilities
rhe language of ri ght and wrong
moral decisions - what is good and bad? . .
Our concepts of ethics have been derived from reli gions, philosophies and cultures. They
, inft1se debates on topics like abortion. human ri ghts and professional conduct.
-: Approaches to ethics
Philosophers nowadays tend to divide ethi cal theories into three areas: metaethics, normati ve
ethi cs and applied ethics.
Meta-ethics deals with the nature of moral judgement lt looks at the origins and meaning
of ethical principles.
Normative et hics !s concerned with the content of moral judgements and the criteria for
what is righ(or wrong.
Applied et hics looks at controversial topi cs like war, animal ri ghts and capital punishment
\\' hat use is ethics?
Ethics needs to provide answers. J r f;fif!Qii= .
If ethical rheories are to be useful in they need to affect the way human beings
if a person realises that it
that persoa1 not to do it.
. c t' cv( n when tiH.' Ir
I i r ' p ut 111!, 1111
Hut hutnau ht.inp:-; otkn irrntionall v - th<:>y foll ow Ll<.: - , . ,
. . I . . ICS
I c t .. c.. t.luc.s dot:s provtck good tool <.; fo r tlunk r ng a )Ot
. . . l ll rnora asst
Er h ic.s c.' :ln fH'O\' idc :l lll<>ral map
. a nd e utha na<; ia for startca
111<\ral issues get us prcuy worked up - think of aborti on do the arguing. while our
lkeause these arc s uch emoti o na l issue s we o ft e n le t o ur hea rts
hrains jwa go with the now.
, 1 c phil osophers can come in -
But 3nothcr way of tackli11g these issues, a11d that s w
cr . a cooler view of moral
,. . . . I I able us to t ake
t l ey ofkr us c th cal rul es and prmctp es t 1at e n
So cth1cs provrdes us With a moral map, a framework that we
' . . can use to fi nd our way through
di Cficuh i ssues. :\
Ethic - can pinpoi nt a disagr eement
lls111g thl.! trame\\ Ork o f eth1cs. two people who are argUing a
moral issue can oft en lind that
. b 1 t' tl e ; -s..-e and that they broadl y agree on
" 1at t1cy rsagree a out rs JUSt one parll cu ar pan o 1 > u , .
e \ erything else.
That can take a lot of heat out of the argument. and even hin( at a way for them to
- rcsoh'e their probl em.
But ethics doesn't provide peopl e with the son of help that they reall y Wa!l
Ethics doesn't ai\'c ri a ht answcrs
b b
Ethics doesn't always show the right answer to moral problems.
Indeed more and more people think that for many ethi cal issues there isn't a single righl
answer -just a set of principles that can be appli ed to particular cases to give those involved
some clear choices.
Some philosophers go further and say that all ethi cs can do is eliminate confusion and clarif)
the issues. After that it's up to each individual to come to thei r own conclusions.
can gi\'e Se\'cral answers
Man) peopk '-ant there to be a single right answer to ethical questions. Thev fi n
hard to fi ve with genuinely want to do tht> 'ri ght' thing: and ,
tbry cant "Ork out what that nglu duna is. they like the idea that 'sorncwltere' th re 1!1 one riptanswer

veral righl an \'t 1 or iu l
,..IWIII!t!n thenL

F\w others mor:t l ambiguity is difti cult because it forces them to l k ...
. . . a e responstbtbty the
ownd101CCS and actiOnS. rather than fallmg back. on convenient r
d tr
u es an eustoms.
Ethics and people
thi c is about the 'other '
Ethics is concerned with other people
At the heart of ethics is a concern about something or someone ot her than ourselves and our
own desires and self-interest.
Ethics is with other people's interests. wit h the interests or society. with God's
interests. \\'ith "ultimate goods", and so on.
So when a person 'thinks ethically' they are givi ng at least some to something beyond
. themselves. .i
Ethics a source of group st rength
One problem with ethics is the way it's often -used as a "veapon.
I f a group that a particular acti vity is "wro)g" it can then use morality as the
j ustificat ion for attacki ng those who practice that acti vity.
When people do this. they often see those who they regard as immoral as in some way less
human or deserving of respect than themselves: sometimes with tragic consequences.
Good peopl e as well as good actions
Ethi cs is not onl y about the morality of part icul ar courses of action, but it's also about the
goodness of indi vi duals and what it means to li ve a good li fe.
Virtue Ethics is particularly concerned with the moral character of human beings .
Searching for the source of right and wrong
At times in the past some people thought ethical problems could be solved in one of two
by discovering what God
right conclusion.
possible to devi se a sati sfactory and
conclusions but to 'decisions' .

I 1

1 lc) ,. l.trif ylll' t 'w
a .s <
In '"' ' '1(.'\\, ,,,k nf 1'\ lrrtlll t'l ' t.

f>i iii H 11lar <'ll11c:t1
. )ll' . and v{tltw )y'.II' Jll
. COil \'CI Sd 1< ' I I I I
. .,. I )f thi<." tl ll H.! I tO<. s, I . l l 1
l tl ,b.,)p \\ 1.',\ll help td\' 11(1 )' I l<.' .!:fl!lgl ( \ . . I ' l V<.: b<.:Cll 111:1( I
. . ' ' r . tiles<.: tlungs l < '
th.H \'.Ill b\. .tppl rtd to a p.trucul .tr pr(.)bk rn. But <
, d
hen reac t appr op11<11d y
. . . . , ... . l what to co, ct n
lllll st m.lhl..' own llldl\' tdual dcc rston 41'> 0
An o bj cc ti vd y tntc:)
about ('lll)' tlll. ng other .than human optnJOrts and
()l) ethical provide informati on

Ethicnl think thar human beings discover ethi ca l that already have an
' e\istencc.
Ethical non-realists think that human beings invent ethi cal truths.
The pn..)bfem for e thical realists is that people foll ow many different ethi cal codt::s aod moral
I eliefs. "'o if there are real ethi cal truths out there (where\'er!) rhen human beings don't seem
w be ,er) good at discovering them .
One form or reali sm teaches that et hi cal propertit;s ex i st independently of human
he111gs. and that et hi cal statements give "nowlcdge about t objecti ve "orl d.
ro pul it the ethi cal of the world and the things in it ex i st and n.::ill.Hl .
lhe s:1me. regardless of what people think or feel - or people hink or feel about them
a1 all.
our ethical ' isms
When a person says "rnurdcr is had" whar arc lhty doing?
lhe son of that on I y a phi losopher would .1sk. hut j
's actu.ll h u , Cl\ ust: ul
11n a clc;u tdca of \\hat's f'Oino on \\hen J>c' J)l l I' tl l J "
t: (;:: ' t c. } lU In I a I Sll
' re , 'd the pcrwn u II ., Ill I he ldl m nt a duuw d' lll!t cnt t hIll


\\ 1..' c..',\ll !'1\\)\\ o f the different things ( mi g ht be do
tng whe n 1 s
th.\t to s how 'vhat I reall y mean: ay murder is bad' by
I bl" ma!.-ttl g_ a about an ethi cal fac t
"It is '' rong to murde-r"
This i. moral aeal ism
l mi ght be making a statement about my own feelings
"I di sapprove of murder"

This is subj e ti,ism
I mi ght be express ing my feelings
"Down wilh n1urder"
This is emoti vism
.. . .
I mi ght be gi,ing a n instruction or a prohibition
"Don't murder people"
This is prescriptivi sm
!\1oral rcali s m
t-.1oral reali sm is based on the idea that there are real objecti ve moral facts or truths in the
universe. _Moral statements provide factual informati on about those truths.
Subjectivism teaches that moral judgments are not hing more than statements of a person' s
feelings or ani tudes. and that ethical statements do not contain factual truths about goodness
or badness.
In more detail : subj ectivi sts say that moral statements arestatemenls about the f eelings.
allitudes and emolions that that particular person or group has about .a_particular issue.
If a person something is good or bad they are telling us about the positive or negative
feelings that they ha\e about that something.
telling us that they disapprove of murder.
the appropriate -attitude or have the

than expressions of approval or
stal(!lllc!lll P
s those feeling.\ .

MAR'S t.AS ..
KU . . lUrdcr <II
"dov.m . g -
thumb; down
.. ,s li ke saying maklll '"
" fe r is wrono I d face, or \\' hc..' n :lll c..'mnr says mur l o . horri fi e
.. f, " vhile pullmg a
,\..<.'t' h!'' or ttrsr say111g rnun cr ' : . n" -- - 1
. . . . " IS . t s o m<.! t " " g
!!<' "' c' :u I he " ""'' I unc as sa ymg mt . feelings abou
. how the ir instructinn I () I
duc mcnt they .\ ives an So ,, hl..' n S\.>llli..'OIH.' makes a mora .l u -=- . . tl e person g ::
. . , a fec l1ng 1 thl..'orists also suggest thar 111 expressing
how to act towards the s ubj ect matte r.
./ } ! I
mendati ons.
s or rec
. e instruct 10 11
Prcscriptivi sts think that et h1cal statement s ar r
sav something is bad.
t and 1 ,
d o ou to o

So if I say something is good. I'm recommen
e Y
J'm telling you not to do it. . e nt : a nv ethi cal
ld ethtcal statein
. . any real-wor . : 1 1 1 r. There is almos t always a prescnpt1ve element m
, vitli a n o ug 111 111 tl. or
statement can be reworked (wtth a bH o e or
t to tell 1 ics .
. . f ff; t) in0 a statemen "
C'\ample: "lying is wrong" can be rewnuen a.s :=
. . .. "Ople OW' l t no
\\'here docs ethics come from'?
Philosophers have severitl answers to this question: ,
God and religion
Human conscience and intuition
a rarionallll oral cost-beneti analysi s of actions and their effects
rhe exampl e of good human beings
a desire tor the best for pe<?ple in each unique situation
political power
God-based ethics -supernaturalism
, . Supern31uralism makes ethics inseparable. froni religion. It teaches that the only source of
moral rules is God.
So. something is good because God says it is, and the way to lead a good life is to do \\hat
God wants.
Ills chink that l!ood and bad are real objective propen tl b l k ., ...
- . . tes lat can 1 c 'ro en l!O,vn
parts. Somethmg IS good because it's no d . I ..a. t

o . a ts l!oodncss doesn t ftt;l <
dial goodneSs or badiJCss can be detected b d
uhs - they sa\ rh u I
mora sense lltat enables lhen
d .J
ececr real rnoral truth

. , tllt. f\t t,,,,,c rmH.\1 t tUl h'\ of what is and l) 't<.l ., " . ' I r d
1\. \ ( < u l -.. SC - CVI C l1( ( 0 (I p erSOn who
l' tlh.'H 11\llld {\)\\,\IdS ll\l)l id . k'\SUC<
\' i thin!}S that a pe rson reali ses are good if they spend some time
1 \'ihl till'
P\ n' t c(.)Jlll.rscd . For the intuitioni st:
nh.'J.ll tnllh::> arc not disco, cred by rati onal argument
truths arc not discovered by having a hunch
mornl truth' arc not di co cred by havi ng a feeli ng
It's nwre a sort or m ral 'aha' moment- a reali sation of the truth.
on ' C<.l ucnlialis m
This is et hi cal theory that most non-reli gious people think the_y use every day. It bases
on the conseque nces of human actions and not on the actio.ns themselves.
Con teaches that people should do produces the greatest amount of
good consequences.
One famous way of pulling thi s is 'the greatest good greatest number of
The most common te rms of con seq ucnti al ism are the various versions of utilitarianism,
'' hich fa\'our actions that produce the greatest amount of happiness.
Despite its obvious common-sense appeal, consequential ism turns out to be a complicated
theory. and doesn't provide a complete soluti on to all ethical probleins.
r,,o problems with consequential ism are:
it can lead to the conclusion that some quite acts are good.
predicting and evaluating the consequences of actions is often very difficult
' on-consequentialism or dcontological ethics
Non-consequentialism is concerned with the actions themselves and not with the
consequences. It's the theory that people are using when they refer to "the principle of the
11 le8Ches that some acts are right or wrong in themselves, whatever the consequences, and
people should act accordingly. 1
Yll._ looks virtue or moral character. rather than ethical duties and rules, or the
indeed some ot this school deny that tlvn can be
.. ct-.ell rules

their li ves. and less
. d "vi duaJs live
Vi r tuc.. erhics is parti_cul arly concerned wir h the wa
<'OIIC<' I'Il <'d in asscssiug particul ar ac1ions.
tlwir inn. r
. us pcor c -.
. I , va)' vtrtuO
h lops I he idea o_f good actions by lookmg nt t
goodness i n the thi ngs that thev do.
f t .,. a
- . . f nd 011 y 1 1 b < n act i On
. is n gh t ' .?!
fo pu1 i1 very simph, virlue c1hics leaches 1ha1 an aellon d that a person is
. - . nstances. an
that a vrnuous person would do in the same ctrcur
someone who has a panicul arl y good character.
Sit uation ethics
. d. ,dual ethica l decis ions should
Si tuation ethi cs rej ects prescripti ve rul es and argues that
10 1\ 1 ,
be made t.o the unique situation.
. . . w a desire t9 seek the best for the Rather than foll owmg rul es the decson maker should foli o . . d d
ach case is umque an eserves a
peopl e irn-olved. There are no moral rules or ng Hs - e
unique solution.
Ethics and ideology
Some philosophers teach that ethi cs is the codification of political ideology, and that the
function of ethics is to state. enforce and preserve particul ar political be li efs.
? .
They usual! y go on to say that ethics is used by the dominant poI it i ca I elite as a too I to eon t rol
everyone else.
More cyni cal writers suggest that power elites enforce an ethi cal code on other peopte that
helps them control those people, but do not appl y thi s code to their own behaviour.
Are lhcre uni\'crsal moral rules?
One of the big in moral philosophy is whether or not there are unchanging moral
rules that apply in all cultures and at all times.
Moral absolutism
Some people think there are such uni.versal rul es that appl t , . .
is called moral absolutism. Y
everyone. 1 hts sort of thinkmg
Moral absolutism argues that there are some moral rule th ;,
an be discovered and that these rules apply
e .
at are always true, that these ni+es
aas- acts that break these moral rules_ are wron .
oc dJe consequences of those g
themselves, regardless of the
R universal vie" of humanil) _ there . .
as one set of I .
lllliversat rules - such as the Decta . ru es for evel) one
rataon of Human Righls
Pdi11. i()ll" of et hi cs tend to be absoluti st.

[\ lany or us kcl that the consequences of an ac( or the eire , -

umstances surroundino it are
tde,am to whether that act is good or bad
Absolutism doesn't fit with respect for diversity and traditi on
Different cultures have had diffe rent attit udes to issues li ke war
t\1onll tcJati vism
l'd ornl re lati\'i sts say that if you look at different cultures or different . pert.ods h. ' ll
. tn 1ston you
ttnd tha t they have different moral rules.
Therefore it makes sense to say that "good" refers to the things that a particular group of
people approve of.
t\1oral relati,ists think that that' s just fine, and di spute the idea thaFthhe are some objective
and discoverable 'super-rules' that a ll cultures ought to obey. They beli eve that
respects the diversity of huma n societies and responds to the different circumstances
surrounding hUJnan acts.
\Vhy peopl e di sagree with moral relativi sm:
Many of us fee l that moral rul es have more to them than the general agreement of a group
of people- that morality is more than a super-charged form of et iquette
Many of us think we can be good without conforming to all the rul es of society
Moral relativism has a problem with arguing against the majority view: if most people in a
society agree with particular rules, that' s the end of the matter. Many of the impro,ements
in the world have come about because people opposed the prevailing ethical vie"v - moral
relativists are forced to regard such people as behaving .. badly"
Any choice of social grouping as the foundation of ethics is bound to be arbitrary
Moral relativi s m doesn't provide any way to deal with moral differences between societies
Moral somewhere-ilt-bet\\'CCn-ism
Most non-philosophers think that both of the above theories have some good points and think
there are a few absolute ethical rules
but a lot of erhical rules depend on the culture
. .

- ..

Ahour s upcrnaturalis m
.Strpl'rnatu ralis m (God- based ethics)
f I
ach .. s that :
I'his theory makes et hics depend on Goc . t tee c
the only source of moral rul es is God
something is good because God says it i s
the way to lead a good life is to do what God wants
God be the ultimate source of good?
Supernatural is m rel.i es on revelations from God . God .
. rfi
baseeth1cson Throughout hi story one puzzle has made rt dr 1cu l to .
l s a thing good because God desires it ?
Does God desire a thing because it is good?
The Ancient Greek philosopher Plato concluded tha t des ires a <hingbec<:use it is good.
God's desire doesn't make a thing good :. the thing \VOuld be good regardl ess of God.
If Plato is right then the supernatural ism theory is pre tty because "it doesn't reveal
\\hat makes something good or bad.
God's desire would be at best a useful way of di scovering what is good and what is bad.
wouldn't tell us anything more than that.
And here's another problem:
If God desired something that everyone thinks is bad - would that make it good')
and supernaturalism
Ethical atheists and supernaturalism
How do de:ive their moral s? Photo: I,
If supernaturalism as true, how can atheists behave i . -
n a consistently nloral \Vay?
If religion is lhe only basis of ethics, it would seem th .'
basis for lheir moral judgements, and nowhere to turn who have no faith can ha\"e no
r gurdance on how ro I i ve. ..
tdleiscs do behave in a consistent moral wa)' s h
w ere do 1
people ger their nloaahty
And ance and believers tot ally disagree on the foundaf d . .
IOns un erpannmg moral rules
1t s strange that they so often agree on matters of ri ght and . . '
u . llHl"h.lll basts for moral Judgements, any agreement on moral rul e b .
, . . wrong - smce they have no
s must e co..!.n.c1dence.
Ont n:spt)nsc the supernaturalist mi ght offer is that the atheist docs d
. .
, en ve HS or her ethacs
trt)fll 10d, even though they are unaware of it. The supernaturalist h h
... , .. . . mt g l say t at not
t te\ mg 111 God docs not mean the athetst would have no aware-ness of a G d b d h.
. . . o - ase et 1cs,
and hence t he1r agreement can be ex pia t ned despt te the at heist' s different belie rs.
Constr-uctionism de\'alues God- based et hics
Some who are observant followers of a religion accept that God is a human constructi on and
not a supernatural being.
If thi s is so, tlien bod-based ethi cs are no different from human I y const ructed et hies based on
cultural tradi tions and rituals.

Different Gods leads to moral disagreeinent
Since there are many different reli gions, with different understandings of God and di ffe rent
moral codes, God-based ethics is bound to produce moral di sagreement.
. -.
God-based ethics provides no way of dealing wi th ,ethical conflicts bet\Veen different
Fearing God a_s a basis for good behaviour
People may follow the rules of God-based ethics because they are fearful of being punished
by God in thi s fife or in some afterl ife.
Many theologians teach that a fear- and power-based relationship with God ts an
inappropriate relationship to have with a loving God and leads to a bad
Many theologians .and ethicists that such a relationship with God provides a bad model
for human power and family relationships.
People n1ay . foilow the rul es of God-based ethics simpl y because they '"'ish to behave in a
way that pleases God.
This is a more helpful model for human power and family relationships.
Discovering what is good
.. ....
Diseoverin& what is good
Ho do we know? !2 . ,hem they still face the
if people accept that lhings are good because Gpd t count apinst
( d erina what God desires. Strictly speakang thas does no
. l
11 \

. R'S lAS
ted that moral <11 c
. st be accep .
. . . ay be JU
S(Jpernaturalism as an intellectual poS111 on - It m . .
hard 10 di scover- but it docs hi uhlioht the di tliculues.
- 0
Dbco,ering God's will .
thi cal matter s :
- God's wtl tn e
There are ways in which believers try 10 ltnd out - -
reading scripture - both to see what God says. an

d to find relev
listening to religious teachers
prayer and meditation

. . d . how to li ve
sce1ng \vhat rs consi stent with God's general a vtce on

listening to the inner. God-d ri ven. voice
. : f 1 concerned
rscussron wrth teachers and followers o the re rgton
. . . . h proach to moral problems.
any relt grous people usc a combi nation of these rn t err ap _:
1 G d' will set out ab1, . ' '
It JS accepted bv mam bd ie,ers that the '' tiYS of d1scovenng

give direc1 to -God's \\'ill. but ,,
rking through inte rme diaries. Hence the
information is passed through social. cultural. religious and psychological filters that can
distort iL
Many hold that God's wil l is o nl y di rectl y known ' through revelation: God actuall y
communicating hi s/her \\'ill to the person concerned. However. revelation as a source of
ethics st ill presents a problem for certai nt y: h(nv is t he pe rson to knO\\ tha t the revelation the\
ha,c recei,cd has actuall y con1c tlorn God?
About consequentialism
Consequentialism: results-based ethics
The fnternet Encyclopedia of Philosophy gives a plain a nd s imple de finition of
':' i ;, r, .. . ' . . ..
eto :Ji:Ii.:> ' ill'J1ifl . I ' 1il!l I . a lilt( : . . .
Consequentiali sm is based on lvvo principles:
Whether an act is right or wron< de ., d
..... ::- pc.; n s onl v on the res 1
The more good consequences an act I . u ls of that act
. pro< uccs, the bett
It gaves us this guidance when faced tl er or rnore rigtlt that act
\\a l a mortl d.l
. .
A pea son should choose action tl . . . . ..
. . tal
And u g 1 \'es dus general guidance
h . SOod
O\\ 10 Ia \'e:

1\'"\pk '" t' so :ls t l.) maxi m good cous(.!qucnccs
'Ill rtHill" of di ffer over what the good thing IS that should be
Ill,! IIlli "<.'d
tl tilit:lri:wism states that peopl e should maxi mi se human welfare or we ll -being (whi ch
lht') used to call 'uti li ty'- hence the name).
lf r doni m states that people shouiJ maximi se human pleasure.
Orhcr for ms of conscqucnti ali sm take a more subt le approach; for example stating that
pt>opl e shoul d maximi se the sati sfact ion of their fu ll y informed and rati onal preferences.
In practice people don't assess the ethi cal consequences of every s ingle act (that' s call ed 'act
because they don't have the time.
Instead they usc ethical rul es that are deri ved from considering the ge neral consequences of
particular types of acts. That is call ed ' rule conseq uent iali sm'.
So. fo r example, according to rule consequential ism we consider lying to be \\TOng because
" e kno'' that in general lying produces bad consequences.
Resul ts-based ethi cs produces thi s important conclusion ethical thinking:
No type of act is inherently wrong - not even murder - )t depends on the result of the act
This far-fetched exampl e may make thi ngs clea rer:
Suppose that by ki lling X. an entirely innocent person, we can save the li ves of l 0 olher
innocent peopl e
A consequentiali st would say that ki lling X is justified because it would result in onl y
person-dying, rather than I 0 people dying
A non-consequenti ali st would say it is inherently wrong to murder people and re fuse to kill
X. even though not killing X leads to the death of9 more peopl e than killing X
Evaluating each deci sion would take too long. P-llflh::l r i z E ' @1!1t
The classic form of results-based ethics is called uti litarianism.-
This says that the ethically right choice in a given situat ion is the one that. produces the most
happiness and the least unhappiness for the largest number of people.
The appeal or results-based ethics

Rauks.tJesed ethics plays a very large part in everyday life because it is simple and apJteals

111e to base ethics 'Oh producing happiness and redueina unhappiness
eahics on the contequences or wllaa do. . 1
II sc't'ms to understand and to be based on common sense
At f <. ' Onsequcntialis na
,\:t consequential ism looks at s ingle moral choice anew. lt teaches:

Or11y , f , , produces more overall good than any
/\. particular action is morall y good
alternati ve action.
(.ood poiuts of act conscqucn(ialis m
A flexible system
Act consequenri alism is nexibl e and can take. account of any set _o f circums tances, howe\'er
excepti onal.
Bad points of act consequcnti :-1lism
lmpn1ctical for real life
wh i Je it sounds attract ive in theory, it 's a very d i ffi cu It system to app! y to real I ire moral
decisions because:
e\ery moral decis ion is a comple tely separate case that must be full y evaluated
individuals must research the consequences of their acts be fore they can make an
ethi cally sound choice
doing s uch research is often imprac ti cabl e, and too cost ly
the time taken by such research leads to slo\v dec ision-maki ng \vhich may itsdl" r 1-. .. ; h.n_
consequences. and the bad consequences of delay may outweigh the good consequences
of making a perfect decision
bur where a very serious moral choice has 10 be made, or in unusual circumstances.
individuals may well think hard about the consequences of particular mor-al choices in this
Bad for society
some people argue that if everyone adopted act consequentiali sm it would have bad
consequences for society in general
this is because it would be difficul! to predict the moral decisions that other people would
make, and this would lead to great uncertainty about how they would behave
some philosophers also think that it would lead to a collapse of mutual trust in
many would fear that prejudice or bias towards family or other groups would more strqpgly
inOuence moral decisions than if people used general moral rules ba-red on

fOnUtlllefy the impracticality of act consequential ism as a general moral PI'OCf;s,$
..... co worry mueh about this
The slippery sl ope
The slippery slope argument v1ews deCISIOns not on their own, but as the potential beginning
of a t rend.
In general form, th1s argument says that if we allow something relatively harmless today, we
may start a trend that results 10 somethmg currently unthinkable q.ecoming accepted.
The slippery s l ope argument i s u sed in di scu ssing e uthanasia and similar topics. For
example, people worry that if voluntary euthanasia were to be made legal, it would not be
tong before involuntary euthanasia would start to happen.
Rule conscqucntiali m
Rul e conscqucntiali m
Rule consequentiali sm bases moral rules on their consequences. :fhls removes many of the
problems of act consequential ism.
Rule consequentiali srn teaches:
\\' hether acts arc good or bad depends on moral rules
. .
Moral rules are chosen solely on the basis of their consequences
So when an individual has a moral choice to make they can ask themselves if there's an
appropriate rule to apply and then appl y it.
The rul es that should be adopted are the rules that ,,-ould the best results if they were
adopted by most people.
Phil osophers express this with greater precision:
an act is right if and only if it results from the intemalisation of a set of rules that would
maximize good if the overwhelming majority of agents internalised thi s set of rule's
And here's arfother version:

-A<fiir . - _:. ... - "'--
Good points of rule consequentialism
Practical and efficient
Rule consequential ism gets round the practical problems of act consequentialism because
ttae hard wort has been done in deriving the rules; individuals don't generally have
OUI ditracult research before they can take action


cy :trc much' more
. oral deci sion-makmg I
And because individuals can shor1cu1 IICir m
likely t o m:tkc decisions in a ::tnd 1imcly way
ll:1d p oints of rule
Less Oc>.iule
- . . .
always produce 1he besl r<::s uh
Because rule conscqucrll inlisrn uses general rules rl dpesn
rn individual cases
, oJ rcsulls considered ovc1 a
HO\\CVCr , those in favour or il !hal il produces go
long period 1han ac1 consequcn1ialism
1, sc all the lime in everyday life
One way of dealing wi1h 1his probkm - and one that pcop c u .
f . s that cover a w1de range or
- tS to apply basrc rules. 1ogcthcr \\'lth a SCI o vana11on
d 1 " e way as the general rules
Sttuati OII S. 1 hcse vanat10ns are 1hcmsclvcs denve 111 t 1<; san. '
Other forms of<onscqueu l i:l lis rn
i\' cg;H h e Conseq ucn I i:llism
Nega1ive consequentialism is 1he in\'crse or ordinary consequenti al ism. Good acti ons arc the
ones that produce 1he least harm.
A person should choose the act that docs the least amount of harm to the greatest number of
.--\gainst consequcntialism
Consequenualism has both practical anJ philosophical problems:
Future consequences arc difficult to p1cdict
ir's hard to predict the future consequences of an act
in almost C\'ery case the most we can do is predict the probability of certain
consequences following an act
and since my is based on my assessment of the consequences, should the
rightness or wrongness of an act be assessed on what I thought was goi ng to happen o r
"hal actually happened?
and comparing the 'goodness' of consequences is very difficult
people don'r agree on what should be assessed in calc ulating good consequences
IS ir happiness, pleasure, satisfaction of desire or something e lse?
lr's ard lO mca-;ure and compare the 'goodness' of those consequences
how. for example. do you measure happiness'!
how do you compare a large quantity of happiness that lasts for a few minutes wtlh a
endc ati faction rhar lasts for years'>
do )OU rneawreany 'subjecri vc' quality'.'
Choosing di!Tcrcn11imc peri ods may produce different co
lo r exampl e. using cheap cncrgv may produce oood sh ...
., Ort -1cm1 econom1c resuhs but tn
1he lor.1g-1er111 1t may produce bad results for global cli mate '
11 i' ca1>y to bia" in favour o f parti c ular gr:_ou ps
choosing different groups of people may produce differe t
n consef!uences
an act that produces a good result for group X may at the same time produce a bad result
for group Y. or for society in general
so 1hc ethi cal c_hoi ccs people make are likely to be different according to which group
they use for 1he1r moral calcul ations
the solution to this problem is to look at the for a large group
such as soc1ety m general'
alternatively. ethicists can try to look at things from the stanc)P9int of an ' ideal', fully
informed and totall) neutral observer
It ignores things we rega rd as et hi call y r elevant
results-based ethics is only interested in the consequences of an act
the intentions of the person doing the act are irrelevant-
so an act with good results done by someone who intended harm is as good as if it "a-;
done b) someone who intended to do good
the past acti ons or the person doing the act are irrele\'ant
the character of tht: person doing the act is irrele' ant
the fairness of the consequences are not directly relevant
And these are things that many think are rel evant to ethical judgements.
I lowever. in s upport of consequential ism it might be argued that of the things hsted
above do inl1uence the good or bad consequences of an act, particularly when li.H mu\.lling
ethical rules. and so .they become incorporated in consequenlialisl ethica\ thinking: but ,ml)
through the back door, not directly.
It doesn't take account of the 'fairness' of the rcsu\t
We cannot predict every outcome of an event
Simple fo rms of consequenti al ism say that the best action is the one that produces the \af8e$l
total of happiness.
This ignores the way in which that happiness is shared out and so seem lO IPIW01
acts that make most people happy. and a few people very unhappy. or \hal raako a few UCI'I&-.
ecstatically happy and leave the majority at best neutral.
It also f10m the \'alue of indi\'iduals and thear 0\\'1\ tntefCStS IIIII
when those are in line with the interests of the group

1 1 un1tn r i<> hls
II c-an he mc-onsr rcnl " 1 1 "'
Consider this SIIUtti iOil : '-1 . oro 11 h .
. I . 11CXl Stlll,lll c.:
. . I ' fTii" s gr,c.:n I IC.: ,
. Ia 11 lie sa)'S r:u
"- - 1 ll 1
4 billron:lrrc an org<lll uansp
- : 1
1hc nCXI avat a ) l.
(i 10 years (Jt'-'tng 111 . I
''Ill fund 1000 hlp-replacements a year or .' . . 111'11 !housands of people wll
. ' lid , bulllalsolllcans '
means Ml X. who was lOP of the list. wt tc- .
be '<."r) happ) wtlh thcu nc\\ I up<;. . . .
ts (tnd his and IllS f<um I y s
Mr X's human ng'
Conscqucnllalism might he uscd to argue
1 0
r hurnan well -being.
1he ovcra amoun
happmcss) should he ignored, 111 order to tncn;ase
Su hjcel i\'iSm
Subjccti' ism !caches !hal rhctc arc no objective moral trulhs out there.
T r d s one' can'! he objecJi vely true
There are no obJCCII\'C moral fac1s. here1ore mur er '' r eo
r 1 d 1 1 al stalements describe how the
!\fan) fo ms ol subJCCII\ tsm go a btt urt 1er an teac 1 t 1a1 mor.
srx:aker teels about a!lcular e1hical issue.
Moral statements .trc jus! factual stalements aboul the altitude Jhe speaker ho lds on a
particular issut
So if I say ing is wrong". all I' m doing is telling you thai I disapprove of tclli ;:.) :.
Some forms ol :>ubjcc!ivism generalise this idea to come up with:
Moral statements arc just factual statemenlS about the att itude normal human beings hold
on a particular issue
And this may ultimately lead us to this conclusion about moral truths:
Moral judgements are depe ndent on the feelings and attitudes of the persons who think
about such things
(;ood points of subjecCi\'iSm
fteneces the subj ccti\o"c elements of morality
it reflects the close relationship between morality and people's feelings and -
indeed u can copt with the contradictor y moral views we often find oursel ves wr.;::.tfwg

Rdlls Clle e' aluathe elements of moral statements
moral scatef1lent sn ever} day life make j udgements ("l ying is wrong''), factua l stall'nH.'IliS
rcatS:baVe fur .. ) don't
that mora l judgements communicate dis/approva l
11 1eOccts the commun1ca1i on of approval an<i disapproval lh'
. .
a seems to go along w11h the
cvc1yday makinl! of moral statemenls. '
- . -
May clarify '.' ' hat people ar c arguing ::t bout
subJCCII\ ism ma y enable people disagreeing over the rihtness
. f .
. . o" r wrongness o some tssuc
to sec that !he cal dtsputc IS no1 about objcc1ive 1ru1h but aboul the' r
tr own prercrcnc\!S
the per suasive inte ntions hehind ethi cal discussions
ma) also e nabl e people engaging in moral argument to realise that the\ arc
not argumg about Clbjectivc 1ru1hs but 1rying to persuade their opponent
ado t th
. . . p etr pom!
0 \'I CW
I disapprove: but surely ethics is aboul more than feelings
!l ad points of subj ectivism
p10blcm with subjectivism is !hat it seems to impl y that moral statements arc less
Stgmficalll !han most people think they arc - this may of course be true without rendering
moral statements insignificant.
" If I arpro\'e of something, it must be good"
' Subjecti' ism seems to tell us that moral statements gi've information only about wlut ,,e
feel about moral issues.
I f the simplest form of subjectivism is 1rue then " hen a person who genui nely ap v i
telling lies says "telling lies is good" that moral statement is unarguabl) true. \t \\Ould onh
be Ulllf'UC if the Speaker didn't approve Of telling lies. -
So under this theory it seems that all the speaker has to do to prove that tying is good is to
show lotS Of evidence that !hey do indeed apprO\.'e o_{ lying perhaps that they lda 1:\ o f
l ies and feel good about it, indeed are surprised if anyone criticises- them for being a liar,
and that they often praise other people for telling lies.
Most people this way of approaching ethics somewhat unhelpful, and wouldn't
think it reOccted the way in which most people ta lk about ethicat issues .
Moral statements seem more tha n statements about feelings
By a nd large if a person says something is wrong we usually get the message that the\
disapprove of that something, but most of us probably think that the other person i doina
more than just telling us about their feelings.
How can we blame people if moral truths a re always subjecti\e?
If' moral statements have no objective truth. then how can we blame reoPc for beha
a \\ay that 'is wrong'. i.e. if "murder is wrong" has no objective truth. theft laow
justi fY punishing fo1 murder?
. lnsis of the ohJclltVC truth
. ' f I I lor murdtr on I I ,
One answer is tint we: can J USI I Y pums lm<'n d
houl I nor
. 1 . vc of """dcr II \\C '
1 1
' '
rlmr mos1 normal ptnple 111 soCtCI) ' , o;,i ppro . ,
, I ' Ill thrill the ll t .tJOrl t ) \ ll \\
prch: nd lha t 0111 fll lt ftC<I IICIII IS fl,tscd 1)11 lllll_;
A hou t l'lll ll f ivi\ nt
,n ..on.: rs Lilc s ohjec tl\t 111 tt
I m o lt\ 1!>111 ;., n o lun!!,CI ,, \ ' ll'W o l c tlucs th:tt t,J 'S 111
' ,.r ' , .
I r I we 'nwrd'r IS '' mng c.ttt I C
l C:<I CftC'i tf t,tl the re: :lfC 110 ohJl' l i\l' Ill lfotf f.t' IS,' fl( I IC t;
o i !JC<'I iHI) rr u c
M01,1l s c lll c:nt\ .trc: lllc:. lfl illgh.'ss
r hi .. lllt.\lll S !hal the (11!>1 h.tlt or lht s l.llt' II Wnt ' II \\, 1 \\ l Oll!' ( II murJc: r Fred' add'i llothllll' (O
the IH11Hiltlr.ll info rtnal it>ll th. ll r rccf has been Ol ll n ..fl' l c:d
Mor. tl Sl ll cmcnt :> onl) l'\JII cSs the lccllllgs . thout tilt: 1 sue.
l ater CIIIOir\ ISis added ll us 1dc..1 In h uoll\ ism
n prt-.sstng rhc spcnJ cr's k cling. ... about a mur<tl issul' statements may inlluc:ncc
rmothcr 1 r;;on's t ho ug ht .111d cunduc l.
\1on tl '> l:tl l m c nf <, ar c ..
ll} lei peop le 10 J u. or 1101 to d1l \\hal lhC spcakc1 l'li
d1S3p(HU\C:!i c,f' )
In EnoOII\'i sm u moral !)l<tl c ii H.'nl isn't lih.:l<i ll} a statement the speaker's feelings on the
topic. bul cxprt:sst. --s fcl'lings with cmoti\'e force.
Wht:n an cmoti vist says 'murder is \Hong' it's like sa)ing 'down with murder' or 'murder,
yecch!' or j ust saying 'murder' \\hilt: pull ing a horrifi ed face. or {llaking a thumbs-down
gesture at the same time as saying 'murder is "ronf
At fi rst sight' this seems such a biz.<me idea that you might wonder if anyone had ever
seriously thought it One of the great philosopheFS of the 20th century certainl y did
I he rea 11 "h) ,;o>rn pllilciS<lphcr lhnu ht chic; arc tccl

mtca - they th< h I
t I m Ill oull 1101 I - l:OII\t.:ltccl tntl t.rtCIIICrt :o> that C( ld .... . mg t l lat ethtcal
I I I "' u..: cmpmcall . td
" th ' rtlt rlwlll) crucrann of \ '.Ill< h mcarntl . I I . . and thus
til I II\C:l0t14glt.-so;
I flo til\' 111 I' t) do :;c .uc. rtiHm lit the Wol } 111 \'.IHc..h "''<lplc , . I
u ,c .mguav.c <md lO I d 1
lll!ll,l fll I)'.CIItCIII ('XJ>rc sc lite '1lllt1tl .. 11 1 ""' <I ' '
\\ c gc.:s
t "' a person tal--es
:.IHillllll' 'IIIII I,,, ... , "r pulhn a hc .uul Jomg "ugh". .. n a J'<lrllcular I$Suc It's lt l'!
I ha1' ''hY 1111 chell) t.. I mo:tvt "' I
1.111 tta c ;ec.ul c tl's ba<>cd on the emotive effect of OtQral
lnlltt l' ll <c
),t;t i (' IIH' III '> alle: rttpl to p C:uplc
I :JI<'I tlu:o111.:. of htHJtlvism t<tu(ht that it .. , ,, ., esbnut more than J. U!I I an expr s f
II 1
c s1on o emotaon
1c .pea .t1 1s ., ,t, try me 1o h.,, c n cllcct Clrt the pcr-.on 'rc talhng '"
I he AlllCIIC.IIl pl11losophcr C 1.. S tc.;\Cfl S( IIl said that the major usc of ctl uc
t judgem..:nts ...
So .. , hen people disagree about an ethical issue. Emotivism it clear that each is tr\ in"
to persuade the o1her to adopt thc1r altitude and folio ..... their recommendauons as to
behave. rather than giving information that might be true or false.
moti vism \'Crsus Subject ivism
This version ol emotivism gets round one of subjecti vism's biggest p oblems. Consider this
When one subjecti vist says lying is bad, they' re giving the infonnation that they disapprO\e
of lying If another subjecti vist says lying is good, they're giving the infonnation that
approve of lying.
Since, according 10 the subjectivist view, both are reporting their own personal feelings.
isn't actuall y anything that they disagree about.
But since people do sincerely disagree about moral issue<; , there mu:.t b.: more lln th;m
pure subtcctivis;n allov ..'s. and this is incl uded in Emotivism:
. "do 't tell lies", ": luk an
. . . d I , c giving instrucuon ' . , tl . t
When an EmotiYist says lytng IS b:t I ICY r ..
II lies" . and we c:tn
. the i n s liUCII Oil Ul tC
I rnotl\ ist "ho sars ly1ng 1S good 1S gtvlng.
then.: is a clear disagtecment between them.
B:ul points of Emotivis 111
. rss our
moti' ism s:.ys that moral statementS J USt cxp - the theory that kd the
' tl philosOilhcrs because
Emoti\ISIII has become unpopu :lr WI


from favour.
n 1in"lesl 1:1S .a
Fmoti' ists to thin!.. that moral s t:uements were me
" '
. . . n."tlh no more than expressing one's
1 <:ss tcchn1cally, if expressing moral JUdgements IS '
oral J udncmcnt s.
r 1 b s for an!tung a lOUt 111 ' "'
personal opinion there doesn't seem any usc.u a 1s '
. .
.t vc'ry satisfying. Even (most)
In practical terms. Emotivi srn falls down because 11 lSI . . .


rcssions ol lecl 1ng.
phiksophers think moral statement s nrc more t lt\11 JUS " I
b , I cl ndtlicr party has an emoti on
\nd it's pc:rfectly possible to imagmc an eth1cal de 111 "
11 1
10 c\prcss
h. 1 t th , xpression of an aui tude or
Non-philosophers also lhtnk there 1s more to ct 1Cs t 1an JUS c c.
- b 1 t' o1 and foundation for shart.:d
311 auempl 10 mtluence behaviOur. 1 he) want a elter ana t I
!otandards of moral ity !han Emoti' ism can provide.
About intuitionism
fn1UHion1sm leaches tluee main things:
There are real objecl i ve moral truths that are independent of human beings.
These are fundamental truths that can't be broken down into parts or de fined by reference to
anything except other moral truths.
Human beings can discover these truths by using their minds in a parti cular, intuiti ve way.
Intuitionism does not mean that all moral decisions are reached by relying on intuition.
lntuiion enabies the discovery ofthebasic moral truths, and everyday moral deci s io n-making
then im.olves thinking about the choices available and making moral judgements in an
ordmary sort of way.
A letsdmg UK was the Cambridge philosopher G E Moore ( 1873- 1954) who set
out his ide;:ss in rhe 1902 book Princi pia Ethica.
Or to put it at it s simplest: 'Good' means 'good' and that's all there is to say about it.
Moore objected to something called ' thl.! naturalisti c fallacy'. which states that moral truths
can be analysed in terms of physical or p'>ychological things which exist in the natural world
Moraltnllhs were moral truths , and that was that.
Moon: was a university professor, and hi s 1dea of what things were good, such as friendship
and the appreciati on of beauty, was limited by hi s quiet and academic life. His writi ngs didn't
demonstrate his theory was likely to help deal with serious ethi cal di lemmas.
Other intuitionis ts were II A Pritchard ( 1871 - 1947) and W DRoss (1877-1971}.
Bad points of intuitionis m
Bad points of intuitionism
Philosophers object to intuitionism because:
they don't think that objective moral truths exist
they don't think that is a process of moral intuition
there' s no way for a person to di sting,uish between something acw:lll y being r\<?,1\l :hi 11
merely seeming right to that person
if intuitionism worked properly, everyone would come to the same moral conc\usivns. hut
they don't
Objective moral truths don't exist
Many philosophers don't think that there are such things as objecti, e moral truths. For them,
moral statements are not factual statements about how the world is.
l?urthermore. it mi ght be claimed that we could ne'er knoll' the truth. cvc:n if it l'"sll:\1
objective ly, because knowl edge requires testing in a properly scie ntific fashion. an,\ th.11 ' '
not available for moral statements.
Moral intuition doesn' t exist
Intuitionis m says humans can find moral truths for thcmselvc.s. Phol\.Y Jl'nathan Ht\lts
The idea that human beings have something called moral intuiti\)n is superticialh
but does n't easily stand up to ins pection.
. ') ,, b ' I . the .,,,,rnl truth-:> th ' m I I
Is it another sense like s ight 01 1canng. ro not.
intuit ton should detect don't seem to he out in. thc physical world
. . .. nist'i usuall )' tUic that out_. 100 .
Nor is it a process of rt11sonu1g, L><:cause nlliiiiO .
. . "I ? 13 I although human l>l' lll l'.'
. , J"k kdiii!'S of glll I. ll '
Perhaps 11 shows IIscH 111 mnral t mOl lOll s ,
( ' f
. k g internal mental 1nlc,
. . . r,,l , . ld lw thl' ll'SUII 0 liC:l
ccn<llnly have such lcdtngs. the l lC tngs cou . , , .
or<ll rules.
. I . I - i"hreaklnt: ohjcCII\ C n
of conduct or brc:achtng culwraltulc<>. raltl;r I Mil o . .
ccming righl nol be lhc sa me as being d ghl
, I , tl . I" S they have to
\\'hen an inlllitioniSI ponders 3 p1 00IC111 I lc; 011 ) Ill L
work ,.,;ith <H l' tl wi r
feelings, 1houghts and nllitudcs
at moral lllluition<;,
r 1
1 1 ct .
t1 1,1, , _, the ullulliontSI arnvcs
'Of"lflg \\"Ill I l eSe ClliiiC) Sll lJC 1\ C .,. ....
wh1ch lw then puts forwnrd as objective 11111hs.
I )
But how docs the inwitionist gel from rhc subjective to tht: ObJCCttVe
Pcuplc rc:tch differcnt cthicH I cnncJusions ,
If <trc.: rc:tl objc:ctiw moral truths. then they Ml' presumabl y th.:: same for everyone.
diffl'rent people come to dt fli!rcnt conclusions laced "ith the same ethical problems.
Some people say that these moral truths arc 'sci f-e' idenJ'. but this just leaves the problem of
dfti:rcnt things being self-e,idcnt to different sch es!
\ 'irluc
Ch:trnctcr-based et hic<;
A nglu acr is the action a vinuous person would do 111 the same circumstances.
Virtue ethics is person rather than action based: it looks ar the virtue or moral character of the
person carrying out an action. rather than at ethical duties and rules. or the consequences of
particular actions.
Virtue ethics not only deals with the rightness or wrongness of individual actions, it provides
guidance as to the of characteristics and behaviours a good person will seek to achieve.
In that v.ay. virtue ethics is concerned with the whole of a person's life. rather than particular
episodes or acti ons.
A g()()($ person is someone who lives virtuously- who possesses and li ves the vi rtu<'<; .
ll's a useful theory since human beings are often more interested in assessing the or
another pcrl>Cm than they arc in assessing rhe goodness or badness or a panicular actio11.
11us subP-e i.lS rllat the , .. ay to build a good society ic; to help its members to be good rtaau lfJ usc and puni$hrncuts to prc\'Cnt or deter bad acti ons.
Uur ''wouldn't he helpful if a penon had to be a :-;ainr to cotuit as \'irtuous. for virt11<.: thcorv
tv be re II) useful '' necdc. tcJ suggeo;t only a minimum set of characteristics that a ,,.,:;on
f)(' :d 10 po 111 order fO be rCf?rdcd <t'> virtu(,us.
Vi ,tuc c1il ics teaches
/\11 action is onl:t nght ir it is an acuon that a vi rt uous person would carry out in the sam.;
c 11 cumstanccs
1\ vi11 uous person IS a person who acts \ inuously
1\ pc1 son ac ts vittuously if they "possess and li ve the virtues"
1\ virtue is n moral characteri stic that a person needs to live well.
Most vit tuc theorists would al so insist that the virtuous person is Or)e who acts in a vinuous
way as the result of rational thought (rather than. say, instinct).
The lhc(' questions
The modct II philosopher Alasdair Macintyre proposed three questions as being at the hean or
moral thinking:
Who am I?
Who ought I ro become?
I low ought I to get there?
Lists of th e virtues
What .. vould a vinuous person
Most virtue theorists say that there is a common set of virtues that all human beings would
benefit from, rather than different sets for different sorts of people, and that these virtues arc
natural to mature human beings- even if they are hard to acquire.
This poses a p_roblem. since lists of virtues from different times in history and different
societies show signi licant differences.
The traditional list of cardinal virtues was:
fonitude / 13ravery

The modern theologian James r: Keenan

J usticc

Justice us to treat all human heings equally and
lrddlt' 'IC'IIC
. I . lostr to us \Vith ,
1 ,,kl rt\ r'JIIIfl'S rhnt "c tr eat 1wup c c
. lt' tr vch
oursel vcs .
\\'c l.rch IMVt' a unique responsibility to c.uc <11
phy<,rc.lll}, .and sprnllr.tll)'
Pr mk-ncl' .
.... . ' It
. J tice ridclity and Sell -care.
lhcprudcntpl'r-.onmustalwnysconsrder us .
. 1 .
, cs to require lliOre olthc t lrec
1 he pcrs<m nrus t ahwry::. loot.. for opportunr

\ ' lrlllt'S
Good poirrts of virtu r ethi cs
I t c.:cntrcs cthi e-. on the person and wlu11 it means to he human
It rndudL''i the whok tll'a person's lili:
H;ld pt1i11h of' irlttC tthi<'l>
. I d' l tn' IS
11 ciiii.'Sn't pmvrdt dear gwdancc 011 what to do an mora ' em '
.rlthough rt docs pro' ide general guidance on how to be a good person
pn:sumabl)' a llltall) person would know whm to do and we could consrdcr them
.J <:tllt.rhlc Hlk mudd to gurdc us
1hcn: r:-. no !!crh:ral agreement <HI "llill the virtues are
1 1 in,,hk!,;tl
,JnJ it 111:1) be that all) list o( \ iriUCS \\ill be rcfatr VC tO t1C CU
dra\\ 11 up
Some I threat ( onccpt<;
An t.nd-in-ihclf
l he word "c11.d" in rhis phrase has the same meaning as in the phrase "means to an end".
r he phih>soplwr Immanuel Kant said that rational human beings should be treated ns an
in lhc111selvc, and not as a means to something else. The fact that we arc human has valul!

If a J.e
son i :w cnd-inthemsclf it means their inherent value doesn't depend on anything
n doc n't d<:pcud on whether the person is enjoying their life, or making other
betrer \\e so v.e have value.
Mo r of u a cc w1th alt;,t - though we don't put it so formall y. We say that we <: .11'1 th;

1nuld other people. "hich a plain l.nglrsh way of that we shouldn't
J>C Jp1 a a lll<:CJI,, to c,u, (J\\11 end,.
I hi'> r<ll,t :rpplrc'> to u, too We shouldn't treat oursel , . , _
1 J vc:; <lS a means to
\\ e 'i loui e re., twtt our rnhcrcnt '"orth 11 . our ov..
<'n<l'i. rno;tcao
. us can be u\cd .
utl nrn:l\ra .,,,< ick and uthe r be ha,r<urs rhat damage .

an argu'!!.t!.!.L
OU"<; VC'i.
I he rdca al '>o <,lrnw<; up in <.lr ;cu<>srons of animal ril-.
rr ght s 1
"ls, with the 1clca that f 1
:.!.!.!!!.!!.!.,l rrru ' t he t na l ed a\ cndo; in lh <: rn!. cl\'cs. I t have
Dot ! rinc uf duuhl t effec t
I hr s doctrrne sayo., that rf doinv morall y good I . .
c tlucall) OK to on II provrding the bad side effect wasn't a dn:rall} bad Sldc cffccl,
foreso:tw that tire h;rd <ffec t would prohab;y happen. rntcn e ' I Ius is true even rf you
l"hi s rnipht seem counter-intuitive, but the principle is used . .
rmpor H1111 rssues ;,, et hi cs.
scrr ous <II gumcnt about :,()me
Eut hana!> ia
This printiplc b commonly r efcr'rcd to in cases of

It d 1
.r < ISUSC tOjll">tl(\ tlcCasc
\\ 1ere 3 ullCIOI 1.'1\CS drugs 10 a .. I' d' . .
. . , p.Hrcnt to rc te\ c cstressmg symptom<> C\ en thmtgh he l.nm' s
domg thrs Ill <I) shorten the patrent's
l'hi.o; is. the d octor is not aimi ng directly at killing the pallent - the tcsult ul the
pat rent s death rs a :;1(/e-c>ffect of the good result of reducing the patient's pain
doctors use doctrine to justify the use of high doses of drugs such as morphrnl.' for
the ... of relr cvtng suffering in terminally-ill patients even thl!)" the dt ugs
arc likely to cause the patient to die sooner.
Thi s is not a blanket. justilicati on. The doctor's action must still be appropri,nc: morr on
what factors arc needed to usc the doctrine of double effect as a defence for euth:u\otsia
War and l"ivilian deaths
In motkrn "'arl'arc it' s diflicuh to ensure that only soldiers get hun. Despite the
of precision weapons. civilians arc often hurt and killed.
The doctrine of double effect is sometimes put forward as a defence. out it doe5 not alwa)
appl) . "'
l'or exampk. if' an bast' in th<.' middle of a cit) is oombeti and a le" \1\ihan li\l
ate " ''ell. nothing unethical has \x-en done. the anm
k g it imalt' and tlu: uf civihans was not the intention of the bombins. (e\cn thou h
their d<.ath could lw prrdictcd).
vcnpons of nwss destruction,
. . . b d I defend the usc o ' ' .
1 he doc11me of double effect can I c usc
. ..
or hiolog1cal wen pons
,. bomblllfi or c crlll<.: .
such ns non-prl'ci., ion nuclear weapons, . . ' . .
c fil l ' " II a wnrr ld r i .. k
b ( hen
,Jg:tlllsl a IX)Jllllatron 111 gcn.:rn. a or wn " .
1 111

cavllnn t"l 11 I'
. d lllfl:JIC Ill e l'( ' '
t h e rtffi11rt r- some s1ncc these nrc so rn IS<
c:lll'l ht rcgaukd ns a sc:condary result.
Ahort iou ' whr u th e mot hcr' s li fe i.; in d a n ger
1 llh of hc1 u11bt;rn child f'or
In t':t'\l''> when savi ng the life of a wornnn causes llc '"'' 'f,
exampk', pcrfo;rning.nn people :ugue tlwt thi s is a case of the doctrine of double cl cct.
"oettiS ,s rl1crcly til e sidc-cllect of medi cal treatment to
By th' ' .1rgwlwnt. the dcnth of the "
save chc mother's lif'c.
Other people tllkc .the more tradi tional vic;w that this is a case ofsclf-dclcnce agains t a threat
a tluear that is innocent and unao,varc that it is u threat).
C rit id \ 111., CJ fth (' cl mtiuc of double cffccl
We csponsibk for a li the anticipated consequences of' our actions
If''" can the t\\O cfT.::cts of our action we !1ave to take thl! 1110raf responsibility
for both - \\e c:ul't get out of trouble by deciding to inwnd only the effect that
lr11cntHH1 IS irrelevant
Some people t:lke rht: \ 'lt:W that it's s loppy moralit ) to decide the ri ghrnc-;s
of an .tct looking at the intention ofrhe person \\hO carries it out. They thwk son a<.:
acl5 :uc ohJCCtl\ righ1 or \Hong, and 1hat rhe intenlion of the person who doc!> thcn 1:0.
irrele\ ant.
Out most legal systems regard 1he intention of a person as a vi tal element in deciding
whether rhey have commiued a cri me, and how serious a crime, especially in cases of
causing death.
he slippery s lope
The sl1ppery slope a rgument views decisions not on their own, but as the potential beginning
of a trend.
In general form, this argument says that if we allow something relati vely harmless today. we
may start a rrend that resulrs in something currentl y becoming accepted.
'J he .slippery slope a rgumcnl is used in discussing culha nasia and simi lar For
example, people worry that if voluntary euthanasia were to be made legal. it wouH not k
long before in\'Oiuntary euthanasia would start to happen.
l>ul\ lta,,,l "' dhil''
I) I I {(I'll ' I I c lt ..:lhtv oil<. nH\1;-:11\I.:d \\llh \\h:J.t 1)\:tph: """"' \\ilh th,
\hU h\ ol ''
..:nlt-..-:qu<'lll <''> nl llll:rr ''-'""'
l)u lh<' ll"hl t\1111!'
t>o ll h,cauo.,c 11' -, th..: ''I' ll\ thing H h
llunt cln \\ 1 """ thall i,!"
\\lltd lh<lll h l'li iiiO.,l' th..;\ ;11..; \\ (IIII C
l mk '"' ' 1111111 ,,
cthu;o., , 11u an action '>hll\\ing t!1at it produced go(1d
. . ,,I, tell j.,. \\h) it's ..,111n..:ti mcs callt:d 'non-Conscqtu.:ntialist' .
l'&III SCllll\.: 111 <'
h..: \\(lid froan thc <.in.:d. \\(>td c/('1>11 . \\'hich 'dut)'.
' .
II \
\h<lt rcor\k ;an.: talk ab<>llt \\h\.!1\ al;i'cr l\1 'th..: \'11111..1pk
cthu ' ar-: 1' ' ''"
nl the thule
I I 1 I
, ., tint ,,
n..: ach ar..: right , ,r \\f\11\!!;c nl lhc 111' thmg'
Dut\ . '<hCl 0.:1 lll:' ' ' . J h 1
th..:, :uc. ,11\d pcllplc haH! a tu act" tilth-: g_lH\ llr '''
thai he

(,lltlfl :11111 had fHIIIIh
..:mph;t't'.:' th.: 'alu..- human httn:_
1l c-.11 ct to all hwnan b.:in"'
Dur' ha-;cd .. tlll(' :li :.' ..;1\: ms tend to locu-. C'll !'"til}' cqu.
'- "'
. I oo ultohc "t' <. 'lll<llht: tnta<.:shll
u-. pt<' hk-. ,, "''" lllt hlllll<lll 11:; lh tt ore.:-. c ltoc ' '"
a p ..t..,<111 .:' tn t hosL' an.: at mkb "i th the ll)t Lrcs!' <'I' a ):! lllllp.
'I>IIH,; ill' I ' di'C Hi\\ S \\ lllllg
dut\ hn-.o:d <.' thi cs ""' s that sPt ll L' thin!.!.' should n.:\ 1.: 1 no tllallcl' "hat
g<liHil'tlthL'lJtH.: no:c.:' pro<; u.:.:. Thi ..; !\l..'<.'lll' rclkct th.: human h.: ings
l<""'u dur' h.1 ..... :d ..:tlw .. ... muddied tim. I<' :.til<"' \iltHILI' 1. h1ttl' ' II h..: h <ti <lllL'l'd '' i It 1
.:ould h ..: atcutd. j, .111 ... , en hcllct lit to th .. \\C thllll..
:'"" tdl ,
C'Clll'>O: <Jlll'lltiali-.ll.'tluc.tlth.:urics l't ing a degree.: or 10 .:ihical J .:ct<;illll making.
111 tlt<tt noon .. can he ccrtain about \\hat C<nscqul.'nccs '"" r.: sulll <tn a
;u: 111111 b ...Lau-..t th .. lutur.: j, unprcdicwhk
I )uJ_:. i.l'.: ,;t lu ... -. dnn'i -.uth.:t r'rolll till-.. hsau-..c th...: ' arL " tilt 1:1
;s...lflll ta-..,:11 tl .ttl ttLti<lll < right action. then a pci'<Hl shtuiJ dll 11 Jl ' t' "' a \\Pl'
-.huuldn't tll it- and pnn iding there I!\ a clear :o;cl <11 nwralt uk!'> to l(llltn\ then
.t p..:r-.on 1:1..:.:-d " 1th u lll<Hc.ll choic.: should hc abh: 10 dccisi<lllS "ith n.:as(lnahk
c.; cllaint)
Of <.<>ur-.....: 1 hi "h!' aren't that clear I..' ttl. Slmll.:li nH:s l.'<IIISl:4U<.:tll ial ist 1 hclHi.::-; can pn" i<.k a
Hur lkg cl; o( <x'rt1111ll) . i (the wnscqucnccs arc casil) prcdicwbk.
Ju,lh.:f'lll<lll.' IUit.:-bao.;cd CtlllSt:qliCOI iaf is111 pnnidcs pcopk \\ ilfl :.1 o;c l of' f\1 k s II WI .:nabk
tftt..:tll hi tal c lllnr:tf J..:ci.,ion:. hascJ Onlh.: sort of acttht:) art: C<llllCillpl:llillg.
ckals 'dtlt intentions and moti' cs
<. ofJSCI.JUCIIti.t li :-;t rhcoril!o.; don't pay direct allcntion to v. hcthcr an Ul..'l is can i.:-d oul with
'lhid ur h.ulllltcntilln'>. most people think thc\t: arc hi11hh rclc' Htll to moral
I h 1 l.cll L.:llt tco; <'an indmk intt:ntion 111 at kct:-.1 2 \\<I) S ...
If 111 drdn'l flll.:'ltt ll< Jo a all it \\:t\ an <tcnd...:nt pt:rhap-. . ,i,Lil
fu f llJIIortc.JI putnl u( \ ic\\ \\C mi;.; ln think that thn hadn't dulll' all\ thin"
1.1 u( 'till; I m I hi:. .. to lit \\tilt utJiu;H\ lhntl,tiiJ' <thnttl dhtl'<:l .
ul -.:<111 he hamcd !V> :1" 111 indudl' t1 th:utin11
f...,tnl ..:d tlth,l,. \\;1', .111\tlllll(' 111.11 C\O:t\ bud\ . I '
. . <.l >U u ratwllalh i l"rc . . I
" 11 ' t 1111)' 1h,11 ,.,. lluHttht -.all ltnl tilt ' l'sl ,, ., . .
"' <: '' '
' '' "
' s "tH<I I
. u" a gout '"" .. .
C.)tht t .'""':C'' that \\.: nlt ghtthink of"" gotd nrc 1101 ah"l\ ' ,.111\
1 . .._
. . -

I - "' . I ... (1liS'I) ,. h\ 111\<t"llll' ' I
L<llll ' " 111 " 1td1 th,., llll f hl ...m It b, uttd...-...ira\-11..: :.:
"-<1111 th.: n pull<ktL'd "h,tl till'-. tn..:unl liu h111nan t.1111du..: t 11 .. , I 1. 1 1 . I
J \;I; ltll: lfl \ 1.1\ I ll\ \ ,111 , 11.\ t llll
llH a go<ld " Ill' " .ts a t m:tHn. ott h..: t.:ons.:qu..:m:t.:s
Uut S<lll nl a..: lt<lll \\ l>uiJ tht \ he'! Kantwught that an actmn could onh .:
;" th,
m: tunol :t ' <tll sliccl th.: test nl th..: Catq;.nn,,111mp.:ralt\ L .
r he { lmpcrath c
\ Cts ton o f duty-based ethic., "as based on something that he c.1lkd 'th.:
tmp..:lati, ..:' \\ht ch he tnt..:ndcd In he the basis of<tll.othcr rul.::' (a ' 11np...;.lll\t.:' 1, a
ruk th<1t1' 111 .til t..tll. llll\SiallL<:' 1
I h.: c.H.:gnncal 11llp.:ratl\..: comes 111 l\\o "hich ..:ach dd lcr.:lll l'l
the unp..:rati' Kant is ckar that each of th..:s..: '.:-r'>lon-. is mc1.:h a ,111 tccnt ":"
of.:>.pr .. ssing the sam..: uh:: thcv arc not ditli!rcnl ruks .
Mural r ul es hl' unint!'>alisahlc
Bad puints cf clul) -hascd crhirs
,, .. 'lp<din_ !-' ''it h. d< n' l . '
I I t
, . .., 1 he.: <lnh ''
Out' -h . sch ,t>SO II e ru'"
-Itt l<l budd . jj,, or c,nptwns to till' tuk.
alit", " h 1 ma"e the.: "culd ;t lc:-' g<
<ld pl:lcc . .
. .
. It . it can lead to of act1on
B..:cau:-.l' c.Jur' -ha,.:d crhK" i:. nor 111 l u: n::;u :>

. . 11 h nf "orld
thm produce <1 1 cduclt<>n 111 1 10: O\ c1 a I .....
. . .
1 . , nil jJ "I ol"c.: rhic-..:
!l.hht p-:opk \\Ollld l111d thi:>UtJnl II \\till h,;ll ll t,;' '-'
o:thics doesn't deal \\l.ll ''"ith the cases "llo:rc duties arc in C(ln lli ct.
lmm.lllu\.'1 f-..:1111 tl 72-1-f \\a:-. ill 1Hh.: of the''>l phi ltl.:>tlphcrs of all time.
h,ull thought th.ll it \\aS f1t1S'>thk t<' dc' dopa cclllsistcnt moral stem b) usi11g rcas<lll .
ffreurk thin!.. .:.rl1out thi:. and 111 a rigltlllll::- w. !llh.' " :,.
,,,,uJd n..rl"c thctl" \\CIT somc.: mont! ht\\'S that all rati<ttWI beings had to

h..:cau:;e \\l"tl' rauunal !ll:ings. and thi-. \\Ould appl y 10 any rati(.)nal being:; in
any uni' cr-. ..- that might c' c:r l''< ist
Tli'( ; ... :\voiiiCi
not only to'au rational human beings but to any 'other rational beings (forcd
andintelligent : . : . .- :. -' . .- .:-;:
samuel J. Ketste ,,_Karits Sear(h tiH
t,; , ICJUgJll t,stl.;! that rational hUil1JO lxing COUl d \\Ofk this OUt for
ml '(t did not fll't:d t(l Jcp..:ml on (iod or their 11
<lfl\'lhine t:i">L' Ill
dJ \r..:r \ :snd ''hat \Hong. Nor did need h> lo<1k at
(IJ .Ul:JCL 0 .IJ(l \\,iS dotng the at:lton. ltimsdl'in Cl philosophic:ll and quite diflic.:ult \\<t) . Kwu
rd Ctmcrhmg th;u \\ nuld hdp deal \\ t'ttl II . . I I I
I 1\: 11101 <1 ( I 1.'1lHll<h p f
,,. ldl.' ,tllul ll'i \\ itil a u-.clul lo acting I
ar.: u Uilll) spqh:u of in term<; or I ' . .

<1 dmn the rt l!hl
" aa a ;Ill i<JI JMI I of ct '
tl <Jtell't "illing cthical1uk daimw b..: applied hl
c.. \ 1:1\IHW tiH.: Iudtnc \llU th..:tl'that ruk '"nell a qsltd motll r111 1 an't 1 1
- . ( "c. C.:<lllllllat
"l 'lll l" thln "' '<sliJ tnltral tuk and m;.sk-: .111 l"'\CCI)tiltn to it l(>r 111, II an 1 c 1 1
__ '" < n .., anu ' and
t"ru.: ncb -
So fell o..:xampk I r I \\<Indo..! I I should brca\.. 3 promise. I Cclll lest \\ ht:thCI this is
ao.;king tnyscll ''hcthc1 I ''nuld want thcrl.! to be auni,crsalrulc:: that SH)s 'it\ OK
Still.<.." I dn111 \\,tnt tho.:re to hl' a rule that kh people.: bro.:a" thc:y lll<lko..: H' nn. 1 can
tlllscludc th.n :I \\C>uld h..:'' mng. fc11 n1o..: t< brlak th..: 1 h;l\..: made
1 I' tho..: cth1cal r"ule )<tu claim to hc li.>IIO\\ ing cannot logic all } be mao..: a uni' crsal ruh:. th..:n
tl i" not,, rule.
So. 1f I "crc thin"ing lm1g.h1 that a lllll\l.:f'<JI 1uk th,1t
'it'-.. C >!.... 1o h1 -..1!.. prom.-. ..:-.. 111 orck1 t<' !!O..:I <>nc, "" n '' 1uld mta;1 m> .. ,no.: "uulu ,;\ '\."r
h..:ltC.:\t: anllthc pn::-on' -.. pr<ttni"..: and -..o all pn>mi'l."!> \\ould thc.:ir '"luo.:. th..:
C'l'lo..:nc..: ul pr.lmisc-. Ill require' thl' acco..:ptancc ,,l'tho..:ir ,,tluc. tho..: pr<l<:\I<.."O..: nl
\\otsld ccasl! to cxisl. lt \\Ould 110 l0ngcr be possitslc w brca\.: a
prom1sc. let alone gd ones tmn "'a) b) doing so.

Montl tulc:-. muo;l r cspcc! human hcin:,!s
J(al\l tiHllll;htlh:ll all human SIHlttld \lo: trt:tll\."d <t'> J'tcc ollld equaftll<.."nlh<."l':- nr .I -.har..,d
Ollll al anJ tho..: so..:conJ 'crsHHl nf tho..: 1mpc.:rati\ ....: rdko..:t-.. th I
irnptlf\anc.:o..: lrl'ating. p..:opk It aho ucl...nm\ kdg.c-. tho..: 1..-l ., a
or intclllion in mor..tli t \ .
... .. ... _,- __ ............ _ .. ,:-- ... -- .. . -- . --_ ..... __. -. . ..... -,: .-- -.- _.. . . . .
h\{manitY, both in your oWQ: persO,ri arid iri that of anotherr al-ways as an -
- ..... "ttl:, .....: ......... .., ... .. -. '. t- ' . . .
-:- ': . :- - . ,.. . -_.-:-. .. --
. . ' . . . . . . . . ' . ._. . . . . . .
e'!'ery rational being exists as an end in and not merely as a
i9 wed by this' or that \\ilt lri aU his actions, V:hether -they are directed to
rati9riai he must ahvays be-regarded at the same time as an end ...
;.".:-: ....":- _( _-;_- .- :_ '.. . . - . :__..' . . . . ' . ' . . .
liiimanuetl{iui ,The Cat orical 1m erative'.: L .. _ : .. >,.
Kalll is saying that pl.!{lpk should s he trcm<:d as ,atuablc -<I' an cn,i "' thc:nh..:h ..,
and shtHtld Jltlt JUSt be in orda to ach1cn: somo..:thing cis<: IlK'\ "hlluld lli.ll lx lt h. t
nwn i put :1tl.!d 11r hull ied i ntn doing thing-..
Thi-. rc:-.,,natcs \\ ith disapprm ing 1.:\'tnmcnh "m:h a-. h..:s .. nnd It
- ..
undnpu.-.. 1h-.: 11k.t that "tho..: l "<lll nc' 0..:1 llll';tn-.
l"l iL'Il lll t! .I fll."l''>llll hi g_l'\ \\hat \\all\
tiH.:" 111.'1'\'lllo "'"II ynu \\ant
l . . . I J l til II OJ<II II SI.' ll Jll' l SOli , J<, lou,.
11a111 1o1 sa_> th:H p.:op 1: c:ut I
l: II:>'-'
;" th,, ,fl' .tf,o !>.:itt " ' an end 111 ,. ,
" J 1 It th n 11 . , .., h , ' L' Ill ''-' 1.11 drrl' tl 'n11
''""" 1h.11 lh<. t!<IOd t.:awn lor tIt' 11!' t
,. ' ,cm, o11hcr , ,;r:.on fp,rhllfl:. Jrdn'l . .;,ulllt!JIIlllrrdn h..:cau
'-.,.._. toto :.eartd 11111
lxc . .'.ll,,t' ll 11,1.., loltll d1111 11111 hi) th;tl \IIUIIIIUfd 11111 ho11.: ;r( ll'd Ill , lllllltotfl) r <lnd
I!,. I
1.1\ Ill" :111n1h,1 1, ., 1,
111 ,
, 11 l'fl :t' dol-.n'! ' I If' an , I t !Hill I nun !I,'IIH' 1 i!,!hl ' '' "'
' I\ til, IIJ'l'l.lllllllod IC:t,tll fPI' IIIII ;t('lltlll
1r ''"do II\.' "11011 il'-, Cltll du11. and tl dull' i-; k<.:1 ..:k1ll<.:ll l 111 Plll'

w lh,:n 11.: h.t\c a..:1cd rigfllh. l'\CII i1 '"' ll<lllh.: j 10 do th,: .:.tct or h Ht ....c: tn.;d
not hl du 11. ur -

I ..,
I .J
I . -1
I ."'
I ,(,
( )( ,, , . .... , 1 '1.'"
l lltiiHI\1, IH\11
II 11tn: 111 l' c 1 1n Scat e ll c,)f
I "' c :nd Mota l
1111: l >y n:llntc:-nfMon"i t y
' I " "'' ( :111d t n M<wn l tty
I ,. , Lh, L;p
I( 1..' y \\ Ill lJ ..,
\lttiH: t a nd
"fllis llllll ; 1111 1:-. ul 11'\li' Oductng the Studc to llt: c d f\11 l : tllll.':-,
:-\ ,J t' \111 _;!. funl :t lii'Moi:JIIa\\ ht..l\\' lh<.: h u lll<tll f\1.:1':-.oll tiiiii,..OI
h L ('II'< H . ..: :-.:-. l>f' g nnvth ll lltllt S thc ctht ..:;.ll p clt .. tll)lll to th.:
dyn:ullii..'S '" "H'' ni tt y s undcnakcn to s hov..- 11ov. )II t he one hand n ew sttLI<Ilt"ns
f6t n..:,.,. r .:s pon:-.:s f't' (>tn nHH:tl po11H of VtC\'1.' a11d o n thc other han<l cc "'
fu n dat n.'ll t ;d -.. ,,1 <.! t iii C:-o I Cfl'l:tll\ Lh<: s arne in SO n11 aS thcr<: t ;-. SOlllCthlllg or t
cutni\Hll t hull l<lll ll <tun: ac..kyu:Jt..: l y unt.l.:.s toou.
1.1 l NTR O D UCTl O N
l. t" t 'u s ou s1udy o( N;,ttu e Scope o f F. thi cs by what \\'c..'
mean hy rnon tl ' "'" But t\Vo t hings tn he clati fit"d bcl(wc we nti sc tilt' C)th 11 Hl
wtth whi<..: lt \VI..' are <:Li ll t.:cn H: d h ..: rc. F trst. the tnoca l law is called 'l<l\v onl)
nH: ta phon..: :tl l y. ,)r i r one analogic31l y. T h.:: p aim3ry mcan ang, l)r ts , ,
ruk pqunul gat c d by h i tn i h cr \vh o i::; in .. o f a conlll\ltnaty in' tc..v
o f rh c .... T h is i s called pusi tivc law. lfthc lcg. as la t o t ts l'OilStdctcd
to bt (lod , it i s di v ine p osi t ive law: i f the la to r is hurn an pct::.l'" and It ''
h u nHt n pos iti' c I H\v. 't l un'lan posat iv..: law futthcr be suh<.\ a\. ide<.\ C\l'\70t dang'''
" h al t h t.: cutnt non gl.H)d n 'll!d <tl . (e .g. . \a'l.v. c ricnin<tl hl\v. conlllll'l I"'
c..:tt.: . ) In a <..:a:'<.:. a b t \v Ol)v,n to h e u b scr vcd hy h uan.ut P' a:-.1Hl
It t!'- Th..: n is anu thcr sen se o f taw w hi c h as quilt.: dtl'f,., 11t In
th1s ... ..; ""'-' tl tS a 1\ unHtl :t cxpr..:ssi n g :1 o f h e h nvau ur o f th"' l'" .tnd 1
p.: r s(ltl:-o . S11 ".._. h :l\ 'l.' phys1cal ' '"" t incl uding linvs s tudtt.:d i n phyMcs.
h u lo gv. L' l <.: l . ' """ sociol<)g. ical e tc . t $nwc the ntl\:-t.ll\t ''
h cha v t o u r .crn (lll J:!. huanan p e 1son s is h!ss li ':t:ll mu.t f( 1resc\!ahlc t h .a n ll&al ' n '"tl
at i s m o t ..: u f a statistical con s t a nt). As dis tinc t fro m p usiti vt.l,aw. tltt \..and
o l'l aw as ..:a lkd n u luta l lav.' . It d cscripli'IIC. 1\. c un olso b\! called au cs' ''I"
to lh<: I..' X I\..' Ill i r ll i:-. l'On::. idcr cd h y God and t he da v m ,,, 1\1
Ia\\', <t ll d c.ks ..: npti vc tc.1 IIH: cxl t: ll l 1ha\ di\' inc will is lhc uhunUll ,,t ll
c., .. a:-.t:ll\1 ul h .. ha'l. co ur 111 a nd l " ' "'c' "' ' nu.ll at l
l'l utl.' -.. ptl t Hb ._.,,, l' tl ) th.: tth ... r to pus lli\' C law '" " ' u th\! n al\ l.a )t\ ''
fttCt tt I
. 1110, ,11 law 11H I li ck ' ll<l t Clnh
, M 1nl rl"' ' ' ' np "' J
Sc nndly. 111 lan;-:

0 1
' .
nod ,1ntl , I\ 111d ._., d I " ' n n, ,,
l t lc ''' ' . I
:uH ' 1:, 11 .11; I
" I I I but "' '' Jl" tllul.n . 1111 1 ""' t II:
. I th . lh'lllllh: :- Hill I.
lh<! tl " ' tl
1 11
.,. lu: t1ullth d du ll<l t l. dlrh.;
I I I r o lo . , "' '"
fli<I.<' Pl '(<.:!! 1.; f)llt: JICI <I' " . l llllfll l \. tlll l:lt..: t\." (ll t:t:q H:- \\<: <t t .;
llllluc.:nt . :ul uhc.: y " '\\' I till g . .; I I. I I ht:, l'
h.: I' ,all Ill !! ah.: s p.:..: d i c.:aiHHI' I 1h.: 1110" 1,1\\
. I ' l d chl'l o f the llll)t ,d
1 lclll.'l.' 0111 quc:-liC'IIl' I l<l\\' .n .: 1 lt: gll ' '
1 1 1 f
ccpl o.: ;Ill ( \\' 1:1 IS the.: ll f lh1:-,
p:ull c ul.n1 .1ed and conc re t i.IO:d 111 :. p..:c " I
1 1 . (
,11 11 ' :d ue. \\ ..: ca n 1:t 1:-<.: !111:- qu.: ...lHin ,.,
d ll k rclll' C wnong men n tc m'"
11 I I ' 1 1 1 p' tl v
11 t.:II CC "lnnn:111 p c.: r:-.un :. :;cll - n :all /aloon
o 11\\' '- 1 IC.: mora va 11..: ",
. ho w this mtHill vnhrt.: dc.: tc.: 1nunc s pc.:c rli <: 11101 al va l11c:;'! And why rs
there dis:tg c.: nrclll ns 111 whclht: s uc h and .; uc h :r11 nc ti o n is a 'good ' (mural
v:1luc.: ) 111 ncll '

,\II ' dt:t>lltol ogu: al' .thi.'IIIIC.:' ,lgtl.'t.: lll:tl lhc.: .: m u"t .:x r-. t :-urnc.: nd<: l lt law \\hrc h
c: u forc..-s mor:t l v:t ltr l' t h:l t its n:l iUI:l l tt) h urna n pcn.on. iut tll tr\ dy '
T h.;IC I S the n an cleme nt oi' ll ll li!IIOII . IIl ii II o rth<!lll ll(l lll:lllt;l how th..:y <.:tlll< <'olfC
o f 11 ancl thc: thc:y apr 111at: h 11. who:t hcr a!S ' <.:1111\<: te rH: c' ( Oc.:khamJ. ' I u gos '
(Srcuc:-; J. moral scns..:: ( S ha lk-.hury). thl! :, : rurr c a tq !orrc.;<ll impcrill i\'C (Kant).
' rcg ht e;l,, lll tTholll a:- \qw n. r:- a nd \u. tro.:/ ) 1111' ..:km<: nl tl r'rrwr:tl ' llllurlllm' rs
.tbof() und 111 tho.:: r,h:oh<; tht'III K., 111 o: n :-n ._..._ phclll ) It
" 1111plrnl" lilllnd Ill lht C.: IIIICI: pt ol . IIIII tii \ /(/ : ( I lli 0.: \1111' l. Ill I ha t , , r . t' ' lllf 11/ /U.
(AIISIOt fc.: ). a ucf t: xplit:ll ly Ill tho.: COIICt:p l or ' 11 g h1 ( fl obhes). Ill the
' clm:..:: u: ntio us !(!cl ings of m.a nk ind ' (l'vf rll)
A nd 111 fac t the more the id ea o fmoa l o blrgati on is p rorn ncn t i n a u c ll ucal
theory. the more e xp li c it b ecomes th.: r.:coursc to thrs cl e me nt or n lu !Iro n (or
p ..:rc tp tion J. T h is cl..: mcll t or ' 11 11 11r1 itlll rs s trong ly c mphasi 7Cd h y mc t,

t hn t nwral rs .' <lhj cCII \ :e thc.:r..:fore

8ut ht:rl' clg:uu. th.:y drfl o:r It , \\'h:l tht: ' vbj t: t: t o f tht!> mor;d
ntttitl tln T his dr lfcn:ncc 1:; ..:xpli11 nahlc by rh.; cJi f'l'c rc n..:c in their m c t a- c <hical
n; g ... r d ing. th e m.:ani11g or nwr;.tl good. I knt: c for s om.: . thi s ubj.-rt i::
the 'rig ht11css of' specific a<:ts ' ( Canit l. Prit: lwrcl) lor o thers it is a l.:ind o l:ntu al
prope rty. -simp)c a nd indefina bl e in no n -m o ra l lcrms (Moorl: ), for it a
ge_nc1_a l p r incipl e(<. g. the rht of uti lity' tt :-.<:1 1' - S idg \\'id: l <lf a

.. th . . ,.,., .,.,. , ..... . . . I , . I" I ,. . .

: '-' ,( lUt; ull ll l' ;o. <) It 1.! II } . l l' fl:ll :l ll ll ll. l!l':l lt iUdt:.
h..:ndkcn c.:c. and llOn- ma ldic.: n cc Ros-, 1. In the
whi c h Jlls is l:- on the ncn ss ity of mora l int u it ion i!> c.:;rl h::d l,..: titi..:al
fnluiiHJnl "lll.
But e ven 1hc mos1 (lf<a llmnr:11 o n till s dem e nt

'." he mv ra l c_lll.l!"Cious n<.ss. 11.undy Ka n1. not 11111y due:-.
deny, bnr. on
s_t <II\.'S lha t the lllo>ral .rud.gnll'llt
dudc:-. d .:mcnb
cxp c n c ncc ( w_luc h arc therefore ' 11
,0 , feJ 111r
as 'op pos ed H7
he a
t: e rnc nt) K<mt d c n rcs thc pu ':-hrltt v uf d e '' " 111., f1J rtrul
1 . c '- II :Ill( t: Uih'l'((l I
lmmthc nmccpl uf fll:Jl:ll c al reason alo ne hll tlu:-. the s t u dy oflnu
nature 1<;
" " '"Lor ly lt uun. 1\qtn n.l-. <lt .llfl"" hctwocn rhc prul t:plcs' (l( lhc
"""''"'I' \d11d1 ,.,,. " " t' ul.111 ll ll\11 11\..:l} knllwn hy all . and \lluch cannot
h .t.kwol ""'" th, h11111.m lw.n t .and tlw "-t:UHHI.ny ill\0 mw .:
wh11. h IIC ck ' "''" ll o111 lhl lcu 111n .,, 11 hy way nf' t.: um:luo; ion frnm
wh :n "nnplr t:d hc: 1.: 1\ rhat 1111 , 'e'-OIHbry rcqu1rc rellcc\l on . lhoma ..
!-JlCIk Sol the (\ If fiUJfr y ll lVHIVcC(IIl appl ylll " :11 principles IO COI\eiCIC C:ISO:S.
I. vt: n 1 flii iii.. IJ IIc::. " l11; 1 he th<:111 <: II <: a I or practical can be evident in
I.'S. th,v lll:ty II()( he ;Clt'VIIklll (Co II ' And thi :- i-: due. <JCCClrt.ltng tl'
U \\ 11111<' pc :-.tiOI'oiUih 1011 tho; P " 1 111 htlll l: lll p c M ill
:-,,Hil t:/ 1:-. Jll'lh,lp._ t:\l'll m,ne c' pl1o. 11 111 Ill '> lhlCllllle that ..:vcn tho.: st:Ct11lday
(JIIIICIJ) k:-. \ dli Lh l1ke lhc f11 11ll:tf)' III C Ill lhCmscl \'CS- fC(\ll in.: a
cc tanl all Hi ll Ill u l and cxp t: c n<:c T l11:- i::. t ucr o f th..: tcniary principk:,
\\. h 11.:h !-ludy and d"ctu -. vc thought Bur a ll moral principles can be derived
I rum scl t-cvl kllt pn11upks 011c nowblc d lll 'clcncc hclwo.:cll Thomas a nd Saure/
IS th:(tthC.: f'(l t lllCI thO.: C()IICICIC p111\e 1plcs Ill :J way COfrC!:pOndmg. tU' hUill:lll
n;ttur;tl IIH' flll:t ll \111'>, ' lh..: I.HI<.: > d c: 1 iva:-.. lhem 111 a \\':ly Cl.)l fCSfl Oild ll\ g_ lt'
a '):-I e ll> I ' " p r..: < o.; J)I !S ha \ t.: rh.: n 1111tn..:d1at.: 11111'111 I he: !:!'''""
0 ( IHIIIl:lll ll:tllll t: l h.; ll Ct:d olf C'J)I: I ICil \.C .llld tC0..:Cll Oil 1:. Slllll lad y indeed
t: \ t: n mcu a: upon hy .: untc.: mpun11 y \ Vhy this grca t.: r II ISI!Stc n..:e''
\A' hat we art: dc:t llll t! \\l t h hc.:rc 1s w \\hcth.:: a !;Cnc ral pnnc1pl..: su..: h a'
l.cnou:. pron11:-..::- nN he loghtl y hrt,kcn i:. and thc ref<lfc IJe
C0t111l t: ll :unong the ' fi r :.t p1111t: 1ph:s ' kuown by .:vcrybody l fyc:.. how
r:. 11 dc 11'..:d fHH1l tho:: \cry li r !>t pnnciplc.: th at ' good r:. to be d one .
t:\ il w h..: a\ t utkd' '' t .. it by a l. 111ll dcduc.:timf! And if it i!S ,ct f-
C.:\'I dc nt ' t O lbt..:l J' h ut llllt known by a fl . 1:; it b Ct:aUSC o f S\l rnC ntal rt:a:.llO
:rs w' bad habit'! Finall y. irit is not 'scl r-cvidc nt ' how i:; 11 th;n
h uman p erson hJ s todny com.:: to ag ree that s uc h a g,..:nc.:ral principle is corr.:c t
( that it is :tm ornl value r ?
To nwrc nf' thinke rs like Thomas Aquinas. and Ross
;tre \\' t: Ill sa\' th;1t the.: e'(<tmplcs they gi ve 1.11' lirs t pr inciplcs (or uf p inna {uci<
duti es 1 :re ,;lt:illll l<) s er\'.: ' me n: ly a.;; c x:tmpks or w..: tl) say that th.: y :lre
mc.:: 11H uldtt<kd tho.: pnnc iplcs the m:;c l\ e!S'! In the lir<:t cas..: we
could p;.;rhap:. dt:.agr ..:c the c.:xampks they g. a\'0.:: arc g.\lOd e xampl e:. but
il l!rt:.: \\'ith thc 11 d oc tnnc;: tha t thl!l l! ..:xbt fi rst painc ipl cs intuiti vely known by
llH\11 . T h..: que:-.t11m w ould he the n w hich a rc ptinciplcs. In the
c.:usc.: to li o n the uptncss uf the e xa mples wmrlc.l be to qucs tilm thc it
d oct ri nt: rt scl ( lrr.::; p ..:ct i'\C u f'wha t s uc h thinkers acl\mlly mean we have goi\U
t he pmh k m 111 u ,-: lf
I r I I' : Ill\ Jlllll l l p k Colllllll t ,,e llt: lll ed .H j,. tht: ll;tl;l ur mo '
C.:l>ll :O\. Il'U'Il.;-... I r tht: :.t: d,lt:t l.: il llll\11 b..: d c nt t:ll al..: sclf-c\ ilk,nl They oUC
:.ell - ' 11k11t 111>t ;t' pr iut. apk-;. that hut '' " dala lh.:y. :u \'
thc.: mat, .:allv fo nnul:ll t:d N not Th.: immc.:<liatc ont\log.ical loundauon ol tlk:
nwral b hunH\1\ illlcr-rc l:ucdncss and that the nonu tor mor.ll
tas c.Ji s ttll l' l from the motal human pcl'!'(\n as 3 :.oci<ll hcil\g.. W.:: ha\ c
- 1 1 I . , a, .,, .. lv uin: n ""
alsCl rc.: ll.:etc.:d how tho.: unl ): mura I'' cc.:cpt w m; ' 1:. 11\111 \;\ ... . to
....... 1 .......,
..... ... ..... .
I . th:ll h t tlll:lll
1 ts
d CHI 11 nt o.:..:
1110 1
nee :111 oth ...:r , '"
n tn<ll be Jlll'll '-' I t c
nn l:

d )t.; l . .
u ,; t n 1
ll ttH.ll V l t ll.l ' ()I II l.t" ,
-.hcHtld bt.: hun'<ll
. ..
- nti nn!' o f tho..:
IJ n ; al i 7..: h i t ll'-.clt t
.. ,tltn< ,pc<et 1'- un " 10U
(" h.Jt " ' C 1..: 1C <;. "'. ' Ill tl lll l a )l\.:
. . , . huncnta l P1
othl: tl tn\' ll lHH tills un<
hcrs dfliS human. . - f . n ' rSlll\ is h.::o.: on1ing
. . c) ming. I uman .'-': . . '. .
. . . 1rt1ccs" o l hCl: . 1 h11n,dl dt.:, dvp ..
Hun1'lll ' " Ill '' I hi" uwan; IH;:-:-- o . II
.JIIll mun: him:a; lfand in the w hat he ts . \llll<llt
., k tn un'" 1 t he
I ' c

._ hccn C<.,ltHtnU<Itl s Y " "". I f
r.;l( The 1non; 1<.: . '-' =
' ' '"' . I ,., 1\)SC \<.; I
pcl..;on ;, in a nc,c r-..:nding o . u . l li' h rsclf :s person I lliOic


, b .
c-.. of htnt l'C '-' . . rt t)r .
aspect ol hum<n
n1orc 10.: " I t: c.:-.< . . c1usllcSS IS " P
hc ' -..hc j..,. hun:.dfhcscll. l\1 or;d c0n sc , . nes h i ln::.d l i'h erscll thL' m ot\: h\:

1 rstlll

Tht tnttrc; Hll1tan I '-' . . I I b This tel tht:: u
. f I c; .
"he: o \V "' ". I I , conduct of h uman p erson.

., "'-' nnorc dc:r Y

precepts spec Y
, f m the firs t funda me nta l m oral
a l ,alucs) o w t o .
Hence the mon ll pn.:ccpts mor ' , . lt/ 1 "., self (th..: moral value.: p ar
,hould b e hunsc.; 1..:: . '
precept that human pcr ::. _ on . . lf nH:rc lne tlat c tll k t el cc.
. ' , ., deducuon ol t
excellence;: not hy '"
) o t tnc.:lc..:
. . 1 .. jed concl u::-tons lll as
1 . I ll r not Stlllp ) .t::- 1.1 ::: '
rf1t f(lllllt:r :u..: tdll t Cl Ill t
'- I th idc
, wtl ll r ... , c
, ., 1 t.)" c ha:; !.!Ot to l. o ' " ' .
llnpltcitl ycl: rd;l t cd t tllh <etrpr ... mtl'<e .. -. "' . I:- . the implil t tl : u.;
l I
. ' I t tl . 'rchtH.'tll o r t l<.: cxp II. l
t d ca". It c:ulllOI 1C < cnH:u I w li S , . I l: t n ' I is h c..:rc pre' t: l
. I .. ( fthc concrete to :l ) $
' t.:
clc:u to the unck<u t o t l t.: unc
h conscious ness
( o I tv lllnan
But i t is prcs..:nl in the scns<: t :H a con IIlli l:..- . - s more t h<.ttl
I ti
, l" ts kvelopmcnt. cxtstc n<.:c..:
1s to its swgcs p:l!it an< utun.: o I \:
. tl I )lncnt <.:l>ll'-c i ou<..n c:-s
If wh<t I " "C sa eth<lUI t hL' pt Ll1 c:o;-.t>.: .;vc ot . . tl . . . ' tl '
. . ,
c c
n cl<.; dV un c t :..l l llu 11:
ntl lht.:l..:forc u( I)IOI.JI C(lll:'l.' lllUSill:'S!:- 1:- II P'-' l , . - fi . .
J 1 I (HH.Ul i... IC''
tll.'vdopnlL'Ill tt f murab frotn C<I\'C- nl:tll t O llHit l::l n. llll a . . . . . tJ
:- lan;rv 10 the;;_ Llni\' crsal Oc:daration of Humun Rights "' ctpl c
u . 4 N (j n c ra l A!';'t; lll bl) tn ... o .
without a voi<;c 10 the ntCu
1 gnoran ec of1he moral precept s is therefore not necessaril y Lh: result of perverse
as if thi s result wer e ctccidcnwl. I t is a faci of cxpcn e ncc that pel'
c;;ustoms not tHlly weaken the ii w the good hu_t darkL' IlS t he
d r-> I s . moc casd v po, ,-. blc nn al
w rcco!!ni7.c wh:Jt the tn<.l ral goo t S. J UL t H. 1s ' , - . .
Jc\d . Here we arc placing on the lev el of m ankllld
progn;ss. Thi s ignorance and the \aricty of mural s can be cxpla'!'cul
human histot ici1v itself. that is, by the hiswri cal progressi ve dcvcl opn1c nt ofh
we cas tl y takr..: it lor granted that thi s Jl v.:;
;Ji td bccu a llllcar rrog r.:ss. It lll;JY have 1\'\.l'l
and rc;;rco;!'. V/c;; need nol go into that. \VIwt I f; nwrc pctttnc nt to ,t sk
::.hould n.:asunably that human pc ason has 110\.'li .tt t.nn cl
sc;.mc o f lti:. lt.:r :.clf-{.:onsciousH!S:. aud ofhis/hc 1 moral c0n$Ci0thll1' . . . ';'/It
fC.c In a.:1.urdtng to Ul- ts hcishc lws not . A pall II 0111 tl
d c.cltUh."4:11l tut l" (..di..: tlhc futur e. morulptohlcin <"lftli, 1
1 ll
f ,.tlxtun 111 :t ,,II \\'hcthcr one .-.. h ould Utll!-1<1 1 Jill' t,ua
UJ .J huna;.ua p "r ).Oit . , lu; ,.o <.:clll<:d \\llllh.: ll' :- lllll\'<-'11h'lll 111dt
1\0 Il l lfCI wh:t t II r cll\d 6.11(' th:ll Wllllll'll have liCit Ill 'II ll t.: ll
lulf I 1 rW11' C\crywhcrt.: 111 th.: wcrltl One could thtul; of tl\ illl Y
Iter\: \Vt.: t.:Xill11111t.: l\\o 1.vhic.:h :.arc int 1n ntcly ltn' .1 1 1
< o.Cu,. II li\IUI I. II )
v t.; IOil S n f hunan p ..: ::- on I \) 1.vha1 ..::-. 1..: nt c;u '"C "a) tl
1 1
( 1 1
. - . . -.1 lllt)IOI II Y I \,1\ . .... l I .
!'< pt:CI cati C'III o t th<: tnC'II:ll Ia''') ::\lc val'
d 1r.. 11 1
1 . ... .- a 1un"1" pc t-.\lll" o
'vhat cxtc nt c an 'vc s<ty t h al they a rc unchangeabl e'! 1 f (11\C n

one;: i::, with Wtth hohhng lhe
p mion of J Slattc

<1 1 hutTHtn J?CISon \VIth present day thcoric::- a ho_uttnan's llyn.
and evoluti onary natun.:. II on the other hand one were to
aint;u n
rd.Jtt\ c
val1dity one '-''tl uld f; tll into a philosorhic.:all y untcn:..hlc 1nnral Can
the dilcmlllCI be OVet COilH: '?
fhc E.,\I IUl iOnar) natur..: ofhum:111 person a nd ll fht l' human h ;,,
_l un_g . bccn rct.: og n i?'.cd on..: way tll a no thct. Chade;:s D ... r"in tht: thcoa-y "'
..: vo luti on a biolo!,;ical h a:' i!';. /\ n Evuluti onary vit.:\\. or the wurlt.l and ot'
is today <II the l>Hsis Of H g t cat deal of seicnttfic pllllll-.oplllei\1 au (\
thcologi calt htnking . Thc . th111kin g of s u ch human persons ::1:-. l' it:nc 1 etlhard de
C hard in and of AtHobindo comes of cour:..c s p ontanCO\ISiy \ll mmd
1 pc haps the. b c::-1 knU\.'- 11 F\ol utinnary cthic"t I k ls by that both human ;md nnunal conduc t t:ons is ts in act::> adju,.t..:d to Clltb
The hi gher we proceed Ill the scnlc or Evolution the C:lSI CI It fl)r {\)
Obt:li n evide nce of purposd'ttl :lC.: II OI\S directed l OWil iU the g_OC'Id Ctthcr
i ndivid ual or of t he species. This p'ttrpo!>cful activity lo ms l oi the
f(u existence wag ell het ween indi ,itlual mc rnhcrs .,f the Cll c l ll
ddli.:rcnt " pct.:ic:--. Butlhts t ype ol c onduct is ;.H.:<: <Htlng to Spent:<: n
.::voh cd In :.a p crli.:ctly CVl thc d ,l:<llld u..:t whit:h ,, cthl l:. tl t.:untl ul t 111 tlh.'
Sei\SC 0fthc WOrd Struggle J'l)f' \\ t\1 yidd pl:lCC ltl cnupCt.llll'll
and mutual help. Eg.o s m and clftruism will be both Tht:- k.1lb
Spencer t o tl istmguish bct\,Ccn absolute and Ab::.olutc L'lht..;s '"
an ide al code of conduct formulati ng. the behaviour o f th.::
hun1an pcrsonin the compktdy cvnheu !'lX:Idy. Rci:Jtivc e tht.:s ''the ncal\:-..t
imat 1011 tu thi s ideal an;ordi11g to murc tr less Jll'l feel I) t:' tlh ct.l-."ct-.t'
i n wluch hunnut pe rstlll happens to li nd him her
adopts the utilitarian e thical principle. In f<tCt he takes h;,ppmc::.s lo he
the ultimate t!nd of li fe and measures l he rightness m nf h-.
their conduciveness to this end. from a nascent s t ate whcnth1s ullltlan.m p an pk
-..vas dl!pcmknl on non-ethical (e. g . <tuthoritanan) bcltcfs tl g.t.u.luall) ()Cd
to b<!t:omc independent and as by the theory l'fCH'lulltln. 11 '"" conumh.
Ill cvnh c :1nd rc<H:h an H.k;d '"'"'-
however tllpcnd' (Ill the fulftlmcnt uf :--nme \:undiiHuls th\:
cond1t ions arc the observances ur and ruk' "''"cl' " "" '"'
determine hum3n wdfatc. S tlcnccr the ol nl\-w\11 mN"'<>t'
,-.. hi ch however arc the slowly 1es.uh:;. ofcxpcnc ncc 1 c.t'wed b ''
tacc. In othr..:r wo1ds .m tnducli<.'n from h.m<kd ''''''" tlnm"
l!Cnt.:r:tti\Hl to the othc. 1 t.'lltb. "I' hy an ' " '
j 'ohltl lll\1::- IHU\' tll!.! .. &nun"' ht t l I'C n
;' " th.: :--uptl' tllt.: l: nd :,r hu1n;u\ ll\:' ,,,n ,, the "un .. '"'"''"' ;.an,l 'nu... ' '' .. '"
1\>t <llt .umucnl lnth .. ,,fthc litth ,\nd 1'-""\' ''' '" " ''Mtt 'I
..; uh-.l.
u,mly " '''""""'" cunh.'l'>" loo. that"" th "'' I
Wh:ll I' jll' lll ll olll y
1 1 c n ... lit h.11f hnpl'cl
h '' 11111 filii\ 1tl1cl.1, 111111 h p1.11IWOI ' '""
' I
,, tl111 1 II d
I I ' I h ..... 1 .. , ... 1
\J" tH t I .., h Ju 'l lllh 'IHC- Ltlhlfl tl \0 lllffH1 t
I I I I I ht'l 111111" 01111' 1
rlw 111 ul .1 "I' w1 .1111 1 1
(.(, ' I CONSTANT A N D ' fIll<: I N
I "IIII I f(u II' Ill lkl Hfr '
\\' l1' '"' , 01 norm.111 " " CVt ll vnl 1111111 l uunan ' 1'
I CHI\ Il l'\', 11'1' 1'
lluf 1\'l' 1.111 \. l , d \. ,Ill ,pr IIH' lht'lll y rlt,11 1111' 1(1111:11 1 U lll 'ol
I Wll\ 11 (11 II CI (',,: 11 d )'
ll, lfllfl d .111rf lk\'\'lnp1d 1\f fl11 hl'J' IIIIIIIIJ' 11111111111 lh..'"OI f
. ()II ' Il l Hldt VIIIII:tf lt\ 't'
IIIII" IIIII' ol hlllh{'i l/ lwr,t'f l ;,, l111111an a' WC Ill( .1y III C '
. l'ftl' dul ol 1' a l11n11all
1111, j1141"1 1' Ill hlllll . llll' flll '(' lflll'.,lll':,\ "al,l(:' l ll l C''<fll'rlfiH l '
ol 11, II a!.. a l u1111:111
h c rnv hill : ... rl :row ... rl bi ' CIIIIIl'' 11101(' :md 111me c: onM 1011/'0 ' .
. I I
1.' rf ' l'>' ll t' h lo t x p la lll
h i' In) ' Wt Colli ,fl 1 \'jll I h I' l ht'OI V o' VI'Il 0 11 I ftc l'\ C' () liM II" Ill ' '
.,.' lit IIICII:d pr l.'(epf',
"'"' rhc """" , .., p:llll tlllrllt/t' c :rnc l. lllh. ll'lr / CI rn .pc .. r ,
I I IIIII. I II 1111 I 11 '""II' , . Ill \ 111 VI ' IIIII' \ 1 1111" IIIIIS II l'!'O!'o II(' (fill'" I/' ''' 111 rncfr \'ld ll.d
11111 .r . r '" 1.r l ' " ""' Mtr.d l' l""" '"lhlll'"' "arr n11 1.1' 1d I'"' o1l httllt:lll
on11 ' '"" .111' 1'11111111\ 1 /rwrr , ut (hi < .111 hn11 .n) h,l\'0.: lOll "' '''"'
IIH I\\ I" \\'C oiH ll(>f I ll ll tl n J f(l l '' " '"'" hl'f 1111111:111 HI :rll II Ill (I f a I
' ll c'o., Ill filii)' , I.!''CII Italf v I (I 1111111.111 C!ll"e lllll ' ll\:0,, :r:, \lll h a11d Ill a
UnC\ m ,I I ,ond IIIII 111 oil I oll t.!logr t a l ,cw.c II ha\ b een a krncJ v i C(l ll 'il<r lll Il l <til the
IHICI Slll'l'' uluwll .. c:volul t (lll I lowcvtr. 1111 I he th cor y tl t:ttlhc liurnall
.mel flurdmt 11101 , 11 l '""' ruu. n c,. lr. ucc 11 dcvclop111Jj. the dtfkr c ul s l ll !;l'!'o o l
I, dupor11ur t .111 lw cc, r111:rhly r onf, rd-. h : d a. t he v:u:rhlc 111 hum. III cvolultnrl
II "' I' O.:: rl. nl' ' '"' I 1111'.11<'',-, .rl , til "hetlrc n f the pr 1111111\ ..: hnm.u1 ur
uur o, \\ t ' 11111 '. 1 " llL'olf ol rl Ill l \ 1111'> til l lw lflllllt.:dt:JI C' d a t a o f Cllll ol llllr..llt:,o., <l !>
l,cuccJ.Jiftm om I Itt hw11au 1111lr 1111 ' ' c p 1 ct r . cly 011 hum;m Inter r e latc dnc" and
lh .( tf,JI,I 10 he Ill CWIIOfllllly h i lr uman f eil!ot) ll :t nd Ill he COII d lll'IVC 10 the ,cf f
ol hun w! 1 a ... h urua11. llur huma nrn01 al cclllsciou:.llcss hccn
t:\lllvmt I l11 s <. h .1nrc l a kl<, drl krcrll f<> II IIS S(l llt C o l w hr \'1 1 an
ur11kt hlilftdilhlc ;11uJ :dl tud 110 re:tl pr rr lll c m w etltics !>ClfllC :u I.' 11 0 1 :<O ca..,i ly
uld lii,Hld.l l k .111tl t l ll rdtiiC :tll t lld ' "'"e drfli l. ull y.
, , ,. ltuurarl f ll'l'.nn 11,1 W il t. moro ;111d tlhlfC l'Oil:l'lllu o.; ol h iru:-; d l a s l uun:w as
"" 11rdn ttlll;" :n tl J. :1 ' I>Cral h 1' "'L' h c/<., hc mn,. ronr. c t o\1', ol 111'./hc r
IHIIIWII l:ff' dll e., :t lld ctl h r, ' ft \.r t ami d ltl ic;-; a. a human per '<Jfl I h i.,
.: fr.:,u r x: ll c 1m ' '''"'"'"' 1 , o iJ\.rou. ly 1 o n c r c t i / cd and p a r 11r ul aci / Cd in .p et
IJJtr.ll pH:-.: pi I \ 't " " ' ' "'c :r vtn o f ltulll<JO rnuml d1f l\:1c nl
p lrv,,g 111 tfr ll o lt u o.,r l wct run .. ( Miua lr un<. alkc. tng tltc u tlll l' r
r larcdnc . ,J wr ll lr\ I ' ;, " " ''c or tlrl h: t l' fll fll o tal l 1fc S ud tlu uua u ' lil t:!
i'IIJ OJI 1".: (;IJ( l1f :(II':J:lf'Jif( ..;J J, C flfll:JI It illld ('((JIHI IIIJC ((ll lffii iCtll<., ,
ot\ .,,, "'' mur.1f l: fll C."'" t it' !>' r.;, ., 111 f<w1 fll lt ll lilldy liul n l 1u ancl
, mdtlum by 1 ''"'"u c.u11 ;.(; luU llt'.).s, t lrllcr c tll rdt:' I()U-. lldu b havt JII WhHT d
, m lfJt.)fod\.rlu. Atwf lldt:m"' llll ':_l l" illll!'\! l)l b( WIIIII J'"'
f'Wlluflfl" t ' " llllt;JIIIy I It IJi j; IHt ; ,,J lr1u ou :rllurd 11 . w rlh lll illl \'
111 It; ltum.m '"""'"!) "' II f1<o;, ,;rlurualr; l l' l c ) 1111\ lhlllf'l '
p4 In f) ;,ud illi te.: 11\ I ll t d l '1(111 COli .< IHU'fl<..", :mel uufy \ l 't'fllltlallf )' 1111<1
.., 11 11 moral tun IOU' ,.,. lr a (; haiiJ;t' 111 lh t..llrulrtlllft c.' cl

II , ._VI ' VC I , a' l t. l ll ''' Ill I I " II J,I\V "(lVI 1111111' IJII 1111111 , 11( 1111 Ill f op\ ll tlt " , IIIII
,.. , ., .. , ... ,. 11 , "" '" ,, l ( t.III J'' IIIIOtlor . illl y W I,. ,. 1 I " ' oll: t \V <I tc l.ou . tlac '"'" ' '""l'
o. I I' J'" ol d 11 , IIIII lll o . til 111 .1', 111 .11 II I' llltlf,d ( IVd l :ow ft Ill lo filii , I H JI p .l !1
'' ''" " pd,., .. . '" 1 ;.d '"' '" .. d ' . L- ' . t\u , . , .,.,. ' J'H t\ It
.. .,,
li n lt u Il l -.t II" . 1, tt tu It lftttt;IHCth l 1H tn(H! \ 1 \ -,tlh 1 ql ., ..... ( \Hu ,.1

tt pu l. tltctl\ it' . .... 1111 , 1 tlu, ,t ttl IIUd iH I 1 \u , t . ""IHfl !ttH \H H ntt tttltt t lttt\,t\'
""' '" 11 "'"":1 1 """''" , I"'"'' "" the, ,. .,, l vr ' ' '' ,,. ,( <;.11l :11 ''''"' 'I w ht
'" 11' 1:1 ,.,
1111 11:1 1 llll',l y plll t .il1 ',111
V: 11 1!ol>l c Ill lleor.drl y lill '.l . 1111' t111J H>r l : ont quc lll>ll ct ;.:114\
1' tht Y1nd ol
I I 111111!11 WI'< :11 1l1ooV' llllll<<l :tfiiiOi fl< l' o f 1>p111 II \,Jilnt l y ll w h,
t l' , \!1\ll Vt t\ lt
11 1 Ill :II I y r t "''' II rl ;o y 1 .o II I p II \ 1 I It I I 11 Ill <" :0 II y \VI C11 ' I' l0111 111 o h \ V :oil tl \ 11 o 'I 1 :.
'' "" '""' f, ,. ,dt,ll l lfl<' l y 1 l ' ll.lltlttl \VIe . ol . 111! Ha ll y ll l" l11 111 ll1111 ;1 ll y \Vt CI1II' 1 ! 11 1'''"'
pl11lt l'. <opl11 u l 11 ' 1111. d 1111111. 111 1'' 1 .1111 l ocl1111111l' d h y h1 II H r o'V.I'. I<; nllal 1111.tllltto
: 111d 1f 1111111: 111 (HIII f lll(ll,d\ 1' 1111 '1' 1!1\1'. 11 1''' 1 ' ; tl way:. Ill H 1' 1111 1; ,, " I <I VVI 111111111 Ill
:t111Jr , <llp<' llli i ' III1111J i f1 y : ollt10j>ll : d ( 11 11\rr:.l , ',IH; i;d, p .yi'IHtlo ot ll' :l l CI1VI IIIIIf l lf 111.t\
and ullu: r I: H 1.,1 . :111 lu/:.l w 1 Vl' l loo: c.r; t l l 1111 ttl IHI VIII)' 11':H. Ih d <h it 1 11 11< 111Pt.11
1111111 d 1111 I t ' , ., ' 1111 : o '"""' :.. IIIIHal ll ulh' '
/\ til t."' ' \ 0111 ,, 1. \\ c " " '" d l111 ) '111 . 11 .C H lnll y 1111\v 11111111 ,1111 l.111\ 11 1 . u11l
1 rl
11 a l "1.1\t VI ' '" Mnt.d 1' l.111 \. rl " 1 . llll('ly t lu VII v. 111 .11 dll " 111 1 'PI
,;;, p t.'\ 1l t\f y 111 drlf , I (' 111 I I Vd1/:III C1 11 ' H llcl \ , \II1111 C , h:S V1' Ill fi . I V\ h old chi\ I' Ill 1111 11,!1
h 1; l11.: l '-o H11d "'- h:ll 1' h e 111 '\' l' d In ltl llllllilll y 11 g \lt : 1\ :t 1',1 '\.'1 11 111111 Ill p\.11 1 11 : ,,,.
I H.: I , , ., I d I ll , ,.. 11ll>l oiii V W illi I!''' a ddt,.,, Ill 111111' Ill """.'-' l i n . I Ill 11111\!,! lll , lblo
,;n i ( Hi t <.:a l l ; u 1 ; d t <! l;'"" I ' 1111'' t h e plnlw.opl u o,;: d thct u v ' ' "" '"' ' '"'' "1'"' "1
I'X1'. t :, !IH' 1 (' l 'o 110 Ill II \ I r .;cl 111111 :t\ 1\CH 111 (OI lla. i'- 1)1111 1pl<) IIlii \O.'I., tl to,;
III <H : tl l y 1 '".h i , . 11 l ; tli V\' 10 l i n tndl v t dual no f'11lllp (I I 1111 11 111 (\Ill o.,(111rt II "' h ,1
I 1)1 'Ill It : 1 fHI:.tlll>ll a . tlo ..... ) 11 1'111 11 l.tti VI' I II I lC(ll y l 'llll ! f\' 1' II ;1'.()11 ., 1o
Ill l h t :, I I r< I '(' ll 'tl' II t ' I I . ' ' ''llll ''I " 1 h tll !-. rt ll"l y : 1d 1111 t '. t h a t 11 , ., ''" 1lv
\ II
' h
in1p clo..,, 1h h; IP -.ay \VI ta l ' " n 1or:dl y " l' h t a n < III(Ha y '"' ' ''Ill' 1 ,. 1 ' '
c:d lcd ,l, , ptt <. l ' "'
In :. 11 ..: ,olul H>II <II y ' 1,;w o l h11 1ll lll l b ...: cng tha t O il th<. ;t <.:<.:t.: p H- <1 V 1" 11
lt u n n n ., 11 c-.:. tl f 1:.0 t k v ...:l uplllj',. '" ,.
n r t : IIU I ll <.., :ty the l :t. t Wl) l (\ Oil w hat hu1n all p e 1 S(ll'l p ,' ' ( ) h VIUII-.I y nnt 1111 ' 11111
,. "' 1 1 n c
, cn; ( \ 11 ':; o l s df' 1s a ""' t Y
. '
' !111 In 1h1:. 1"'""
tl \v1y l o..: ndin
, row:11d s a belle unc..l h c \l c r unuc
1 1 ' ' ' . ' J'. I . 1\ I I tl tht 1:-. tnl\' h t ,/ 1 I llt(ll ol
h .: r!-.u11 's k 11o\vl c d t t; o l hin1:.<.: 11 / h c 1s d 1c auvc
1 1
1 . . VC.' ' IIIII I II 111111\ llllll\1 ll
t< 1111 wf<.:<ll!,<' j -. n : l : tti Vl' 111 M> a s c\ pcug t:sSI
I .... \. If 1'1111 1\\11 11
I' ( ' "'' ''' . . 1 111 1 : 1\11..' 1111 \'r.: . 111d v n l 11t v ,vohllllntll uul\:
"- - II I Ill\ pHII'Il' , 11111 1h ll
; lltd I) ( 111111 :d kill I\\ k d j ' l' h l lps \ lll l..' \ll l-oi,.I\VCI ;t lll' ' :.Ohl' l ' \tt \I I
' " ltuii HIII 1''' 1 '1111 ' " h t< O lllllll' llltlll' and lncu < hull:-.1 I I I
1 1 1 .. ll y 1 1 lt ,/ h c r """ ' ""'"
rnOi l' a nd IIH>t<' U) rh\Hlll' o f 'vh a t r e l ,.,.,,,
him/ lw r tOI <'C 0 1'.111'l <: m_'d o .. "' ckbllt C '"'" ttrn,
I d(( in ;Ill l ) f kuow kd1' l! a tunc <If s ' l n\, d. Ill
1 rf
dt !-. ;t g lt.'l' IIH' II\ Ill 1\101 . 1 . ' I the nf(' '11\11 I
pt i! I Cl\Uil' IH: ,1111. ,.
a , lat e (ll llll l' l ttludt Oil , ...... u c:. ' "' I I ''"""' 1'\.: ''" Ill "'
I . . I hl' t ' ll ill' hiC\' l'l , ..

1 v I" "' '',..... \111 ' '-
'" ' '
1 1
un l 1 1 11
. II I lh . , ;uh "" ,. '"' I' ' t f't\11 , ;( I q t ll , 1\11111 11 ' 11 1. 1111 . \I ll\ll' ll \ \1 \II I
C nut c nt s
3 0 Objcct l\'c s
3 I
J .6
3. 7
I lit I <.ld lii:I I OII
Sot.p cc s of Moral i n India
Et hics. l1s Mc:tn lll! in l11d ia n Tr <tdi t io n
Eth i.;;s 1n Vcd rc Pe r iod
[;till cs rn l ) ltor masa <:: /ras <md lti ltu.' os
Way o f Rrg htcous nc ss in the G it<
Eth ic:t l <> I. I I . I 1- u .
. fi ll u ra 11r o n
Ethrc:- Ill .
J . Y .l:11n<1 l: t hi cs
3. 10 Let u., Sun1 up
3 . I I K ey Vv'ords
3. I 2 Funhe r Rer<J" , d
rngs an Refe rences
. .' .
To 1
t I I L' ' l lltft llt-. o(
lr<Hill l<lll . !;;<=IH:nd .::
1" <= t,- c th rcs 111 l nd iun
TI> c rwhlc thc n l I I . . .
< ( I l e c t f llt:a f t:(lll SCI OUS ileSs OJ' fnd . . d
To c::n um . . lct . clll
' . . C: l cll <: van n us e thica l <.: o nc e Hs ofd"f.. . .
rd lg ro us traditio ns . I . I ft> IC::Il l fndiUn r hdos orh ic a l unci
3 .1
Mo l-al con sciou .. ' . .
. . . . clll untle n i:tble fa - .
:--cns lh tl l!y IS S(lfl1e lhin!..! c sscnti<t l fc . h c_l o r human cxpe lit!nce. The montl
gods <* lc bdle n : d to . :-_ . . Ol I e reaceful s oc ie t v and ti l. ' E '
lo . c v. Ol "- :. ven
throug h t he manv . , ,. . etnd in the soc ic ry
the ion a I phi los ophcrs
:Jrc_sCJrbl cd " ' the Dhur,,asastros arc ht: cas te dut ies or t he Hindus
o l t!u ate the life oftl ' I rc u aled COt l ll n- d I . ,
th (; d . l C c o mmunity. Eth c. . . . ' ll . s, w llch on: m e ant
e OIUil allons of t he moral bc havio t 0; ::; ciS a_ Sp ecui<Hivc scie nce is ba sed On
m o r a c odes are b d nan but., s b . .
. . . . ase on rel ig ious b e lie n _: u s t<II Hi a l ponion or th
\q; lhc fndl<ur clhi<.:( too . . _s. s oc l<tl c us toms and tr . . e
<t lltllra di . . . . tht: mora la y is VCI'V mu I l .. , .ldJII Ons . \ Vhe n
lt o ns o f India n rc lig rons . . c 1 )ct sc.:d on c<.:rt<t in bclic ts,
I I 1:. IHIC lit ttl II . ,. .
h.: ound:ltl<.ll b of In,-. . .
a nd lhe lheolcwi -.. J ,, .
1 1
. . l
11 1
c.: th l<.:!-> c an h " ,.,,l
1 C' '-U c IC s Il l II . . .... ,,, ll! l( I I :.fnd pri ru.: inf . I . . to n n of w ol s hiJ; . - II l lc ll1c,; taphy !;r , :.1
. , . cs I a.u <lu cctcd . . .. pr.tycls . I .
n d 1an elh cs we c d man s l1 1i.; in tJ
,. : . , n t1c fonn o f
<JOIIOI cny tl ... SOCie ty \VI
crlucs and lfi ndu
, c tnlt malc re i aLi
w n we s pt.: ak o f
'a"> orher digiOn. l:lh c ons l ip lllar rwcvri ls I ,
s an<J rcilg io . ' >c t ween
nell<: :-:.o
o St.: Y rd a tc <.l
and be thc rcli!.!.i<' ll , it co ntains within itsct r , . ,
. .. - .-H l C SVSh!lll (I rnur;1IH\.
f c1r the gur d. nrcl.: <.l l li S fo ll ow.:es. And thu. s lndi:m tl .. hl
, ' "' lllu t:.p..; nsa c rn \
o l' l lind u ec lt g. eo n ;,md other re lic. ions or Indian orici n ln-
1 I l. '
. .- - u au ct H<: a 1u..:a ' a n d
prenc ep k::-. . 11 c \' .;ey much lound 111 the V c J <I S a nd in o thc1 Inti . 1
1 IC\ 11 II CnltUI CS cll\l I ll
othc1 tcac lungs o t the lnd ra n r cl rg1ons . . .
Lrkc rcl1g 1<ln a nd aet . mo eal ity tt ls o <m in!'litu tion o fli lc f.< r . 1
> .myun.: A.u at o pt 1n
IH:il d c By th ls ms ll tutron of moralll y on..: ' s actions frumth n 1 r
. po mt u V I C\V
m eght b.::_ hi ciiHkd go<>d o r had. ri ght or praisC\'- Ort hy
0 1
b lam..: rul e tc
' ' .n d a g a 111 ll HHa l11 y o n.: m ay be to j udge a<.: tion g.oud 01
h.1d. 1e oe WH'ng . In th1s sense mo rali ty can be rc gardcu a:- a partic ular way
HI 1ssuc:. of ciHu actcr and conduc t. lt is in this sense llf mor.111\y. that we
talk o l h llllHln bcmgs as ll'l(lral a ge nts but not of animals. we lalk <.lf mlnal
<.: onc e pls , la ws and p1 ine iplcs e tc for a morall y good or morall y 1
M_oral1ty mc<Hl s c o nscious li v ing " ith in the frame or cc n a rq pri nc1pk:- ,,f conduc t
la td cl own by-tho,.: rcgarckd a uth<lrit i<.: s. So iil gcncralnl lua ii\ V ;,:-; ;m
t'fl ifc c o ns is ts 111 the.: o f a t) impo11ant dis unc tion wh ;1t is and
\.Vh<t l o u gh t to h e . Su m en li ve not me rel y in the li ght lf what is h\ll abo
oug ht Ill bc. Spccdi c;1ll y moralit y is thcr of a li v tng
boscd 0 11 a di s tinc tro n be tween o ur aniina l demands and the de mands the
f<tt: u lti c s life. 'l.vhid l make th..: human dis unc t from the annn :1ls
the.: a nces to1s n t'llind us in India we re s pir itual in nature lhcy lixcd thc 11
anc nte nt l on a Ide de alh . Thc,;y th..: hunlan soul tmn...: r lh.lllgl ''"
a n e terna l c nuty <.:<.>-e xi sti ng \.\ith th.:: Supre m..: Be ing. T hey b.::t. cvcd lha t cv...: ry
human sou l goes l\) the round o fbi.-ths , re births and reaps the fruits of act tons.
Whe n a sou l c o mes to be a:<soc iatc d ""ith the gro:;s mate 1 ia l body. it i=- ho und to
perform e..: rt:\ln deeds and in e011fOnllity with laws divi ne , rc<l(l:. thc ft lilts the reof.
T ht: bc lic.; f ts that. 1f good dc<."'<.b a n; pe rt(mncd . happiness c :;uhs and 1f c '\ il
deeds a rc pe r formed . mise r y falls f<.l the l(lt of the:: d oer. The.: human :-out "-' c e
dies: it n..:v...:1 rc1n mn without do ing action:: mlll 11<.:\ 1..:1' daun <.:>-. cnlplt uns
from re a ping fru its of ils deed s . It reaps a s it Any mall ull111Httd y loo k:-
for ha p p ine s s whic h is ttle fruit or Kurmu a nd so h<.: s hould ncccssat dy "-1ww
w hat is goo d nnd what .is b ad. Every law ' giver <md cn. 1y thinker o f lndta 111
a n c ie nt pe ri o d felt , the s upre me necessity of fr.1ming. q;rtain mles or <. (mduet
a nd of present ing the ultiti, a te e nd to whic h all the life o f a human being. 1::.
di r c c t<xl in this l<: :;so n on fndi a n ethi cs we will be deal ing. wi th the Himlu ctht<.:s.
s ome noti<.lllS t.l f Bt1ddhis m a nd Ja inis m .
Any huma n b e in g in the societ y_ is called to li ve <ind lead a llloral lifc. To I td u
m o ral he needs certa in guid el ines a nd pr inc iples or morulit y to d tl ,. ' U\ 11\
dee d s a n<.l to abs ta in fro m cenain deed s. What is the prima1-y of mQa
in lnd ia '? T he ;m::;w c.: r could be the a utho rit v ( lf the Th t ol
the V0d a s . aftct the the a lnho r itv the Sm,.,is :tcc-:ptcd ,(t \ t s
( SI'Iili' ) ond the S m rtrs o f Manu) "" I
rc.;uardc <.l <I S lhe so u ret! or m (\ra lit v. Of (WU (Vella:. and Snull \ ) th .
rcgnd c d a!' In lhc of a conllict bet the hHl, th
the Vedas prevail$. Ocsidc..c;. Sn1ti,,. Smrtis an<favactic.:.c;. p:opl
a nd a l::;o pl ay a role in the c.l fmorality umct cons
. . . ' tltr.t <..:Vl' ll rh t.: ari:- ing- Ol tt Of'
.. r , 1 Iu s .. r
is the SOlii 'CC ;t lld o(mOiol . . II "llldC.: l(llllOI ,d lt }. 'lght W ift
. .. rvc as rl :-Olll \:c.: t c:- 1
1 1
,1ht \Viii ordc tc nttlll<ltl <n
" ) ::.t:

111 the t Ht ught:s ll('

:::. . _ (}
1 n 1c.:ccnt 1111\C!-. c.:.
... Ill h.; u.Jcntdtc d UCl; t '" .. r<l . 1
\ ' <.: rV 1111potl:1nt .
1 t: hs hccn tl t:l u c.:l s
C<ndlu .. and 1\wohutdt .. c ' .
.. , tlt v u
d tllllll nralll y.
. .
. ,., UC"'I011 <; l) II H ol t ., ' ..
"IVIn" th(.' final vc.:rdt<.: l n;g<u< 111c:- q
=- .... "" . .
1 1
, , ;11 HI. o,;cl: 1 :d r ca'-c 111 i
I - JII}' I' h<lll rlll (ltlll - -
T1tc Vt.: I\"C.: <Hll'c.:pl ol


- ; ,. ,.
fH <.:-.t tolh Jll 1., ,.
1 h 1,.; lt.:Cil ' ' <:-
Both 111 BuddiiiSill :wd Jauusm ' tl c"'
, ..
One is <.1d 1 J
1 , - t "> lace a moll" I
Jams m nght (;lith IS.1VCI1 1_' <::_ 11 .:. I , ' d ' V.:(ll lfl of' the pn;ccpl$ bcf(\1(.'
to l11 s rca!WII "' <Jsc.:crt:lllllltg the 'all _n y
C" S" '' is ne ithe r d is allowe-
3 ddl Ll1 c usc of nc rson a r .. " u
followmo lhc nt In l u H !i tn 100 , " I f3 ld h
"' 1 f, flowe d but C\'clt t te ll U<. <\
nor d espised Th.: four noble lruths to >C o
. . . " lllUCil,.; kc;d ftlrlt::lllOVIn!!uOll'lL<;
:WyS whe t C.:VCI thCI t: is d iSHg_rc;c;mc n(. QUC:S(I()n. <.:< . . . .. . . r
. . l t(CI'Ili:J <.:C l.'' fl CI..' I(dl\ Ill tft<.: t<.k<J:-. 0{ I n nodc111 I ltndu thoucht . ts gtvcn >C .
- - I . . . \Ot tlt t: '-(IUI'CC 11101:11 httl and ( rilndl u l or l1..:111 rt::t:-llll 1:-o I .
1 - of lll o n litv l kncc. llt .: p nnt:Hv vet they hdrc;vc nth.: role ul n :a:'<.ln ntttc; rnatt c 1:-o . . . .
;.ole i:-; g"cn 10 Vedas and S mrtis a s the :-o\. 1u1'eC {l l nHtral ll y tn lnd a;,_n
1 "S p h ved tlt c tr cr;tdirwn. but b esides the m . a ll the ahovc mc.: nuoncc S\lUrcc. ' ' - _ . .
mles in deciding rhc quc:s rion of m ondity a nd i n l nd ia 11 rradtltOn.
- :, .
ThL l ndt:tn 11:1 m l(lr tll<lr<al IIV <tnd eth ics is ttfwrmu /)flttrlllu t:C'Iltl'S 1'1'\)11 i I
l"<.lClt 'dhr. \\lllt:h llt lans tol;<, ld thu, the lunc.: tt i..H I tt',/ltun ua t:-.tcl
hold the furman lol!cLhc:r few its Sl<thi lil\ ;utd gnn\ tit ({ l.:OIH.luc.:t s
cssentHtl f the human-so ciet y is to s ul'vive _, "fnc,; dharma in Hinduis m i;:; l.:O-
ex tc n s i vt: wrth moiality. Olu{rnta in lhe- Vcdas ,c fc rs to the truth
power a nd it i::; vcrv much undersrood as the ofVcdic sacifi ecs a nd
other in rite and Dharmasastrus. So Dharma is unde rs tood in Ve das
;ts duty p;tt'-C.X<..:ell c n ce Dharma is ctlso genera ll y undc scood s or
hunwns a ecotdllll! to 0\\' 11 cast e and !'-l<t!!t: tf I IIi.: C 1{" -"'"ru,,u /)ftunll (f)
And thu ... f;tndu thinkers sa\ ifone his dut,: h e \\I ll ac.:hi t:vc t:tl h cr
. - ..
heaven or a bt.:llcr brrth in the next lite or even prosperit y h ere and now. T h us the
Hindu <:onccpl of'dlwnn(, been by its very c lose assoc iation o,;vllh
rirualistic and casrc- oricnred duties. A nd the ptircly moral sens e o f duty is .
overshadowed. Uutyet the Hindu advocate and the pracr i cc ,.
of mornl virtues a rHJ moral nonns. wl)ich make cl man as man. These m o ral
vrrrucs cailcJ SmlltaratJ(f /)hanna ot uwies. I tht: tc: nn dhon11a
in Hinduism lut s two connotat io ns I) pertonnancc or r iLu<tl S<H.: rifi <.;cs ;..tnd dtttr'
<u.:cCJrding lo one's own casLe and the s.;cund is the practice uf' tnoral v irtues ;mel-
lhXIIl$t So when we s peak of dharma as morality, 11 indudcs " " the dut ic-;
ougltf L( pert(), m and all the virtues he oughL to prac ti ce t(l :main 11/(1/, w1 or
Whcu we speak (Jf lndan ethics. its early beginnings have to be traced f
Cllll rite
Vedas. the l{rJ' Veda. One of the central ct hic:ll c oncept s of rl u: J{ ig
I S ' Ia (.; Ouc..:cpricm of uui f yi n g onlc r or tHo.-;11 1 a w. pe
, :tdtt
, :t 11 1 h 1 "I''
J h t..fml" pt 1111 h<J "i\: CII (() 1\\'() Olhct illlpCIII;.JO( I.:OIIc-c pt s. lftc- l'CIIlf''ld 0{"
Oluo 11111 and the 4..0IIt.;Cpl uf Konn11. The con c.:cpl /)/1(
(1 h ;h d il ( n
UI\'C'!,!.I.: IH ncatl tngs. but generally it ls ki\Own as duly. The CtlnCq)t Kwrnu
s ig111 lies rhat the c 1'> a uni I o n n moral la\.v, governing the ac u o ns o f Ill an und the
1 C\V3t and the punis hrncnts c.tppropriatc lo their <tction!'. R /(I

the fclundat<.m
o l 1 wo concepts The tno1c i tnport.ant and clcm..: nt 1n the Vc ...lic
<:th 1.:s 1.' that o l lnve and ''-'Orshtp oll"ctcd lO t!lc i
c umpi<.: L...:

cdu c\1 law" t c lh:ctc d in the right ol s:1cr
cc-.. and
''-h\> s...: rificcs.<tt HI t he; ceremon ial

<.1 dw ..'-n
, thc
,.., u,ptlii C-.. would .1c ht cvc the l:;Oa l tlf ctcn1al 111 h cav...:n Sc the ..:tlu c-..
ul the I ltndus ts pnmarily a god-orientcu ethi C!>.
The h igh est goal o r ltl c for the Upanishads is no longer happiness as in thc Rtg
Ve d a, hut l1herat 1011 from bond<tgc lO the t ransitory existence Lhc rc-auammcm
or the; i nnct CS!>cncc o f lite soul. The Upanishauic ethics is pritn;llil y atman-
ccntric and mtc ll cctuali s ti c. The Upanishads declare that the Vedi c :-u..:ificc:; arc
t O ! a ll y 111 ck,antlul the IC.:'-l lt t.:aliOn o f nrnks o . And is <.:uns lall\l y c"hliiiCll
tn hts tndi vHJuallibcrallon.and 110 1 wony about mora\l)b\tg,i\tton.
Thi s k ind o r philosophical . indi v idualis m definitely tindc rmincs the or
s ocial mo.ra l ity. P()t' the Upanis hads. lht.: and Lhc of the
sci f with Brahm:lll is very impo rtant. In thi s nH; taphy:sic.: al realm only we can
or Upani s h <dic c.:thi t.:s . T h e oldest Upanis hads S<1y the sag.:_ is"'.
sai nt who e vil uway and ht: is fret: from c.:vit. S(, I! is 10 thc ut
evil. we can :;cc dear noral tcach inc;. in the KathJ l:pa1H:-.hall
111 1.2.24 he who is impure i:- born again <md al:;ain that ht:
rai ls to r each the h ig_hc:-t goal. Good conduct very much llCCC:"."ary ror the
a ttai nme nt good tidcntitic;Hion <.,ft h c.: :;el f with Hrahman)
A'nd ma n wh o is w 1se ,:,. morall y " g<.lOd tnan whose nature : rpruxunatcs to the
I . cJ ' I { K l Ut) 1 '> ...,4 ch Ut) X <l 1 ) So U 1''"":;\wu:- cka n ( 1\.' ll) l.: Ill() t: <.1 -- :
sa::?ing. thm thl: man w h o has uocs llllt si n . t.:C<l:-oc' w do C\ tl llld
th1ough his wi"dom h e annul" the evil of his formct \li e
The ins t itutes ur tvbnu and otht::t J)hcu:muS(IS/r(IS an; 'uurcc
... .
. -
, l. . l nd' '\(;
l)lllh Hindu ntuali sm <md soctal llH1r3 tty. l p::mt:- . '- . I
. b 1 l 1 mdtvtdun tl\' tu
Ii b erati <.'" of tht: individual, but the Alanusm r lt :-u 111.1 '-< . ..' .. :. d
. . .d
t I . t 1 a tanllh and a :-ub-1..
Sr.. ial Slruclun;s Thouc.h llldl\' 1 ua . one 1<.: t.'ng:- . \ ..
.. .. ,1 I s anu so the HuH. Ul>Ot.:t.l
he i s al ways take n c mc by the huntl y Ill . a ...... rdati ve
. I l'v{ lutt<:s arc act:cph!u lll'-""
morality-is relativistic o n severa counts .. an . t : .... I uictlv l'<:lati \t.:
/) ) Tl tuuc.:s ol a
to time and plat.:e ( C.'W l .. ) M
1 1 h ta"C ol La k lrl "HIIII(I at u f.
ln l'ai'IW ( c anl t c c:: ( / ./ . , sd -
1 1' 1 , cont c ntanc nt l "'" 'u ::-
vinuesas untvcrs:t . ll: Y
3 1
c . . l ' t.ll:a"\:tnu,,fthc .-en ...l.--s
r .. ( ' [("\ a) dcanhnc"s ( \(Ill((/ t.:
conrrol (_ll/uiiTJa), non- s tca tn.,. us . . ,. \ c n, me :\tman \ vtcllnu).
. . d 11 ) o t lt.: "' 0 \:
drivet nt <.!.ralw l . \A. ,t:- om ''
- ( , _
l (VI
f " ml!Cr <111.11( "
t r uthfuii\C$S (sathya ) and abste nllon lOSt //< ':' / )lwmwl. heuallled
. ._a\ dlwrnw (. m Wt ,,w . 1
. vi arc ..:nmmon. liiH' cr. . \ . . \hcu "" n \:t '"'
. E .... mlth<.: Punma... ' " ._
mor:.t I it y T hu!' the J)/w, mwwsrros. - ' . tl 1\: r""" 'lQ"'' al
. 1 '"s a common ( "
uoal but they seem \o s hare mo c ot
e thics


3 .6 \1\' i\Y OF R I G HTEOUS NESS I N (; I TA !....__
. .
a\." tll >ll:-. 1s lite
. R 1J,tv tll rcH"' "
0 1
Tht: o l the S u p rctll t: <.: . - . ,-
<: C
ca . , . tu
wdl- kn 11 chc n1c l)l
1 1
c: r .
1 1
chc f/1 0 /onttf"t"" ' "'''
I 0
>( [Judllnoi ntllta. 0 ace .

pc1 fo1111Cd w1th the 1c .1

111 0
, l . tci tlll and . !I
, ' 1' cl IIH l)ll"h l C \ lH 1(111 . I L
en t11 :1kc a <' 1gcnt c- . I ,til

r1 <. Ill ,, 1, 111.

. I' m u <.:SII' C \\1. '
1'10111 au nc hmc nt tks n c

1 . J fi n a ll )' I lOI II
. . . . I .. , f n1ctntli'Y an< l1111l t , I ll
cc11ne,; nlfallwti on lrom l fll <tlliHIIOII o:-.s '
. 1 1 1
r 11 I..111U'- ul b o<.:s 1::- flc.l ""' > c
los" ur IIIIOd he fH.: ri s ltcs. So llhc nlfl()ll (()Ill cl d . . ' ..
.. . . . . dc r llllHI till.: l. u ld an \C.:I !'.t.
only hv the rctli z-at o l ol tht.: ll1 :rht H<H I 01 :.un e n .

' 1 1
1 lih.;nlli<HI IH1111 a ll k rill s n l
th<. 1Cal1z<t 1ion o( t he Brnhman 1'> o nly I 1roug
I t,;
d 1 1 ' lll' l t: hnH.:III t <'l t lt c I ru1t o I 1c
blllld:I"C!' . A c ti<.ms :uc l (l b e pcr l o n 11c ,,.,, Hlll ' _
"" .. ' I' lJ 1 ana Thu" ( Jiti\ C1 ll plw!-17t.'"
i!CIHlllS. IS OIIC O f lhC lli C:tll$ 0 :11C:IIIllll1! I fl 11111(/

t I
, , v- 1 G y ,. t l' ' ltt tllltllH tl l' Sur) r ..: n1c n t . ...! .
)Ot 1 on r..fii'J11tt rOI!H : tn<. tlllllfl uga or l; _,
v y - G " ., 1 , .. , ... , .(tl' tll ( t Yo a si n1r., l v
ut yet "arnut ooa s s upcn or 10 nan a 1 og.. . ... .... " c: -
<t mod e the Orah rnan through d evot ional meditat io n un the

o f
God. :tnd the pntct icc o f one 's own duti es wi rhout any a q ,{lc.hmc nl. One w tll be
\Virh Brohma)ogo. whic h will lead h im not on I/ mo ral s ucc..:ss bnt
:tl:.o u1 chc rnfi n it c s pirtt11<tlj0y :tnd p eace
rht.: l <.: is ;IIHHft c l Wll}' J"'I <Jillt>l t'd by t h e Clt :t l(l (111 : 1111 till.: llltiiii;Jte rc.dr :llln:l '"
lite and l1bc rauon t'rorn the cycle nnd dc;11hs . w l11d1 1" kno"'' " :.1:' /'\' (Irma
H>ga (f>a lh of act ivi t y). T h e Giw h a s describcd t h is \.\'<lY :!S rhc lll Cthod nr
di$inlc rcstcd act ion (;Vi.\llkarnaKarma ). To ill Ia ill ' lrl()k.W o ne h as l(l b e r. ecd rrQm
t he bon tl;t ge . to one's O\\; n acti ons. So r hc Gi ta the gol dt:ll r u le thu l
s hould b e d<mc w ll h t he (lf n <l ll - <t ll <tchmc nt to rht.: ir Roth t he
have a l>undll! of t: t hi ca l anu m o r al and iniliiKtion:-- . The
f" ' t.' ll t:. rl gurdd111C:0: v t' t lu: itlt:als a nd :Jwuglu:--
........ /!""
Dot. I i n t.: o l Karuur ...
I h t. d .. .,,. n I K fll' l l/11 I h ; 11 ,._ h<ti C' c::r a llli111 " 'tl' (',,
. 1 -

1 --
'" '' o\\ n h..:d . a IJ<tn. C:-l :;prun!! ll t.Hil ""' O\\ 11 at:t 1o11,., ,;.,,,. 1 ,
.... 1 .1
- ::" V ' I p,l( \:lHHilll {lt;v Ill
hi S I)I CVI O II S li re. Karma 1$ or f'o lll c ategori es: I) Sou lhitu Karnw .. ,.;hl ch m.:anc;
tl.' c acuon$. 2) p,.u,ubdlw mu. whi ch means the p:nt of
.thi S Ill the btrlh itsel f. T h is is 41 1So t.: alh;d pr..:-
dcs t ll i:IIIOI\ 3) A rtytiiiiCIItfl 1\:(lrmo. 111Ci1 ns present wi llful

or frt.:<:
\VIII 4) A grtnu Kormo. w hi c h n1cans the imn1cdi:11c n;sult!-

h v ou
a<. t inns Kat""' :-. i1npl y lllC<In:-. <:tt: tton . .'\ nu this Kor11u1 IHu:-.t :-..: 11111\ll \!:'> th;-
1:. .l;il llc d the ..:uns..::qu<.: ll t:t. of an really 1\ t.ll" hul
11 1
s a p <
o l a c uun and it c annot d ivided from 11. The con :-t.:
uc 11cc is 1hc part of the
acton. w h1eh belongs to rhc future but yet the pat 1 ' =" <lnnc in the p1cscnt. \1,/ halc,er
<t nwn sows he s hall reap.
Te a ll \ m i g ration of Sou l
'1 he doe h iuc <lf' Karma and <>fsoul ac clusdy bound up together.
A ftc 1 tht: c.l c ath of the body the l ife of the iiH..Iivit.lual I S cont i uu..:d "' :-1nnthcr body
and :;.O on 111 indc liniu.: scric$. lo tht s theory. the s oul though pu" '"'t\
bksscd "' itsd( geL<> entang.leu in th e Sa111.wro t cyck c,f.billh and rcbrth) ll ts
bceaus..: (lfthc J\urma 11 passes rhroug h mnumcrablc
11 r egains its s tate.
S up1c m c Gutl s (PIIrllshnrth as)
The dominant intc re::a of' the Indian t houg h 1 is in the h igh t:sl value ofhu man l ili.:.
T h e re arc rour valu es. whic! give to h u m:lll \ 11'..: _ They arc called
They are as I ) Diu trill(( 2) Artlw Kama 4 q, _
Dhurmu is us ually disli nguishcd inlo s udharc11W dlurrmu , urnu.,hnllrlfl
dharma. sadlwr(mo dlwrnw rcfen; lO the du ties o f the ulli,ct-s=t l :;c<.pc and ,ulidll)"
There: are- ten e<1rd in a l virtu es k n<wn a::; .wu/lwrc1na d lrantl cl H.> M<.IIIU.
c nduran<.:e. p a tience: integri ty. plirity, and uf scn:;.cs. wist.lmn.
learn in1;, a nd truth, a bscnc:x o f anger o r non-vio lence. ThO:: l'Ctru asrcmw d ha rma
to the dutic's of persons acc ording to the caste;s and the stages of life. Th us
d harm d is to be a means value fo r a uaining pcr!'Nl ality intcg.nttion
in t he spiritual level ur libe ration.
The le n n arl htt gen e t-idl y indic ates t he a ttainment l l f idl <:S a nd '' otldly
prusp c rit y. pro fit <md v.: ealth. is a term," hich
incl udes ' '" d esires: d esi res from the cnn: ings ,,r tlu: 1\csh an,\ t h e
y earnings of the s pirit. Jn Hindu tho ught the re is always a clca ?" th..:.
e njoy ment of scculcu pleas ure$ along ' ":ith the cmphas. is on the. ol
s pi ritual vnlucs. The unique ness o f the concept o f kamCI and e nJoyment 1"
Hindu ethi cs is that all of the m wc l'e to b e to th.: S(\iaitmal ol hunMn
existence <md tht! l ndinn eth ic::; on rc uulatc'l cn.iuymcnt In C'l: cl"\
scho ol uf philoslphy in India the tir$l ;,u c ""' 'h'
in:; Lrutnc nl a l v ah.1cs. w hich lliH:\: lly nr indirct' ll) 1uunm h.: the ""' CINUf
tile highest values of hun\a.n lltc namdy "",Uu Dlto
kno wn ns by ,)thcr names s ud\ as: mukti. (lpm 'tlyh. k"i-nl' u ;md "'' ' ""'" Tb
. l 1 b 1 t th ,
' a1,.. ... n, .. u a th.: ot
I l CnlliOI\ I S 11\tlll\CilC y 0\llll Uf' Wll l \: " "" ..- ""' '
lransmi gnllion.

1 1
nr<w" 10 Ius best to hts
By thts t erm \VC mC<l ll c:tc l .. C' II d s II .
1 ,- lJ "vidu31 "t (l\.Vth IS t:a c vttt lrtt "'t'
0\\ n dharmn. t hat is to the pn ne t P co
11 1
t ..
1 1
1 1 I '
;u1u ,1111 1 l tttt , tt
S 1adlunmo 111 t c l :lt ton to an tn< t Vtl ll l s Ct . . .
. t
t ll'- u l t hn; c f''"'o.\ . I 11. -. ,,. ,
til(.: 'Wtrna a nd asramo. I I S llHH C ttl \.:It f " ' '
' d 1 k ) 1 hc"t: thr..:c qua tlt cs 111\tn
(puntv). ruiu.\ (vtrtllly) . an 1an105 (t .11 . . . 11
in cnc""h Individual in varying prOplllli On !' a nti thuS tim, varytng o J"
l . f - ' "11' ll c o f nctionS:\Ild O(IOlll
IS :IS tl\ c l:lStS o ..,, Ct c n YP :>
- 1 . . . 1 t l l C' C tl1rcc c h ssrfi c:tt to ns.,,, 1
Th.: concept ofSvadlturma s very tnuc 1 (l,tsct on _., _' . l
it is wdl promotctl by l mJian ethical code that il"the lunCtt <.ln
thcre should certainly b e a hicran.: hi..::d anangcmcnt nl l unt: tton!' <tntl dutt cs 111 t .
f'a rn tul It tt nu 11
In llindu Clhics. we lind I"Cif"I)/ISI"(}f1111 dharma as a socia l stratifica tion. base d Oil
above s:ud gunas. pro fession and bitth. All hough thcorcticnll y it is jus tifi e d to
he1vc s u c h a in 1h c n amcofthcir :111d quality
they in 1cnns <' I thei <ttticudc. cash:! in ethics ; 111
ssuc It has been v.;ry muc h pnu.: ti ccd and all e thical print..:i p lcs and t..:odcs ,llt:
based on t l. By way ofproli.:ssion c asH: is in some \vays , b oth
in thco,-y and in pract ice. Th is looks somehow line a nd rationally justif' tld Y<'l
social mobility i n lhc lndder of catcgt)rics of l?copl.:: is n o r vc-y much, pr<t Lir.. ... !
and ir is not ensured. Even if n person develops .<wllva g una nnd bcconcs a
reacher of seipn1rcs. he I s he can not bceom<! ;1 Bmhmin for the ve ry rea that
he hon1 a Brcthmin . .-\!thoug h II indu clh ics
I nobilit y in ,o;uc.h remains only utopia. Ont: s bi nh.joti d c: t..:t,11 i n cs
CVCt)thing :n caste systems. A Suura is dc.:nicd or the ight c.)r um..lcrtaking
put iticatory itc i n the fo rm of. i nvcsritut"C ofsacr...:d thread (Upan:tyana), which
is supposed to give a man his second binh. He is not all owed to perform Vedic
sacrifi ces or tead or listen ro the Vedas. Scn:rcs'r punishments were pres c ribed
anu cat-racd our. if a Sudrn even daaed ro tecite or lwd a c hance co h ear the Vedas.
r\ R a-ahmin unconditionally d eserved the g. n:!atest honour <tml a ll _ k inJs of gi fb.
He could nut bc_givcn cany corporeal p uni s hment. He was cxcm"p t from th<..:
taxes. n,c severest punis luncnL<; were p aescribed fo r the o ffe nder or a Brahmin.
Hence. Hindu rcga;ding ' aruadharnw is sti ll a comcsted and contmvcrsial
moral a nd socia l code ..
SUt_!;es of Life (Ashramrt Dharm a)
According to Hindu thought the life \.vas divided into four s tages or Ashromas:
that of the Broltmacari(Studenthood). the stud ent who is bound to t..: dibacv. The
second slage is Grilwsthah (the householder), and the third is Vanaprasll;a (!he
forest dweller) and the last is the Sa11nyasin (the A man should
rhrough 1 hcsc stages regularly and no mnn s hould enter nny .sta ere pre matuJ;:, y. A
man a tical having s rudicd the Vcd:\s or rwo Vedas or even one Veda in duo order.
wtthout t>caking celibacy mus t e nte inw dlc hot;scholdcr order. whe n the
huusehcJdct wrinkles in his skin <md whitc ne=-.s in his hai
and sees his
gretnd son. only rhcn he mus t ctitc to the fo;csl. A-flc
h:.Jving.,passct.t rhfrd
ltfc in rhc forests and having abandoned auachmcnts. the m<Jn wa
?san which is the fourth port i_on of lile. This .succession is regarded a:::
lanr for Chc due dcvelot>mcnt o I llv ,,.,.l
"' lld Ll d ,[
.... . .. 1cpropcror cnn" l
:>OC tCly . ::>
llindu Rite.; - Som.\l.aros
<->. t.: t olin::. 1(.\om the c .:: tllral them.: of the B _._ .
I h r; . r.mlll:lntcat tel" , '
c.: '-- tc: ' t H.e:; not only ph: ;es c god s htu .
. fi.
!;JQn and phtiOM"'Iph y .
. . . I '' ::;o t:<;cJ thc.:nl I I I

1\ ' :-. co <lt<Hh.: d I It<.' ""I"" t;ltll Vc.:l .....
. 1roug l thc nl the:""'"
' I \; !< t I oc.:c.:s ar . th . !:> . . ..
( " chy.t ntu,t( , Bc.: ,.. oclcs all th.:::-.\: ri t t I . I c.; tol\1\a .tnd thc:
. '- , t :-< l lcrc: arc: tll"tt -
known a s S atns ka , -
1 1
Y p c.: :-:una l lll l.ono.!v
. ' t .t:-. lCsc Samsk . .
pur tf rcauon and they arc lhc eercmo . r arc religious () f
II . . tiles Or sancttfyinu tl b d
tnt c e e l ol the llldtvldual. so that the person ma be o lC o y. mt nd and
o f I h e communtt y for lhe pet fo t of th y come a full-pledge d member
. ' c; esc s acra rnents .. '
1 mc.: nlal <lilt tude i s the itnpnt!O.IIll c r . . .. sam.-u pa"' 01 I he
. . I ) C . 011<. The most tmnon S ....
,11 c.; (II f>/,afl/,o11(flll Ol I.:< IIIC.:entillll [> I' ,111( ' llll ::;l"ll <IS
< ,. um.t ul uuu, '. ' I I)" .
. HIItOrllho,,tJ_I'ttlltll/1 /,I ,, . . . ga" a co sprtng l.
:. .. u u - r.urmam (1"3tnh Cc.:r. ) ':'1/
llf"U IIOn1 Or C.:CI"Cil101lV 1\'t ffo . - <.:lllOcly Cl/11(1-
:::o '
unwnum: takm(; the.: child out of 1 ' 1
tl_l<ll _ma?' sec the sun. AllllltfJ/"(1.\IIUm: the first fccdin" of the lOu se
food (ttcc) in the si x th month, Clllldakaranam: the .. f . . llh solid
d' f>
o l Onsurc ccr ctnony
'E.' nmn: rcrcmg of earl o bes. Vidhvaramham (be fk
U . . . o 110\\"lc.:dl'e)
pan(l_l'.onam ( l tHtt<Jtt<m hy a l cachcr) . S ftma varthmvtn. v;,7tthn 1\1 ''
.. ,, 1.
/ rntv<\lt or I
. .. .
The Budd_ha :thought ten meritorious deeds for us to pe rform in ordc1 lo ga_m a
happy and peaceful life as wt!ll as to dt!velop knowledge and understand"'l' I he
ten meritorious deeds arc: I . Charity 2.Mo-ality ).Mental Culture 4.
- 1 1 1 - 6 St 11c .,,., with 7. '"
<W rcsp ed Scnnt:e an H! pmg. ot . 1anng a ......
1 tl Dhumma 9 L1stcnm ''-'
in the mcnts of othe rs S.Prcacluns and tcac ung h.: -
. . . .. 1 d t bcnelits all '' ''"
Dlwmma I 0. Stnughtcnmg one s vtews. I\, ora coo
, \ac\! to \lthc:rs and
""hotn one comes into contact. Mental cu nare nncs I \: . .
. harm''"Y m S\lClcty SCI"- J(\"
to prac tice Dlwmma. Reverence gwcs n se t\l
50 ,
. .
o thers shows t h<H nne is
( I S
l ari ng lll CII b ""I ' l
11Hprcwcs the ltvcs o ot 1ccs.
. cOQI <Il!C!> oth c1
. -. R . . ing i n others 111Ct llS en - .
<tbout other.> wcllare. CJOIC !)/
111 11
cHWill f<Kto1
. r . "ng t o thc 1(111/n
t o perfonn mo1c me11l$. Tcadung. I Stem . S .
ten in one':- \ ' l l" \VS
' h <f til' l1 <: I CIICI ( l,ll g
l ot happtn<::-:s tor hoth the tcac Cl .111 v
' -tile I> '"lll lY l) ( 1)/zamma.
enables a person 10 !'how co 0 1 ld"S t.:
. . I I I ld Jhi s t arc adv ised to b ( ' Li
T hc t can: ten d emc1 11 0 1 ious deed s f n1111 w liC 1 I .
1 . . I J I ion and they w tl l b t111g
<I '' H). Thc:-c deed:- u1c root ed 111 g n.:<;d. ha trct. a nu t <.; w; . . .
. . d' d 'd tl rc'scts I .Actt o nsol th\..
t o o rhc 1..; 1 hcsc deeds arc 1v 1 (.; 11110 1 c- . . .
Oody 2."" Verba l Act ions J. Actions o f the Mind. Bod il y act ions arc o f
. b d 1 1 1
rcourse 2 Four verbal acti OI I S
I VIIl Clll gS, SH::t flll f?. . :'Ill llll C\V>lU SCX\1:1 I ll C
:\l'c. Lyi ng. S lan<k. l l:tr.>h S peech. and M eaning l ess Tal k. 3. ' '.
actions of t he m ind a ":: Covcwu::; ness 01 bei ng dcsirou:> c::;pccmll y u l th mgs
belo ng mg to others. ill -wll, wrong v iews.
13 urldhi$c mortlltt ) j udges nn ncti o n good or bad basing o n the inte ntion or
n\()(1 \';HtOn f.nm w h ich ir o iginntcs. l f :t p erson perform:> an ac tion out o r g . ccd ,
h .llll.'d . ddus io n, h i:-. ne t in n i s c o ns idc:: rc d t<> be bad. On oJhC:: r h;tnd , i f he
. ,
pC1 filn n ,-; <I ll :H: t ion \)Ut o f fn'\c. d l<! l it y :l ll U wisJom. ac tion is good . f . OVC.
dw IIY <ind \ \ 1sdom ;u <: k nown as the "t ht.: three ( i oolr Ro(.Hs. " I kn.: Lh....: \Vlll d
'toot re fe rs lO thl.' 1111 enuo n 1i 01n w h ich thnt act ion ori g inC\ tcs.
In Buddhism a pet-son's fi r-st dury is ro cl eanse h im o fthc 'menwl d cfilcmcnl:.llf
;;rr:.::u. ha cn!d <md 1gnornncc. Th.:: ea!'on fi.)r d o ing t h is t.: k an$ing is not hct.:aus e
uf tl:;1r o r Jr..:sin: to p lease Oivi nc beings. I f this is so. th<Jt v ..'OlJid mcan th;Jt
the p..: t son 1s s ttiii.H: kin!! in w isdom. He is unl v act in !! o u t o f l ear l ikc the l 111k
<:lti lu whll 1s ;l (:ud puni shed to r b.: 1ng / \ 84ddhi!' t :- huul cl act
<HII ofundcrswnd1ng and w isd o m . He p c rf(um:-: gOt)d n et ions because h e t c;dc 7cs
th<ll by so d o cng dc \c lo ps h is mo ral s treng th. whic h provides fo unda ti On for
.spcntu:.l _gr owth, leading lO l ibe ration.
J'i\t p r ecepts
Tell ing te n mcritor iuu:o:; a nd te n evil acti o ns. the Buddhis m in v itcs thl: lav
Buddh ists to ;td o pl fi ve precepts \ 'Oi utHaril y co fo ll o w in order 10 l ive tO!!Cihc1 t;l
CJvilt zcd with mutual trus t respect. Fo lfo , v,ing rhesc fi vc
hdp:. rhc lay Buddhi sr ro make a spirirual journcy rowards li beratio n . These fi ve
r'urcl y vol un r<try ones . A g ood Buddh is t s hould re mind h imsc l r to
loii<Jw t he fi ve precepts dai l y t hey are <t S foll ows, l takt! the tntining ruk t o
rcfr'OJ n f rom Ki ll ing li ving crea tures, Taking is not g ive n: Sexu a l
m,s.;,mducl: and Taking intoxic:Jting drugs and liquor. T h e p t CcC.:fll"
the b:.src practtcc m Buddhis m. They arc also an indil\ pcnsabk ba-. is for
pco,,fe w!sh _w cultivate their miJlds. Wtthout some basic moral c ode. the
JlOWCI o t mcdHarson can ofrcn be appl tcd for " Orn e 1 h
1 fi\ c rd iains is c alkc.l a s Panca-.:ilu
wrong an< sc mn tr vc .
Ki11dness and

n.\: l o nl Huc.ldlt:a J1f Upo:.c!. Universa l l <JVC ()[' " Mel! ,. n I .
Ut\ , , on If'; eulfiV"'f"" -'I . I J {/ y l liS, 1.0 1 d Hudcl h:t
.. " a >ounu cc;; teart rowatd 11 1
luutry Buddha
f .
>CII tg!'.. ahn111
te o I rue ch;u,ry -

e"X IIOf". :IJJVftHnu in fCCU(I I r.
fh ' ti . IS () Wt thout
" o 14 r c g 1 t. A charu lJJ . . .
.och peo
,Je feel ,.
0 1110
t a t:: should no t m ake
t or use c l.:truy ac , .
.. a way o f c.:onuol
. ..
' II
cwe1 the m I h.: not eve n expec t othell> to he "r<Hcful Tl
. -=- lC <'f c h:H icv
leaves bC\lh the g 1vcr nnd t he rcc1p1e1H l n ! c . A n:al charit . ' -
- y lll Ust PI OC<.:Cl\ fiOIH l h
whole p-:1 a<. <Ill act o t hoc.Jy. h ca1"l and mi nd It 1 ld "
. . s ' OU 1101 he 1n ..:t ,r
::;cn c to:-tl y hut 11 !>hould b e a "Dan<" '\.Vh cn a n
- . .. . , ' '
, . ._r (.l0\1:-> f><tl1<1 he; "IV.;'-'
a s a 111..:a11s nl <.: llllt vaung a VIrtue. h 1cdt . . . . . . ""
:c; c l li shncss. ones Ius
I ,nvc I ()I A 11i111 a l -;
Th.:: arc to ext end love f<11 11 1 ... .
1 cl IVI ll" n.: I I1"S 'Wi lhnll t
n :sttl t: llng ()nly Ill \ Iuman bcin"S. cvcrv livi n" b. 1 . "' ""
<:- J c:- Clllg_ )(lS a ll l:;.hl t O \:lUSt SO
ll 1s I1Ul11 g.h1 lo1 us lO take awav t he Ide llfany livin .. h cin" II .
. _ . . .. :-. o :-. Ull ("r t.."\t U' h \
<.kp11Vc 1hc 1r l tVIIl !! nghtl' . If we bel ieve t h at ani ma ls. w.,
c c
- cl C ''Y $\)IHeOI\C
l ot me n. 11 would ''-'llow that men were also crcntd t'or 1
. '- u 111n1;1 S ::-.111CC $l'\ll)C
an11na ll> do human fl esh . Budd his m says the c.Jestn 11.:tion of C\ny c rcatmc
rcptcSCill S a <ll :>turbance of the uni versal or de. Man's ct-uclt y tow;
us animals is
anothc 1 cxptcssron of his uncontroll ed g1ced . Our own exi stence on this e<Hth
may not be i r we do n o t t ak<; ste m measures for the s urvi val or '-' thcr
creatures .
Like BudJh is m. J ainism C\ l so reject!' Vedi c cere mo nial ism an d ::;acn ficiali s 1 . ntl
al so tl a h imsa to b e the m ost important eth ical v 1nu.:: and com.cq, ttly
denou nces the Vedi c sacri fices. In the observance o r nhunsa. J a i msm 1 athc1
surpasses ever\ Bud dhis m. In the observance of a::;cctic r it uals also. Ja.illiSill g\H.:-.
t'urthcr th a n Buddhis m espcci;tl l y iu the ca se of mt,nk::. Th..: JICIIH:WIIulwt rlll.\
and tnrat11 rts form the e thics of Jainc.t tradition. Ri ght ko(.lwled ge. g ht iaith otml
r ight c onduct a re known as Trirotn(l.<o - or t he th;ec gems or .l au\1s1 n Rg ht
knowled ge is the d e tai led w g ni ti On or the rcalnatu n:: of eg_o and non-Cg(. ." lm;h
iS f ree fro m doubt , errOr uncertainly e tC. lt can b e Obtamcd Onl y .b y ing_
care fu ll y rhc teachings of the omnisc ie nt 7irthankaru" or te ach ers
a l read y o b ta ined liberation and therefore a re {i.t t O lead othe rs out o f bon ::g.: t hat p relimi nary faith should be supporte d b y right k nowledge tlll
having ri gh t fai th b ased on general acquai ntance ( samyog- darsww) m
of right k.nowlcqge. Right faith docs n o t imply tha t one must bl rndly folluw the
nrthankaras. But one must have the right auirude o f respect towards truth \ J1"1 hc 1
by st udyi t1g. the teachings of the Tircha ukara.<; one can strengthen hi$ het.d llut
t W(.) arc useless unkss they arc followed hy rig.ot uus
Righ t (;Onduct is rhc thi rd con(.hlu'n nfhht' li Hl '
It is thi:; th at e n ables o ne to sto p the influx o f new k <rnm:-. and abo lo
o ld o nes. It consists in the control o f passions. sensc:s. thought . '-'''
S l
cond uct is the re fore described <lS refraining from w h <ll is harmful "'
wha t is g.ood. Rig.hf conduct cuab ks mcullO libc1 <llC h imsel f f1om h'-md
Jama prescription for l-ight conduct . One tnUSl foll ow the live!:
the f(, r the pe rfecti on nf ri \:Undu..:L They all'
.\'athvo111 . . f.,t <' I'CIItt . /Jraluwwn tn am w ul :ft >arigrul ut. ul ,u 0(."
all injunci lo lilc - either trnsa or stlunm "CI _,Sa i \'Clllt ' "' ab"'"'
falschoNI. h IS speaking what is \& uc, good and (llcO&l'an l 4 "'(''
1 rt , to abstmcncc ""'''
absuncnec I rom stcnhng. /lrt 11nucuy u"' llC nu
and casmt I pleasures. One mus t refrain himselffronl km""' ot any lonu ah
-- ---
l JNJT 4
\ VESTERN prJJL ----
1. 0
-1 I
1 2
-I 1

I (,
I 7
I <)
-1 10
1 II
. J 12
Olnn r, v..: :-o
I pet etc 11-..
!\t c-..h)l k
-- - -- -
I htlctl.h ,'\quina'
\\'cllt;un nl 0...:1-. lt , un
I htllll:c:- llt"> hhl.':-.
l kntlt:Hil
lciiiii.Oillll' l K.1111
John Sru.1n Mcl l
I Ill cl..: De tc k hc rm
I ..:1 I I, Sucn l :p

I llltlttc H,: ti.L' II(
._0 _ 0 B.l ECTI V _.....:.-------------
, td ptHilh Ott!.
Futoulotiol/s of Fthu .;. ' '
.. . . l I IVI' CI (\) c tlll l.' '- II\,,
'" .;r '''" , . .._... , _ ..... 1!.!0. titer ..: ar..:. )IUat v 1::- '
- 1 . 1 1t 1l Wl' " t l and t ckolu:.! t c:!l L' tha.'
;-.., klll)\\'11 :1'- the <fl ..; tfii CIIOil )L'I\\.l:\.11 l <.lll l. l c "
., h.: (j,._.._k \\llld .Ill end. in th._ lll' a ;.!tlal Ill bl.' , ...., ,,in.
I h cth''-' ;dl t ho ..... c k ind-.. 111' L' lhlt..' :- '' lliL' h ............

, 11 "h..:thL'I .til :ll.'l lllll li.tllill s till.' l'' ... -, :dlllll:ll ..: nd ol
htllll<llt (de. 10 !..!'-'th:;.tl .Jntf of 1\llll al a..: tn 111 The word '<.kuntolog_11.:al'
,, "'c:o11 11.:tf tn.-till. J..:-..:my Hl'lllham ( X32 ) . li on1 til..: ( rnk
'"ord. dttm. l;t..:ralh-. rhm 1' bindng. cthi t'S views the morally
lit t .... ot' cHlc..s duty Oc:outoll>gy would he the st.: ic.. nc<.: or' nH>ral
\\'l.' shall th:u twq differ in c mph;hts 1ll.u1
thc.:y arc.:: rHII mutuall y \\':tt ca- ti ghl cornpatlm..: nb
- ------------------------------------------------------
I ... , (1. s larl with l t'klii<>!,! IL'ilf :t pproad l [vet )o;lllCC 1\r jqork. pr:tct ical l y
\\c;M\.'IIIIr,,dllllltl Ol

ha:- hh C.:Olll l.' l lliOll l hatlht: ulil111.111!
hwuan nd r. .. Nc\\\ 1111 -.. could LJn<kr,l ctnd l.' tlhc r 1':\t ltf...J\ ,
111 1\\ llh .1 s ir'-'"' on rlldl\ tdu<J I Ill' J)ll \ ;Ill' h . tpp1nc..-..-.. Tl11:-. 11 1 111111 l :11\
uukr ,.,.,,,,., '"'' l1111hn \\;ry-.. (hullltH ll<lll ll\\,11111 k !'-'.;
'''"' th\: c m u u ... ll>')lllph...:-...) 11 1 whtelt c;a ... we h;l\ 1..: cite , du<l h ..:dolll '>lt C..: h
., c.w h'- a-. and 1h1:-. ,.., tile t
i( Ia
llfht: .. eh ui.UI\ c: from
ochn:. ol
t.UIIliHwut fhu .. th" ult'""..:rltiv. ntiVCIIlll' 1 ..
nh J
I 1 II
'. : \: I II l'l a I (lll1 a &.;
. ..
, ........... , ..

l:.lluc:al E!.' llt:-cn
G lldf/IIIIOIIIl/ ( 1\ I :). tutk)
P.:rl>onal \Bcnlh;u\l)
Sucial Ulilitrianc).cn \Mtll)
I a ppt a rmhc1 !;;f,lUf' t' II'Cllf'h: ,, 1\l\).C
!.11\c lctk 11\ l' lllllllllll\ 1:-. that Ill\.')' lnok \I()CICI ll\\lclll :u,; tCC\Il'o fiiJIH lhc f'OIIlC o( \IC\\
of " d\lly" or ' ohlttatwn" In other word:.. II c). 1hc "nchl". rathct than
the "goocl " wluch i:- tht:ir c:oncem The key

why the mn1 y " n ght" :-houlc.llx.: M>. in other Wt>r<b. '-'-'IUt " tlut y'' ;
So.cnc or romincnt phclo:-.ophcr!o or dcontolog,y arc Ockham. D\
\...hi.;m. K.tnl
_ 4._2_ FPICUHUS (CIRC A I V BCE) ucus l'llUg_ht tel :11\ fcdmg.:-.. l1kc fc.n and '"''-CCIV"'"''
1hc contempo1ary and ponHllt: t:m(ltmns oi ,, .... 11 h:umt'"' ,, 1J
pkHSlii C Nell he:: summoned ht s followc::s 10 me-:1 1n ' hc<tc..l\1\u\
d en ( Epicuc c::am:-.m i!'o. thus. sometimes the Phtlo).nphy ur th.; ( II tl-.:n l
and sc..:k alter pleasure Tl11). '"'"" mH the baM:
that the ! .nglhh ''-lllll ' l: pl\:Uh:;m' lit)\\' implies. butlh..: llppcc ... .lliou '''tit,
11l'hJcr i lllc.l 1 dinCI\lCIII'- c..lf lt It:, :-.liCh 3$ fncnd!'.htp :Ill . 1\llhiC. 31\d I h..: \t\.:c
- I
M,lr.;cn cr. he ;t, th..: qul.':-1. not im the lkt:llltg.. 11 1h111::,. hut th;u
pk<l:>lll c; \\ hlt.' h Clii:;.IH b:-t fc..ll l di:-tcmc . Ill Cllhcr \\'Old).. :lb:-..l'lli:C ui I'"" .Ill c..\
'-l.'lt:niry ()I mend l Grt:c:k. tlfonictl. ralhcr th;\1\ pleasure- gnlllllcHII('ICI ,,,.,, h1-..
a11n I'll\\' It/at"'' was hl \lf;lll . hy tctmwal ol all l <tl'l.: k.11-.. '"'h
a:- Lhc rca. ell' c..kalh aml the ul thc goc..b Such IC<IfS. hkl.' all\ 1\:l.'" \\\,'1\,'. 111\l
conduCI\'C .. to (1/(II'XI(I Indeed. h ... ),(1\'1. tht: virtue or all\\) he ''''""'n"
di:-c..:nmtc.:IH. the ahiltt\' tc..' ..... II'C.: up a nd estimate the 4uahty .lllc..\ lll
nnd pain c.:n$h;incd in vanNtf- p('l-.:=;ihk ac: ti.on-.. . ::;,, ""to m:untam ,1 hh:
in tl_IC.: PUl>Stblc: state.: ot'cii(JI'.\'1(/ . \Vhal is tciC.:\'illlliOtll::-l::.l.pu.: lll\1'-
that c.:tlt:t ton \,f mm 1::- conllut:i,enc:!l-:- "-' l)llr lnun:tn f1n.1l t'llc..l
d no hlc:.t of then
dnrll ( ,nphia), the :w I c h j ,.. our l:t:-1
IIIIUrii\'C IOSI '!hl (110 111) ;Ill WI::. . , f r" JII IIC..,-; W
II . 111 :rtt:un the II li t:
' , . . r ,, 11t o lr \'o.:
,, If It r::. wrs dom wluch cna > c:. ' " . . . t fu: !' ' "u' " "
l e thu.:!. par . 1 In
l'lld It ' ' l k ;u l h.rl 111' "
(C < f tO II Ill' ' I; Il l .
J t h II ' ' .:on Ill " '- ' I th .
Ill II ,rll ' ' l h ll 1,1\\ Ill llf>l n. ll llll l . HI \\ 1 lll' Ill )',: till ' II \
.. '' '' '"', n n c. - h. . I
" ' '"" "'' ' '"' l o l k nr. u.ef ' " < . I I rl Hiltf h acl ue..,,. ,.., I on '
1 1 tnt humrn :t ".:"'
" I
, .,,, ,., .;,, .. ,,,ou, fv onr,ndn ' ;r It: c- uly and wrlle ng ly. a s '
s cvrl knowrn,

.uh.:C Ill the ' CII \C I t.1 1 lllll) II C' I; '


' .... :t holl c "'""":try <t f chc llliddk
l'htllll:l\.\qurll il:. w:r::. t he !' r ..:.Hcst c. I the t.: k (l lOl!IC: tl
1 lu::. l),,nwtrc:rn 111o11k . ha:. en,:: h" nHH :tl phtl <>:. (l ph y .
c of
1 ( ' 1 tl ult ll ll ' ll t' end 111 c
nu/,,m,,u, ol \ "HIIk ,.., ,._.,.,..;u a:-

r leu h u n
I (
' I . \1 (Hill '> hll\\ o; \ o,;
h11111, 111,. t .r,.,lll,kl.'<l. ol .ell ht' lll!!' l I "
:m c<ut l.
. . wid
. I ' . fi . S\lllCIIl :t l ll rtl \! 1 I - C l
to J\O.:r th:ll only \\. rlh til l' ft tlp of ( rot :- gr:u.:..: a rc.:c.:. . - . I
'\I le lc God
\1 l.' au.un
wr (ull '-"' .::n.:: Or ll ll \.!1 weth tit er ..:nt . 111 I H.; no,; ..
1 1
c b u t t a tlu.: t a V t!i Wll
I !II , Ill CI C',IIhlll 11 01 a kentf j)I Ct l' IC1111 111l:l I I .
f . . . y h ' lll l! anJ dt l'l.'CIIIll!
n l c r c:lll\'l' d..:vd(lprncn l, c n .;l11 11h : d 1111 ec c }'ll:tlllt:-lll t l ,; \ 1: 1. '-' . - . .. .. .
( I
. II ,., ll hl' '"" " ' s m:nult.: "t
r111111:- cull tltl\\cllng ""' d'. tilt ' l't t:lll.e "' c ' ' ::- .
. . ' llll'' ' 1111, 11alt11al 1:"'
111 lite IIJilll ti ii:J \\ , 111 1111 I 11111111e 11 II\\ II Ill t:''l
I 1 11\ the tltr L:It human r..::es o 11
,, ... colnun.en' p.lft l v 1 uoug t i C\ \. p . 11 -
1 I ( d ' ll.'fll nl la \\ c>r ..... t..:rn a l
" " '
.. I h " Ill \\'ltrk out "'
b111 lllllt l.! 11 '' " hum:rn 11.! ' ' ' ) 11 \\ Il l. ,
. _
1 I I \\'"cnt ,u l.; 1 ha l wh rdr
rm;>lr1 .urcuh ln l.' t lll l,dh el'lklllll:!ll" \\ ta tt l \.' 11. 1 111.1 '

r-. 111, rut!cll lllll\ \\ rth dl.' lll.ll ll ' ell Ill' ll; r l tll. l .II\ . '' ' l '
. I I 1 I I It I IIIII . .... . ... l><ul
1 rlll u,,; of !June:111 l l.':1" '" ' ' mtu:e \ :,!cHIC. I 1.11 \\ Il l '
H1H:\ l r. IClr 1\qliHI:l S. chc: norm t) f ;n;ralecy ( " n;wr;al lao.\' " )

10 lh.::
h 11111.t11 ii C.I (l llcf 1101 an CXI I IO'- IC 0 1 :lllyt lnng cl!--1.' Clll tSidc of it .
, \ , (UIIl.l". 10!->p1n: d by hclwccn "spcntl a !n..:" and
prat l ll' ll' . n ; a tht.: loflllt'f '""' In do " 11h th..:elt l.' l h: a l knowkdgt.:. I h..: 1<11 1..:
\\ll h '""'" , ,f:t n h lrl.' lllalunp .Htl :lltll lll . .:ondul'l)
l unlu: rmnr..:. ead1 ,,f the-..: l't>Uid ht ,uhd1\ 1dn l t n tn '' ll ll >rt dis .:ur:-in.: '"
.u:;um c ul .tll\ l.. p:111 tr.wo. :end ; 1 lllllh.' llll ttt ll\ t.: a s pe c t (intd/ectw)
i t iiUIII \'t.: p:U1 1l l 1C.1-.on 1:111(1 wuh those has it " lirs t
pnnt:tple;.;" i1 WJi b upon 10 t:llrry oul 11:- p1o r.:c: ss (e.g. 1he prin.:iplc o f
uJ IIIHy and t:wtradiuwnJ. Thc . .;;c 11ullis" arc :-cll-t.\'itknl and do nol _rcquirt.
frout" : mtkc d a<; l i rsf p1 11t n pl..:' l ' OI II Ilnt (1.: proved hut a rc t ht: i111pi Kit
pwpct "'''"" ol all and p l(lofLht:d ll\ r:t ll o I ti l ht: sa m.: llt.: t t.'
r . J<;(, pnlll lpft:o., nl p1 :1dlt'.llr ca-;on. 'a ndcn' t' .
h 1:\ , ,gutwl ,uuf :l\ott f n tf' ' AI.Jlllll.t\ Ct lblh.:mrhl
n lltr 1f I Th :th.. H l'Jo.. rmpk 1:-. . o l l'Ollf' l', l l.'k\anl IU lnll t :tb
U l ' " "' ,,. 1 1 'f,;,.. ;,,_ ll<':u ing in otll(;r :-pl11.: r"'' ol :t\'11\' II Y Aq1111W\ ;uld,
tiJu r..tttoo . I''' :11 <: lh .. \'. hwh wr l tunt,ul\ :. hall'\\ Ill I all
h 111 fh pwu; 'f''' of c. o., ud1 'I hen llll' (r,; ac
''" an.nwf J'lfrt<. n:;uiunor ll; pr r)dllt lt un ' ' 1111( ol fi ll' n111.1 11 11por1; 1111 pf
rf If u lfK..,(; " &.: \\ ludt :u: f'Hr.-. I< hum.m, :tlll llt.' l>ntck . lhc 111oral
t tc: q KJtCd be ' hac :m: :tl!'ft '.ll m l:tr chl tc ;tfi (Jt h :.w h "" llt: l ' d lfl lrvc
Mkl kt d '" ANtill ( 111d fl , ... , . . cs \\(' ;. hmrlcl rmt It(.'

I rum lu ,t whu: h ,, n . .
11 . <>" t;l , l y P '"Ill" . , I I
'"' l. " "' t ' " r ' ' l' t k t r\c -.cund:uv and . .
" '-
,a " "
more '>(ln '""' . \\ lud tl I l
" ' """ c r!>:rl aud '"'I)(" l .ac l.:."t th. . . . ' '"'"
'-' '
c;;Cifc;; ll l. .rfly "<' " \1'-<:Ct>l rht.; I n \, , .. ,.
111 :u fapl ttlt\ 111 111 flolttr<. u la r l'l nerc;h; t: OJe" " I
t u,, I IC M T III Hiory l I 1 1
clu l'l'l' nne t n al way, tell the truth a nd
' I lln t,;rp" w "'
ever llllcl I al .ch()od nray be 11 \av 1\
w rc n an \ IIIJII St :ll'l' eso.,or ''"""one 10 tell h e I .

"r c 11!. ltrthcr ,J\ IHduw 1111'. r.
l urth l.' llnw..: how 1\quenas cxplaeno., how thcr . .. '
I f
t: :-.ppc.oe !- In he vaor aut.c u"' "'l' the
11r1ra pr a t: li e..::- o pen It is dul. 1o '" .,
, . '
' I 1 ll l:' IIIIICIIt:lh(ll\ fn1111 1111'
(1111 \Ctpk' ull kno \\11 111 c..: rta i n p.;nnk t h . .,. . e;.
1 I' "
1: t: (llc. \ 'IIIIIC: ('k:l"'.(f, l(\11 :111.J
l. \ll l llfll JlloiCIIO.:e:. a, e th11.:a ll y MIUOtl \- inelf v w ' I I f
' ' c,., I II I II \ 111111 lnCil iiCIIlll 1\4Uin..O'
rathe r ll cat mc nt u f the venu.::.
31110 11
, , ... ,
<.1 . . .
., - 1 t we mu.l uraw a lt c n\hlll
10 p rude nce, whrdt c;a fcguards 1 hutni!\ti c cth ic; fron
11 If 11 r 1 1 1
t t: r a o cua ll'.lll an1
1111 cxeh elny .,
4.5 \ VI LLl /\ 1\1 OF OCKII AM (\290-1349)
___ .;,_ __ _
I lt es ntl.' (\r c\al I 1 ""''' ran It ear. au 111 \ ' Cl c rah: \ll 1 hcnu.;.m
tl n.
J . It: ,.- 1"\11
rna 1 n ly 1 e!P' n-; ehk I or han ng c'tahlesh cd :1 d ccp rnoh:d ..: ruprrical
e nd
plul o ...ophy a that wuulcl he callct.hef>c>n and drcvdop.:d h y 1
d ,t:
Ik e I. d e y and l lum<: some live hunclrcd l:n c1 ,,.,. a l.lluntt;;rhl a.c;t
ent<.:lkt. tualeo;, m I) ( 1\qumas. he c:hampmncd vt>lunta""" ' Od;ham

., he
I..Ott..:cen.:cl wet h u p hCllcl eng C od s ft ccdnm ::mel \l llllltputc: nc.: (a-. he u nd ..:e
111 a t al l <.<" ' " l hu' h e ecl u-..;d h> ' \ul <;ll t/t: lhc \\ fCHtnc ..., ol , ,
lr.un .1ny t11hc11.: nt qu:1lt1y tnt henhchc..-.. hut wholh .md .:ullh:h '"'II'
I hl.' (e t:l.! tk l.l..,!lll tl l ( iod. Wl lti..C llllllllfl.lleiiCC W ,('> :tlh u l ut c 1 Ill,
hy '' h ,el \\' t ll tl d hc lu g.e ...all y -
I < h: kham tctt'<l nl'll !>-t: lhc wh,tlc: hy a pia.:..: l\.1 \"lot h { ;,,,1 c;
urdctcd (10\\ 1.: 1 ;e!'> \\ell as n ghl n:a:;utl. ' l hc ltt t lllCt rclcts In:.;
\\ IH: h:l\ t::-tahl t, h cd the a c tual Cl\('ltal Ill Jcr (lpl lll!!, \ \) make \.0:1 \ ;I ll\ oll: l"l"'
right and ochce " eung I k would make a g..:nct.ll c h :m!;C tn th,, m.tlh' r
,\ 11 lh"' seems Lo \\ tlh ulhct nuuun wh tch -..1ys t h;u " \'Ut"l
a..: t s hould i!lsu b .: '" ..:onlormi ty " tlh the " n g.h t rc:l'lll\ .. l nc.lccll , he 01lun"
\\' ll h t he l'(lll\11\lllli\ICt\ IC\al a!>-Slllll(lliUO th;a(,l p 0.:1!->\lll h t)h\tg..:d h l ll>llu\\ \\
:tl'l.'\1rtlmg_ In hI :> SIII..:Ci l.' 0:011\' IC{Il)ll . 1"- Ill \\ tlh ll . 1.7\'CII t\ h l.' '-' Clc..' Ill
..: n '' ' I h tt tlu s last e1..ka seems to d,l mllr..: .:1 cdt t HI ':-. hl'.lr..l th.m " '' h, :m
I t it tl h..: up cah.: tl up the po:-, tbtht) to ,, IX.' ' ' "'' ' 'lu mn
di Villl.' ICV<Ialml\ ( h ll\\' cbc. C\ CC!)l lhlllllt! h l \ 1\ 11\C CC\d;tt mn W\! CUIII(' h t
!... now w h at tS ;t nd \\ as wwng.. ' UH:t..' ( im.l ln:d y \' ' "'"'- th\:1\"
hl he a l.l.: t 1a 111 conlradtt: lloll h c t c 11 .. " ' '''"''
!'l)r moral n g.htn..;s" then 11 ' ' nul QUite O.: \du .. l\d\ ' '" \Kkl lh .
l'll lll(l.;

In 111, d .a"tl.' blH'" / ,., wtiJCm alt..:1 tlw nu"'"' O.:' ut '"'
IH'' '" ,, , ( ami " lu.: h "as lu!' nn3"1! tl l the ,,II l"''""''ul f-10\U:
" " lu.., t.k sntpl ttlll nl "man in tht. 1'1'-"\: ul nalue..: thM ' " h:t. hum.
haulicll IUl!Clht: t 1\1 UJl :Olll' \31 ;,n,llll\tl"."'- ' " wu..t k
... hccr hd l 111 '"'"'l' man untn hl.c .W
I /rr """ /,. """" II If ill\) lrul\.'.:,1 th.Al ' " \\ " ' ht\IU,IU' tt-: It
1 ll ' ttl:-. I f(llll ' c:
h "Ill' hli"CI..' ltll ' . Tl
im to pn ..vcnl. hy shcc :-Uf'ICIIOI I '- . . h <'thcr {(l :;hi cds.
tv ;ultltc:u1ng '-
c . . r. .
uthct ..:;u: h othc.;r.. P
fX: .
. kr wt:- the sa ... t
, . . o.;urc o l pc:.c..: Cllll Oil ' . .
prtu: c<..:h hJd lo p:ty tn allallllht:-
:'.'-!' ..... . , r-vthing for hnnst:ll.
. . I lc:; nc IO ros:-t::-S C\ t:. J l
of h1s ln:cdom rnlllu:-

l .
oct\'ati ng p1'1nt.:tp C
<!d . kasurc wa::. I lC nl
Ltkc: Cricurus. Hol>J:lcs \\';IS :l h Ollt:-l. r. . I .. . ' t ' n thc ((Hill of" rca c.:..: .
II 1
d .,_
-c for p c.t:-.ur ... \ '
for hun1on. It was the narura Y lUI1l1lll '- . . .
. T\lt.: then. c n;tc t cd
. . I I d I m W o.;c:t up the :-.t.llt. h . s .
flil!lllllriy and a longer hie} I tal c
. .
)awo.; <1f"n;tt urc.
t I
. . conhncc '' tl l l
it\lls bw::. ttnnakc hmH.IIlS 1C l:l \ c
,tl . . .
. . . . ltl rt.:fc\"illll (() f ill S ror'-1 '-
Ci"l l;11\ "''uld coJtl y th..:mm mot e '
. I . I . II ower ami aut wn I ) ::.o '
114Hitlll The: :-I .Jie WCiultl need IU be 111 \:CSIC< \\I(
a r ' I . t .. I
lu . b. lblc lu curu I lC na u t.l
nouc \\oult.l d.Jrc lu ch.tllc.:n!!C 11. Then only ''"llll 1t '- ' .
- p ... l c; ., ncc..:ssarv cons utu..:nl
ui"!.!O..: ,,fhumartslO>ot 1yrnnn1ZC. owCI t:-> t
- . l , 1 . ar fo1 btddcn not Ill
ofbw In cll<.ct. 101 HobbL-s. acttc.>n $ an; bad 1ccause lll:Y \: . ,
. . . . . the cntcnon ol
miter wav round. The $Ourcc of moral n ghcncss 01 ..
' . : 1 1 - ,,,, . ,.,,
mor . luv. IS'' hat IS the law w 1c:r 11 ut: l J\ lilt' :J
The ofl lobf)(!s h;wc: hcen in various ways. Some call
'' --Ethtcal Egotsm';. in as much as it is based on the a llegedly natu_ral _ anti
rca' ..... h.c hum .. n uf"'..!C Ill sed. plcasu1c and sclr-piCSCtYati on Ochers p1dct ttl
duh ,, Social .. hccause 11 !!rounds bw tlnthc tlc$trc vf hurnans h)
lt\1.' rr pca .....: :111d h:tnuony \\ith each utl1cr. A rhin.J , it:w is th:tl it is a of
lf: \ t:>lll .. h..:c:tu:-c 11 posi 1:- Ji \ trtq)()\\'Cf ( pr (i< t.i _.. n-i II I :ts I he ullllll:tl<.:
c>f got\ll. :t:> ch,: ::.ok cntt.:tnln <'f tnlra llty
4.7 JEREI\1Y BENTHAM ( 1748-1832)
lknch:am "'" the cthKal from a mur1.' p(llnl ot' v1cw. I Its
otr:.!l.tlh:ll: \', ,1:- thai. stnu: ::.OCtO: I\" is nlCtdC up ot" tndinduCtb. II \\"tiUid b.: ljllitt" Ill
1 r:kr I h._,. JH1k ,uh_i1.YI ir-,,nth._- pt.-r:-pccciv._ of tllc.Ji,ldl t; tlut iiii Y'...:ck
.1 1h.: h."'" : ._rh....-.-. \ l ut lk urham. un.: 111 \\ lud1 "
&: Un 111 pka,ur...: ot h;rppinl'" "'I he \\ ht15-..; ill tCI est t:-. n)fK\.'rtH:tl.
:tpp.ucmly on llohllL':.. he lake:. ir as il clc:lr d:uum that the :.<:Ck1ng o f
lllt'3surc- and the: of pain arc the chief human mot i n:s in _de::cision
10(!. Yc:t, he c:rnphasi7.cs. he is not merdy of sens ual pkastire hul
Ur.Jt \liuch an1dlcc1Ual and bene' 1>lcn1.
.-to 1ft m;an fx:m!!->- hclWt:v..:a. knO\\ prccisdy how tn apply th1 .... r;tnd;ud
n I' 1. hk c-...s-..:c; a. If_, 'h..:nrt.., a mall cr ol :u1 operon ht.:l\\ ..:en uwhrpk
lu t JSCUtJ h:: Cll kr<o ;, ldh:tlic .. ;tS 3 g111d.:f IIIC Iori he: COirlllHIIl
I :;:tg.t: 11 f \\a:- lu l.nv .. a ...
- '- maJo tlll t1at:t 1 _, .
COnlc..:mp,Hary w..:stcm tiH)U"Ill Th . .
IC u'-".<.: opnct:nl u l
::- c St:\:\)11( volume.:
1 h . f
lltiO"V t"ll"l hc.: Ctitl(lliCS .. wa. tic, I ' '' phllo-.ophtc3l
c-. ::. 'l'tc.:\ I n new and . 1
ethi cs Rtcht :Jl o n set of
.. . rc"" Ull\1l-..;try mc;tt!ht " llll\1
- H:-. c.:tlltquc ol practtccl . h
system th;-cc is btsed on a. " I .. , ru-c:-.on c .t\1 S\o<: h
' lt:tc.:r.onomous source tint is
norm ou1._, ' c the 1 . " ' on some pnnctpk or
. u 1uman per.-nn V\ ere we tc .
. . . l matnlatn such <t poem uf VIC"- he
lclb u:-.. tn etT..:cl . d <t person had Ill rcj..:clthat noc11l . I tl . I . .
. - 1 -1 anc 1cn l 1<:t c would be 110
)ot:-. I S p111g h11n or h ..::r 10 he ;t mural per -
0 1
Tl . 1 , h
:-. ' . Ills. lc.; <:!!IllS by notiiH! al tt en
ll "- there ;uc notllnly some: a-pri ury (hence tnd )
< ('1111 tp <''- t\ l
tt ' L" k 11 0\Vktlgc.. 111 us. hut :;i m i 1:\r Ita a"
a.-.. <lit: con:-.ututc an internal norm or man:
.tlltOOliOl()US pn .
For lhc only ching that can be called good without qual.ftc;u
on is a.
wtl l" - all other goods: such as health. wealth and J. fc can he
lor had ends: they :.trc only rdnti vcly good''. Now. wh<lt j._ ;
JI ""J .II ..
'-\"1 : \ \\ t \Vlllch act:. for the of duty a t :ulll no othct
1 1
H:I j, a
),! Otld wdl Th1:-. 1:- pcrhap:-. Kant ":-. way c\ftcllcng u:-that a !!ooJ \\ ,11 1111\"'
ll ;1. \
out ot" :-.d 1"- tnl ..: t c:-t. (k thai il:-. It lll <t y. the.: kmd uf he l.'l, tl :-.
a ,-cry .. rigonst' appearance. Thts .. l1uly is rooted in \he
> 1 b w
1t sdf. w luc- h . en turn, s mnni ti.:st nlornt ct,nsciousncss (il(l iH>I

(ttdg.meiHS). !'ow. univcrsalily"" is thl' very form of thc: 11\ortll law - Sl)
again. a ccna 111 rigidi 1 y ts to be 1.'>-p.;ct.:d of it:-. dt:mau,t:, .111

the J1lls:-ibtlll y (If WOUld till \"loknct. tu .. \1111 \ "0:1 .. futl\l ,II" Ia\\ . Tltc lit :-l humulal1111111t"th\.: h.t:-lt. c ,,
lor 1-.: <utl. t lllll::.t act :-. u..-lt tll) \\ .ty 11f "uuld : Utllh . 11
rruc..:dul..:. .... arc \Hhcr fOllll\tLct ion:- popubntctl by K:tni. I.":-.I"IC\'I.IIh ,., I.: I
.1 person mcrd y as a lnu thc:) alway' c:nshnnc.: :-.01 1' \ 1 ,,,
l\111\"t.: t ,;tl11y :1s const illllin:- of it:-.' cry form. I k dcnvcd 'pll!<ltrl::lhs hom
tl11. und..: n1ahk J:tnofth\.'l.<tt..:gonc.tlllnp..:t"<lll\t: hum;m hl'l'd(\11\
Ill the -.ouJ <tlltflhC 0: " !--l ..:nc..: uf(inJ Tius 1:-< 1\11 \II \\h tl h 1\td
maintatncu in tJlc ..:arli..:r Crtllttuc: chcrc he hdd that mit: I' II',. ..
truths from pure rca.-..un. wh.:rc.ts "' chc s..:cond ni1t4uc h .. :-ay' th.u pa;adt<.,al
reason Can and lliUSt pOst ul ate.
4.9 JOHN STUART IV11LL (1806-IR73)
: \111 hnr or" a 11 \:':II"''-' ..:nut kd. l 1 rlttaiUttll "". "-1111 ":1' ..:' .._u mun ,111\."'.'t uu1, 'I ''
1 han I km ham 111 I wid mg ch.u ut thl ) \'' "tht.: gr.. .uc'' l" ""'tph h " '''
h..: " 1111.: li.HIIld,t ll\'11 nl llll\ l;tb .. I """'-'\\' 1 hl' "''-'\:'Ult.-d h\ \\ a\kn ha<i. '-"h 111"14' IU
Ill\ oh c nut .. th.: happm..::--.. ,,f but .. , ,,dh: t . ul .tll M:niM:Ml
Bu1 h .. \\Till nn
appw.a .. h I 1"1
1u add hu1h.: h : ltlll'll\....-nl :.111\1 1"'-'l:''"'" '" lknth m
Ill' lhC.:I\.' '' .1h1l ,I \1\lllll.lll\\' ,lttl\ 1\'t l
pk,l,tll .._., _ .IIUf 111 11 llht J tiii,UHII.III\\' I Nt'' h, '" ., ,1 "'
Ill\ I" nh1.1l '\..-1,,, 1' 111U "'' ("1.._.,,.. ..... 1 11 hut &Itt.: 'u""'
,, , :all I k '-'"-'" l ' lltk. t\111:-. "' ct"-' ' ''"''".tl "-'''"' "'
"'= f*: " P'
"' till' t."llll" ''-""'': ..... ''' "' "" ., ,,. tn "'"'""' lh.M
n n '' ould .. ay M '
' 8
4.10 Ei\11LE UUnKHEII\1
I r-.::nt.1rpos.t11\ afk,rn l ch ..: ullh..: nallual
he h;ulcd .ts 1hc f;ulcr cl One ctl his key wr iltn1s ch-..
I kmcntun Fmm' ,f Nrltgum., hpt' llt'll(<'. "' \dtrdt he to give a
lf)OSUJ\ tSit c:xpl.uMitort ncn fir I tum hi:-. study of
'""' a hC' hdd co be rh:: '"i""'''Y fcurn ul ..til rdt!_'rnn: . he thJI thl
1 f r fw "murc rh;.n lite lrth.JI lllttt c:t \ccJ ;t il} I rum
tJr katk-d d&.lf rdrcJtu "'los .uul chl"tll:t wcrc uuthuw hue v:tttllll '
t :1 n h f"':'tllc: ;au .tntl suhnrtr w l.l\\'C. .uul
d d udtal ((tttp I hr a1>pru;u It he ahc n11plnynl 111
t Hillb tl-cn :Mt ntttlun" truiJ>' tli \Oc l.r ws cn;t( by ,, !' " t'll
.;d.HIy """' pr ,tlluu '"''''k:' "nul 1t1c uuunulwu '''' '
Ill C: ... \ fl \ " \lkffl\ 111411 l' .tu llloth' lct 1 ,11111
w.,tdcd '"'"""'"' r.tth\;
th,1111114f1\ "'"''
.. ,
"' ' wdl out the link b ' t\ .
1 I: \l: o.; Jl 1\1111:111 :.0<.: 1:1 1
and 111\H, II ll c.:q; l<>p11l i.' IH lluwc.:vc.: t hi.'

tl .
. , t ' lo .u '"'' '''""' ' lh\ , '' ,, ... t\
o.'\ ..:11 nl hu..: r d1S1.. 1plc;::. that th..:
. .... '
<.: \<.:<.: on-.. Ill ..: a Ulll\111\lll \IIHic:d) '""
::.t lll.' llll ..:, ::.o.Hi h.: ktnd ol com anon Pncl>ks ill w k . 1 1 1 1
OJ <.:VI.:I)'W 11.' 1 C. I 1,11 ' ' I II l.l l 'i.
Ill tho.: :.dntt ll c.:tl di\' C: ISI\y ur A I I I I
, ;, II I IIIOIJ II)' l '>,lllllll,lll y , 111\.111\ I
of l ollowmg crowd:" how do-we account r.or tl c
.o 1 1
' o r ""'' ,\ '" ceo;
who o pe nl y and d:tttnul y ICJ.<!Ctcd an-' cl 11 . 1
' c u 1:\ Cll <;Cu I IC CXI !'IIIIr, 1111\l l 'S I>I ;I

II 1s qutiC' conunon lo fmd l'\hrcs tlcfml"tl. :ls W Tnl01 -..: '
llllllltlm:llunlo thi ... tli'Sl' ll'hnl" " l"thu:)l. ma\ he: ' rhlu...,-rh "":
Ill hi thl ""'"' \.' ,uulc uumb uf mnt ,llll\' .. \\ , . ''" ""' ""''" ''' h
h;l. ,l, \\\' h , l\\.''l"\.'11 ' 1\htt .ll ' "
""htt11fiUllh: \
'''till'"'''"' h : llll 1 1hu:' ll"t '""''"""'' ,.,_.,..,,.
dd lllllltlll h\' Ill" II ._lUdl\ ., :.lh\' '" "'
\\ ,1\:l"'"' '"'-' "'- '"" "'"*"'
ha' ,. S\."t"n, ,,.,m!\ ur "'-f' ...,... ..,.,..,.,..,
'" "'""' umk ''"'"'"'1:!-"" ""' "'' '"
, ,

in S<II IH.'OOe
. . . I , wlnr th:rl I I L) . I
"hy \\"l' 1rv 1<1 m:tkc ck:rr 111 prtct:l:-tc } . .
sphere a ;;<lOl
- I . I liJI ' IIII"liiiiC:IC:-111\.ILl . .
h..:llh!. l>tua p..:r-son.rl :rll tellllll 1
=> lt
. ) 1 linition ol .;thr c:- ''
'" l!!er . .,,. or tc:nnr:- pl .cy.:r )-()our< L
nil at.: I lOllS from
I ( I I OJih) ' "hu.: h 'Ill( rt::- IIIII'
;p; hliiO\\')- r b :1 branc.: I 0 p II l))- . I' II human. more
. . . . . II . .... I 10 llCCOIIl C IIHII c u y
rhe purnl of v r.;w of thc rr .;na > Ill(:; a Jlt: l :>ul .
1 h

1 1
h anc:h l)r phdOSt)r Y w
litlly alive. We can thc: c lorc say that ctlucs I l<l r,
SllldtCS \\'htt! makes :l pCISCHIII"Uiy fibCI;tl l'cf .
... . . . I I t . on front.; uc; \\'ith the
f'ow. anv wo11hwhik discuss ron ot Cllrcs. sooner or a L .
.. . . tc
lin..: the rnc:.t lllll l!
"human a..:rs . We .-. houl d pause h11 a 111(\lltcnt ro um -
- .r 1 .,.,
1 13
11v rhc tc:uacy 11f o l d
a11d ' ICrllfrcancc ol wh:ut hesc worus tmp ,.. IC) arc ,11.: l " :::-
- 1 c.1 , ri sh h e r ween
scll(llas rl thou;;ht <uld s till r d cvanl roday. We nnt:-1 nl't:t 10 tS tng.. . .
'' h,,, could hc: cal kd or' humans and " lnlln:rn .. (rhc Lattn
rhc:: word pltl\ morl' n catlv tll'/11.\ humm11ts ;rntl ttctw lwm111iS) ,\ hunwn act is an
:ICI f>tll by it pc;sun HCI11lf! Ill f'ldl C:tp:tCIIY ; 1;\ h ulll:ln, i.e. OUI of tuiJ
and lrt;;cdom- <tlkr all knowkd!!t: and ti arc wh:.t characterize
humans hUrliCIIIS Only when someone d\H::-. !\Oill<.' lhlll (; knowingly rcdy
t::tn he s he OC held aCCOIIIII<thlc for lh:l l :ICI and he Of l>l <tmCd
lor it. I r someone: wc:: re. unkn0w1ngly. to d1 111k a t:up of pots0111.: d tea. 110 one::
could :rn1"c hi111or hl'r ol'allernpced )- llic rdt: mi<_!hl tllill \\'hac 01 sh<.
h:1d obj<.cti\'dy" a !-Uit:1dal ;ll' l (I l' . would hnn.:; :tboul the
pcr-:ons death or tllucs:-. . 11' n1..:drc:d illtcnc rllron ''' ct:c 1101 :>ought
inun,:drardy). hut \'dy .. hi.' 01 shl.' Ct'uld tl\11 bl;ulH..'u li1r act. Thi:-.
C:.\:lnlpk !ohOuld a lso miJkl.' US n;alizc. thi\1 \\'(.' Cil lllllll hc hil Vl' If Onl y "subjective
moralrry WCIC important, since that is rhc whL'IC pr:u sc or blame ("mora l
:ccountabil it y'' ) rn. i action were: 'objecll \'(..: 1 y wr(mg in r it woul d
ha,c Slnnc bad on the :.t gl!nl - psychologicall y and physiolngi cally - even
rf h.: t>r 'h.: dtll 1101 do i1 "liJII kn(l\\'lcd!.!l' ;111d lid I cOib<.:!ll. .. It> lh..: t im.:
h<mcHutcd liltlllul.t Lrlul's. then. l'lllor..: " ' rill :r\'IIOil:' dt)ll\.' a..; :1 rcs ;tll
' '' br.mkcJJ!'-' ;mc.J f11.'t' dtOICL' <lid)' JL' il\1110.: lll ,t kl_ ll:' h..:tll.'f or p ..:r:-.t llb
;el/-ruunJ of h11n1ans, 1ha1 is. acliort!o J<IIIL' llllllllclllilula l lv. unkllO\.\' ill !..!IY
(11x:lu<.lmg c.l0ing an \\ mng :rcrion ,,hik tltll knO\\i;lg such an i-s
\\ron g) \\ uuld no1 <r fli:!c1 one all-round as a
tclor IS a (in:ck word .l.'IHf'. Ill IIH; :\t:lbL' ora !.!ll:ll ((l hl;
St) ll'kOI\I!;Y llh.::llb lhl.' :'I lid} or L' ll d . -
m<.:am of nlllrJ I
Sunon 8t'inJ! (iooJ. A Shw llnlmduc 11011 t
f:thics 0x((
rd Ox lim!
{ ru\t:r !l. tl)' 2tH(!
Hou:hcrt Don;tld M. ;urcJ ();" d Src:wm1 r 1 1 N
IORf nrmg .I"'' 'cw Yur k: :'vfacmillan.

After rcadinI tl ; '
' ,., lrs Ch:tplcr
. lllldc rs tand <r , would be able to
< " (.; <l llllldL" 1
, u nalysc huw people lllt t: r r lOW they arc lormed and
<'Omprc h <' ncl h ow rh" ) P c t expla in lhc bchlvio cfhanged.
' I ' <'S<' n<'<' of I ' u r o OU1e.
explain wlw people I I Ol 1Crs mnucnccs o b
undc iSl<tnd I he cone; p orr do not help others in chavroll r.
pt o
... ss. and
" Jehav1ou1 an'd -
a ctors affecting il .
Introduc tion
Explaining Social Beha .
Nature a nd Co VJOur
A c mpone nts of Attit ud
. reen Environment ' . T1 es
. :-llllude (Box 6. 1) . te ABC Components of an
Attxtude Format
Jon a nd Chang
tliluoe Format ion e
Tellmg a Lie forT.
CONTfNTS. . Atlitude-Be h . wertty Dollars (Box 6.2)
Prejudice a nd
S t IScnmmation
r a t egies for Handlin . .
Soc ial Cognition g PreJudice
Schemas and S t
. ereotYPes
mpressJon Formatio
Beha viour of Oth nand Explaining Key Terms
ers through Att .b .
mp: ession P'ormation n uhons Summary
of Causal it Review Questlops
Be h a vJour in the P y Project Ideas ..
Pro-soc ial of Others Webllnks .a
F'actors Affecting Pro-soci ..,.l Bel . Pedago&teal Hint s
" lavrou r
Socral pStJrltolog!} l .'i t/wt oj w/ udl 11/IWSII{Jf,'tcs l tnro fllr
I ' ' I t . Jl'"CI<rii>!J ot/lf'l .'> and lire SOCI<li CIIIJIIOt lll h Il l
/}('/l(ll'IOI Ir 0 Ul{ Ill/( 11(1 S IS f! /I
1\1/ ojusjor in atlillulcs. 01 uaus <?/ tlo' nkiii{J oiJOIII SJH' c!fic t opiC:s nnd fJf'OJ>l<'.
We alsoj01111 impt CSSiOII S abOIIl fJC'rSOIIS IIJC 111C!C' I. (llld rtSSI!JII CCI II SC' S f o
t ll e ir brlrtwiour. Bl"strles. ow own l>elw v 10 11r gets ul}lue n cN/ l >y <>I llrt
1/l(/ipjcJun/s (Jilr/ fJIOII/)S. /II SO/Il l' Si fll(lliOII S. people S ll OU' fJI O SOCI(I{
l>cflnt,iow. flwt is. hrlpin[J tlw nrcrly nnd r/1(' disu essccl. will1011t expcrr;, ,,
nnytlling in r('fwll. Mriii!J oj tl wsc> socin/IJdwl'ioiii S SN'Ill to })e silnpl e. Yd.
c'.\plniiiiii!J ll1e pt ocesscs tllat lie lwlunrl ti iC'sl' IJellaPiOIII sis a conplex nwl er
Tlus clwpter w11/ descnl>e the lmsiC ul >ns ,('/atNlto nllllllfles. socinl cognition
r111cl pro-social l>ehrwiOIII" a s c>.\ploillecl IJy social pS!JdtOiogis t s.
ExPLAJNrNc SociAL B EHAvtoun
SOCI<ll bc hrtviOt ll <1 rlC('l'SSrtry t of
hum.w l1k. :t11d bt'IIJg SOCI,tl mc;llls IIlll Ch
mort" lh<Hl merely in I he c-ompnny o f
olhe,s. You nwy reca ll (rom what you
s ludied m Class XI t hal social psychology
. deals Wllh all be haviou tha t takes place in
the ac-tu:tl. imag1ned. or implied presC' ncc
ol others Take tl1ls s imple example: if vou
h<nc ro nl t:ntorisc- a pot>n1 and rec ite it.
111ay ha,c no problt:111 in do1ng this wi1cn
you are by yourself. Bul if you have to recit e
lh1s poem loan audience. your performance
rnight gel mOuenced. because you are now
m a social situation . Even imagining that
people are listening to your recitation
(aJrhough they may n ot be physically
present} may change your performance.
1his is just one exam 'that demonstn:Hes
how our social emironment influences our
the w:1ys llrcy clo - that is . we causes
lo IIH.: lx:lwviour s h own in s pt.:cific social
This is ca ll ed
a ttributi o n . Very oft e n . ilnprcssJOn
for rn;1tiOr1 a nd Mtril>utinns nr c irrlluencerl
l>_v nlti rucl es. These three processes arc
exn mples of mental activities rela t ed to the
gathering :111d inte,prc;tn lion of information
nho111 the soc-ia l wo l<f. collcC' ti vcly
socia l cognition. Mon'ove r. socia l cognitio n
is acli\'alcd by co{:! nilivc units call ed
sch c m as. Cogniti\e processes cannot be
dircclly seen: they h ave to be infe rred on
the basis of externally s hown b e haviour.
The re are oU1er examples of social influence
that are in the form of observable b e haviour.
Two such exa':lples arc s ocial.faeilitation/
inhibition. i. e. I he improvemen t/decline in
performance in the p1escnce of others. and
helping. or pro-social behaviour. i. e.
respondi ng to others who are in need or
dis tress. In order to u nderstan d compl etely
how the socia l context innue nces the
indi_vdual. It is necessary to st ucly bot II
socJa l -cogni 1 i\' e processes and social
behaviour. Social psychologis ts have s h own
th<H one mus t go beyon d common sense .
and folk wis dom in ord e r to explain how-:.'
people observe a nd make sen se of the ir owo
diverse beh aviours. Thro u g h
a lld objective o bserva tions . and
houghts. emotions and behaviour i n
con_lplex ways Social psychologists examine
\':mow; forms of soc-ial behaviour. and try
to explain their bass. Becau se of social
nflwJJct;s. ,,cr,pl<: forlll views. or attitudes
;il)()ul people:. ;mrf ;dJOul different issues in
llc. lh<tr txi!:>t m rhc: forrn of bchaVJ I
. oura
lt>nc tn<.ws Whr;, we me(;( people. we .
llllc: c: ccs :Jf)(J." l I qualities.
H f CaJicd Impression formatio Ht
f n . vvc
o n1e11 lcrl in why fJC(JfJle lJehave in
Y adopting scicntHk mel h od s, H Is possible "
Clr:tpl('l G 1\fllt//(lt ' J 07
'"'fl ><')tfrt l Coy nil rm 1
1 o c s tab 11 It I o g 1 c a 1 < i ll Is <' . a" d <: ff cc t
I l'l;lt lOII'>lii(J' expl;un SOCiCI I h<l raviotrr
' liti S C 11;1(>1<1 Wlllf!ivt <H'CO\ IIl( o f the
flrlld;lllll ' lll:t 1 t " of t hC' t opiC' :-.
lll<' llt IOIH'rl WC' wll l with a
dc <.. c ll()ti{)ll or altiluclec;
l or a few ll lllllllcs qtiiCtly clo th<
II H'IItal CXt'l < I ' W . Tod<y. I row ma nv lirnes cl lcl
vo11 te ll yot 11 scll : ; 111 my opi;lion . . . or
.. Others ""lV say so a11cl s o. but I feel. .. "?
Wlrat you till in lhe blanks arc called
OJJII liOns Now continue lhc exercise: how
i111por1a nl these opinions to you? The
toprcs of so111C of thes e opi nions may be only
unpo1l<t1Jl to you: they an
c;11nply of and rt does not
mnl! er much to you that others C\gree or
disagree with your views. On the olhcr
lrnnd . you may find tha t some olhc r topics
arc e-xtremely import a nt to you. If sonieonc
opposes or c ha lle n ges your views about
tlrcse to pics. you get e motional. You may
have made some o f these views part of your
beha viour. In other words . if your views are
not thought s . hut nlso havc
emotiona l nncl action component s. the n
t hcse vi<-ws a
. . ' rc mor<' tha n opuuons: lhcv
nrc of altitudes.
All dc:nnllions of attitude!> ;m
I" a s late oft h e mincl. aMt of n<w!-.
or t some to pte {called
the att '
1tuuc ohjt:ct'). whtch have an
evaluative feature !positive. ncgali\'t' or
neutral quality). It is accompanied by an
cmo!ional compon<:nt. a ncl a l<'nckncv 10
act m a particular way with rcgard to. the
atl_itudc olJject. 11H.: thought colllponcnt IS
rclcncct to <\S thr aspect. the
crnolional comporH'nt is known as tht
affective aspect. an<l the tendencv to act
is call ed the behavioural lor
aspc:ct. Taken togctl\er. these three
have h(:cn refe rred to as the A B - C
com poncn t s ll\ffC'e live Behaviollt al
1ve components) of altitude Note that
<1 llitucl<:s ::tr<: themschcs not hch<lviour. btll
they represent a te nclency to behave or act
in certain ways They arc pa rt of cog,mtton .
along \V'l lh an cmolional component. nnd
cannot be observed from outside Box fi I
presents an of an <HI itmlc \OWil rtb
the e nvironment. showing the relalionslup
between the three components.
Atliludes have to be distinguishe-d from
two other closely related concepts. n.u1H.Iy.
A 'Green Environment' : The ABC Components of an Attitude
Suppose a group of people in your neighbourhood slarl a lree plantation campaign as part
of a green e!)vironmenl' movement . Based on sufficient infonnaUon aboullhe en"ironmenl.
your 'View towards a green envi ronment' is pos1live lcogniUve or c component. w1th
Lhc evaluative aspect). You feel very happy when you see greenery. You ft.d sad ami .111g1y
when you see l.recs cut down These aspects reflect the affective (emotional) or 'A'
component of the same allitude. Now suppose you also actively parttcipale m the tn.c.
plantation ca!llpaign. TI1i s shows U1e bcha"ioural or a component of your 111\\:ltds
a green envi ronment'. In we expecl all three components to be t-onsstelll wtth
each other. U1at Is. in the same dirC(:tlon. However. such consistency may not neccssarllv
be found In all situations. For example. il is qulle possible that the cognitive aspt of vour
green environment' atlllude is very strong. but the affe<'Uve and behavtoural romponents
mav be relatively weaker. Or. the cognitive and afrecUvc C1>mponents may be strong *'.d
poS'ttlve. hut the behavioural component m:1y be neutral. Therefore. predlcllnp. r,e
compo11c11t on the basis of the other two may not always us the: picture l '
nn atUtudc.
belief$ .llld vnlucs . Be li efs rdcr l<l ril e
. trlluclc.s .
. dlqw for ,1( 0\V' \IC)" rttr C' I(:'\r I ('SI'.tl r It
1 II rill< <' ?
a rHutr . :1
:l r l(illg on tlw s:llttr
f 1111 des utd for 11 1
;'l II ''
would he shown >V. . I
1 s l 'l lld such
rlw ground ()II which : Ill litH
. I ltilll<f< WOIIId l1<l\'(' II< ll lt' t
1w 1r1r.1 . 1
l.wllt'l '" God. or ht'licl in ckrnorr :tcy ;'1:-. '
pohli<':tl l<kOIO/{V Val ueS <Ill' Hllll11<k:. 01.
rhnl cnllrnrn .1 ':-. ho11ld' or 'ougl11
:ISJ><'<'l. 1nor 01 c tJ 1lcal v:1h res. One
<'\,1111pk of :1 1:, rhc icfC';'l !hal one.
s hould wcnk l1.1 nl. '" th.ll one should be llo11csr. lncausc ltonrsry l.s I he
hcsl. poi1C'v. . 11 c for lll<'d when ;1
pnr lieu /;1 r he ltd or :11 tl lucflo b tl'Oillt' S :111
mscp;1rahlc p:111 o'f th( per son's outlool< on
lr/t' Con sc.qtrcll iiV. Villlll'$ olll' dlffkull 10

ivc nor rwwlt ivl' w dcncc.;
Th<' tx trc rnen ess of ; 111
Extre m e n ess .
. l ic'JI <s 110w JlOSilivc or ncgat1vc
'l llllll (' Il l( '

, i s I\ rn! t lie n 11 c l c
a 11 :lllilll < c - ..
' ll c"" IIIIJlh' f!l\'1' 11 ahon. r .tllng ol
I ;!> as cxtrCIIlt' a s a r tJ iing ol 5 : lll<'y :-u c
onl y rn r ile opposrte dir cclions (valenc<'l
of 2 ;'l lld 4. nrc l csf>. ext' A
IH'II II al alliiiiCf<'. Ol C'OIIr SC. IS l OW( S ( Oil
ex I r <' l llCIIl'<;S
Simpli ci t y or (rnultipl<'xity) : \Vh:tl Is I he p11rposc vcd hv an
.lllllll<k'> \Vc fr11d l allilwlcs prov1dc :1
111:11 m.liH.s il easier l or n
pc:r son to dccrdc lr uw lo .lei in n ew
-.f(u;rtions For <'Xarnplc. 011r allll l l<k
low: II ds fi1r cr.Qrwr:. mav inclir ccl ly provick
;1 11rcn1al 'l.1wmr' or 'blllc.'pnnl' lor lhc way
rr 1 wl 11cl1 we. s llo11 ld " <'ll;tvc wll erlt'V<' r we
rwc.( one
In Jddilion lO 1 he aflcctrvc. and
hell:wrou rnl cornpon crll s. <tftitudcs <l lso
I rave.' other pr opcrtic.:s Four s ignificant
features of nllrtuclcs ar c: Val ence (posilivity
or rllgalivity}. Extremeness. Simplicity or
CompJex.ity lrnullipltxity). and Centra lity.
Valence (posrli\'i fv or n cga livrly) : T h e
\'alencc of nn nttrtudc tell s us whether an
<t llitudc is positive or negative towards rhe
attitude object. Suppose an altitude (say.
t owards nucl ca.r resc<t rch) has to be
expressed on n 5-polnt scal e, r anging from
I {Very IJarlJ. :l (Bad}. 3 (Ncutral - neither
Tl11s e rcl<'r s lo how rnany :ll litudcs
there arC' w thin a br oader atl it ude. Tl1illl <
of :111 a t lit ucle as a famrly con l aining :-., v, .
mcm bcr' <til itucfcs. In case of vn rio u s t opc: ..
s tr c h ns lcnllh and world pcnc(.;. peopl e hold
n ui11rcfes rnstcetcl or single <Hli lucf<' .
An :J IIillldC' :-;yst c>t rr is said lobe simpl e if 11
co11l ains only one or a rew a tt itudes. ancl
complex ifi! is made up of many a tliludes.
Consider !he exanrpl e of altitude lowards
hcaltlr and well - being. This alti tude syslem
is likelv to consist of sever<ll membr r
s11ch ns ones concept of physi c<ll
nnd rnentnl heall h. views <'lbo11 t happiness
and well- being. <'lncl belie fs about how one
s hould achieve health and happiness. By
contrast. U1e altitude towards a particui<Jr
person i s Jik'ely to con si st of mainly one
a ttilude. The mulliple me mbe r -attitudes
within an altitude sys te m should nol be
confused with the three compon ents
described earl i er. Each me mber a tliludc
t hat belongs loan a ltitude system al so has
AB C components.
uc,, a nd 4 (Good). to 5 {Very
J!Oo<fJ I( an 111dividual rates her/ his view
lowards nuclc:ar as 4 or 5. thi s i s
clearly a positive aU II ude. 'l11i s means tha t
the person likts 11 rc idl'a of nuclear research
aud thinks rl rs good. On lhe
ot hc1 J,;wd, If I!Je ratinj:! i s J or 2. the
aUftude Is ncg;Jiive. TI1i s means that the
J}t-rsou dislrkc-s I lie idea of nu<:lear research_
;mel Uunks.t 1s somrthmg bad. We also
CentraiHy : This refers to the r ole of a
particular In the attilude
An allilude wilh gretl l<'r centrality would'
i nfluence the o ther atliluclcs in the system
rnuch ntore than non cent ral (or pcripheri:t)
altitudes would. For exampl e. ill Ill<'
attitude towards world peace. a negauve
Chaptrr G Allilrult flllfl .S<witd Coglllfioll 109
;1llllttdr IIJW;crrh lllllttary cxpc
'""' l w I"' . <' Ill ; 1, . I <on or C'(' lllr<tl <lllrtuclc
tlr: t l nlluc rtc. c , all orlwr a t liludcs in the
lllllllplt atrtlttdc ' Y'>l<.' lll
/\llitud c Formation
Orw IIIIJWrlanr that psycholog
.11 e in answer lug rs how ar e
.r I II 111 for r lied? Like rnn ny oll1cr 1 lro
n nd concepts that nnd become pan
o( our c-ogn1trve s ys tcm. attrtudcs towards
diff<'H'tlt topt(s. II <tncl people al so nr c
fOIIIIC'd as we rrll cnwt wt l r others tlow<.'V<'r.
tllcrc i JIC' sr><'cilk condiii()IIS lhat IC''ld to Ute
fornr c.llion ol spcC'ifr c atliludes
In gener al . attitudes arc learned
through one's own experiences. and
througlt interaction with others . There arc
a few rcscnrch st udies thal show some son
of inbor;, of a ltitudes. but such
factors inf1ucncc auitudes onl y
ll)dtn.:clly. a long wilh learning. Therefore.
rnost social psychologi st s have focuscd on
I he condilions which lean to the
o f Mtiludcs.
Process of 1\llilude Formation
n1e processes and conditions of learning
may be diffc ten t . resulling in varyi n g
altitudes amonp; peopl e.
L.Ro.rning attiL11rl es hy association : You
might hav.e seen tha t student s often
develop a liking for a particular s ubject
because of the leacher. Thi s is because
they sec many positive qualities in that
t each er : I hesc positive qua lities get
linked to the subject that s/h c l eaches.
anclullimately get expressed in l h c lorm
of liking for the s ubject. In other words.
a positive all it ude towards lhe subject
is l earn e d through the positive
association between a teacher and a
stuclcnl .
LC'w ning nu
11 1

IIC r s >!J berng reu(llderJ
Pllrrrshect If ., 1 . I
coli Ill( 1\'1( 11<\l IS pr , ti SI'O fo1
Sltowrng a I .
n Cll ar aUllude. c-hancc:s
ar<: higl l hal S/he will develop
furU,cr. Por CXCllllplc. If n
c<: nager does !JC>gasanas regularly. a 11c\
gets lhc honour of being Cooc\
tcnlth' in her Sl'IJOol. she n1nv ctcvc-lop
n I10Sitiv(' attit
< c towards !JIIfJCI ;uHI
lwnllh rn gencrnl, SinHI<trly, tf ;'I <'1111<1
falls Ill b ecause s/hr c, ol s
JUnk foocf instcacl Of prop(.'( Ill(' <Il l'>. I hen
llw chld Is likel y to. develop ncp:lll\'f'
alllt ucle lOw(lrds junk l'oocl . <thO a
posir ivc. :llllludp IOW<i rli'> t'<llll 1:4 lift,.
Lew ollitudes Lhro11glt rnocleii"'!J
fo/Jservrng orhersJ: Oltc:n 11 ,., no1
through associntron. or throug,l1 reward
a nd . punisluncnt. that \\'c.: learn
anrtudcs Inst ead. we learn tht:'m hv
observi ng others being rcwnrdell o-r
punished for cxpresslllg tho11ghto;. or
showing bchav1our of a parltcular krnd
towards t h e a ltitude ob)cc\ For
example. c:hildren may for m ,1 respcc t lui
at titude towards elders. by ob . v,ng
that their par ent s show nsp, 1 lor
elders. and are appreciat ed for 11
Learning altitudes through group or
Cllllural norms : Very ofl en. W<' 1 :11 n
a t ti tudes the n orms ol
j:!roup or culture. Norms arc mwt ill en
rules about beh<n;our tha t evervolll' is
s upposed to s h ow under S)h'l' t llc
circums tances. Over lime. these 1101
may become pa rt of our soci"l <'OP.tlltrmt.
in the form of attitudes. Lc.".1111111g
attitudes through group <lr ('ltllur.1l
norms may actually be an cxampl<' uf
a ll three forms of dt'S<'t 1bcll
above - learning through a:)SO<.'I 1tlun.
reward or punishment . and mud, 1\tng
Por example. offering mont:v. ts
fruit and nowers in a place of wo1 I up 11
a normaliYe behaviour in some
\\1 It I'll Hld tV JCI II. I h !,C<: I It :d ' ll c h
Jw iJ ,tVIfHir t !. ""!;)t()WII f>y O l fll't I S
ex,,c-clc-d and o,or t: tlly :lJ;provcd. the)" dc-vc lnp n post r i vc
;;1 tHudc tow:trcb !>urh bcltavtour : 111rl lite
assoc.atcd fcc.:li 11 gs of dcvolion
Vanrrng tltrouglt exposure to
mjotrnatron: :tllll u dcs nr<l<-nrnC'd
"' n o;ort:tl ronwxr. hu 1 1101 IIN'C ssn nly
111 rlw phvs p r ('Sc:nc c of o t hcrs .
Todny. witlt tltc lt ugc arnou111 of
infornwtton th. 11 hc: u 1g provided
through various 111<.di a. both pos tli vc
C:Jnd rwg; tll\'f' <t 11 Jt udcs "re bdng forlll cd.
O_v rtadtllg tltc of .,df-
actwlftscd pcrson'>. <JI1 tnchvidcml
dt\'tlf'Jl : J'>OSII tv< all tlculc I mrd
\H:;d aucf t1ll l'r ,.. pc c I'> as 1111' nii'<Ht ' of
;a '" l tfc
Prrnr,r-; tltfll fnjllfPIIrt> 1\lfrturlr> Formntt rm
n1e follow111g f<tcl(,rs pmvidc lhc conl cxt for
the Je;,n'"'i'. of <llttlllrlcs t la roug ll t he
prrA.esse.c rfr rriiJcd ai.KJ\.'(
ForTIIIIJ 011d School Enuiro11rnt>nt :
111 tlw cnrly years of l tfe.
fY-JntJI S ""d t11hcr (;wuly rnell thers p iny
a SJgnlfiC<Hll role iu shaping alltludc
forma IJCirJ. the school
em .. irc..nrncnt becomes an import ant
1Jackgrounrf fo r a llllude formation.
Learniug of altit ud(s withi n the (:muly
:tnd dr-r>l usually pl::1r: by
:ts,r,ci::tlion . throngh rewards and
r' JnJ,hrwnl,, ::tnd II trou gh nJoddlinJ!.
tP Crrmp:. : f<l:ff:r cnce groups
llldiuJte "' an inrlividual the norms
regard1ng au.eptable l,t:haviour anrf
way. of tht-:y n:flt;ct
Je;;srrung of thmuf1h group rJr
cult u r;:, I nt;r rw .... AI 11 t J d t;!> 1 () wa r d!,
1\tllfiiJu" tr,r,ac, . ,,J( h ;j-; fJ'Jli tlr a l.
relto and #, r1( groI(J',,
<X: up bm r ,c,rral wJ or t,1;r i',','J' :',
fit n dey Jr,r,ttJ

lwl ,
nuc nc 1 1:, fwttr t,rl)lt
r, ours
1 . II JtJ(lllf.! til (' Wl!llllll lll' I
1-.,prna y t .
. (" . ,, W IJJ(' I l tttll C ,, I
.lri<>IC!;CI 11 '- '

for tlw incl 1v1drtal to fct l
lriiJIOI ( .lt l , (
I I I 1
,1 oronp tl11
:-,f 1(' )C: 01 "''' n ' . .
roll- of rcfc:rcncc groups n t .a U t fllcl(
frJI JllaliOtl t n:-ty I>< rr c <JM' of rnu If'.
thro llf!h nw;trrl and
;j Per,mwl F::<prrir>nces : atlttudt,
f(' I CJ J'IliC'rl . JI O I Ill I IH' 11tl iV
cnviron,tcnt or 1 r e fC"r C' t t< r
groups. hut through di r ccl pct son;d
('XJ)(' t'i(' llCcs winch bring about (1 clrw,t 11
c h ;llt.f!<' tll 0111 <llli luclc towards JWOpl<
<mel ()Ill own ltfc. i-fnc i !, a r crtl ltl1
c x;tmplt. 1\ driver i n t hc w t pf
1111 ,,.,_glt ;1 pcrst,rHd cxptrt<nt<' '"'"
1 r;u I 11s ltfc 011 ouc: rni s sir,, IH
nnrwwly csc:l pc-d dcarJ, :ct llho u glt <'Ill I .
ctHIIp<tt rt OII!> I< i fl e d . \Vo rl(Jf-ri ng ;JIJtJI II
IIH' purp(Jf>( of l ti!'. OWII life. he f!.r!VI' 11p
lri '> J Ob in the <trr ny . r e t urned t o IIi <;
nat 1W: vi llagc in M a II a nt:. h t r a. i'lll d
work<cf activc ly as a community lc-<tdet
Tltrough n purely per sonal expcric rtcc
tltis indi\'id u<t l evolved a s t rong iw
;,11i111rk tow;,rds community upliflrttC'JJI
I I rs d l orl s c:ompl etely changed thr
of his village.
4.. Mediarelaled 11!/l.ttences: Tcch nolop,iusl
advances in r ccenl limes have m;...dc:
audo \'is uaJ rncclia and the I n ternet ver y
rXJ\VCrful SOIIrCeS Of in formation l l trll
to formalion and
In ddiliou. school l evel l cxl bCJOk s 1JI!>IJ
influc: n cc M lit II de forma l i on . 'J 1 J('',c
s trengthe n the
rtnd ccJmponen t<; of nllilud':' ..
and ,ub<;eqw.:ntly nray a i51'J afl cc 1 tl.c
cornpuncnl . n,c rncd i<J < '' "
(xrrl tJCJI IJ g()rJ(I and b:-.rl lnfh on
On one hrtncl. Uw rM;dli t
lll l rrrtrt rmtY. c.: p(;uple bc: ll er lflf()r 11lf'd
IJ.' IIJ fJI J If;( lfi (J<ft, ()( C;()lllf OllllfcZJ liOJJ .
I llr: t,f br:r ku l(J , I I H:r<; may IH; 110 d ,c t I.
(lfl I Itt ll rtlllf( fJ( ill(()r 111:11ilJII
(.Jr-.,,.,., f, . ltllti /Uit mlll r :IKJIIllllm I II
1\-tll wrrd :u rd llwH f(H t no ( 111 tl rc
1 owr
tl w ;tltrlrrrlt, fr
:tl . ,
llw dtrt c ll l llt IJf lltanw tn tltt ('Xi ' , (HHI
: tllrlllrlr', ' I lw tHtch;l ran lw
C ll' :tf( C' IJII'.CIIIII ri:, t whc; r<
IIIII II' C'Yt', lld ( ; 111 <rl,e) IJ(' lr;.rrnt, rcl
l(f c rf: r(r ()C}",IIJvc ;Jtlil 11dr., lc1 (;.rr tlt'l;,;,.
,r11 t; l lr;rrlllflrtV
1w twtt 11 11 ,1 p

J> X . tllllurl 0 -X,:tttthtrl' :,,,,,
1\ l liludc Cl tangc
lire pr(Je (''' (Jf (IJrrn::tli(>tt,
: r1 tcl ;rl<,t, aftf'r thi, proce!,,. <'lllludcs nmy
ft ;, rt Pcd <t11rl mt,cltftr;d v;;triOII',
lllllllt' IIC' C, l tllitudr , f'lt ;;Htr!l' lltc
tlt.llt ollltr[; dr, /\lll l11dc., lh;rt '";.' s till ,.
t l tl' fo t Ill ative <; l:r,e, :'!ltd 11H1 rc like
OJIIIlieHI'-,, ;lrf' JliiH lr Ill ()(( l!k('(y ((J
c 0111parr: cl lo <ttlitucl e <:. ltr!v( IJ<:umw
ltrtllly c:s t aiJl i sltcd . laii\'f lwccmrc: <t p<Ht
c,l lit e indivichHtl'<; value!> l rom ' ' r>ractical
fJIJJ n I of view. bn <t l>ou 1 t1 c Ita nJ!c: 1 n
IJI'CJ(ll f' s (t( ( tlttdc s i S Of trtl.l; r (;!>l l fJ
crJII Irll t ll uly lc-etdct s. politirians. prrJ<iu<cr ,
f>( ('rJit '>U rn;r 1!-fJCJd <tdverli!.<.:r ad ollwrc,
Ull ll",<; wc find Ollt how altitudes chang(.'
1111cl wllal conditions acc:ou nt for s ucl t
l'l ta11gc. il would nol be possible lo take
to bring a b(Jul alliludc; change.
of Allitude
Tht ec major concc.:pts tha t draw a lle n lion
to some prOC"csscs I n allit u clc
rll c: c1escrlhcd below :
Ia) 11' e concept o f palance. proposed by
Fritz I !cider is- sometimes dc:scri bed in th<
forrn o f tlt e ' P-o-x tt ianglc. whi c h
n.:lalion ships u c l wtcn lhrcc
a!-. p rc Is or componC' nts of th< alltludc P 1s
tl w per son wh os<" a ttitude IS being st u clt e cl .
0 i s 11110 lh<::r person . a ncl X is the topic
towards which the all I tude Is being s tudied
(attit ude obj ect) . I t i s al so possible all
three ;trc; per son s.
>tllltlltl < 'll i' , 1
, I ' I,. Jf' ( :ilt',t IHIIJ,II,ut< t 1'
r,f, I C' <J II V llllcc t If I I I .
, '
or a' r r lrfn:rr.rt ''"'
' '"''' tflc ., 1
' >.
rr r 1 ICcllrtrtillll (Jf!,:11:u1c ,.
. lrnl):,,nnrc 1, found wlwn Ill "'' ''"''''
,rde;, c,f II p . Q X
IC. - I c
11) lwo rc
, . ' ,. pof,t rv:. <sntl ()""' ,.,
ncp, ... tt \'t Urtlart('f i, frJitnd whrrr IIi a lt hr ,.
".lfl ,.., fJCJ'it ' I
.. IV( . r>r 11) twr, , 1tlt :
live. " ' 1Cl o ne sid i, !J()l,JI\ Vt
_c.:on:.tdl:r t h e c:x:Jmplt c,r d t,wrv "' au
<I Itt uri( I(J pk lXI. 5 uppow < fK:r'>tm (PI ha-,
H f 10',Jt IV(; <t llitudc (OW"rcj <, ''''Wry (l> X
p 1", !JI(IIHIIIIJ!. ((J J!r( hf!> ',l)lt
rmo nrcll<l ll l<; dtluf!l.ttrr CJI 'Oilt' 10)
w ), c, ltw, H lll:gjt ltV.C ;i tttlwlr tuw"rrl :. ,,, ry
10-X Wlr:i\1 \WJIJI I !,r t l
t IJ;tlUH.:
Jf the P O <sud hw: v.:r 111 ll
cktr rrlltll<' balan rc () r rm\,a i;Htc 1: 111 tlw
. tlll rriHJit':" If 0 irlltJ,dly hH, a I''' ,
:.t P, tlw wt
ull J,,.
P-X i, po!,lllvr. OP r, I"'' 111\'c
hilt 0 -X t<; ll('gat iw ' ll1HI 1'>. tlr<rr ar 1'.'.'(>
and <Jn< lll'f',:tlr 1 111 tlu-
'llw; a Sil wrli(Jn ul Orv- r,lthc
llrrc:c -. ltt tu dcs wtll l la <rcfc.,rt h<t \' ( \<J
chang<:. 1 1, 1s c:hangc- could t ake plar 1 ,, , _:,,.
P-X relationship tP start s dishkmg d , JV
as a cust om). or i n the O X r elat1011 h p (0
starls hklng dowry :lS a cust om) or m t1 ,.
0 -P rel ationship (O st art s d cshk1111' . 1 In
s hort. an attitude< wHI lravc to t.ak
place '>0 tha t thcny,11l b<: three pu ln:r
rela tions hips. or two a nd OIW
pos1livc rel a tions hi p. in the
(b) The concept of cognitive dissonance
was proposcc1 uy Leo n FcS\1 11 "
c mphasiMs the cognt ll\'c compou 111
lh<' h ns t c ul ca I S th<ll thC" (
C 0 Ill p C) 11 (' Ill <; 0 f (\ ll :1 I! till cl t I l ('
con !)ollanr (oppos ite ol ' dissonant ) I e
they s hould l>e logically In line wilh 1 ' " "
o the r. If an tntli\'ldual hnd th t ,r.vo
The.: b ask Idea i s t h a t an a ttitucl e
chan[!< s if lhc J(' Is a s tale of
In an atUtude are di
tlwn one or them w11l ch
tlw dinction or consonance F'cn
t l11 nl .1ho11t t h <' fo ll owi n g tclc>:1s
( {oglltl lllll,.;)
Ct)glll l l(l ll I J>C/ /1 11 1(/MII(I C(II IM'S
mow ll < wwtt u/ucll rs.fotal.
Cnl.!lllftot l II I cat poll masala.
I lolclmg llu's<' two !dens or cognitio ns
\ IIl ii m.t k<' any u HII\tdll a l fed th.ll SOlllCi hi n,(!
t s out n l hil l<'. o 111 th e nllilu<k
IOW. II f)( l/ 1 lllf iMI ICI Tiler efor t'. Orl l' o fiiH'Sl'
wtll h ,l\'t' t o IH' c h a ngl'd. so th:'ll
C(lll nee c. tn l w :lll:l lltt'd. In 1 ht cx;u npk
g " cn :-t btlY<'. 11 1 or d <' t to H ' IIIOV<' or rcdu<x
1 h e d tsson .IIH'<' . I wi ll s l op ea ting p(/11
masalu (d w ngl' Cog11ilton II) . This wou ld
he Lhc h c:1111v. loglc-: t l and sen s tblc way o f
I C'd ii CIIl g dtS'i(JI);.lll ('(' .
l ' tstJil [.!<'l .u1cl < ':lll !,lllith. two soci :-11
J l1>\' <"ht) fOQI S I 1-o. ('Oildll <' l t' d .111 CXp <J'ii11Cil l
thn t s lt o\\'tcl !tow cog ntl i\'l' di .ssonnnct'
" or (SL'<' Uo., Ci :!.)
Ho t it b:tl :t 11cc ,1nd cogn i!lve dissonan cc
ilre l'x:u ppl<:s uf cognitive c ons is tency .
Cognrt l\e con s i s ltn cy tha t two
compo n en ts . ... p t'ct s 0 1 d ement s of the
t lll 11
cl <' svstc' ll l. tnt r -; 1 IJ<' i11 t h e
Hl i (ll ( (' 0 1 : I . .
. I. ' ) II , ... 1( ' 11 cl<- tll (' ll l :> lt oultl
' 1 rTf(' ( I I ('(' I( "
s. II r. II Ill IIIII' wllh o l hct C'ICIIH'lll li
IO!-\I<':t y 1.1

t<J t lt '' f JIH' " tlc n 1 ftc p et .o, t
ti lls <<H'!> ' "
, ..

ldnd of rn<'nt:tl cllscornfor l 1 <' .
ex per rCJJ, c
I Sc lll
"l sornc lhlrtg b n o t q u i te ' f! tt '
1 1c sen.
i ll the a l lll tJciC !>yst<' lll In su ch a sl a te. .on."
asptcl In til <' ;t ll iltHh' !>VSt<tn Ill
lite dirccliotl of consisl t' tHy. IHc-at tS<' Ollr
coAn l t V<' t Cq ll i l <.'s l ogt c:l
<'Oil S IS I (' I H'Y.
(c) The twostcp concept was p roposed l>y
S. M . Moh sln . :'I ll l n cli n n p sych o l ogt s t .
J\ rcorcllll g to him. ntlilu(l <' c h a nge tn l:s
pl ace i 11 the forlll o l st ep s. I n lhc fhs1
s tep. !I IC l :lrl-(<' 1 of icl cnlines wil l tl w
sn r c<' . Tl tc ' ta rget' is 1111' p et,ntt 'lt
:lll t ludt is 10 l w The so11 rcc' '
1l 1e fH'rSOil I l u Oll g l t whose lllflll ell <'<' II :
c ll n ng c is t o t : tiH p l ace. Id e ntifi cation
t h a t 'the t ar get h<ts liking a net rcg<trd
for lite so11rce. S/ll c JHII S h crsel f/ lt i lll sclf
i n the o f til e n n d tries IO feel
lil<c her / hi nt . T he sou r ce II l ll S ! a lso have a
Telling a Li e for Twenty Dollar s Box
Afi C'r 111 a very b01 mJ! t'xperhnen t. n of s tudcnls we-re lo tell
aJJoll ter gruup ol walltng outs ide lhat U1e t;Xpcrirncn t was very lnlcrcstiug. For
tell thi s he to Lhe walling s tudents. half of the 01st group of s tudents paid$ I . and
the u l her half wtr c paid,$ 20. After some weeks . lhc pa rticipants of the boring cxp< ritnc nl
were as ked to rc:ca ll the expcnmen t. and to say Interesti ng U1ey had found tha t
experiment to be. The responses s howed U1a l lhe S I group described lhc exp<rfmc nt as
nrorc ant eresung than the $ 20 group. The was : the $ I s tudents cha nged
lhc1r allttude lh c,c::xperimenl because U1ey experi enced cogniUve di ssonance.
In t he S I group.
Tile tr11t1al cogultlons would be :
IOi %onant cogni tions )
'The t>xp<mtllf"lll was IX?T1J
tlold the Wlliti119 slude11fs llral it
Wfl '>
1 tuld a li<: f or only S 1. -
Tile changed cognitions would be:
(Dissonance reduced)
/he experi ment was (JCII UI II!J i rllct csf ing " :
"/ lold lite waiting student s 1/ral II wus
interesting :
"I wo11ld 1101 ltave tolrl o lie f or onl!J S 1 . ..
n.e $ 20 cl uJ n(JI cognitive dissonance. So. they d id not clt:ang<: u
:.t ll ll ut1e lh< txpf; ri ment. and ra ted it a s very boring.
TI1e :_ognli i(.JO:> m the $ 20 (No dissonan ce) group would be :
IJK: I!Xflf::I UIII' fll l!(! t y fx.mng";
I told llw lllfntmg st ude, ts tlwt '' was i nterestmg
., wl!J CJ. I UI(J $ fJIJtd $ 20.. .
Clt:pl(r G Alll fiU[t ruwl SfH11rl CorJirltlwr
fi J
l VI' .lllJt lldt lmvat d<, t Itt tar" t'l . 1 1
- n .Il l( tiC
d .IIIII : lilt :H lltl ll lwf'onws lllltlllal. In
<cnt ral a llil u<ks " ' .
l ht: I ' C IIIOret} lfll<',lth I OI'!t.llllll
II II' 't'l tllld ,II' J I. lilt' c
,fliJ\V<., .111 .1\llltHit 1 hy <H'Itt<llly
c ""'l'"'l-' ht /lnllt IJhwtcHtr towards l h<'
.tl!lriiCit ohrct I Oh,ctvllll! l h e sourccs
< ""'l'.<tl <1ltltlldt and bdtavtmll . lhe larg<:l
i! l ,o !,ltow . an :tlltlll<l< dtangc th rough
lwlt vtou llll 'i Is a l<tncl of h tlllaltf>n or
oh!>t't va tton:tl lt:ttlllllf'
CS') I.'Xtr<tn< ' 1 l I 1
l l >f"tt p wr. l llt",,
"' n all lliHic'>, ..,
arh ''"S' . '" c :11\1\ltd c,
' " r<:r to cl :1
alli ludc&arc.
' t han lll ll l trplc
In a<ldlllon
..., . .
rnuM a l !'.(> con<;l<l<'r llw
utr(>CitOn an(\ l' 1, r
. .x fI ll o a tt ll ucl< 1\n
attitude ch ang(' may lw cong l
intlw . . . . n en II cnav
Coll ,t d< II H' ex:l Il l piC' or l W()
, l cp .:t lltllldt c lt:uHt<. l'r<'<' li IC'<Hi s 111 the
pc , llt.\1 :. p:ullc11 br sof t clrlnl< that
l>h <' C'IIICJV'i s <'XI I ttnl'ly ll; nmful l3u l Prc;c ti
s<t'!> 1 l w I a vou t I< !>On It as
b t'<' ll advC' tl lsi n g li t< :;;un< soft clrinlc She
l ms i dc lltil lc<l l lcr sC'If with li lt' spor lsp <rson .
<J rlll W<H tl cl lt kc to i 111 it;tl < her /him. Now.
su ppost the s portsperso11 wts les to ch<1ngc
p<:op k 's ;l(t t l ll <k l ow:11 ds 1h1s soft d ri n k
It 0 111 pos tl l\'e to IIC'V,:lll\c Tlte 1-> ponspt r sot1
fir<; ! s how pos!l tvc ft'c hngs for h c tf
ht s fans. tlwn :l<'111HIIy C'lmngl" lwr/hts
own habit ol consumi ng t h at soft dri nk
(Step I) - perhaps by it wilh a
h ealth drinl< If l il t' spor tspc 1 son actua ll y
ch<mgcs her / I 115 heh<tyiout . tl i s very likely
that now PreNi wtl l nl so c-hnngc h er a tll l ude
a nd behavio\11 . a nd s to p cons u ming tlle
hnr mful soft d rinl< (S tep II).
Fctcl ors t lla t lnjlucnce Altitude Change
Whe t her a ttitudes will change. and if so. to
what extent. is a question U1at puzzles many
I low-ever. most of t hem agree
upo n the foll owing fa c tor s tha t
a t til uctc
Chwoctrrislics existing n ttilude:
All fou r propert k s of a ltitudes 11l l' 1'llion ed
ea rl ier . n ame ly. val ence (positivity o r
negativity). extremeness, simplicity o r
complexity (multlplcxit y). and centrality
o r significance of the n llitudc . determine
ntlituct e ch n n g<' . In [.!c: n e ral. posili\' C
attitudes <l l <'easier to chnnge than negallvc
nltilltdcs ar e. t:x trcme nttitu.dcs, and
alltt udc (for ex

<l rnp <. a <lllll u <lc
may bcco111c mor e llOSiliv<' o r .
at(' " t1<.R:l llvr.
: II udc may lwconw 11101'(' t lwl For
mstanC'e suppos , .
. . c
t>< n..on ;, !>o11wwha 1
post! tv<: allcludl c mpowct nwnt of
WOtllCn . tkacling rt lJ ( I\1( S II ('('C' % 1111 WOIIl:t ll
may make li tis <lltllt\<1< postlt w
would be a congrwnt changc. On l it< ot Itt
a n a lliludt ch ang(' "''' v ht
ncongruent - it nmy C'h<lltl!,t I n a c1
t c t
opposi te to thc cxlslllll!. nlllllttk (for <x;11
a posllive attitlldc lwco111cs 1< ::-s

negati ve. or a tx:conws lcs!>
n:g:llivc. or posiltvd In tlw tx:11 np1t
.gvcn. a fter readinv,about S\1CC'C''>Sful wome n .
person may lhtnl< that women tmp,ln !>Wil
become too a n d tlwi t
fa mily nus make the
person's exis ting posll iw a llt lu<l<: towards
empowerment of women. tess pO'>ttm.:. o
even negative. If th1s happens . then it would
be a case o f incongn 1cnt ll has hnn
found that. in <:h .mf,r s
arc easie r t o brinE! about tha n a rc the
incongruent cha nges in attitudes
Moreover. an may cha nge m the
di rection of the informa ti o n t hat is
presented. o r in :1 d irc<'lion opposllt' to th,lt
of the informatio n present ed . Pos te r s
descri bing the lmportanet' ol one' s
teeth would strengthen a pos itive ude
towards dental care. Bullf people arc shown
fri ghlcninf.!. piclurt's of dental cavities. lhev
may nol believe the pic tures . and
become less posit ivc about de nta l -ear e
Hcstarch has found tha t fear
works well ln comlnt'lng people but If a
generates too much fc:ar. ll twns
Off the ;tlld l illil' fll'I S ll <l S JVC
Sou,.ce clto rac'U'rtSitcs Source
. credibility nnd attractiven ess <trc two
f ea tures tlwt affect at tiludc ch:wgc.
Alliludes arc mon. likely to ch:1nge when
the mcss:1gc come:; frolll :1 highly credible
:;ourcc rn the1 tl w 11 trotn a tow-credi b le
For cx;ltnplc. wlto <trc
planning ro buy n In prop :1rc more convinced
by a compu1e1 cnRint'er who points out the
special fe.'ltures of a partiC'ular brand of
laptop. rhan they would be l>y n schoolchild
who might f!.ive the same inl(wmation. But.
if the buyers nrc thcmsci\'<:'S schoolchildren.
thcv mnv be COtldnccd tll orc bv another
sch-oolchil d ndn: 1lisi ng n lapt op they
would he by a pmkssiollal giving the same
111Jorm:1ti011 (sec F1gurc G I). In the case of
some products such ns cars. sales mav
increase 1f they arc publici sed. n o.t
necess:Jnly by experts. but by popul ar
pu bhc figures

r--- 1 ,
: J.
1- /
f IChJ(I A
My laptop is my key
to success - I 00 CB
s rorage capadty.
light in we1gllt. can
do JL'()nders for me !!
Ruy om> nou. nnd
see llou you grow !!

nrtert sties : Tl w m (ssag<'
Message c -.
r l 'lliOn I hal iS present CO Hl Cll d,r
is t 1c 11101 n
. b l nn nllituclc clmngc. Attu \111. ,
l O bnnga Oll ' ' r
Wllcl 1
c a1110lllll of illiQnnation
w'i c
that is nuoutthc topic i s just enough.
neil too much nor t oo \Vh<? t her thl:
a rat 1o n al or an
mt:ssngt c .
emotional appeal. also makes a di l fcr cncc.
For exnmplc. an ::ld\'C' rti semcnt for cooking
a pressure cook er may point out
tl Ht l thi s saves fuel such as cool<ing ga,,
(LPG) tl nd is economical (raUonal nppeal),
Alternatively. tlw mlvcrti selnellt mr1y say
that pressure-cooking preserves nutrition.
and thn l if one for !he l iullily. nultition
would b e a major :t;o'n ccrn (em oti on al
nppc<l iJ (sec Fil!urc 6.2).
The m o tives nctivnt cd by the
a l so d et e rmine al tituci<' ch ange. l\n
exa mple. dri nl<ing mill< may be sa i d to
mal<e a pel's6n healthy ;:tnd goocl - l ool<ing.
or more energetic ;m el more successful al
ones job. '
My /(!pLop is my key
lo success - 100 CB
stomge capacity.
liglll in we1glll. can
do wonders for me !!
Buy one now. and
see ltott you grow !!
Picture B
rtq 6 I ; Widell l 'ictwe II 'Ill Make You More Eager lo 8 I ,.
. uy a ...... pt.op Picllue A. or Pictwe B? \111)2
Clt:tr>wr G ;Alii I 1 c-. I II( p (Ill( XK'If l/ ('.A>fJTiflfWI
/<(111011(1/ (1/)fJI'(I/
1\r e !JOII 5/)('lldlll<j !OO
much 011 cookury gos?
Suorlch lo lire
cooke. and soy
yooc.II>!Jl' lo !J'" rr
I.Judgel pro1Jie111s!
r (
f:urolloucrt uppcut
lcunnq (or IOIIr (ornrhrJ
T'itJ (; 2 . Unrinnnl ruul Eruorionofl'lpfwlrl!>
Fina lly. the mode ol spreading
the m essage plays a signifi ca nt rol e.
transmission of the message
s usually more effective than indirect
transmissi on. as f or instance. through
your ch ild
from h<:>o t
in the
a{d panlphlets. or even throu gh
mass media Fo . r example. a positive
atulude towards Oral Rehydration Salls
tORS) for young children is more dfectlVclv
created if commu mty SOCial workers and
. . ,/
'( .. .
'"' r. ... ) . .
, ..... .. : .. , .ar;.- -:: .. ,
... ':1:1 '' ....... ...., ..,..
.. --. .. ... '
(. "' I\ ' . \-
-'.- : . : f . . . I . \ \ \ . 't
/ ,.._ d.' '
... \"'\ l I
t: \ . i'; .
"'::< --':'
.-/ "- >J
F'ig.G.:l: lnl('mclion t>>rsus Medi<t Tmnsmission. Which ont> urorks_twrrf'I'?,WIW
dncro r :-.. tel llw nw. .. tJ!c' hV r.rllung
pcttpl d11 <'CI lv r lr.tll I;,, ortlv ck:c: r rhlll!\.1 w
ht'tll'llh nl till llw r .ulro ( ltftlll<' h .I)
I dav:-.. lltrong ll vr-.r r: d
llttcli.r '"'"' 11 "'"' rc l,hlon .rrrd rile lnrc rrwl
.uc lo LH'<' ro I:Ht illl{'l.l<' lhlll , h11l
nor .1 lor r lw 1.\llt' r
TW!I<'I drw mt ' llst.r.'i . nl rlw
l. liJ!<' I . :weir .r s p c r ::. un:. IIJll lty. S l l Oil/!
prtjudiccs. self <'St ccrn . rncll n t dll a< n cc
lnllutnce the lilcdllwod : 111d <xtcrJI of
; lllrllrde C'lt.lllJ.!c" Pcoplr. w lro l r.r V{' :1 II lOll'
OiJ("I l,llld lk'Cihlc Jli' I Mll l:llrly. cll.III/W IIJOI<'
1\dvcrtr sc r :-; lwrwOtmosl lrOIIl :.udr
JW<lph People wrllr s lr OIIf\ prejudice, .lH'
less pr 0111' I o .liiV .1 tlrllrdc cll:lllgl' 111:111 lllw.c
'' lro do 1101 lrold 1 OIIJ! prep rei rn:-; l'tr
wholr:r\'1' , , low sdl l' s lcrrn . 11111 d o 1101 lldH"
,.,ullrcil' rll corlfrdc. rlt'l' 111 rhernsl'lvcs. c lr,lngc
tlrcir nllrludcs riiOil' c.tsrly th.111 those wlro
.uc l11!!h on sdl t 'SII"CIII MOH' intl"lligcnf
pcopk cll,lng<' 1 hdr altitudes lt:ss casrly
!Iran those with lown ll ll c ll l$!l'IIC<' llow<ve r.
'-OIIIt'l lll lt'S IIIOrt' JWI :O,OilS cfr,lltge
llrt'll 111{)1{' Wl lflll_gfy lft:lll ft'SS
lll lc lhgcnt bt'C<IIISl' they tlrc. ir
attit ude Otllllon: informati on and thinking.
Attitude-Behaviour Relations hip
We usunllv expect bchaviout l o f oll ow
l ogically l rolll at titudes. Jl owcvcr. Cl n
at lituclc:s may not always be
exh i bit ed l h m ugh behavi our . Llkcw1se.
one's actual behaviour 'may be contrary to
one's atti tude t owards a par ticular topic.
have found tha t th<'rc
would be consistency betwceh att itudes and
heha\'Jour wht'll :
the :ttliltJcic is strong. a nd occupies a
< cntral pi<Jcc in the a ltit udc system.
rhe person is awar e of her / his attitude.
rhere is vey Ji ttJc or no external pressure
for rhe person to behave in a part icular
way. For example. when ther e i s no
group pressure to follow a particula r
, I llt VIOII I h 1101 btIIIJ'.
11 l l('l'oOII ' )( ' '
11 " I I lttd I>V ol Itt' I ' ,IIIII
w.lll'l rt' d or c v. l' . .
II I 111
llr,tl tlw l w l r.t '' "' l
!Ill' pt' r I I
fl'>llJ\"I' coii,<'CJI 11"111 t .t rrd
w01 rld ll avl'
. l (' lrd to t' ll;': tJ'I" Ill I
1111'1 ("({)I('. Ill ' ' '
y \VIl<'ll J\lllt' IIC:III'> W( ' ll' ,;)id
Ill I H' ( .1 s
1 ,111 -
t 11 s t lit<: C lrirH",.r.
(() f>t f) l t'UC 'M' ,
1)1('1"'' ' 111 1\IIICIIC":IIl
Hwlrar < ' ...
I 1() 11 1
-q C'OIIciiiCIC'cf the folloWIIII', 10 " ..,
:, tlldy. lit' a:-.l<cd " Ch!JH'St' cou pk l o lr avt I
rl c r os:-. tlt r United St a ll's. and ' ' '
clllfcr e n! hot els Onlv once dllrlng
occ.u;ton s th<')' Wt"r e r tllr Sl' d viet" hy Oll t'
or tilt' holds lai.Ct . l.:t PicrC' SCIII
011 1 t c'> S or ll oti'IS
.tiHIIOIIIiSI h OIII t'S IIIII I(' ;"lll'f. '
tire Clr n H"S!' coupll' ltad tt:l\'l'lkcl.
!11<'111 H tlrcy w01rld gfv{ accolltlllOdalioll ' "
A ve ry l<ll gt' sa11l
!lwl they would 11o t clo so. This respoll s l"
aUiluclc towa r ds !I ll'
w s<'. which wns inconsi stent w il l r tire
poslll\-e IJclw\'iO\rrthat w:1s ::"'Cl u HIIy s iHJWrl
t owards the travc llitt g Chi11csc couple.
Thus. nl!ll u des may n ot nlways p reclict
actual pattern or one' s
- ------- --
Cui 0111 an crduertisemcnt from a
rr eu spaper or r11agu%i11C'. that
contai ns sometlr iii[J spPCi(l/ nnd
ccrtcl ws vnur crttelltion. Write dow11
tile fo/lou..ting detai l s about t ll at
adrJertisement. crnd present it to your
Tile topic o.f tl te crduerliser11elll
(for e:((tmpl e. r(lflrtller tlt e
ralrJer tisrmrnt is "b011 1 r1
consw11er product. some food. a
conrpany. cr ll eal t ll r11u!ler. a
rwtrollnl tllemP. etr.}.
Good and bad consequences of
tltc adver t iseme11t .
Wl1rt1Jer it C'OIItnin.'> a11 emotion(ll
apf Jerll or a rational ctppC'rrl.
Wll elhcr it COlli Ciiii S Q fJOfJII l Cir
figure : '"' PxpPrt source. or a
wf'l/- l rkrd person.
' ..
Ch:tplt r () 1\ l lll llllf' mul Soci(l/ ( '(}[j ill /lo ll
.. -
' 0111<1 IIIH", rl jo; l w h ; rVIOIII II .
II II' :lll lludc lntlw <'XJ><' . I I' '' cl<Tidr,
l"lll >y Fe 1111 1
and Carl: ,rll rll l heT Box (''') . f'"'
' "- wl
got o nl v CHI<' dollar for l <' lllll g otl .
Ill(' (')\ ) . ICt lit,, t
, I <' llllle llt W;ls llll t rc o.; t ll\f' <I
I I I I ,. I S(0\'(' 1(<1
"' I wy hld tir e iltH"I\1 ' I I .
II I (
. l<l I (}II
lc >:1'.1 <; o llw" lwh t v i 0\11 (l II .
' < oth er ,.
I lilllii('("XJIC' Iillt(tll W<l'>lll((tcstinf' fo 1.,
, 11 ,. 1 On y
a ' ""' <111101111t of tiiOIHy) II <
I V ( Oti(' III Ckd
lh; tt llll'rr :tlti ludc 10\v' tr<l
< .
' ., ' exp t tHil t llt
wac; JH>',Ili\"C' ("' wott lclnc,l l nv< tc lei I
. ' ' a 1< IC>r
thr!-; Srll: tll cllllOIIlll o f fiiOII<y " ' ' .
1 "' II( I III<'<IIIS
lllc cxp<" rimcnl
l llt<' l t'!>( ll l<S"") )'
Ethics in Puhli c Adruinisfra t io n
l h i'' \'jp.:
. II . I'. . II ol :\dnllni "> IIOIII"II
( lrhtghh :11111 ( 111 n nl Pra clt t' t'!l lt.: <: lt.: tllll ' I V. I
1 '
1 > 1suHh ol \ Cill "> 10 I 1c c.:t .u na and
upoln llll' 'fliii ii WI mol '> of lnclla. !!tHil!,' ' "' " H
' . . . , . . .
l 1p.111 1">hads . .S11a111 1 V1vc:kan:lllcf:l gnvc: n cull l(>r 1hc ol lndw ,\li S(:. and
SlOp 1101 ll lf lftl' !!OHI Ic, IC<H.'hcd' (lfllt.\hWt/w JOJ!.I'll((/ fll'(lj)) '(l l'(l l'f/11/llhJUnJI/at a ) .
S11 \trHlhr11clo tarried on rha1 ::.riri lllal 11acll rion h0

<.In ''"'
:1hme c' I k 1dc11 rilicd 1he basic p 111 po'>l' ami of Ilk as loll nw;: llw
l':tllll''' Jlll'onup.lll<lll 111 his awuhncd thouthts :111d. :ts 11 seems. his inc' 11abk .111d
ult HJWtl' flll'Ol'C11p!l tl ol1 ' fo1 it l>urvivcs thL' lon!!CSt pc1imb of scept icism and rctwns .111 1
l'\l'' ' h:uushmt' l11' is lhl' l11ghcs1 1ha1 his thought can cn"i sagL' 11 manitcsrs irscll in the
el l\ lll:ll lllll of godhead. 1hc impulse row<1 rds pc1li:cti on. rhc sc:nch Hl'tl: l p111c rrur h and
11111111\ L'd hlis:-. . I he SCil Sl' or a St.'Crt' l immnrralit v. Til l: ancit'll( da\\ ll S or 1111111(1 11 kil O\\ ledf:c
hmt us rlll'll' wirncss I<> rhi.s conslllll t Today wt 'humanit y sati;llcd h111
ltol by lilt. vic1o1ious nnalysis of rhc cxlcrnaliri ts ofn:Hu1c prcp:11i11g to rl'tt :n:
llll t'\ nl llw t'ndi csl of' wisdom p1 ro be ir s l:1s1' ( i otl . I iPhl.
I lnHnwr.illl,\
Gand/11 dn: 11 his i11spirnri(m riom 1he spin1t1:1l ... lrcn!! lh o r Indi a. l lis
t<;"c hniCJ ll t' of' s:Hvngrah:. wns bnscd on the concept of ahinJsa I his " :)S 1h; ma jor '\lr:l ll'g) 10
lhro." ou1 tlx H111 ish 11hosc vast empire wns at one time such tl wr Il k sun ne,cr ser on ir In
R.tbmd1.111:11h 1 ngorc Il l' ha\l anorher spirir of 11:naissnncc. thi::. 11me in rhe lield of arr .
spann111g lllclilllll l'. langungc::. painting and music. A ll of rhem mboli /.1.. 'd the spiri t o f
lndwn H'll <ussnnce. drn11 ing upon our ancient roors or cfnssicnf 1nsights to wc: k le the
pwhkms ''' modern l ik
In a they also real1i m1 the o1her optmHSIJC message o ( I findui sm so bcauti(ullv
cnuncJ:lll'd m the rhird chapter of 1he Gila:
J'ada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavoti blwrata 1
Ahhyuthanam adharmasyo Jadaunanam srujnmyaham/1
f'oritrcmuya .mdhunam vinasha)'acha dushkritam /
Dharma samhuhl'fllni l 'll"l'
(When evil 11 i s ro
1 . 1
. .... . .ruge
c: nump1 O\er goou. t le d1v1ne cnmes tl l!<l lll and agai n
L'\'t.' J) epoch ro prorcc1 1he good and punish thl' evil. )
'. is obvio,us our cuhure does nor belie ve in 1he pessimis ti c projecti on o r the


ays that we go from orde r d isorde r and
. ' mg. s 1a explore I he ISSlH.: of c ia . .. 1
1 pr<ICIICt:S \\ilh , \' . I . I . cS:m:.l Il lS/{! liS and c un
" It:\\
scemg w !Ciher the lour emi 1 1 . . . .
lrv\\ " "' rad.fe our currelll probl r . L , ,
_mc:n ca_n
!-if>lre u:; wnh 1deas abot!f'
ems OJ m.: llcr l'llllcs Ill publiC adminis trar ion. .
llislol) IW<) lascinalinl! aspccls ' l' lle ,. I . h . ..t
' 1rs IS I c percnn al 1
through lin,c ., he second is rhe f .
' c Hllll o f c hanges as it marcht'S
. . presence o ccrrarn const' lnl (! , rl .
r '"' a re the l>as1s ol moral or erhical c d . S ' e.awrcs. 1csc lllcl udc'valtws
d . on uc r. omc ln ve rr d 1
}ltanuc:. undcrt .. ,,g hisro
y Many ha .
' IC ro IC cnrd v I he common

vc race 11e onward w
. . .
a nu es A mold I cqnhcc saw in hisrory lh. . '
arc l O HSIOI y from dll ft'nul
r IV\ A . . , . e conr muous rccw . I .
t: , ... n Cl\'1 u..ttrum progresses if ;
bl . rmg 11cmc of challcnoe and
IS a c ro ns<: and l I c-
lCCI I H.' c lwllc ngc it fact's and
dccayo., il 11 fails I hc1e 1.., a pmccss of .
, 1
growth aclllcvc
oo .t:.u .,It I ll' tn hnoi<WICal changes in I f ment and then dccav. Alvin r olllcr
. erms o general' .
c 1 1: 11 11c paLe u l
If . b . l(>nS and the pat.:<: of change II
k I
.-c I ">C IS <!COilltnl!. SO f I . < c
mall Ill< ..,l,lrtc:cl l'XfWncnt iiW what he call d 'fi - "
51 1
l<ll m the 1\\cnll<.: th ccnlur'
' ' c ulurc shock' C
0 11
'>1111\ "' lcrm, ol (h,llttll cal materi alism. ommunr.,ts look til 1hc
lnd1a11 l uhurc: has had a heHI s tall
n und d'
erstan mg the fas .
I he and the Upuushad rc - . cmaun_g aspt.:cts of human life .
' ' ' present our anc1e

ld lO'' lc:d!'e founded 011 1 eall/'lliOn -
hey ach d n seers contmuous search for
. .. 1eve great lea d .
ol thL' II Ill\ st tt pOWl' t'> We a
e the f<ortunat . h . ps m percep110n because
. ' c m entors of a !! e . d
t1adll1011 '" h1ch looks at hi e
thiS worl d d . :- r at trd 1110n. lhe Veda111tc
an tncs 10 lind It S u 1d 1
quHHcssc:ncc uf Vl'danw has a dual dimension Th I' ' d ' cr meamng fh..:
e ' 1g,ve a Ia' s dO\\ n the d I . r
llllnan li t 0 /111( 11 111 mohlwrllwm ,an(// hitay{ICh{ W k r . ua purposo.: o
c oo oOI\vard 10 the . r
our -.ouls throul! h of the world v vek d I d _cmanclpauon o

anan a 1a adopted tl 1 1
laum hlll t' the: Ramakl ishna Order. 115 mantra ""
S11 :\wohi ndo is one of the brightest stars in this ri ch lrl' l

1 . . I . ' r' I <I( 111011 0 spmlual
< " ' o.pmcnt. I he conc: pl of self-reali zation was mti culmcd h..:auliful h \)\ ,
obuHio as lollows: l::<tstcncc I S not merely a machinery of Nature. a wheel
lhc 1s for a moment or for ages: i1 is a constam manifes1a1io
<I t\
Sp1r11 t 1 k IS 11 01 lo1 the sake of life alone. but for God. and the li vinl! sot
1 ot
. .
. . - . I , 11\ h o111
ctcrna 01 (,odhcad Action is for self-fmding. for scl f-fulli llment. for sclf r..:ali nuon
and not on lor li S o" ." external and apparent fruits of the mom.:nt or 1hc future
, .
Another concept rhat has been cherished through the long histon of our cultural and
spnitual ex istcncc s the concept of wei fare of all human hllhll/liiW \11kllon1
lwl nu{l/w hirayoc:hdthc welfare of the many and the happiness of the manv. In fact 1h1s
of the h:lppiness of the many had also been integrated into the ; rca of
admini stration as the baste principle. Kautilya says in hi s Anhashastra: ' In the happllK' or
his subjects lies the king's happiness. in their welfare his welfare. He shall not constdu as
good only that " hich pleases him, but treat as benelicial to him whate, er his
subj ects' .
Praja s uk.he suk.ham rajyaha hitehiwm
Norma priyam hiram rajnaha prajanam cha hiram priyam.
This ancie nt wisdom is also refl ected in other languages. Two thousand years :tg.o.
Tiruvalluvar in Tamil Nadu spe lt out in 1.330 verses the three puru\horlfw, of
exi ste nce. dlwrmo. ortho and kama. In the chapter on c;rrha. like Kautil ya'sArllw.\llmnu he
al so dealt with the charac teristi cs of a well-nm admi nistration or shall we say tlw {'thn .., of
good administrati on. For instance, when talking about the responsibility of a
Tiruvalluvar says: Mural sailhu kapalrum mannawm makkalkku iran( nlru
mikkapadum (the king who admini sters j ustice and protects his people will be
God). The responsibilities of running the administration have also been spdt out hy
who have looked into the concept of g.ood administration. ,.
If there is one thot is fundamental to ethics in administration in India. iJ '" tht
pri nc iple of dharma, the principle Of doi ng the right things. the principle of JU:>IIl ('
Brihada ranyaka Upanishad points out the basic principle. that the responsibilily of tht k '" as
to prolcc t dharma. This is because it is only by prolecting dhanna do all citizens ee\ equal
opportunities and the weak not exploited and harassed by lhe strong.
7ul<wt k.\1 n . , .u 1 Jrtllll 1/t l :. li
1 11
Cl\)'n k.1harram J culdhormahtl ll/IIIIUllfulart mW f H
orho al1t1!Jy h
J , .lusric-c 1\
11 fl
yrumamamlwm.sate yat If/ rap.11t1 C
'Rdoo "'"" R.oon.: J "" ;, "" s,; IJh.- " "' f),"" I " ' "" '" ;<, ."' "' " ''"lk ." """"I
llll:l rl . ! Our I <)f ,ry on tlw na.,is of Dharnw' tn this wlk he pwv,dcd vnluablc "' t !11;
'- ll C"Oill't'Jll ol JIJ I
:um.t "'" s "hat he sa id:
J<)lll mo'' '"' I I t fi
. (lt;fll lllllCS. :t P"' of Ohalllla. one of till' tdcab r , ICC( )C on:
IIH II 1\ I\ II f'
.. 1
l d

or' lll!!ht'r 01 l.!rcater interest. lower <lr 1x:rsonal 1 nr crcsl
x sui I . - . . II . ><>H ""''"d fh1s 1deai1Sill 1S rncorporatcd 111 n verse 111
IIOp,l(kSilil It I . d s I . . . or lh. t' I c.l s. u >Ordmatc the interest of an lllUIVIdtral for the sake
l olllll \' or the (j 'I . . vi llt . anll Y ro s ubsene the 1n1crest ol the v1llnce. o f the
'gt 111 tiH.: Hllcrcst of 1 - Clt'rfl,tl bliss ' . I IC S IHIC. Of all \VOl Idly Ill tHdCr 10 <lll :ti ll
J.ula.ll 'tlllhe orc/111(/l.l 'tll 'lll<' kltlalll
1'11/l' l grmlloJ/1 r- 1 50) ftlllllpodmyartll<: oollnortlw prithhim l)'llil'l. (:11/ilmlohlw.
Replacing the lnt IVll . I . ., IC 1 IS CO I C I .
. \ ll arthtllll l t'tlit'l . '''L' ''CI ' With the other world by tht.: words.rashtm rtlw
Ohn . r. n svstcml c frn ne k b . 'nnn s a

expr s . f .
wor to c loll owed\' i1i the nari on's interest
Ill 'Ill\ 1/ . t. () ll'ldt.:SI i Ill Tl . . .
' . o let Janvu:JgL' It "oul I I I . port. Jere IS perhaps no COl rcsponding word
1 t" m
- c a so k ' fur de ro . 11
II' l'\pl;rinL'd tvhlnhl '' cmpr to gi ve nny dcli nition to !hill wntd
'tl.l//(1 (Cud. I J . ' l:J!at:l thnt n.: ll . I d .. L l o IIIII.!:. o( htllll'lll b . . , "' , t.:piC :tee illlllC ns mtmt ll'(l /.,c,r/,Jl'
"' ' 11
co11 . r '"
. ' ut us 1tlura to <.'\plalll the me :- . I alll::. a tiSCussron on thi s wpic. On being ' l' h I
I e t. llOidedu ' , . II :llliiH! and scope or dl' 131 . I ' l

< wnntt. rL'plied tl . - wnnn. li S ww. who had mastered
{(((/, Hho Ill S.
. 'IJ'am (l/111pt I
. u.\
)'Oirtl dlwrnwlw
Prahl I"" t.wnklll'alum k . UII'W tlwyu hi . lot eJwlro I ' Y.\1'(/'ii'Cflhi
) (/\I' I II 1/II011t/111 Jh . . .
. u pro) wtuwmruktah /.'' . armuprmaclwnom kriiam
II) (/ .\(/ l 11UI'f11ll 1/i . I J (' (I . 111.\C wyaw (,)htmll f>arl'(l I 09 9
I IS lllOSt dr/licuil 1'1 d ti . - -
r ' e rne dha D
up rltment o f II\ Ill" b . rma. hanna has been ex I .
surely dhann1 Th l erngs . . Therefore. that which e. p to be thai which
Verse 59.58 Ka e nshis ha' e declared: that I e .wel.fare of living bei ngs is
na ana of the He; hJ rc sustarns rs dharma )
rwranat dharm ; . t/0 JOrota eulogizes dharma . . .
Yal s;,ad d'' tl mt!yaf!u dha rn the foll owmg word ..
(D k rmo dhora
harma sustains the so . 1)'11 lam sa dharma iii niscf!ayah , -ycue prajaha
pr?gress ofhumanit . Ctcty, maintains social ord a.
Jamlini. the author :r ;>urely that which fulfi ls ensures well-being and
'Dharma i I . e urmmimam.\a and U . .Jectr vcs.)
good': S I 131 \\t htch is indicated bv the V 'd 1/aranum{lm.w explains dharma II e
Sa hi . . c as as conducive IO the highest "' '
I d. . m.sreyasena
Mad abhtdhiyate chodanalakshn ..
havacharya, minister to Hakk o anho dflarmaf!a (.Jai . . pra-llfaneemahe
COII)fllCntan ( n r a and Bukka f . : mmt. 1-2)
as lo/lows.. ) arashara Smriti. has brieflv ar;d of Vijayanagar c . .
Ahhwd. recose y explained lh . mpore. "' I tis
W j, "J" nllrey""' . Jh e meanong of dharii\a
a laluh11na
J Ill llnattena dh
()hanna i> lhal mmanuabh)nm chod. arllyuti iii
clernal bls . hwfuch suslains and ens anJ Slllruil VJllii'Mihl . J dharmaha
J m I e orher Jd ures progres d tplla 1{/n
""d negalw< idhtand is in lhis 1;1 "'"I
commands, i vc:
1 hcrclorc. dharma embraces cvcrv 1 pc f . 1
Y o n11. 1tcous conduct
csscnll' . or the '>ustcnancc and wel fa re of t-1 .. o .d covenng every aspect of 1\fc
' 1C IOul\'1 ual and so .
ru cs I "'' turdc ami enable lh<>'>C ''ho bel' . d Clety. and mchldcs those
hli s'>) - IC'..: In go and hea,en 10 auain mobha (clcrnal
fhc Upanishads very clcarl v that there is nothin be o d d
dharma is also rcllccted by 'I in;va\luvar /rai kakk g . y nk harma. The same concept of
um \ avya am ell am a vane/ k kk
mwwc reyun. 1 he king protects the world and ' fh - . . . I mural a um
. . . 1 e acts accord1ng to JUStice or dh h
t ' : t\ sclf wi ll protect him [)Jwrmo rakshari rakshiwha again re anna. t en
pnnclple thai If a person rules accordin<!. to dharma that dhamla .Itsel-f ' II fleets same - < WI protect hnn.
1 .. if we explore the roots of ethi cs in public administration we f
nd that w
trachuon. rrom our literature we fmd that there is a harmony between the ind'e'hdavel a
and spiritual goal s d'
. 1v1 soc1a
. : . . m. 1110n. t IS thi s harmony that provides a meaningful basis for
clllt.:S m public admu11Strauon. Every individual has to strive to achieve moksfw'otmono
mok.,hw thom But at the same time his other res bl 1
, . . ponSI I ltV IS I :\C we\1 -bellll! Ol the
Y./OJ!.lll In fact the in life for the individual as welt as societ -has be\!n
"h y d " " tt e<t '" ''" conccpo of dha<ma lh<ough 'hou,.nds of 0 r QUO lch coltural
trachuon .
The Natu r e of Et hi cal Weakness :1t Present
Befo_re_ we it is wonhwhile 10 have a look at the dynamics o\ ethics in public
Th1s wtll he\p us to identify the basic elements that shape ethi cs in public
We can then how. ''hi\e changes may be taking. place in societ)'
due t? vanous factors from ume to ume O\'Cr centuries. values r\:main constant As value:>
remam the principle of ethics also remains constant. As they remain constant , , ... e
all stand to g.atn by looking at the classical insights on ethics in public administration so that
we can improve our current practice.
As a society evolves, it is realized that the behaviour of people has to be regulated i f society
as a whole is 10 survive. The welfare of a society is the result of cooperation between its
members. No man is an island. The Ten Commandments evolved beca\tse if everybod)' "as
indul gi ng. in stealing.. murdering.. or coveting his neighbor's wife. no orderly society could be
possible. The .Ten Commandments re 11ect the va\ues that a society cherishes so that they
become guidelines for action. The values are the fundamental principles that are csscntt.ll for
a good, orderly sociCty. Pmcticing those values in tenns of code of conduCis gelS
into morals or ethics. As values of societ y remain the same. ethics also in principle 1..:-mains
constant. This is the underlyi ng dynamism of ethics in public administ ration. f,,stcr
growth is not just a consequence of appropriate economic pOlicy, savings tate. human c>pital
and tisca\ deficits. but. somewhat S\lfprising,\y. the lew\ of honesty i n the citizenry.
This is one area in which \ndinn can do wit\\ a \i\\\c bit of br\lshing \\p.lhe dance
uSioal\ y gelS done early, when children ate taught that 'honesty is the best pOlicy'. M 1hcl
grow up, they rcali1e that whocvet taught them thaJiess<>n was not quite honest 1h<l<""'
many situat\ons in life where a quick lie. a broken promise or a .conuact can h<1n'
about gains.
Many people make a miSiake in trying to cash in on these gains too allen. 001 tUII t"' 1\lal
each time one docs it. one tends to damage one's reputation. If \M<Il<siOO"'"""
. or her. In othe r
\\'Jih 11111 . . .
art!t:lllCI11S f several things bur
pcopk will b<..' wM\' ol !.!Ctllng 11110 =- . . a sion o
excessiw dishoncsrv and as in our sb
01 her 0'"'- ''clfilrc. the
. ' . orhul!!
unpon:mrh . of myopia To n pason 11Hcr..:srcd
111 11
- rhal vou can get away Wit 1 the
Machi"'"'elii:Jn lc;sson would be simple: rry nor ro rcll lcs so_
if rhev calculated I hear own
. , fullv sellls l , 1
rare one "hen you hove 10 So even af people were ) rhc' " ould moa e 10nes1
. . I s"<>hrcdncss. .
mreres1 raronnlly (rh:u is. wirhour myopc s lOr! .
rhan rhe) '' rcally arc.
honest and lrus rwonhy rh:1n
1 - b.
, even more
ol cc11vcly. people ma) haw an tnre est 111 c
s easy
unders tand. I.e t us
whnt rhc selfish ra110nnliry calculus induces. Thts IS
Thus. people lold
10 jUC !!C Ill I '
begw by 1101111 rlwt people use group characrcnSIICS . - I . s ue nboul the ethics or
. I I d. I I puncrunl ' .
vtews n:; ro 10'" tlliStwortl)' In tans Me MlC
" d
blc the .Japanese arc as
r I
. . f C I . . . hour how epcn< a
ro!estanrs anc rhc _mmcnnltsm o a v1ntsts. a .
)eoJie arc (let me leave lhe
husmcss pn11ncrs and about how untrustworthy such and !iUCI I I
idenriry ofrhis la-; r group ro rhe tender's imagination) and so on.
- 1 cr shodtslv. Each such act hurts
ometh1ng stmtlar happens tn rhc domam ol corrup11011 an<

the nation or the t.OmnHmirv rhat one belongs ro. but since rhal hurl docs nol Cnlcr the
individual's cnlcular10ns (cspeci<llly so rhe individual is people lend to
o,erindulge' in corrupt and untrustworthy aclivities. lienee. na11ons where <lie
habiruall)' (thai is. not prompt ed merely by r:llional more '::til tend to
ger more. Ill\ estmcnl. rrade and business. 1\ I any schol:us dtrccl 1hc1r advtce at the
go' emmcnl or 10 polir1cians 10 :1ct in cerrnin \\aYS: or .to bureaucrats IO carry out certain
responsibilitil'S. 1 his new research in the role of .1rusr is also a reminder rha1 some of the
lies \\llh ordinary ci1i zens as "ell.
We realize how values can lead 10 e,olution of codes of c1hical conducr. In the context of
publ_ic administration what will be 1hese \'alues? The first of course is rhe concept of dharmn
or bcha' iour. \Vhcn the British came and we inherired the Bri tish system oi
we became lamiliar with the concept of the rule of law. The rule of law is
but rule o_r As Brihadarunyoka Upanishad says. the law is above the
ktng In rl IS necessary that we accep1 thi s. and try to shape our conduct and

such a way the principle of dharma .or law is In the indian

democratiC system w.e wtll be able to es1ablish rhe rule of law only if we ensure thal law
makers do not become law breakers or Ia b k d b
. , w rea ers o not ecome law makers in the firs t
Remedial Action against the Current Rot
The following ideas have intluenced in the cont t f
a hi!!hlv corrupt country We are look
., at

currenr practices that have tu rnrd otll s
- - c 1e tssue only fron tl . .
rule of law can be re-established with the t
f h .
le POIIll of v1ew of how the
, - le P o t e nght ty f 1
marers 1n our country are the members of
pe o aw makers. The law
. . par rament and lcf!

Important role 10 pr<,motinu a corruptio t-fi _rs ature. I hey can play a ve$rv
. . o I ree !!Overnment Ev . :. ...
ureaucratrc executtve implc:mems the law
. en 1n governme nt. while t he
II t
,. f f . . . I IS a so supervised b I . . .
te orm o c 11e rnuJJc;ters. the prime min. Y t1c poflttcal 111
I .,, tster and the cab rt
so respons e to the levisla&ure. r he role of th
lOCI. 1e political cxccuf ivr is
I\\O dffererit . l he lirsl ICJ I he ,aw makers therefore_ can be seen !'rom
rhc unplem matwn <Jt rhe I:Jw. lent of the law and the second relates 10
minimum rcqutrcmcnt for cnsurino that OL
. ., tr aw ma crs are able to promote a
co rup11on rcc eovcrnmcnt ts that the law makers sho ld
1 . . u not t 1cmseh cs be law breakers
Vohra (. Olllllli\ICI.: Report had hl ghlishted one ne<>at r . . ..
. f . . , " c aspect o our p<'hflc<:; nameh
the _c tlmrnalttauon o pohttcs. So If we want to start a process b) which \ .. C will ,be able ;o
achtCVC a corruptton-free government where law makers pia rr I .
. . . v a vav c .ecti\C roc tn
achtcving lhiS It
necessary that we should frrst take steps. to ensure that Ia\\
and cruntnal<; do nor become law makers.
As Ccnt rrtl Vigtl;mcc.: my jurisdiction docs not cover the judic1ary and
the legislature. NcvCI1hclcss. as a Ctti7Cn of the country and as a eve who is concerned \\ith
the of of corruption in the executive. 1 have taken up the
issue w1th the Chte f l.lcctton e ommiSStoner to see how we can amend the electoral law.
particularl y Rcp1 cscntation of People' s Act. 10 see that the law breakers do not become Ia'\
makers. I ha ve made the following suggestions for consideration:
1. No politi<;n l y can be permitlcd to contest the elections unless it has got the latest
annual accounts duly audited by an auditor as may be prescribed by a notilied
agency like the Elccli on Commission. the CAG or the Supreme. Court.
2. No politi cal party may be permitted to contest the eleclions i1 has clean:tl its
income rnx dues and has got the requisite certificate from the tncomc tax
3. Complainls regarding. corrupt practices during elections can be looked into b) the
Election Commission even before the date of polling. The Election Commission has
an excellent communication system to receive complaints of this pc and can
immcdi atelv take action so lhat there will be a heahl-ly check and deterrent effect on
corrupt elections. Prevention always beuer than
4. A person "ho has been accused of an offence or _other
crin,inal offence canm1t be penniued to contest dccuons I he Flec\Jon Commtsston
may identify these Instead of going only the grcn il) _or the and
FIR being filed. the critical lest for applying the ba_n the contesting an
election should be that a concerned judicial authonty ltke a magtstrate should ha\ e
examined the FIRs and the dala, and gone 10 lhe stage of framing a charge sheet.
1 fa person who has been charge sheeted for gra\'e and mo_ralturpitudc
and notified by the Election Commission, is banned from ftghun_g. the

. 1 . als do not enter politics and become representatives of the peop c 1e
ensUte t 1at ct tmtn d r that he or she has
responsibi lity can be c.ast on_the candidate who must a person must
not been charge sheeted or,_ tf he or she has be_en, to gt do not know "hal ''rtion the
give details of the past pumshment awarded by _Weecessar) 10 have a nJliOil\\ ide
. C 1 t take Nevertheless I l tn tl IS n
Elect ton ommtsston mtg
. . . k to tackle the of corruption at the
debate on this issue so that appropnate act1on IS ta en
political level.
. - . . that there arc too many complic.tteJ and
One of the reasons for corruption
h s ope for n.'\1 tape. Greater
mber of laws greater ts t e c
obsolete laws. he greater tle nu . ' . n ll will be good if the makers
scope of red tape, g.reater the tem_ptauon for nd see how many of them can be done:
have a look at the existing laws m statute _o a .. ter the Indian government had set
r. l Sl . I K Gujral was pnme mtniS .l ber
away with. In ,act, w ten m . . laws that were obsolete. lt
the lain Committee to identify the admmOO tstra l uve f htch about a third could be oone
. , - d bo t 3 S aws o "" h
riohtly. the committee ,dcnuhc a u . . e govenunent wt should bt r\ Wit
c . S d r to promote a corrupuon n:
away wtth. o tn or c b l te laws from the statute book.
systematic campaign to remove o so e

odtrCC :J that \ .,
,.tf 1o rn . ''I
rt: ru:c ..
,... h.:l.<>llH.' auolht. r ,1))
. I , I'JWS. I"
tJ 1ht.: lt.: . . . It,
In <Hidlll<)fl ro ri ll.' ll'lll0\111 ol cth!!O dt '
t.:\C:r .,,
,. sunset p1111C1pk ;,.,
' ' tc: ,oo" I l..e ' ,.. . '
l'nsuh. rh.t no 1,,,\ H .. Ill"' 1111 \ '

1 11

-; " Jtl c of !>:I)' II\ l' , ,
. I I fi t1rr1t Ill . cr anc ' IJ
01 conuptwn. We r tcr< Olt.: . b<Hik (mt.:' :wd H.' ptOIIIltll' <llt<f
t I I S N I
) 1
llw . I' re"' c . II
llllt'< o aw tl'lll:uns c

1 il <H c l<t w\ c.. I lit I
Jss rl rs 1 t we< < -: ,,,,
.n-<tts, at rhc clld ol wluclt pt'IIOt . lilt t: ll . cn.,urc t HJ l!
\\ 1ll c..x ir the s t:ll lll l' hook. ' I hi s wi ll tii
:II C )
IIH.' Sl:lllll<.' hOtlk
,,. f'l\\' S tf111t \\ill prOIItO(e, .
ld ' 111
n tl.. crs "
. . " ISt ll""' r ccol!nt/l' 1
JJw IWXI 11llporllllll :I SIWCI IS lft:tl aW I ' e ll!.'\' IS lll<.: li: ' t: ( tl\ :J
1 I rnnsr
d ,. [J'ISSIII" 1 h d
:Hnwsphc..ll' ol .1 co11uprio11 lrcc !'OH'

r gc: tll nee or ::.' t:t.: om 111
. 1 thcrdon: an
A v'll be jYIS'> I
nJCihod /01 dWddll)' COIIIIjiiiOII { lt'IC IS ( ln(ornWIIOil "C( \ I . '' t.:< Ill '>U( h
lnf(>rrmuion AC'I. r l'i a kat filii! lhl' I rcedorll
, cf:.lliSCS !IHI I ul 11 111<ltcl y the basic
ovtsos and

c Y ' II 1 1 ss f'
a way 11:1( l h t'H' Will lw so lll.lll V pt - rr.carcd. I! \VI )l: I i:CC .. .try Ot Ia,,
. . . . ll'IY be< cr I' I
Ob/('Cti Vt' of ll llfl.Sillllt'IICY Ill :tdlllllll ... ltiiiJOil
' .
J .
,1 ciri zcnS 0 I ll' COUIHt \ 1' "\
)\I( t'< ' ' - '" t
mak('l\ lo IIIII! loopholn :lrt'
pn I <krcc or !rnnsr urcnrv in tl
. . II . o r hat I 11.: C' 1c
10 llltlt'h llllorm.tllorl tl't
t: s
, ,.. of itl'lllS h:l\' 111 !.!. " he
r smtll nq.''
" no
! 'U\' t' fl11llc.'nl 1\ t' ll lt:lltt'l'd 111 f.l l'l , t-.: ccpl
- ' .. 1 'CI l>c
rin!.!. on m.tintc

. . . . . . rft,t t have. ol ullt: - . ' q ol
(Ill I ht: SC.l lllll \ () f (I It' n;lllllll 01 I .Sill' (.S I bf' c I I' '1CCl!SS lllg g<> \' 'I
II fortH: pu '< '"'" 1
!1l.'tt('c.' "".tl so on, IIK'Il: should bl' no :tl ,, "l!C such an environmcnr: thev wj
tnfilll nni iOII. I o the l'\ t,nt (llll lnw makers arc nblc '
1 of honest) 111 go, crnrnen!.
have .111 1mpo1 runt .step 1ow:uds hnng111g 111 a cu llllt:
. .
. I . 'tl ., vs1cmnti c <Hil!lll j) t at pol iticl,
K' of l'OII llptl<lll Ill !-'0\l' rtllll\!11( S!ni !S WI 1 ' :-.. ' . . 111g
1 hough
, pnnripk we ;uc to _a neut ral
pamanrnr civil icc of rfw Bn!lsh I) pt. what we have 111 practrce rs the spot! system of
rhe USA. without the co11 csponding checks and balances in that count ry that makes it far
lt:ss corrupt rlmn lntfin. 1 he: simple instrulllcnr by which the pol itical executi ve has found
that the bureaucracy can be made to dancr 10 irs runes is the instrument of trans fers and
postings. 1 he importa11cc of insulnti ng at least the important and sensi ti ve posts f'ro m rhi.::
transfer insrrwneut was highl ighted by the Supreme Court in the Vineet Narain case.
popularly 1- nown :ls the llmala case. rhe Supreme Court pointed out that at least the two
key_ investi gating agencies of the Government of India, nnmely. the CBI and the
Ent_orcemenr must be insul arcd from outside This was soug ht to be
achll:ved by. n)akmg the Ccnrwl Vigilance Commission a statutorv body and making tht!
CVC th: acti vitirs of the COl. The CVC also chairs a in whi ch 11tc
concerned sccrctanes are 1\!prescnt c J t 1 h
. f:fi . < o c loose I c panel of names fo r the posts of director
an semor o ICJals of COl as well as that f E r.
als ed .
ntorcement Directorate. In addition. thei'C is
o an assur tenure ol two years for the f1i . I
the consent of the eve.
Jcra s and they cannot be trans ferred without
., his initiati ve of the Supreme Court so l'a CBI
1 r as and ED . J!.
w He 1 we can systematically depoliricizc th . are concerned potnts a way.,.uY
corrupt clements in the burcaucracv get( .e or at least reduce the possibi litY of
' fJ be . mg IntO SCilSJIIVC d . . . . .l
WJ wonhwh1le to 1dentif.y all the . . posts an exploHmg therr f10:0Jt,nn
d' . ,. . sensllve po I . .
rscJp me that these posts wll be filled r. s s
the government and bri lll' 111 u
b' d up rom a 1
o rectv_e. an . mdcf?Cndent commiucc like the CV ., p,anc names recomme nded hy an
lhrs commillee can be different( s con.lmmee lor the CBI and ED. The
mcumbeors WJJI have a minimum tenu f for drfferent posts 0 t d
f b
. . re o two or th . nee pos e .
llmounr o o and 1 ree yea , -

rc eve the prescm s t rs. us will promote " rc
t uaton wher ,
c corrupt clements literally
1he11 ''"'Y IIllO po<rs. I he above method f .
po I'> "1th chtt.'Citvit\. '"" 1 tnVCSIIng the filhng of key sensiti ve
:s, a ong way towards bencr control O'"' r
n\ l'IIIIIWIII ... corruptt on "'
, \ :'\l '' I uud lit H 111.11
''I'" r It IIIII tht. i111port.1nce of the rul . of I .
aw. cqu.tllv unponam ts the
r.:lllJX"' CrlllCnl n ,,,. < IIJ:/'(' 11. Pet haps tht mo'>l 1mpo1tant law" . . .
. . e-Ovcrnmg modern ts
tlu ( 1111 ''""'"" Itt till: l'Clllt xt lhc rc\ 1cw of 1hc Con.,lttulio 1
. . n. w 11c 1 ts cmg undenakcn
'' ' 1111. \ .. ll u:hahah ( Ollll1llttcc '' pte .cnt I would also sucnct h h '
. .,"" " a new n g 1, 1 e nl!ht to
totrupttoll lrn; <,t.'l\ t( c :1. ,, lund:unenlal one for every c'
7.en /\s 1 d' 1 be
. . n ta 1as come a
c..:o11 upt cuuntr\ lod;,, I he n cd. f or I he ci ti7cn becomes imponant. The lor ('Orlltptton frc..e SCI\' ICC a new fundumemal ri ght IS ,,
rth e:-:ploring m
Sl.t"l llw lumlantcntal ml11. cnsh11ned 111 the ('onstilution represent 1wo important fact'>.
I 111 \I 1 1h 11 thcy . uc an c <piKtt and ' '"ntftcaitt arltculation of the bar.1c ri ghts lhnt C\.Crv
tlltlt:ll llllt'>l in a mcanin).'l'ttl de111ocracy. and the tdcals aniculaH.:d in the Preamble
ti ll' < on\lltlltton arc rcahhd '" pr.tcticc ' [he second unponant fac11s that 1hey represent the
11111 <; thai a l. lll/t:ll lllll'>l 1.!1\jO) j f' \\<e want 10 h 'IVI.! l'000 governance. '
I rivht<. h<t\ l C\'(lh cd O\ cr I hey reprcscnl the lessons soci<:tv
I rom pa\1 cxpc1 icncc "hen the c rt!!lll o;. \\Crc nm available and cOn!>cqucntl; there \\aS
"lll'lct mg and m" go' t: l nancc l-or example. the pr\,lcCtion from double jeopardy must ha\C
n1 iscn lll'l'.tu<c thc11.: was a tunc "'hen a person LOuld be punished agam and agai n for the
of'kncc. The right. to pru!Xrty must have arisen because there was a hme when these
ttghts did not exist. 1 he nght to freedom of speech' probably has been very much
.tppn:ciatcd because we ha\C seen in our 0\\ 11 times regimes when.: .tlw; right dtd nol exist.
tcsuhing in had governance.
l 'i fly-three >ears or our existence as an tndependent nation and SO years of working of the
Constitution have resulted in one common experience for all Indian citizens. They cannot g.o
10 any public organization or office today and get the services they arc supposed to without
either paying a bribe or bringing innuence by way of recommendations or references from
A number of objections have been raised to the suggestion of the CVC. An the
article bv M.N. Buell- in The Pioneer (25 February 2000), 'To Remove CorruptiOn, Begtn at
the Tha1;a'. The first argument against the CVC's suggestion is that other constitutions do_not
have such a provision. Another argument is that merely enshrining a new fundamental nght_
may not reall y ensure us corruption-free service. A third is that already the
corruption-free service is enshrined in the Constitution. A fourth argument is: how w1ll thiS
ri be implemented? .
The fi rst reason why corruption-free service must become a fundamental nght of every
citizen is that it is a basic necessity for good governance. Good governaoce today
considered to be a universal human right. We already have sf
1 be d by the Umted Nauons. In thas o
on. and human nghts lave en recogmze . . \ be
1 ted very etlecuvc\y and a so m&
globalization human nghts are geumg arttcu a . ia)\y . W
The right to good governance must be a pal1: of espec f

. h. w h had expeneoce of daffercn\ types o fe&h._
context of our current state m tstory. e ave ftbe
and governance, and we have adopted democracy, which ensu==ment
by the people and for the people as the best model for good go
. be

g recognitcd by
s now
f corrup11011 I . , od COrpor:llc
The neQative impacl of rhc phenomenon .
realized rhal go .
. :- . . " ld f3
k wh1ch . . , <;annnl I o li o\\
r111erna11onal bodrcs lrkc rhc \"'or . . G >d g.ovclndncc '
f d lnlltilll0
JOt I 6 rid be rrkcn
e.owm:mcc is ncccssar) in rhc conlc>-..1 g
ivhl s
l '
. 11 ew fundarncnra
1:' 1 , ecn I' n.:atc1
unless rhcrc 1s a check on corrup11011. liS

II'\' whrch ttt S s .:
. . of rhc lasr cell l 1 s li ke rhos"
as rhc crvs1nllinrion ol the cxpcncnccs . vc
sal pnncrp e "
. - ' .. I . n ol certain unr
interacuon i'lOJOng 'arious nations and the cvo UIIO .
relating 10 human ri ghrs.
. . . f(i ce for private profit , can p.o
It is ob' ious thai corruption, whrch IS I he usc of
0 1
distorts the machinery of tire
alono with good governance. In other words. cornrptron y
... c can utilize it lor
::- - - .
c rpyrng an o riC .
government. If the public scrvanr, while lC IS oc l .
1 11
the part of the citil.<'n
exploitin!l rhe citi?cn and enrich himself. should there not be a
fundament alr iuht
to ensure -thnt he is not exploited by the corrupt pub! ic servant? 1\ ter ah .'
as the power lor
like double jeopardy is articulating the principle !hat the state. W IC l l c c fl'
- . ore than once ror an o renee.
punishment. will not usc that power to punrsh a person m . . .
Basicall) the fundamenta l ril!ht should be seen as a ri ght give n to th .. e crmen to cnSule
- . ''I 1 I lithe 1)0\\'Cr rs
he has a lc'el playing ticld so far as his intcrnctron wrth the state. w1rc 1 ws a
c. . . I .
1 r d 1 I oht Ill llC'!r
rhere 1$ an arQUillCilt that other countncs do not have IllS I un amen a nco .
constiturions. The countries with which we mar be comparing ourselves nre of two 1.'
The.' m<l) be cou111ries rhat arc de,elopcd like. United States or Britain. which.
.'ears of e,ofuri on. have much less corrupt governments. So far as the common Clttzens m
1hese count1 ics nrc concerned. at least the' do not have w lace the problem of corruption n!
e,ery stage when they interact wi th a public office. In India this is not the situation.
TI1erefore. the Indian citizen has to be protected by being offered thi s additional right.
The other I) pe of countries are those that are less developed than India or more corrupt 1 han
India. The point is. if these countries do not have such a fundamental right. should \VC: <JIS l
and sink deeper into the morass of corruption and bad gov'"ernance? I am sure
an) sensibk Indian would agree that it is better that we reali ze the corrosive efTcct or
corruption. which is ant i-national. anti -poor and ant i-economic development. We ntust
s.t rengthen the foundation of good governance by including this ri ght in the fundamental
nghts chapter.
!he nex_t 1ha1 is raised is how wi ll) this fundamental ri ght be different from otlwr
rssuc:s. lrke a fundamental ri ght for breathirw or fundamental righl c
1 1 1
. . . . . 1:' r 10usmg. w 11c 1 one
ormer prrme mrr11ster IS now rastnl!,? The fundamental right of co.. c
d' ff b
b -: . 11upt 10n-rree servtcc rs
1 # c:cause 111 1 1e a _sence ol th1s all I he other ri ghts that have been con l'crr<'<l on
the CI!Jzen become meanmglcss. Take lor example Article 14 f h C
r h h fi .
t e onst1tut 10n wl 11ch
n1ers on t e Clttzen t e undamental n gh1 of equality be[! 1
law. If a citrzen is interacting wi th a corrupt public servant. protccllon. ol
.ro be treated. on the same foot ing as another citizen who bribes tl IS definttely. not
I hus. the pnnciple of equality before law and eq al .
at corrupt publtc
u protectton of Ia\ , d. d t
11e conupl public servant and the phenomenon of bribery. \ IS ston e
Article 19 gives a fundamental right to business or fl .
permit license raj that one of the points generall v pr'od esson. It _the experience of our
clearances 1S that rhe cirizen who is in is go' rna e by puhhc servants who control
mg to make 1 f
The corrupt public servant thinks that he
Ot o profit becaus<' of I
1M profe ional or the businessmen. This is the e /as a to share in the profit
o corrupt Jon by wh.
serva11t exploits the public offi ce for his or her private gain Th f d .
. r . . . e un amental nght for
prolcssron or >usrncss thcrcrore IS drrectly affected by the public se :
, . rvant msrs11na on h1s or
11.. 111 \\.; L(lll tlaus :-..;.; that corruptiOn c.oes direct!) anainst the nll" a I d (' - d . I
. . - e nr nee lllll amenta
I'l l.! Ill of profeSSIOn. f he ..-unc can be S<:lld about the rioht for freedom of spce h d 1 - d
': . . . . o c a.. ree om
ol 1110\Cillcnt. If a corrupt poltce offrcraluscs hrs or her power ofoflicc to e t
. . f S net a CltiZCn
because the latter has not bnbed hun or her, then the official is indirect!} preventin!! !he
exercise of the fundamental right of the citi zen by his act of corruption. -
1\t this stage. a point be raised. So many fundamental rights are already in ex
and me being not irnplcntcnted: then how will addition of one more fundamental ri uht make
th<: situation bc11er? The great advantage is that the inclusion of a new fundamental like
the 1 to cornrption-rrcc service sends a signal throughout the countrv that there is :1
national consensus on the problem of corruption as a social evi l. So confers
a ri ght on the ci tizeo to enable him or her to take on the corrupt public servants. Widespread
awareness about the inclusion of thi s new fundamental ri ght will bring in a new g,eneration
or student s who. ri ght from their school days. wi II become of this right as they study
the structure of governance in our country. Public awareness in turn will crystallize into
public opinion. , .. hidt wi ll pro' ide the requisi te sanction for modifying social beha\ 10ur.
Further. the very fact that rhis is a fundamen tal right wi ll ensure that the highest court;, th..:
land. the Supreme Court, can be approached. In addi tion to the provisions to
Prevention of Corruption Act or other preventions about misuse of public ofiices. the fact
that a citizen's fundamenlal ri ght has been violated will also make the courts take a mor\:
serious view. We can expect a seri es of decisions from 'the court. which in tum " ill go a
lonu \va\ in bringin!.!. about a sea chanue in the legal framework and the aJministrati\\:
..... . - - 0
culture under which the exccut in! functions.
Criticisms like those from l3uch do not take into account the fact that sometimes inclusion of
a ri ght in the Constitution itself leads to social changes. This probably can be said of the
provisions made in our Constitution regarding the abolition of untouchability. non-
discrimination. ill-treatment. empowerment of the weaker sections and so on.
It can be argued that the rights already enshrined in the also ensure
the riuht for corruption-free service. If we consider that the state shall not deny any person
equality the -law and equal protection of law within the te_rritory of India .. . it can
perhaps be argued that Article 29 (ii) need not be there at alL_ The mam of 29
(ii), from my plain reading of the Constitution, is to parttcularly art_tculate an nt
fundamenlal ri of minorities, so that this is not lost sight of. More amportant, nunontaes
can exercise ri ght and get the protection of the law in exercising their right.
Similarly. Article 17 specifically untouchability. a social . .a:, ':
be pa
1icularly mentioned in the Constitution as a n ght. COITUf'IOO as
social evil than untouchability and therefore why n?t specafically
eliminating corruption by making a fundamental nght of every lndaan a&aea
corruption-free service.
r. ll abolished by iRCiusioa ia .. ,. ...
Another social ev1l that has spect

Y Orced labor (Aitidt 2l). PRIII-4
rights is prohibition of traffic m human beangs ant! ti ....., ....
a etc undr Article 24 IS ......
employment of ch1ldren an actones! - .. dlllllliiiii, .... IIIJI
being eliminated by including the ehmanataon and eo ......
. d ll i:J I 1 ichrs.
b' spccilic nlt.nrion in rhc chapreron tun :unc L - _
. J .
. . l gel Cl) 1/(; IIlii.)
t"I .Clll S Ill lUll ' .
1- fiuons rn<
1 1

1 g the l cg1slatro n c;l'IWrnlh. rht in a under 1c ll:l<
>rinciplcs urH ,., )
. . 1 10sr I
of the wo1 o
IC!.!ISI:llltln I he l>Oul ol rrad1110ns or llc

the hsr 50 vcar. - ,
- \ \!' . 1 1 xpencnce o '
)ltenomcnon of l.!t'l 111 the Consuturwn. 11 l r lc c. , rvcialh 1 lC I .
- . 1 Je elopmenrs. . 1 o1 fli J>IIon-frec rhe Consr uuuon 1nremauona < ' d
ental nl!ht or c
t. 1 d d the tun :u '
ir is high rime thnt we 1nc u e . . . .
1 - R. I . rhc ( onstltUilOI .
sen ice in rhe chapter on Fundamcnwl 1g liS Ill .
rc trc many who p01 nr Out
. I . s ned and Iaten!. lC < . . II . I tl
Such a mc.asurc: '' 1fl make patenr '' 1:11 IS P
. free servrce to ows 1y 1l:
. . C . . I w rhar corrupt ron- . b , I
l<lthe other p101 ISIOn:, oft he l)llSIIIUIIOil all< s,. : A. ' C hnvc seen a I 11:
. . . ,. I (l1SIII UI1011. s \\ ' . I
obsen a nee of rhc other pro1 o r le <
. f other fundamental t If' lls
. . . ni nst the exercise o . I . .
phenomenon of comrp110n 111 a wny goes_ ng, d for explicitly art1 cu at1ng
mcn11oncd in Cons rirution. There IS therefore a lnecl d,.
citizen so that what is
. (i 1 tnl ri ghr of 11e n 1" 1 . .
corrup11on-frcc servrcc as a patent unc amen . . becomes cxplic11. Mak1ng
. . I . I I . . . s of the Consrllulron
latenr and l)' tng hr du:n 111 11c 011er prov1s10n. .
t ti le countr)' about the
. . . d
- r , a

rhrouo l Oll
rhrs c.'\ pl1crr has tht a ,.:H11<l!!c.' o .scnl rng - =- ' . c- . . f this country
commirmcnr ofr hc srat e for improvi ng rhc qualit y of lite oft he Ctii ZCnS 0
. -11 only on paper At best. it mm There nw, be many who "ill sm rhat at best thts "'' remalll . i
be onlv a vcr bal But the Const iwrion is nor a cosmetr c verbal d_ocument. I
- - 1 talli zed b)' rhe Jeors laturc and is a livin!! document ar1iculauno the spmt of the peop e as crys .c-
. - "' fi d 1 It rl erefore mav beorn perhaps as rnrerpretcd b, the JUdtcwn. lncludmg rhrs un amenta l 1 - o .
a 'erhal !!;rre. hut in of-rime. wit h the! continuous interpretation of the nght by
- 1 h an be brought the Supreme Coun and the judiciary. can expect that a soc1a c_ ange . .
about in socre11. After all. we ha,e seen. tor instance. the affi rmatr vc actron rn favor of
weaker of socict1 . Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. and minorit ies being
an iculared fi rst in the and the subsequent history of 50 years and the judicial
acrion. This has, in a '"ay. resulted in bri nging about social change. Bringing about social
change. especially by way of checking I corruption and improving governance, there-fore is
an importalll aspect, and inclusion of the new fundamental right can be taken as a first step
in lhat long journey. The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step, says a
Chinese proverb. Perhaps as we begin the journey as a republic in the twenty-firs t century.
art iculating this new. fundamental ri ght may be a right step towards making India a well-
governed country. .
Citizen's Fundamental Rights in the Past
fn fact, it is interesting that in the past. even though we had kings, CitiZens \-vere also
empowered. The general impression about ancient methods of ruling a country is th<ll there
"':as no at all in the affairs of the state. and that the king was all in all ll1e
J.:tng .of course had h1s mrnrs ters and other camp followers in the court. and whate ve r 1 he
J:ing deddcd w do in consort with his ministers was the law that was enfo c d b his
officials. This is what we all think was the state of afTairs in ancient times WI r e in ,
f h. . lat rs mor .
t re name o ,:. uropean 1s toncal it is even said that in those days the brahmirt; in
1he cuun ' "ere the de facto rulers, smce they had the king under tt
e tl b
d 1r 1um anc !11... 1.11 1
got r ung one lo perpetuate the1r comforts and heoemony It d -
. e- . was, an stt rs. mH e lO
appear 1ha1 democracy was somcthmg taught to us hy Westerners. '
fn f.1c1. c:r. en in Vedic limes. eons ago. the country was be
d . . .
1 common man's opinion. """ich was fully reflected in the c:o dng ru ef WHit lull SCOJ1(' . 1 1ef
n llcto theday-t<>-dayaffmrso
the stale. 1 he Vedas ralk about several methods of administration such as 'sabha'.
':,cm1111 ' nnd It 11as group of a.mong the people who got
ddrht.. rah:d on all aff:ms of st:Jte and then la1d c!own the norms. according. to which
tulcd the country Lvcn researchers groups assisti ng the
l..1ng 111 Ius admtntslrallon d1d not compnse ont) the brahmms and the (th..:
\\.lJitlors). hut pr<>vided lor universal representation for ever) interest in th..: country. Sri
/\urohindo's four chapters on 'Indian Polity' in his classic The Foundations of the Indian
Culture reveal vividly the nature of true democratic grassroots governance in anc1ent lndia.
'Rudram' is a popular piece in the Vedas. It is found in the Tai ll iriya Samhitaof
>/ojurveda. It is known for the words namo namah that nm through most of the hymn. II
is a hymn dedicated to Rudra. In it obeisance is paid to everything on earth. movable and un-
movable. The idea is that everything on earth is permeated with the all -pervading god.
the poromatma, . and everything is .lil'a swaroopa. While thus paying obeisance to
everything. reference is made to 'sabha' and '.wbhapati'. The 'sabha' referred to is the body
or people set for att ending. to the affairs of state and 'sabhapati' is the president of such a
body. Whatever we mean by legislative assembly today , ...:..s the of the set-up call ed
'sabha' in ancient times. To such an assembly. designed to do to the common people,
obeisance is paid in 'Rudram' .
'TI vll of the people is the wi ll of the god' is not any ne\\ mouo imported. but one that
le \ I - . h bh
was there eons ago in Vedic rimes. \Ve learn from tho:: Vedas that membc_rs of sue a sa a
or assemblv must li rst of all be ofhigh intellect. good conduct and. most1R1portant. have the
talenr and 'capaci ty to put across points of view In fact. there are very
mant ras in the Vedas prayi ng for these three qualities. . . .
In olden days a ruler was not onl y not allowed to go h1s way but was to the
h manner as had been laid down bv the shastra.\ Dharmashastra.
country 111 sue a c h \..
Arthashastra and the shastra relating to jurisprudence. !here was (t c
teacher). the ministers and an assembly of intellectuals, JO co_nsultatton wtth w om t lC mg
ruled the country. This was the arrangement for ruling the entire country.
The point 1 am trying to emphasize is even in

what we now the democratre out the ditTcrencc between
committee of was adopted. t was better. An administrator of a
the two methods and to argue that how the . a-d should be lit to kcome
h ld h e the proper qua tcatton ..
country or a town s ou av
h tl appropriate qualilic:\lion and quahttes
administrator. It follows that only \V 10 b ave d In the case of the admintstt ation
could be permitted to stand for electiOn e a pipomte t. od b)' the side of the rul inr king
. . . I rown pnnce a ways so
of a country. rn ancient ttmcs t le c I ld. of the asscmblv \\hO took to
and had the advantage of being watched by Wt ',e e ersh elders< retired .or died. the crown
1 d. ction 1en sue L
canalize his energ1es m the ng lt tre : d d' mtnation such that he
d ,1 d xn.>nence an tscn .. ld
prince would have by then eve ope e t o le similar to the old people, who cou
in a position to decide who be the the administmtion. l lcrc lhe kmg o\ lhe
become members of the assemblies and gm e _m
. . lfl d the appointing authonty.
crown pnnce h1msc ta '
. I . It wa\S of lhmg tor lht:
. d wilh the dlwmuc or t \e ng l -. and
The DJwrmashastra was concemc . h d d' . d d the conununily inlo sc\'cral secuon lu
Preservation of these dharmic
rv. c
d down several guidehnes and ru
r: . d m umson, lt a
10 ensure that they . uncttone
. being It s vcr y na111e s
I trtt come
t ion of .,
Prrncipnlly for this Jlurr>osc did the f)lwrmct.\
rhe :tdn JnliSII

' cnncd '\

I I f
'OhnnnashJSII .1' and not 'Rnjynshasrrn'.,lmltro tOll
. for the cowl II )' a; a \\
.,; or
. I .,, s:; not on ' I I "Ill \ r-,, .
t'Cilllllr\ It c.:'Hllt' into hcill" to IS 1 rll' JlelHIS " ,.
, . (
v1111! I c l . u
' "' - Ius dl\ IOl -
us lim<:lll)l)fng but ,1bo fill tiK:.indl\rdual <: JII /CII
. :( \\:1) of Ide for 1.1
. 1 dlun nuc rl!:! 1 1 1 I
dc.:HIIl that 11 wns rht dtiiV ol the.: l-.1111.! to U1Wic.: I ....
o cs1.1 J IS ling
- . I olden < nvs ,IS '
The stare ntlrninistrntion \\;Is cons<kc.:d
lrthmlut.\tra and Shukra
dh:mnn. n r1ghrcous w:w of !l vull!. SITmtrm. such

stlf c Yet thcv all, by
. . - ti 1 1 nistrauon o
1\'edflhmlro C<l mc to be used Jlnnctpall v or 11c a<
n was thCit' to
howcvcr. '
and lrtr!tl'. followed the Dhnrmosha.\fm. In some respects ..
. .
'\pcdicncies. 13ut then
. . . )/ I I . 10 Still lllllld c.
denatt' slightly from the rules ol tht' I wn11t1' Ull ta . .
11 be such as not to
. . . . . . . I l> lOll ' .
tht pr111C1pk was that the hnss ol sr,tt c nc
\VI , . , . ,
. any cont1
. . 'J')I . / 1(1\' (1'(1 11: II:\ c
endanc<:r 1/w srmt nnd suucwrc ol unma.l ' d . 1 to 1

- . I . . \\'f\S COilS I Cl C( ( <.:
bctl\<.'t>ll , 111hmhmtra and f)/uummlw.Hroorosc. the aucr ' . I
t , . .
<> ll g tit'
. . . f the fours ws
1 1
' ....
rtccdcnce <Her the IOIIll Cr. I hcDharnw.1lwstro 1s
. (s borlin
1 f the lour upnn&n.\ u ' ' e
fi)Unccn l'id)'as, whereas the Arthnslwstrn rs on Y one
1 1
t tl cy we
) r
. . . I 1' .I k' f I c ci")'S hnd clnunc< t 1H l rc
organ o the Vedas. 1 h1s rs ww nm 111gs o t1os <' ' . .
.. 1 , t'o say IS thi'H 11 was not
followers otOhnrmas/wstm and not Artlwshwtm. What nm trylll:g
. I" vs but it was held that the
thai those :111C1ent k1ngs d1d not make amendments to cxtst111g "'
:1 1 1 r tnrt c.: d bv amendnH: nts
baSIC SIIUCtlllt: Of the /)har/1/t/\h(/.\f/'U \HIS 10 be 11l(lllll:t111t:C dllt 110 t '" , .
ll) <.'\1St111!.! l,l\\ S Ill the name of COiltill!!CilCies Of SI<11C administratiOn Ill suit the COilVCili CI.lCC
or rhose ns rhcv Whik the tree of the of n kingdom was being
protected. the- rrcc ";hose roots were Dharmo.\hastra.' the protection \\':lS done wi thout
damaging the roots nnd new Jaws were just like or the tree . .lust as the or
a tree arc clipped when needed. "so ''ere amendments made of even the new laws. .
Conclusion: A Three-pronged
\\'e '"'ill be :tble 10 tack It' corruption only if we are able to lollow a three-point strateg). The
firsr IS rhe simplification of rules nnd regulations so that the scope for corruption is rrduced.
fhe second is cmpowc::ring the public and ushering in greater transparency. The thi rd is
eflecti\e punishment. We have just seen how in the past the public was empowered in our
countf). We have also seen how Manu and Tiruvalluvar had both highlighted the nred !'or
effecri,e punishment.
In the comext of COrf1Jption in India today. I will suggest the following tor consideration for
of rhe corrupt. It is imponant to have laws that punish the corrupt.
Corruption r_od_ay count ry has become a low-risk high-profit business activity. The
n 11s repon ha.d suggested the enactment of rhe Corrupt Public
Sen ants Acr. Thts Act has been pending with the government since
February 1999. It IS h1gh t1me that this law was enacted so that corrupt public do
not take advantage of the present legal process themselves
csc"pc 1 II
h"oJJ' 1 f " puntS1mcnt. tt'
c. J g liS o the Act are gven 111 the fo llowing paragraphs.
As from _rite commencement of this Acr. it shall not be lawful for .:.
Acr applies ro hold any illegally acquired ro r . . any person to whom '1h1s
person on his behalf. Where a - p pel ty euher himself or through any
ny person 1olds any
11e ,
11 ,
contravention of the provisions of subsection (
) h g ) acqwred prop' '1 y 111
b) the central govemmenr in accordance w'th ,
sue shall be liable Lo .fot k ilurc

1e provrs1ons of tl A N .
anythmg conraule(j m this Acl a person
ld. . HS Cl. OlWILhslan< 111g
rng any 11legall
ConlraveoiJon of the provsons of subsection (
) h
. . Y acqUJrcd propc:rt y m
also I table for punishment with imprisonment th'
on conVICII on by a criminal <:olnt . be
a WI nor be 1 1
css 1 1an seven years and maY
extend to 14 years.
I he pwvisions of this Act sl) <lll apply to:
I c:vc1) publit !>C: rvant who (a) has bc{n found euiltv of .
dtS<: Iphnary/dcp<tnmcntal inqUiry. (b) is holdmo or is. - . . corruption. n a
. . 1 , "'
possess1on of propertieS that
.1re < l!>proportton,l\e to lw; 1-.nO\\ n means of income (c) r d
1 1
- . f . IS Oun 10 dme or m
posscss1on o proper 11cs whether 111 the course of a sea h d -
. rc . ra1 or survey bv an
aut onty or 10 any other manner "hatsoever. for which )
.. cannot r
ll 1
. . urn1s 1 an
accepta > e exp <malton or w 11ch are disproportionate to hi s known n
ca f ..
. n,. o mcome,
every w 10 IS a of the public servant referred to in clause ( 1 ); .
.> every assoemtc of the pu hllc servant rc fer red 10 in clause { 1 );
4. any holder of any. property that was :11 any time previously held by the public
sc1 v<Jnt clcrrcd to 1n clause ( I ). unless such holder proves that he: was a
ansfcrcc in
good faith for adequate considcrnt ion: and
5. any pe rson who has deposited any amounts or other movable properties in any bank
or any other concern outside thl! territory of India. or has acquired any properties
outside the territory of India without the requisite permission of the appropriate
authority in India. .
6. Many a time, apart from the plethora of laws leading to causing red tape and
corruption. many laws themselves provide cushions of safety for the corrupt. rhcsc
cushions or safct:. must be removed.
In addition to passing fresh legislation hkc the Corrupt Public Servants (Forfeiture of
Property) Act. law-makers should also insist on implementing laws that have already been
passed and have a bearing on chc'cking For exan1plc. in I 988
the Benami Transaction Prohibition Act \\as passed. Section S pro-.:tdes for conliscation or
benami properties and Section 8 provtdes for rhe government to prescribe the rules under
which confi scati on could rake place. The eve had requested the government in Janual')
1999 to notify the rules. This has not yet been done.
Prompt action on implementation of such laws will go a long way in fostering a corruption-
free government. lf'there are any difficulties in registration, they can be suitably modified so
that the present situation where a law has been on the statute book for nearly 12 years but
not yet implemented can be corrected.
As the above shows. three things stand as the stable features for ensuring ethics
in public administrati on. The lirst is the nl!ed for observing dharma or the principle
high you may be. the law-is above you'. The concept ofrajadharnw has to be pracllccd. In
order to ensure that rajadharma is practiced. law-breakers should not becom:
There is need for making changes in our system so that the majesty of the law tS matnt:unc.l.
The second important aspect is protecting. the weak and ensuring. that

1 h f d This is possible onlv tl , .. e
of bahujanu sukhayacha bah1yana 111aya c a lS prac tee . .
the third principle of effective punishment as Manu has sa1d.
od b e\en making
1 have e.iven some ideas on how we can empower the pubhc mt ay s Y d .a
corruption-free service for every citizen of this country a fundamenla' _ngh,t. (llhlu ""S
h l for the corrupt Fma' y, tu..- ct tC:) m
and implementing laws to gtve deterrent pums men . . . . f \,oer
public admi nistration will depend a lot on those who are m
, h
a there is vision Where lh "
Where there is yogeshwara Krishna, >;hcpwt.JU o an\ ' When both are combined then
Arjuna'thc dhmwrdhara'skiHed competence II\ acuon prevat s.
1f 1 1e >
ce After'
j he these thrt.' c
three: n:suf1s nrisl.' There is success \\ Caflh and Juslr rn<h cnn )
. . . . . I c;l cro : .
011 Iron) our c .
lll<.::lsurrng "heth<.r a puhlrc :lcfllliiiiSir:trron on t:lll . - r rnsprr,r
. , .. c,,l
If'> ..,
lr ' flllfl !! llll 'AbrndO.IIt:(.t flfl) ",
I Ut 11 Ul 11 prs trct >Is rhcrc SII CCcss . )
Srr tllv . '''
1 .,.
t osc rron Jcl ol raJodhan
msrg liS nnd n:mernbc:ring 1/w bcncons of ti!;! hl /r.:c
11 be ntOl '
(/ "
. wiltOn " '
lc)\\:lrds bw/drn!! a lwrwr /mira 11hcrc publrc adfl1
" '
:'It' I lOll .
Frhks in Puh/ic ,., drui111srr:llion I of Qovcrnmenl. I ollov .. j
. d . . . I , .,,,;vc br:lllC l - f I r "'
r lrc a fllllllslrarron rs \'rewed ns 11 p;ur ofrJC cxt:c . nn element o l 1c s .llc po
Charles de. Montcsquicu rd..:as 1w may recogni ze cxccutrve as' rtres

intly rele t r<.:d to ..
d I . / . . . . . . . I other struc t . ci s
an IllS <.: l'f11Cill C011SISI.S Of agenCICS. lllllliSineS .JJI( . b' I 'Sin gcncr<l l nfl tlCli\- iti ,
"P I I Ad .. auon colll
c. . cs
Il l
l . Thrs vrc" ot pub/1c admJJIISir. . .
c swtc nwch111crv
o 1 . .
, adJ11llliSlra 1
c ncan111g pu l/1c good and puhlrc interest. W11hrn llt.: ' . . ceclttrs and manv Oll
- d r vc: p10 " lcr
l)l:l." 111 puhlrc adminbtrlllion officials. special adnunrsrra

mechanisms. which. arr ch;lracterisllc ro all bureaucratic organizauons.
P [/ .. 1 . hrcc:\ extent !.!0\ 'CrnS il. 1 hro
")" .It 1111ll1Sir:li10ll n part of 0 11,. dnlf\ hie and 10 a ' : - "
d 1 s ot the loc;ll comnll

n>n.sisr of people \lho arc also JllCIIPc.:t , .


(commtlllllleS) Citi7cns :lnd publtc officinls. "ho have access ro pO\\ CI .. hme COI!XISl
logcrhcr in one an.a. one spncc. 1 he difference between them is thnt public admini s tration
offic_i:J is ha,c IO pro1ide services in aid ofc6mmunity. Because o!'this wo_rk, on public
m?mcs :llld properry rhe possibiliry of betraying public trust is probable. 1 hc_re _
s no s implest
lhlll_g. rhan spend1ng somcone's monev. even il'\le do nor uet direct profits. l: th1cal behaviour
and. dec1sions mainraining ci tilcns' ensure cll'ective enicicnt usc or resources. and
allo" ro pll'St' IVC individual rights while assisting those \\hO will benefi t the
most EthiCS IS one of the' 11al components that allow democracy to thrive in any country.
Ethics in oovernmcnt
. . .
::- IS cr111ca 10 real121ng 1he prom1ses of democracv. In a democrac\
uol'emmem ha bl ' .
::- f . . S an 0
ga110n tO treat everyone equally and to- provide the greatest oood 10
most o CliiZens The effect' I f . . ::-
d .
'e operat1on o democrauc government reqUJres thm public
Ia san ernplovces be mdc d . . I
decision!> a d
. . pen ent. 11npart1a. and responsible to the people. Go1e rnment
n po ces should be made ' tl 1 f
office shall b ' \.VI llll tle proper structure o government: public
not e used for personal gain and II bl' I' I
integrity of it s governmem Wh

pu IC las to 1ave confidence in 1he

en et11cal wrongdomos and sea d 1
t ey pose a threat to tbc de . . o

a s occur rn government
. mocra!Jc pnncJples of the rule of law, equi ly. and indi vidual rights:
Fraud. bribery and lh b .
. . . . ' o er a uses tn government take th fJ .
lew m poslllon of control. which distorts th e power rom people and give il to a
public life. e concept of lhe equalily of all participanls of
r he deli nil ion of social elhics emb
c1 , , . . races a se1 of norms a
. of a group of people Th' . . ssessmems and opinions ,I . I
wizcns . . rs very Simple definit' . . \\ 11C, nre
Sl<mdards crealors of norms and of elhtcs to socicjj,
d" . h uc1. fhese srandards can be ,.
of behav1our. E1hics are
ISIIngus bcrween the ril!ht and _app led lo personal b I .
prok--ssonal life F II . . wrong ways bel . . c laVIOur. l: lh,rs
o owmg lhrs wav f
. lav,our
10 0
"dlllinislr<tthc crhics .
- - o IHnking we ma . ur pcrson:t 1111
. usrng 11e words Y es1abl1sh d ,-
admmrsrralion ()lficial p bl' . norms. legal retl al a e 111 1100 o
ll IC SCrVJCe IOns 'ISS. .
< essmen1s of public
Puhh<.: scnncc ethi cs arc a prerequisite to. and underpinninn of bl'
. . . . ., pu IC trust. and arc a
. kcvstollC o l llancc. Publtc scrvtcc IS a publi c trust Citizens ev
bl' '
. . - . . . . . .,pee pu IC sen ants
w sc1 vc JHII,Irc \\lth and_ to resources properly on a
bas1s I <llr and H:ltabl<: publtc serv1ces msprrc publtc trust and create a f;wonrable
CllVIronmcnl for businesses. thus COntributing tO well- functioning markets and economic
gr owtlt.
Public scrvnnts operate in a chnnging envi ronment. They arc presently subject to
public scrutiny and increased demands from citizens: they also face stricter limits on
rcsolll ces. I he\ have to assume new functions and responsibilities as a result of: dc,olution
and greater managcral discretion: increased commerciali7.ati on of the public sector: a
<.: hanging public/private sector interface and changing accountability arrangements. In short
rhcy have to adopt new ways of carrying out the business of government. While public
management reforms have realized impor tant returns in tenns of effi ciency and cffccti\'encss.
some of the adjustments may have had unintended impact on ethics and standards of conduct.
I his is not to suggest that changes have caused an increase in miscond\lC! or unethical
bcha' lOlii But the) may public servants in situations involving conflicts of interests or
"here there are few guidt:lincs as tO how they act. 'I here may i1ideed a
Publ ic Administrati on Ethics belongs 10 the same family of applied Ethics as bio-Ethics.
Ethics of International Relations, Business Ethics and many others. Applied Ethics it
foundation in Normative Ethics and Meta Ethics. Ethics deal with the notion of good and C'-il
in the acti on of every person by analyzing of human behaviour through the prism of ethi cal
systems. for instance in the Meta-Echics applies metaphysical analysis
to the problems of Ethic behaviour. Applied Ethics translates basic ethical values and nom1s
and applies them to the everyday acti\'ities of social and professional groups 111 the
practice of medicine. genetics. business and every-increasing number of profess1ons.
Administrative Ethics in some of the literature is referred to as the Ethics of Public \!Tairs.
Governance and Politics - growing mismatch between traditional values and
governing the behaviour of public servants and the roles they are expected to fulh\1 in a
changing public sector environment.
Public service has its own values and the most important of them is: the
It can be interpreted to cover a broad range of bureaucratic behaviour. but it IS _used also to
refer to administrati ve or public service ethics, to principles and of nght
for public servants. Cert ai n principles and of ethical (e.g .
k g) are of such enduring importance 10 all walks of ltfe that
prom1se eepm d 1 fl cts hcl''\'cn
described as ethical values. These ethical values can be use to rcso ve
1 1
, .
such public service as responsiveness and efftciency; they can also be app te
< '"

d d
1 al es like liberty and equa It\ \)n
between public service values on one han . an soc1a v u
. d , loping and maintai nmg
Governments and international draw as a m<:ft-1 uf
high standards and values, ethtcs and condu . I p ' ts of ethical infrastlucture of
combating corruption. All these factors arc compom:t
public life.
. .
. E non\, . Coo""ratton auld
- d b h, Orgamzat ton or co "
The term ethics infrastructure as dchnc Y t d rocesses for
D I t (OECO)
refers to a range ot tools an p
eve opmcn
'S lAS
"d" lC''IliiVCS
"c .. ood
w cncoural:" c
conduct of l'ublic
undesrrnbk and/or provr rng n
, as li.liiO"
. ' I )H.' "'
l OJ CD cornpom'lll' ,1/
1) J>olit ic:rl comnHIIl ll'lll
b) lffcctivc fegill fr.ttlll'WOtl-
c) Ellicicrll rnc:ch:111isms.
d) Workable codts of conducl, ..
c) Professional socinli1ation nKclwnisms (including 1
111 1111
I) Supporti ve puhlrc service condili ons.
g) r, of nntr alcth1cs coordinating hod) . .
of officials.
h) :\n active crvrl socrt ty ilhk to net as n \\:llrhdog over thc ncllOI
. s
e or more of thr<'e
r ClliiC per onn
Lnch of the compom.nt'> of 1he cthrcs rnrr:rstru . b
aviour or ma n.lurnu
. . r H! ''lll(hnce 10 e ( I .
ovcrlnpping roles rp controllrng bchav1our. proviC
"' ' f
, tcmcnts and the
. " , ., . I c. of each o t H:Sc
other clement s o f IlK' rnuas11 ucturc. 1c tmpor an lC. concl iti orl s and
. t

n l and l.!ovcrnnr
n.:ln11vc synergy them wrll depend on 1 H! rnst1 u' ' ' - .
tmdil ions or' each t' ounlr y. :<
. . . . . . . . f ?ublic scnarll s is cxtn.:mclv
rders rotthico; in public admrniSiratiOil. I he 0 I
llllJl\H.I<llll fl) the prc:;tn:llroll of public 1nrst and conlidencc in government.
Polllical leadership :tnd commitmcnl nrc Olll' of the 11\0SI signi licant clements or
infrastructure of publtc life 1 here is no doubt thot for the successful irnp!cmcntatron_ o f
refonns it is crucinl 10 secure the cenain level ofburcaucrptic cornmitmen.t to ftght corruptron
and other unethicnl
L vcr y courlll y has ccrtnin kgnl framework \\lth provisions 10 cover vari ous unethi cal and
corrupt practices such as tht' brc<JCh or offi cial lrust and duties. abuse or power.
misappropriation. and ex to 1 ion. corrup1 prac1iccs. ncccptance o f undue advan1agc and
of oiTicials influence. 1 he key problem is. therefore. not corruption. but weak enforcement.
Without effective enforcement mechanisms. legal and administrative provisions on l
corruption are in themselves ineffective. Weak enforcement capacity may be blamed parity
on the fact that several documents. which makes access to them difficult. especially where
enforcement olricers lack experience.
Accountability" system is determined by the strengths and weakness of the cxistinl!
organi_zational and procedures to detect and punish corrupli on and olhcr
Unethical praclrces. 1 he weaknesses of 1he adminislrative system wilh impl ication for elhics
arc_ hierarchies. cumbersome procedures and weak conlrol over adminislralivc
ac11on. lnd1v1dual senior officials seem to wield too much power and d' 1
f . . ISCreltOn Wtl lOlii
e lect1ve accountability. Adm1n1strative procedures arc such lllat roL

ne de b r.
,. CIStOilS y II Onl
111e stall olten have to be cleared throuoh the hierarchy Tile co 1
1 ., . . . . . . nsequenccs ol 11a1 _arc
rcsu lin.,. dela)s and frus trat rons rn obtamiiH! dec
sions and ser

b - v1ces on 11 mc w 11ch pm1 y
encourages nbery and pcll y corrup1ion at the poinl of service deli v .
s implify svs1ems and procedures d ery. There IS nead 10
111 or er 10 remove lhe u
1 1
01ganizarional sys1ems lhal crcale
. . r . nnecessary > oc.lwp1
. ppon unJt1es lOr bnbes tO be J r ,
!lues rcfo1 ms and anti-corruplion slrategies \VO ld b 'rom lhc .pu I> lie.
u no1 c useful f 11 1 f' 1 h
laws and cumbersome processes tllal d . d . .
1 1
ey c I 111 p acl' I e
. . pro ucc 1nce 11 f' b .
unclluc<d pr;JciJCcs tn the lirsl place.
IVC or n bery and othcJ
rnforclll!! accountabiltty for the exercise of bureaucratic po h be .
bl I
wer as come more d1flicu1 as
pu 1c.: scrv1cc conllnued to grow in si:zc and as the b l}
. I . . II . ' . . . rr responsl lhllcs have grown in
comp CXII ) 11.: process 1n novcrnnwnt is oft" 1
. - .
. 1 f - . e - d) so engt 1y and complr cated
that 11 1s t 1 licult ro smglc out those publrc scrvams '"ho sho 1 1 b 1 II
. . . . u < c 1e < responsrblc tor
spct d1c and decrsrons. Another ohstack on tiP road
. . . . <: ' o accounta 1 litv IS the
w1de range o aulh<>rtlltS to whtch publi c servants arc deemed to be accountable.
Code ethics play a guiding role in the ethics infrastructure, but Lhcy also take on a
controlling func11on s1ncc they establish and publicize boundaries of behaviour and set
standards for public servants. Whatever level they apply to. the development and
mrlt;mcntatron of workable codes of ethics require sound management strategy that secures
gcrHIIne employee acceptance of undcrl} mg 'a lues and ethics being promoted. The creation
. of Codes of Llhrcs or other forms of polrcics w1ll be counterproductive if such instruments
temnin ns no more -than a collecti on of slogans or nice. good-looking principles. In such n
case, politicinns seeking to verify their intentions or proposals as "good or "<!thica\' will
make usc of them.
.' ";
In realit y such instruments can serve as means of "covering" rllegal activi ties and lead to not
only legal hut also to a cynical form of moral corruption. Opposition politicians might usc
such standards as tools in their partisan lights " ith g.overning p:111ies without any real concern
for the principles involved. On the other hand. governing parties can use them as a fo,m of
cover-up" and as a means of defence against valid criticism. Such pract1ces will work a short
time only and wiJI then lead to the loss of public trust. ''hich. once lost. is difficult to regain
or rebuild. '
As Rose-Ackerman has pointed out ''if public sector pay is 'ery low. corruption tends to be il
survival strategy". Public service conditions. particul arly human resource policies, llirccLiy
inOuence conduct. The conditions may be more or less conductive 10 ethical behaviom by
public servants. For example, low payments in public sector are partly blamed for the
prevalence of petty corruption and other unethical practices in \ow-income countries. Ins 1 1r
as these conditions can affect morale and productivity in the public services and 11 P. J<.' .e
ethical behaviour. they cannot be ignored by any reform of ethics. Public sen ice con<l' 011s
are also directly related to the ability to attract and retain qualified_ and experience\ I f.
Human resource management capacity withi n the various line including institutions. lS also
Systems and procedures for recruitment, promotions and oppor_tunitics ha,:e
crit ical roles to play in managing ethics and checking 10 pubhc lo
improve performance and encourage ethical behaviour in the pubhc promollll:' .md.
pay inccnsement need to be linked more strictly to perfonnance w1th an elTon '

1 1
' ,,h:
awareness among public servants on how they wlll be assessed and Bod s that
coordinate the overall ethics framework range from parliamentary comm1ttcl's.
agencies. and departments or speciall y created independent mandated_ to
in the publ ic service. They serve a management funcuon by coordmatu _.
supporting all the other infrastructure clements. They operate either thrmtt.h lu
b d 1 th sc tasks to the other departmcnb or
implemenling IOi tl altvcs or y e egatt ng e
1 r t of public life is of\en
The role of civil society instttuuons m ethca m,rastruc . rn
\ d th
e behav
our of pubhc o 1c1a s
compared with position of the watc ' ogs on
. . mcnt tOlerated n the
. . ol go,ern .
bf" critiCISill . l ' ll11 Of
eflectiveness is dctcnmncd bv the level ol pu IC d
1 111
cdia ;.s an 1111p0r .
1 cf >pen en 1 uH.l ex I C) nal
rarticuJar society :"llld the position of free Ill c . . .
cnt 0\"CrSig 11 t .
. 1 (J0";"
1 1 r UI H.: tl llc' 1
C\ po::.inu ion :mJ other unet h1cal ncl
'> corrupt ion n n< ot lC a
:- d
, fCH comb<tllng. 1 1 blc t
mcchamsrns for accowltabtlity art: not a cqun \; ... stitutions. '" liC
' 'J
beha' iour unless 1hcv :"Ire suppkmcntcd by sll ong CIVIC
thev abide by the rule of
- - . . I > ensure I ,a -
question !!ovcrnmcnl decisions and off1C1:JI acii Oil !> <
lnw and e;hi cnl swndnrds in the public service. .
. . latcd 10 the ethi cs or the
. . . t . st in the areas IC d
he modern world has seen an 1ncrcasc 111 1n c1c. h. b"ect matter an scvcr<1 l
sovereign good. A number of studies have focused
sui .ldilemmas rein ted to the
academicians hnve c>.poscd a number of ethical and !)hdoso_p
ca ber of studies that have
concept of ethics in public :1dministration. Despite the
crcasng num lillie effort spent on
focused on 1hc importance of ndministrative ethics. there __ , 1
rc, iew
. . . . . f . I . s Ill adllll nJStraiiOio.
ldt:ntlly111g exnctly constitutes the cru>. o ct .li C. . ' . . . .
e context of new
implications of !he oasic principles of ethics for public adlllllliStraiiOil
publc go,ernancc and discuss !heir .. . , d
11 5
of ctl, c
. . . . . . . I . I . t n net as -'l hc ctcrnl ll "' . I s
1111pact on d1fferent admllll stratiOn 1mpernt ves " 11c 1 111 u ' f , . .
1 1 1
. til e importance o ethiCS 111 new
Ill public administration. rl11s rcv1cw wd a so ocus on . . .
d b e"ucralizauon dcvolut1011 ot
governance prnc11ces (pnvatzallon. decentrnll7ai10il. e Ul " ' . .
1 - d d , ,,stratton and how cthcs
budgets etc.,) w1th reference to the push and pull of et 11cs <In a n '
rnindsets and basic nppmachcs to :tdministrati on and can be changed.
Adminis rr:ui,c Erhic.:
Since the I 970s there has been a great deal of change associated with the impl ement ation of
administrat ive ethics. These changes have been promoted and motivated by the concept of
public administration in the new era.
An important position is given to the concept of ethical issues in todays civil
Frederick.wn and Ghere (2005) address both the managerial and indi vidual/moral dimensions
of ethical behaviour as well as new challenges to administrative e thics posed by
globalizat ion.
As promoted by Cooper (200 I) ethics in public administration is not a transient concept b111
has to be an whic_h. has shown a great deal of sustainability which is
fundamental to the area of publ1c admll1tStration.
Public administration has issues with regard to ethics implementation and finrls it
to come to terms ':"Jth them. One reason for this is because ethics is embedded in
an mtellectual framework. Thts framework is based on stab!
el-f h. 1
b e tnstttuttona as well as roe
r a tons P eve s, among oth public employees as well as tl _::
the views of a number of researchers (Ban a d S . 1e organtzallon. Accordmg to
1996: Sorensen. 2002.2006: g c n orcnscn, 1999; Keast ct al.,
and f 01 ling. 2004: Stoker. 1998). current covcrnmcnt
tahiliry at would be perspcc11ves believe that elanly an
Otspue the increasing number of studies II ,
1 1
admini lrati\e ethiCS, there has been very lillie<:;; lave the import ance
ort spent
tdcnttfymg what is exact ly l
cru' o f ethics in administration. These devclo h
. pments ave ra1sed ne r
1h1s f 1cltl One example which can be cit ed at th. . . w top1cs Or concern in
IS JUnCtUre IS the ClllC , f h
l ' rn,crnamc.: \\hich would requi re the idcntificnti on of a rgcnce o t e concept ol
\\ hole new paradigm of ethics in publi c administration.
I he objecti ve is to identify the ways in which administrative pol
ce bl" . .
l d
I S 10 pu IC OruamzallonS
can >C P' omote and manaoed by adopting an effecti ve ' tnd no el 1 , 1 c-
' . ., . ' v et Hca approach. h ,,ould
1c p1 tluCnt to mcnt1 011 the 'ethiCS framework here The ethics r a k
. . . or mcwor 1s a volunta1v.
non-legall y n1nd1ng C?de Eth1cs. It reflects the basic common values and standards
111cmbcr Important for the proper functioning of public It
comprehensively d1scusses the general core
specific standards of conduct, actions to safeguard integrity and measures on handling
where there has been possible vi olation of ethics. It helps to structure
d1scusson on public-service ethics and it serves as a toolkit or general guideline for the
development of codes of conduct at a national and sub national level.
Ori ginall y. the ethics framework identifies general core values that sho.uld be common 10 all
member states. These values arc the rule of law ('"lawfulness''). tmpaniality/ objectivity.
11 nnsparency ('openness''), accountability. professionalism ("expertise .. ). and dut\ of care.
re liability ("confidence, trust' ' ) and counesy ("service principle .. ). If it is believed-that these
are the core values. then they should be full y recognised in every countf).
New Publi c Administration and Ethics
Glohally the concept of privatization has been promoted in new public administration. ll i!>
SCCn that this concept is related tO the measures which prOmOte establishment of
and erti cacy leading to development of quality deliverance of public services. In the research
conducted by Savas (2000), the concept of "privatization in new public management"'. is
promoted. Further identified by Walsh et al. ( 1997) introduction of new market mechanisms
which promote implementation of public services in organizations is identified.
Walsh in his research has identified that privatization in governance in the United Kingdom
has resulted in a new paradigm. which has promoted transformation of both orgam7a\lonal
and cultural needs. The purpose of these reforms include reduction of cost relating. to the
actions of the governments, identification of measures to reduce the direct impact of act1on of
public emplo:rees and bringing about a variation in the overall views of the government by
the public.
Thi s type of privatization manoeuvre not only challenged the current associate,\ ''ith
ethics in public administration. wherein administrators were as
professionals. but also identified the type of functioning that does not take u\\o
judl!mcnt on the part of employees. Accordingly, intellectual ol t"lhu:a.
per; peetive were responsible . for the ftrst of
ethical obligations and the importance of ctuzen parttctpallon m de
This has tong been in place in developed countries across the world .as seen
concepts promoted by Ronald Reagan in USA and Margaret Thatcher m the UK.
Rciri\'Crtring C ovcnHncn 1 vcni ine I he govcrnml:nt
. . b crvcd rhat rCIIl - r bl '
i\s seen br and Gaebler (I 992), 11 IS o s .
new coney pi S o pu I t
. . . o C'l ' . d . .. lrr lii S Cl<.
1111porwncc 1n 111 11110n s ::1 mrn1 ' . a
adnllni-,ti,IIIOII with rcgnrds 10 two different :1rcas wcrcpromolc
I ' odiiCtivit y or governance
The tirst. ill\olvcd ideruilicatipn of factors ''hich

was proposed that the
:md the !'>econd involved sett ing a new vision and miSSIOn po rc)h. al measures in terms of
. . b . d b . dopting more ct IC< ' . .
r:o. ol governance can e 1ncrcasc . Y a
cd. The usc of n new m1ssio
dlsllngUJShlllg between the results and quantity of resources l s y be idcnt i fi cd to be
polic} will sarisfy the needs of the general public. meafsurcs
ental or!!anizations
I d
. .
111011 0
govcrnn - .
css HISIIC "hen compnred to rhe concept o
ere is a chant!e
cased onlv w IC.:Il ' ' - 111
owe\t'l th1s rdc.1 can be promorcd and produCII\'Iry 1ncr ' 11 ov, should ,_
h 1
novcrnancc. " m c oe
a111rude towmds current concepts of esrablrshcd rerarc 1y " :: d .
r trllizntion an concentratron of
made toward promotion of mer hods ro ident1fy llex1b1 ny, cen ' ' . d .
. d d ed to be an rntcrme rat e so utron
pu c a l111111Sir1lllon aspecrs. These aspects may be cons cr . w
C"l be a solutron. rt 1 reQard to
to pnvnuzalron. 11 rs not possrblc, dclegatron mcc uwrsms "
. .. 1: ,
the ethienl position, the researcher advocares rhat privatization may not alter the. act that the
rcspollsibility of the state rowords irs cirizens will be 111Ct. Different processes arc to be
supen ised and conlrollcd need to be reali:ccd bv the e.ovcrn111cnt because ultrmatcly the
nccounwbilitv and ethics ofthc action of the uovcr;1m..:nr irs ci ti zens is needed.
. e
The scope and responsibilities of public adminisrration changed due ro the dynamics of new
public maQogemcnt systems such as privatization. decentralization. deburcaucrati zation and
cit1zcn partnership that are essent ially new public management techniqttes and practices
dra"n mainly from the privare secror and increasinQiv seen as a global phenomenon. These
concepts shin the c:mphasis from tradirional -administration to public managemem
ac_cordcd ethics a central position. The purpose of public service is to essenti a ll y fulfil
a CJtJzen s basic requirements. Rocha (:WOO). observes that groups call ing lor professional
public administration argue that they are more efficient and effective
than the ex1stmg They call for breaking down large institutions into manageable

thus allowmg for mdependent functioning as part of the new economic in.aituliom!
' ea.
The Rise of ,Ethical Rising , .
Snell (1976) !1as maintained that it was Socrates the rounder of 1 1 1 h 1
' mora p 11 osop y w 10
enqUire 11110 the nature of ethics as his thoughts Jed him to the in .
external physical factors in
B.C. ncr person rather than the
Morality's choice of good and sound ethics was a natural m .
fibre. Socrares also felt that knowledge and moral it w of developrng a strong moral
moral if one did not know what morals w dy here rnterrelated and one coulcf not he
ere an w at was ) d (i . .
ol \'lrluc as being the centrepiece of k
d goo or mankmd. l hus. he
knowledge. All thought and action there fore had now e ge and reasoned that virt ue _was
good or bad and then. be judged by ethical and mto el,ll anate from the knowledge of whaiwas
h . (VI ora standards Th. I
<:lSI OS. I 99 I), Slates that it was . IS WOU d then lead ro true
Socrates sdea rhar morality be linked
ha . b
what \.\as good. . ppmess ccause he. feh_ ethics was about knoU/ ..... 1&-<,_
Socraaes rhoughrs also reached the common
c . h h man I lrough disc
onvYSalton w ec constantly probed. quesrioned d ourses and debates. and in
an thus. evoked . .
rcacu ons and inst
while resting his views and theories tl
rough 1 r
. liS now-ramous dialoo II c-
cnga)!cmcnt wuh the questions of virtue lie b
. d h . oues. e 1Cit constant
. . e leve I at moraltty would m k
a!> rhc\ "oultl lll(HC on their own moral standards. a e people bencr
l ktcrrninants ol Fth1cs in Public Administration
l he major determinants of administrative conduct in the public sect l.ud .
1 II
. or rnc e
) 1c po 1t1cal construct of which public administrators are a part
2) ., he legal framework
3) I ndmini strators and public employees who are responsible for the provision of public
4) 1 he citi;rcns and users of public services that arc a part of the civil society.
l1rst. lhc detcrminnnts of ethics in public administration with reQ.ard to the individual
altrilnll_cs ot public/civil servants include ethical decision-making skill; (Richardson
and N1gro 1987). mental attirude (I3ailcy. 1964). virtues (Dimock. 1990; Dobel. 1990:
Grcg.<:ry, _1999; II art . 1989). and professional values (Van Wart, 1998). Secondly, the
organmlltOnal structure dimension is explained by accountability, collaborative
arrnngcmems, di ssent channels, and participation procedures 1988; Thomson.
1985). Third. the political organizational culture includes artefacts, beliefs and values. and
assumptions (Schein. 1985). Leadership is important in the development. maintenance. and
ad3ptation of organinttional culture (Scoll. 1982: Schein. 1985; On. 1989). Ethrcal bcha' iour
is encouraged when organizations have a
climate where personal standards and employee education.are emphasized. where sup<!f\isors
stress the truth. and where employees regularly come together to discuss
erhical problems (13rucc. 1995. 1994). Finally. s9cietalexpectation includes public
participation. laws. and policies.
The advanced set of fundamental principles or criteria that integrate the process of dealing
with ethical dilemmas in public administration are:
I) Democratic accountability of administration.
2) The rule of law a11d the principle of legality.
3) Professional integrity and
4) Responsiveness to civi l society.
This can be described as the AUR (Accountability, legality, integrity and responsiveness)
model of imperatives of ethical reasoning in public by
( 1964) presented the concept pf 'evolutionary umversals m '.

aspects associated with the identification of issues related to publtc admmtstrJtton ln
d h. t' r st theory to an evoluttonarv
his Evolutionary Universals Parsons tte IS t . . , .:
perspective and argued that, like biological orgamsms. pr_ogress _
'capacity for generalized adaptation to their environment. Thts IS '- g
. . . h . h d 1 uent of spec1ahzcd msllhttron to
rocesses of structural I at s.
e eve opt . . ----'
. . as ngly spectahzed 1
perform the social functions necessary to meet mere I . . rd ord. te the
. . , des of inteomttOn tn o er to co- ma
increasino complex tty then reqUires ne\\ mo =- . 1 f the
-==- 1 d a the pnnctp e o , U't'
and more specialized clements. ThiS IS ac ueve VI fk led(lt"
r: 1 ge or the .growl.b o now C'-
hierarchy' or the increased m.ormat1on exc lanv
. . d ss can be thar1 d vi the
1 d soc1eues an pro&re
Evolution is then from tradltaona to mo ern
. ' universals such as bu
development (structural differentiation) of evo nd the of I neral
d k
t plexes strauficauon, a --
organization, money an mar e com '
t,snllstJc nomls r . adapt more effi cient! y lc .
tIll uonmcnt . nch o f enabks a soc,cty to . . > lis
:S he c .
onccpts of AI IR ;J ,
have some conHnonnliri
rhc point of
nd I nrson!>' c:voluriowtr)' tlmvcrsa
f ron1
' lt'w ol p 1 /' . . . of a new type o gov
promotcs I ll ) IC I he idcnrJi rC:IllOrl . II 'd r'f. \.lfl(Hil ..
evo urio - . . d. ocra11cH y 1 en r yrng tl
o l:t\\ \\hlch s n:tl y lllliVt'lsaliry will he wwl 111 ern . 'd . H:
. .
capahlc of - .
1010 cons1 erat10n

o r It' Cl\'ll so , , . c:trryrng our 11s 1 ok as '' cl as W c: c task .
.. clct.\ . lhcrcs-- t . .. dcpcndenccandconnecr s
>c P 111 d1s1in,
. .l:,u c >cr /eels thnr rh1s 1vpc ol rrliCf . . . . t()n w
also hdp un,g hcrwccn various concepts;,. crhics in publr c admllliSir<.l tron. This
I) Accounr:lt , . mor:.llly and cfrccriveh rhe fo/lowinl.! tour functional concepts: '
. ' 11 fly of bl' '(i I I . I .
k_gll lnl;flc 'l . _ru rc burc;wcl;rc)' whiclr helps ,denrr res I JC rc arrons lip bet\
') 'CIIOIJS and liS )' I . Vcell
-) 1 he rule: of/
" ro adnwustraiJon

\V and len /' ld b

C'onc:cprs of .
. . e-3 11Y whcre1n public adminisrmtion shou c governed by the 1
P1 o t:ssrona/ - d n \V
u tJm<ttdv hell' 1111egnry and ;:11, 0110111y among publrc a n11111Sirators whicl :
4) C . /)IOillOIC th' . . 1 Wl! f
onceprs of , .. . t.: P' Iller pic of meritocracy.
C Jt.:sponsrbJ/IIv a d . . . . . . .
. _ fi . 'n 1mnwclmrc acrron ofpubltc admmrsrraltOIJ 10 rl s c itizc .

. <: :111 u/ "P )/. . . . ns.
.rnc l'lll' umsrancs \ .
I 1C'.II 1on of such a set of moral commands rn concrcre s
1l .
1 "' )t':lr l<l lro
, ' "II ness ro the particular kind of ethical reasoning rhH a s .
... l;:ll) or f)llbl'c . - . . . < peer r
1 mstllti!Jon IS able 10 achrevc and sustarn. rc
Pl'incip/c:s of Ftl
/r . - li CS
1 to conccnrrat .
cr of rhc: service of c
the leadrng models- (erhics of rhe soverei ,11 ,
\\ Jlhrn rhc public rlwr are rnvolved wirh ethical rholll:!llls and actions g good and
cullaborcttl\'t.' ClhtCS tha .S urthCJIHOre. \\C also COmpare COntra .
w_k rng any particular o; nwmioncd aboi'C. It has 10 be kepi in minds\ them with
of could be called 'vulg bur rarhcr wi ll be raking the d hat we are not
(llarmon "00)-) ar anllanlsm or a "\'ulg" . . . mo ern unders tand,
- . ' ,,r urr tarranrsm ' ng
Ethics of the s .
overc1on g d
le crhics of th . o .oo
ind' -d e soverergn go d .
" I ual acrs. The ethics o rs norhing bur the ser of . .
which rhe different good is ident ified fbased on Wllich an
world sccnarios. th on w Jar IS good' can b . set o values

rhc ::'/,'< have differcnr be commonly seen in

guideline:. It IS rmpor1anr to idemify based on their co:c:p a:: ethfr clal concept.
wpornr lhar holds th n o l 1e ' ' good'".
e lrue . .
Michael (200S ? ... spmt of the ctlrical
rc: , d ' -
0J) makes
the ethics of the a argume . ..
PmJCplcd moralil . . sovcrergn good. Ac . nr rn The public ad . . .
set by llle erhics /h In hrs argument he ralk cording ro him it can b mrnr stralron .. , wil h
princi c good. An ims abour why one called
erhrcs rhar arc to him, not af,ortanr .reason is the act on the principles
accouru a large number d rn .rhe sovereign ' O can be rcsolv of ...
. of varrables rhar othe; !hrs is because II ?d by basing it oh I he
nu: plimar}' , .. ;,, rhe . prrncrplcs apply ro lies. docs no r laic(' inlo
absofurc lasr word "- . c:thrcs MtiiC: '( partrcular sccnm io
\Vuc:n II co ., >VCr<.:' l'll d .
an amrudc: lhar s raw lin . ro crhrcal d' .. goo is the lacr II , .
8 UJ"- IIC rv . . ..crsrous A l ei( I( ref .

nor her iss . crs ro usc If as the
. nc reason why It . rs lhar it lends lo r
lC Clhrc of If
lC sovereign good
rrcoOng is rhm ir tends
10 1
so I . ranscend b
oJi cct ivc w1en 1t comes 10 dcfininc cyond the i d' .
' II . I . I , d . "' proper cth- n IVtdual a d I
but \"I tdl let "'a us IntO an ICS. - - n OOks at th b'
d 1 ' re II w111 e tl!(!cr
tillrccognt/C an<. tnlpossrble (from l not SO!ve the ind' :d- I
s persl'\(>cl . ) v ua
_ .... ve .aporia.
Ethics of the sen icc of goods ,
The values that arc promoted by th _-
, {" h C ethiCS Of lh .
n,momtz.<'ltron o I e mputs to output 8 . e scrvtce of good -
when it comes to the service of "O d s. asrcally there are thre' s are mam_ly efficiency and
. - r . e 0 s. They are 1 e aspects wh
d rts crrt crra Or JUdgment
og1e of reciproc't . . are tmpottant
. I . . < n a so be clca I , Y- lis VIew of th II
ar..: rnalll y targeted towards the mark r y seen that the ethic f e ecllve.
ct. s o the soveretgn good
1\ 1 the very core, service of good .
. .. s s based on m I
pcop c arc ratonal aJld have the r d utua exchange. Basicall -
d. 'd . ree om to choose h Y t assumes that
an 111 lVI ual ltkcs a panicular good/ sc . h w at goods or services they wam Th r
suitable trader on the terms for the ;vrce: . c/she can emcr into an agrccme .t .
individual can offer monctar)' rcso pure ase ol the same service or good In exchna wtt I a
urces to compcn
ngl! 1 1e
that they have provided Thl's ,s - b sate t lC trader for the services and ds
. an amrca le p
0 1
. ' goo
to deliver the goods as per the terms a r r cess ts only when someone
socral good. Howc\'er in the case I g '? Tht s wtll result in the decline of the
- d' .d " len C\l!rvthrng IS goin' s hi
rn tvr ual ends up being l!ood ro tl II -. g moot y. what is good for the
'' r 1c co ecuve whole.
There have been a lot of questions that hav b d' .
goods. The questions that are raised are the of the sen ice of
about the ability of people to k h . . e ate to t c presumpt1on of self-interest and
problematic for reasons both t ,err dtn,e These questions arc considered to be
empmca an og.tcal.
According to di fferent researchers (Bauman 2001 ?QOS Cltla\v ?QQ9) b' l' _ , - , < , , VIa l tty IS an ISSUC
smce the ethtcs of soverergn good tends to legitimize everything as long as it 1
lrad: therefore 10 lon.g. run has a tendency to wear away minimal stabilit) . This
stabtlrty I S needed for an mtelhgtble world with bener ethics. It neglects the problem thJt one
must al.w?ys ask. to what end' '? "Or "good for whon{? FoliO\\ ing tht lin-: of
thought dtfferent tmperatrves need to be understood in the context of ethics in admmistration
which are discussed subsequently.
The distinction between politics and administration, which fom1s one of the most
doctrines of modem political science and public administration (Easton, 1953),
connotes not only their division of functions and their structural separation but ahl the
subordination of the latter to the former. This stream of thought also feels that fll'lit', . ., ts
superior to administration and that the government controls the administrative 1 1 , 1 y.
13ureaucrats are loyal to their ministers, who in turn are loyal to the legislature. whi\ b
to the people as they are their countrymen. Thus these 'people' s representatives the
administration accountable in the interests of the general public.
Ministers are accountable to the Parliament and not civil and hence
have to acl as per the orders of their ministers whether are in or 1wt
the law is no\ circumvented or breached. Subordmatton of scrvan\s t l
reprcscnlati vcs who act as law-makers and policy-sellers fomls a sme qua non l''
of democratic politics.

riot belong to it t'-
. h ( '-' . ''I!
,,ncr. '' hrC under nliiH:S .:pr
. 1;0 n usurps p 1 :11.:11' . tnd commands 11
\\'hen the hurcaucr;lC\' nnd admmrstra

J()Jiuc.: a
1 111
t.:rcsts ' 1us.
' . . , It' I s I ll ._ ()WI , S ( h<.: SC r<.: pr CSt: ll ((l( .
. burt';lllcrnn (ci' rl or mrlll:lr)) c.:n .
cnt tort. t crsl:llllt' " . bl .
,. . and .. ovtrr 1hc t.:_ ons1dcra c restraint
dt.>lll()Cr.JC\ and subrug;llt.'S J)O /11\.:S' tl\' uncft.'l apJJf)' C . . . II)
. . . ork drlr!!C

. vc to ' d ocrat1C VIrtue IS n 11
f.1lls upc1n rhc Cl\ If scr 'ant:; 10 '' -:: also 1.1 ThuS em Ot a
act:rally reflect the will of 1hc people. ;onal vicws.
c pari iamcnt usurp Public
1xtrtisan politics and while expressing r_helr and neither can nee the different

d 11strallon ,
vcr na .
, , .
;an ol the: core vnt uc of pubIC a d. Mo<krll g . . Is
l11g 1e r e ICCI C) of both
I . I t cal en s. It fc.:flt . I. b
service institutions for 11s own_
1 1
nisrrnrion as .
,,,ritv-the nb1 1ty to c able to
b ,. 1 r cs and ac nu ntl 1n "::-
roles and rcspons1 If Illes o po r 1
. d pcrso
1 111or.l "
timet ions and th:.11 is an imporl<lllt pan o
tell the lruth to the powers that he.
. ' thin its bounds thus renderi n
Legal -work :wd act WI . l ot h politi cs and soc ;,
Administrators have 10 rcspccr the legal_frafllt:
.vcrsal concert rn >. t . tllC lnw% Ill tiiC.Iy.
. 1 1 Law 1S a ur f
.1tc Wllllll ' ' c 11ru afl government aCtiOII Cgll rlll:l e. , ac1i011 0 fl S ' ., J' Q
Etat de Droit). Ma.x Weber sees bcinc. charisma nn? lrdc . net!
''n' of awhority with the other I sets I011h for rl sclf a senes
- e- 1 (rhe law
au 11 ower must be used r ndministrt111on works "ithrn rhe rca rn ' 1c and thus a P or
p fl from 1he pcop ' . Slilutions
of controls and regulatrons. owc.:r 0''
. .
dcmocratr c con
. emenr ol mos
the:: of the people. a fund:unema requu .
ce but 10 ,.,ork within the legal
. . . h fore have no c 101
Governments and adrnm1strarrons t ere
la\\ S which are there
. d.
plemenrs 1 1esc
frame"ork. Thus. 1he wa) theJu ICtary
1 1
10 uhimatel-' serve 1he people forms 1he core of the cg<l c
that 1he law will be followed during the
Brown and Duguid (2000) stale that_ c?un_s ensure . litv will do and ;hat power will no! be
discharoe of public duty and thai no tnJUSIJce or partra - . . . f d . .
abused.Constanl monitoring and pro1ec1ion of the law has to be a pnolrdJt yb 1 a mtnJSI_ral lhvc
- - 1 d that the law shou e s upreme 10 t e refom1s are to take place. Even Ansrotle commen e
e) es o f the people and should operate without any interference.
The Integrity Imperati ve . . . .
Chapman ( 1959) sratc;s. as professional erhics entered the adr111n rstra trve space so drd
need for studying public administration and defining its scope and determinants. The nation
states of Europe among others have taken steps to professionalize the government.
Ministers guide the bureaucracy which discharges its public duties in conformity with the
law. They are chosen on the basis of special criteria and procedures whic h govern their
recruitment career path. discipline. <tnd scope etc. Professional virtue brings with it integrity
and acceptance of !he hierarchical dominance of the government blll works under the
au1horiry ofrhe law.

Ar,gyriades ( 1996) obsencs that civil servams are the pe , f(i f'
1 1
I I} 1- . rmancnt o rccrs o t lc r
po IIICtans m M ramenl. 1 herr comrvtency from cxp k 1 1
enencc now e< gc
deprh ere helps rhern ground real"!' d ' blic
f , rr. . .
res an advtse the pa rliament and imnl c mcnt pu
po ICIC 10 arr c C(;Irvc manner m the interest f h. . . .
' f
profes!.ional public !,Crvice v.hich would inc!
I C pubJ rc. r he features 0
onduc! in accord<mce 10 slandards a.
dc knowledge of cxpcrtrsc. of JUdgement
we a co
" llllnJtrncm l o the fi eld compnse
I) Recruitment _should be carried out on the basis of tests and merits condtiCied b\
bod1es and govemed by that arc independent of poliucs and cal syM\:rnS. It should take- place impartially and solely consrdcr merit
achievements. Merit . therefore is a hugc.determinant ofintegriJ. and auv:>nomy
2) _Self governance should be stressed on administrati ve counc1ls to promote
corpo(ate spirit and professionalism. Experience and length of service as \\ell as
achievements and performance must be taken into account for promotions.
3) Training and education should increase in government and
administnllion as a "hole.
Professionalism in public servi ce can be seen in people who have a very good knowledge ol
the job in which they arc working at, their expertise and talent and their abi lit y to adhere to
the hi ghest ethical standards. Thus a true professional is one who has an adequate mix of
experti se. knowledge and experience and also those who can meet the public's expectation of
them. The general public and society have certain guidelines for various professionals who
arc expected to adhere to these standards. For example. corruption is frowned up on by 1hc
general publi c and therefore a true professional would be expected follow such practices.
Otherwise. the profession is deprived of an essential precondition of its claim to legi1im:1<:y
Corrupti on can be a major obstacle in the process of economic development and in
modernizing a country. The greater recognition that corruption can a Strious_ ad' crse
impact on development has been a cause for concern among dcvcloprng coumrres. In a
survey or ISO high level ollicials from 60 thi rd world t_he respondents
public sector corruption as the most se,ere obstacle conlrontrng therr development process
(Gray and Kaufmann. 1998).
Countri es in the Asia and Pacific region are also very and the)
in substantial agreement that corruption is a major constramt that IS thetr
political and social development, and hence view it as a problem anen\lon
lev_e l. _An example ?f
c1ted at thts pomt IS the p Qo di a (2010) argues that demona\lc
main cause of democrati C In the country: .,un _Y andemic and unchecked
stability will be difficult to attam as long as corruption remams P .
. . e ervice of the state really requires is that men _shall
According to J:l egel ( . What s . n of their subjective ends; by this very
forcoo the selfi sh and capnctous . b
, the dutiful discharge nf
the/ acquire the right to find their sattsfactton m, ut o_n y there exists a link
b . f< rred from the aforementlone < d I
public funct ions". It may e Ill e nt emplovee would then be ll
the universal and particular interests. The a d intcllritv Another ad""" l''t' If
. I'd t. ' professlona VIrtue n - . t I ('
follow a code of eth1cs con so
3 . "ill rise This is apphl n' c; t\)f
I . If confidence and motlvauon . . . \ n
thi s is that by doing. so. t letr se . aehic,ed through sdl 1
any professional in any country. lntegnty can
admi nistrative conduct based on ethical standards.
The Imperative for ked solely for the and not tor '' "
1 (I967) pubhc servants wor . pposcd,, \ '
According to ll cg.e . , choice of citi zens. soctl't\ a<; o \
it was th\! lirst. which dctcnmned lhc 'citic and contrasting 1 tus then the
viewed by I \cgcl as bcJng a total of spc .,h their own private s ol nee
. I f concrete persons "' '
sphere of the pmtlcll ar, 0
efforts to satisfy them.
r Jl'llll'll In
. . . . "a" rl w slatt' o . . h .
\\ rht s t:llt' St'r\l'd the: gt'llt'r:tl rrllerc:sr. c:rvrl socrd) .
.. tlklll 'tl: t:o.
rntlr' ''

.s , - 1 thr-: "CIIlll'fl<"' tflCht'h'lllOIIS rdt\1 Of SOCi:tl l't)IISirlll"lfl)fl. S<lll lt'lhllll! dl'fullll' I !.II
\\ hrfl paTI;ll..rng Ill \.II l OllS ;lcli\ Hit'S in Cf\ rf ;Ill( II I . l ht'C('llllllll' .
rs. S<'lllt'lhrn!! spt'<'rlkllh p.utit ul:u i/t'd' (llcgcl. 1967)

llndcrlvrnu conditions
d I
. \ nrt)\' ll l'S I I<.: llw Sl.llt'. 1111\\t'\ t'r \\ llh liS S\Sit'lll of !).0\l'lll<llll'l' <Ill ,1\ r. . ,
1 , r Jl rsl Julfrlnlull.
tl\ ''hrd1 rndl\ rduals <llld lht..rr <tCitons may find' I<.: II 11
'd"t' rhll is the tlllll\' of
Ft'r th.ll H'ihl)ll. till' Sl.llt' \\<lS f()r I k gct the 'nclu:lltly o 'u; . ,. I flliC:l I "' . ' .
tht tllllnrsal and the p:ttlicul:lr
r . .. onsidercd thai he li"cd 111 1
llt'!!t'l's idc.1S could he lll(ll c properly comprehended I II I.S c , . I l'tlll''l )11 i fl O 0 r I he
ro l' 111 1 1<.: " ' eo
n:lllt'n \\htre lll<ln\ of the people we1c: hastcnlly subjects WI 1 1
1 1
11 11
.. ,,. 1
,1 ,,
. I 'lS the nn IS " t.: ' f!O\Wfllllt'lll .llld htncc :.1 politicnl life nnd convent ton sue 1 "'
alnHISI rwgf1gihk. /Its \\Ork was nn dfor1 10 spread awareness
:lllh.lllg lhl {rennnns nholll the rolirical :lspccts of life.
1 . ... ) ' 'S"hl' tnd sclf-sunicilnr
Gd lner ( 19l}6) and , \ rgy11:1dcs ( 1998) tlhsavc 1 hat w11 lOtH ,l/1 c., fit: " ' .
1 s l' k .,,. f () ,,row tnd Jl ounsh cnr/ Sl'l'tt'l\. no poltltt':tl ltfc and even kss democratic po tl.) 1 I t.: .... ::- '.
/knee. t'l\rl SOl'Jt'l.' has hecn thnughl of as one of the mos1 crucial rcqliiS! lcs lor freedom
Jenh"'-'r,lc) I he idt'il rhat wns <ld\ocntcd by the beginning of the rncnry-lrst cemury was tnm
rhe st:Jit' must rk'ithl'r dlrl'Ct ci\'il sociel) nor be submissi\c lo il.
R:11her ir :-.lrl':;s and pitch in rhe tasl.. of building social capil:ll 10 ad\'antagc of the
human IS im oh ed. I fence. jugglmg an alert srmc and an active
..:i' if St)cict.) poses a good plan for improving rhe standards and the future for democratic
In rhis resr<:ct. the 'civic 'irtuc' of ethical reasoning in stare action entails that public
insritutions be responsi' e to society and pay auention to rhe needs and demands of
I he people. facilitating access 10 sen ices and creating an enabling cnvironmcm :
susrainab/e human and social development. (Bovens, 1998) srares. alcnness is not confined to
authorit ies bur is majorly involved in lhe cirizens role in to every extent and in every
Iter of r_hc govemmc.nt. it also involves giving power to people in human groups.
consultarion in governance and the promo(ion or a kind of
commun1cart \'1.' eth1c ( 1/abcrmas I 987) in societal af'r:alrs Tl
. " . ransllton. 1owevrr
at may . . the command type of authority over people
t-ornmunlcartve f) pes of rcason1ng and adminisrrarion or thinos seems
e .
parddigm shifl in societal aiTairs. 0 merge as a rn< 1cn
!" lhts ci\ if society no1 only furnishes the state ,, ith need
u.dn rdual narure, bur also with valuable sources of . r . . s and demands of an
. nonnat1on lcedba k d e\'aluatiOn ot performance. Therefore nolions n d . .' c CnttCIStn an
. . . . ' e ecenrrallzalton de b .
pm.att?.DIIOII and Cllt7.en participarion loom large . th . - ureaucratJ7at tOn.
e repertoire of rc(J
prochces of man) comcmporary adminislralive svslen d ffi . . orm and
SOCttl) and rhe Stare. h also inOucnccs rhc imern'cr'to l:._an a ectrhe Interface bclwecn c ivi l
,ucl 9 . n vctween the Slale d h . . .
.> an n I 85) ob:;encs rhat socic:l\ has ceased
be . an t e Ctvrl soncl'l.
f b

JUSt the cone.. f
i bureaucrac). on rhc comrary ;1 is now in th . ern o state actors and
e pur\1ew of tl'c . . . ,
act1vc Cllltcn s
Nnturally. 'a COlllltr):'s view of public administration reOects its underl ying philosoph? of
lcicty and thc .. Slalc (Chapman. 1959). State officials are affected by the way the pubhc at
S( I I II . 'I

s I y. CJ\'t .servants forming a middle-class profcsston. pnr

excel knee. acqu1re the features that soc1ety expects of them. Public administrat!qn a
. tial rcgtttlC tn the societal complex; it is part of the state. which is subject to a dtsttnct
of rc ... - 111 the \Vebcrian sense- vis-a-vis the society.
The ideas of nlenness and accountability and answerability have some similarity. :rhcsc ideas
1 have overl nps. In spi te of the number of meanings they have. it cannot be that
aspect concerns duty and the preparedness of civil senant s to honestly rattonaltLC
and defend their moves for public good.
New Ftltica l Apptoach . d n ccd
'1) J lt 'fnul Df!nhordt (2002) argue that public administrators tnOucncc. an arc an uen
en WI< - f 1 mplex governance
by. all or the competing standa.rds, values, and o they
stetn. These variables not only mOuence, and are tnOuence Ybl? ce" ,nstead of ''ne"
.1. Tl 1 d for a "new pu tc servt I so represent points of accountabt 1ty. 1ey Pea . .. '
management'' under the slogan 'serving rather than steenng.
. . oach as a 'iable third altematiH: to the
\1oe,'i<:halk (200 I) defines the new pubhc appdr .. ' t'on" and "the ne" public
' . . b "the old pubhc a mlntstra t bl'
observed dichotomy ctwecn . h d vclopment of a new ethic for pu c
.. . s d ' rable attenton lo l e e . h ati'.
management. paymg I h I o I 'oin the traditionalist group m t etr neg .o:.
servants. The new serv:e aut ors refom1s. They J1roposc new mechamsms
assessment of the of N . I elp citizens aniculate and meet their
I . I "the priman role of the pubhc servant IS to ' . I ..
w 11c 1 t control or steer soc1e y.
shared interests rather than to attempt o . . -
.I ble the standardtzatJon ol
hich makes avm a .
It is nccessar) to have a ocedure of absorbing constant
professional ethical values. and an which is standardized and h
This achievement resides in true ethtcs- d mands .to more agreement-based
. ve from forced bureaucratiC e . d clubbed techmques. cm::e
IS a must to mo h ent reality needs creative an ld . elude the following
public good. Thus t e curr . nee moral structunng cou m
d that a pubhc govema
we recommen
aspects: bTty
I) Instruments for answera ' ' d utside question fom1s . ,
') systems through local toe moralistic attitudes award a<.:ts
... 1 sures to mo\lva 1
3) ofhclpru mea . an lntergovemmentallcve . )
4) Application of it tcchmq.ues structuring, knowledge and guidance
5) Oflicial sociali zation (for cautiously
6) Establishing m
r acti ve cttlzenry.
7) A greater plea ,or .
8) Outlining .asks . .
9) EOectivc communtcauon. . 1 this manllC!'r tltert: 15
:- thics destre. n sand
. llv reliant on genmne IX . oroaniscd fashion t
' f thics IS natura . d an inclUSIVe, Can
The concept o c , t l. sh a holistic moral co e m . . for moral functiomn& one
suflicicnt scope esta B ' evolving certain scenarios It is also '-tlpfut I
alone steps arc ot no us 1. Y of ethics. difficulues. and.{ h :.-.tiel dlfTteulue relalcd 10
1 \S for coni tel h ques \\lhtc can t""'"
provide so u\101 h of instruments and .lee m rab\e manner
encourage the opose solutions m a more ag
. ar\d brnclictal to pr
ct liCS
. .
rc nccord i tll' to
. . dmi ni strallon!i . . n II I .
Unsurpnsmgl). baste pnnc:.,>lc ;md :11m of ,,()I thY
<lf, inuc llvs '." ( .llu l
ktll<)ll 1 dc-11
.ln,rorh. to and .:i\11 \\Od,ct:. ro the tn.;u ' cl ptopcdy >Y tnc
!'l) the c:nts tn :-.l:l tt.s. f<)t \\ ho mould C: tii/CW.
who cnnnot suc: ct.\ d.
I!OOJ hahits in them. the dt.' SII C or cvc:rv l.t w :tnd OI S fo
is wh:11 distinguishes an etlC..c tivc poltl); 1"10111 :1 b<td one.
. !"tate moral lor
s to tact' ' .
Aristotle ts of the view that the lll <tin role of the gove11l0r ' knowledge of vtrtue. nnd
citi zens. 1o be able 10 do !>O. he 0 1 a lot ofawarenessd. nquir)' about
. 1 quest nn t:
thatl..tnd ofawmcncss can only through a pcrpt:ILI:l . d

gc ofhwnan l1fc ll.<' ''
acts is bastcally .thout questioning. I hi s is
'ceptablc 10 humans S<tid
r 1
sts tS un.1c '
tS an llll\\lltlh\ lttt.' Lt ft. "luch h.1s not been to t: . .
." , . l ' llld ill ltC.
Socrates. 111 hts cxc\'ption.ll Apology (18 A) f(Jr :1 mora ISIIC s
Oc:1 ling "irh l'lhic:tl in public adminisrrnrion d and which lll:lntu.:r
Hart stnt<.:s rhar ar rhc tim<! of fncing bnsic queries_nhout or choice fnetots
ro behave 111 compltcatcd st.' t'n:u ios and the degree to wh1ch opposed .
)r ..
could be in rhc sct.n.tno. one in rhe rlgion of ethic<ll con ustons
1 a problem no maller how
<\ dtkmma s a concept "luch IS hroaJcr nnd 111ore cxnc11ng 11an .
tough or complicated ir is I he is that dilemmas. ;1nlike problems. be solve?
rhe rem1s tn "hich they an: inuinlly presented to rhe decision-maker .. Being entangled a
dilemma. the chotec-maker is not just confronted with contratlt crory and unwant ed
subsrittues. "orse. the or"ll teir betng match<:J also means that they are
in 1he sense that one: can on" be fulfilled if the other is not taken care of. Hence a scenano of
a dikmma could r<:s ult a in name in "hich the decision of one worthy substitute is
ah\a) s adhered to the negation the other. Addressing the dilemma in such a fashion
''ould then be an opposiuon in terms and an aberration as the answer which is arrived at
\\Ould appear to be no good and signify a complete break-up of the entangled factors of the
mauers to be solved.
A difficulty could however be managed properly if the conditions of reference changed and
the entire scenario was restructured so that focus be given to all options which are oruanised
and in a more orderly and sensible way. Obviously.
are which cannot solve them properly. As an outcome.
state oll tc1als and c":'l _servants witnessing sharp dilemmas cannot but help being confused
In such, public nee rather than operating in the
manner an whtch 11 as supposed to, lapses 1nto a condttron of chaos and rt 1
. . . unce amt y. t IS tn
r ts case that moral ambuw11y and lack of lucidit)' about larger valt
d" h 1
t . - . trect C OICCS (lfl(
tas .. s 111 hard events may cause unbndled scepticism and a cynical attit d
u e.
Naturally. dilemmas abound in complex organizations. which fail
tackl .
As a n:s_ult. state officials and civil servants exposed
acute dilemm e them
succumbmg 10 a state of confusion and embarrassment in h"
as can hardly
unwillingly thrust. In circumstances like these public ad . .

they are often qllltC
mantstrauon mstead f r. . .
a well ordered stale of legitimate purposes degenerate . o uncuomnf! :ts
Indeterminacy. It is then that the case of ethical vaguenes:

a state confw.ton and
to guide action and choices in 'hard cases' comes of clanty abeu( overall
a ut
administration. But if
cr\ thinP stands <lnd an\'thinc. I!Oes tllen notl
C' - .' - - llna can he k . .
. nor tt l!hts and dulles of public servants d- . .
". en scnously. ne1ther cth11:s 1
':1 ' an Ctii Zens altkc. .
he prowlllg group of tenets or aspects that . d
- 1 1 . 1 umte an restructure the procedure of
h' IIHIIIng ciHCa ut cmmas "' public governance a . (I) d . . . f
' . (2) h r ' rc. cmocrat1c answcrab1hty o
oovct nancc. I c app ICatlon of law and the notion of lcnal"ty (3) ffi . I h d (4)
" 1 d . o ca oncsty an
alertness lO ctvl soctety nee s. ,
Conclusion _
Even prior. t_o the close of century, it was apparent that states, governments, and
public cntti iCS were ventunng tnto an era of change. This was basicall y a period of change
and not a model-based shift from dictatorial, centrally-powerful states to increasingly fre.:
and consultative of social communication between the people and the administrators. A
diffe rent set of equati ons between polities. economy. culture. and civil society has been th.:
tri gger for new research on more inputs and restructuring of the responsibilities of the state
those of the public services with regard to the society and the economy.
. '
-, he planning for moral improvement in the public sector throws huge
the nature of c..lcmocracy. law. motivation and ethics in the public doman: and the :>
communication with civil society. There is not much uncertamty that clashmg demand:. can
make l!.overnance inconsistent. As a maucr of fact. every one. of the AL
c - f k ld be a bto hurdle rat1er
requi rements for morahsuc raltonahzmg 1 ta en to 1ts extreme wou o f
n an asset Some disagreements. between constituents of an entity which upset the stat:
. . . . . . . t er)' one of them or ra"1er
conditions can only be set nght ,r parts o . . he balance of
if it dispenses what is apt to all. Not for Anstotk
passions and actions. and moral virtues .reside n middle states (lasswc . .
. . .tm h of one rinciple or ethical imperative over.
The basic aim would therefore be not the tm p p tl'cm and the provision ot
f ncongruence among _
the other but rather the re uctton o I I rt d complementary fu\hllment.
' e mutua suppo an
conditions for their . I ' bl roblems would then require a holtsuc
Turninn mutually e'xcluslve dtl emmas so "a e p
and reflexive approach to ethical reasomng. . .
. . . . n is not ust applicable towards the CIVIl
Thus modernity and change in pubhc (on inJ a number of different ways both
society but also thecivil service and pubhc \o public administration, et\lics must
locally and internationally. Therefore It a rational decision. h can \1-:
rovide a fair degree of flexibility when Jt comes o someone's need. Thus.. there is a pressmg
. . . best placed to answer . od
that publlc admlmstrators are . . h blic administration oft ay.
need to place morality and ethiCS firstm t e pu
'd o harm' An understanding of the
. 1 I to o n .
A definition of ethics is. _at a making is important m today s
. ethtcs and et ucs Ill
defrnition of busmess .a
cnvironmt!nl. .
Ethics in on making a decision. . . . . course". a per;on {lu the
All ethical quesuons are r:ut framing that choice? could be a lq '' ,\ne or
So how does one go a . that an ethical issue extsts. The '. . the ureatest gwd' for al\
. )
1 5
to recogntze
of 'what ts m c
organizauon :ta . both cases the quesuo .
dument calL but m
more o a .1u e ked (and answered).
stakeholders must be as
In cktcrminrng " 1'111 \l: rsus \\ rOn{', wt h.r vc ro rcmcruhcr thai 1
ere u
dt: of rite
. . , . I ;ltOIJW' '
I h.u" wht'll' lht dd rncrcon of Jnd " 11' 01
ortlHII / II I'l l ' r l
L , 111 clll ll fl

cnn be \ ' t ' f\ .llclplul h t codc cs the rnc. hv ,, Judi a pu:.c .

,..,.. 1) J '
en I><: Ill'' ( mcasur c lht I.I C' I'i o ( a (lllcludrnu whcrhc1 a cklt:lltlfl l,rlc<lll ''
c.chccal ' ,tlucs .cs
. r fleet 'ou :tlsn llllpncl ,llll In cft'\ l'/op .111 Of!111111/lllt0 1l 's \'<l lllt' si.III'Hll'lll lei l '
1 cJ n:cuon well. I Ius wrll lll'lptmpluyns unckrst,IIJc.J <.' <Jil lllllllllt'lll :1111 1
ruup the equality o f
When .uwlysrs :rnd c.valu.111on hC!liii.S, the rig/us of ti ll' indc\ rdll.l l :HI< g
' llCSI scrvt.; the
'l \\''I V I l d
IICilllllCIII , ollld lht SIC,.' f).S l:lkt'll l o re m e d y lhc ISsu e Or SII U:I IC()Il Ill ' ' '. :JCh of tiWSt'
. . . ' ll . ':\'llll llllllg t;,
Of!,!l'llll/:tlwn s vrsc(lll or ulcrucr y nwsl :11/ comt: rnlo play ' t .' . l' lrlll Fill'rll \'
' . ' I II beti C II 10 ( . ' ..
denwrlls, :1 dccc s1on 1lca1 s cohcSI\'t' . consrs1en1 :tnd <rpprop11.r lc ' ' "'
1ha1 dteis ion lllllsl be lllrplc: menlcd (otherwi se vou'r c spinning your wheels).
Fthkal rc:1soninp r an he lcwused on nns wc,ing. lwo J.. inds
I. l)l.'llnitcw <JIIl'Siions (ddining the 11rct-; rclcvnnt 10 the quesiiOil):
? Rt.:tsorH:d judrmcnt (sonwwh:u intuitiw). .
Fow Quc!Hrous It> I ocus on Wl1cn You 1 lave 1o an Ethrc:ll Decision , .
1 ' ' I >roblcm ' ( ( onSJ< <.: 1 I \, 1a1 : u t. the other conrpt.' llllg, inrcrp1e1:11i ons of the SJI WliJOII OJ I
01hc1 pt'rSpt.'t' IIVCS OJ flOIIII S Of Vit' W.)
J. \Vh.ll 1s rlw cash 'aim. ,)r lht si1u:uion or pmblem'' (Both from <l ri sk and bcnd it
perspcclc \l' )
3 ll) Jt.'VIl' \\ mg \IIlii VJSJon. miss1on and s tatcnt elltS and company poli cies. is how
)'t1u handle 1 Ill siiU.IIJOn clear'> ( 1 f not. rcvi sl.' those statements and poli cies. )
For e.\nmplc.-. II' yt>ur stall' lllcllls clcarly indicate a strong comm11men1 to a respectful
worf..plncc. ycr <llle of yow customers has been abusi ve. bull) ing and disrespectful. your
decis1on in <k:tlrng wi th th:tt situation 1s clear: you need to ad' ise your customer that you
cannot :tcccpr that behaviour and thai 1f tht') can;t accept your poli cy then you can no longer
be a supplrer lo I hem
As the indtvidunl \'vh\1 needs to make the ethical decision. are you commiued to doing
rhe nghr rhing?
What is the Octinition of Et hics?
Defining erhi cs in a environmenr is a lillie differcnr rhan defining personal morals
and values. A business is an e ntiry of many pans. Wirhin thar cnriry, there are borh writte n
and unwrille n.principlcs rhar drive acrions. ideas, and decisions. The indi viduals within an
organi z.arion dctcnninc whether or nor those principles manifesr substanti vely rhar is in t'OOd
behaviour and positive choices. . ' '
Erhical business .may be d:fined by _law, bur ir also can be defined by busi
Generally speakmg. an actron or chotec can be considered erhically correcr if' it 's
honest suppons a benefic1al ourcomc for both (or all) patries. and t!Cnerally e abl
d n e,.. , 1e overa corporare 1mage an vts1on. . ...._
rhis guideline ir's easy to sec why an organi7arion's managers arc inc d'bl
10 buildinu, b ne h' 1
d . . . re I Y rmportant
ea usr ss e1 1ca armosp tere an mspmng n 1n others.
Defining erhics docs nolhing. in irsdf. 10 motivate e rhical bdtaviour WI 1
: .
f , . , . . . . 11 e I lerc IS no way
or <:ompany 10 Ioree ethiCS, the organtzaiJOn s culture and wrirrcn code .
cenamly help create an atmosphere where ethical behaviour becomes mo or condurr
re narural.
Clllployccs !eel fairly treated and rewarded they' ,.
l' k
1 When 1 1 css 1 c y to undcrmmc that
culture Snncl:uly ." len emp oyccs sec their leaders being treated equall v in ethical dcc1S1ons
II lll'>PIIC'> tru!.t .
, )I I( . ..
Wrth tills in mrnd the of elhic\ and adopting a sound busines<;
of cthrcs nt:l'cl'i lo be a lll gh-rankrng pnorny for socially responsible compames.
p1101aril> '' IS the_ tndivrdual: the or the human social unit of the
)cicty v.ho hcnelrts from ethrcs. In addn1on cthrcs rs imponant because of the
st 1. Satisfymg Basic !Iuman Needs: Being fair, honest and ethical is one the basic human
needs. employee desires to be such himself and to work for an organiLation that
is fair and ethical in its pract1ces. .
2 Creating Credibil ity: An organi7-ation that is believed to be driven by moral values 1S
respected .in )he society even by those who may have no the
king aud the businesses or an organiza1ion. lnfosys. for s
organi zati on for good corporate governance and social responsibility 101\la\lvcs .. 1 ..
perception IS held far and wide even by those who do not know what busmcss
the organi;.ation is into. . . . . . . d b . its
Uni ting People and Leadership: An organrzat10n drrven by values th'
3. loyees also. They arc the common thread that brings th_c
makers on a common platform. Tilis goes a long rn he l:l\
. . d h' vement of one. common uoal or JTIIS!>IOn.
within the org.amz.a\lon to"' ar s ac le . . h total ol all the decisions that
. D . . Making A man' s desunv rs t c sum . .
. 4. lmprovrng ccrston . . . h. ld . e for organiza\lons Dectslons arc
he/she takes in course of Ius lrfc The sa_me. competition v .. i\1
driven bv values. For example an petitors and establish a monopol) "'
fierce in, its operations aiming to wrpe out rts com
the market. . . . b ethics and values arc profnable tn the
Long Term Gains: Orgamzaltons gutded y to lose money. Tata group. one of the
S. long run. though in the shon run '.hey on the verge of decline at
largest business conglomerates tn t to be otherwi se. The same company .s
beginning of 1990's, soon and fail ed to do well but the same IS
T NANO car was predrcted as a
ata d' the society. The law
Often ethics succeeds law in the society and the
6. Secunng . mute spectator, u h the by the
is growing at threats
envrronmen. I t'on we have a new I elp a l!rcm
time law comes up with a regu a' d ublic interest litigations may not '
replacing the older one. Lawyers an p
deal but ethics can. . . . d often when the law
. the oroamz.auons an
f . ht and wrong 10 o . or environment.
Ethics tries to create a sense o ng ganizations from harming the soctety -
fails, it is the ethics that may stop or . ...
sc '
crrns arc suh,ccti vc.
. I I l1bcr Ill:! I I
(J r J h.
n uetcrm1n1ng ng 1f ve1 sus wrono we.: have ro reme1 . ,
corpo' are, c 1\ s
' . o . ' d ch' IIIE! ()II < '
1<11 <; where underswndmg rhc dcfinirion of ethrcs. , 111
, group, or organr
7 111

'- .b li . I . I ., person. . I .
can ue ve1y elp ul. Lhc code is rhc brrscli nc by w uc
crn be made.: 1111JJil
Y J r ,,
measure the fi1cts of a case (rncludinu whcrhcr a dctcrminaiiOil ' necJ vour .ethical "a lues as
I nt ro rc ,
a so 1mportanr ro develop va lue d r ecti on.
well: rhis wi ll ht!lp crnpl oy..:es undasrand your comrui11nenr an ( rr
. . .d .
and l.!roup, the equality of
When analysis and cvaluari on begins, the right s of the

a way that best serves llle
rreatmcnr. nnd rhc steps rakcn ro remedy the issue or Sllll
ami ning each of these
. . , . . . . pia)' Bv ex
orga111Zll llon s or 1dent11y must :1/1 come 11110 ' : : ,.
be!!in to form. Final I)
clements, a decrs10n lh:u's cohesive. consis1cn1 and appropnalc "
, )
I d
. . . . , 0 vour w 1c.: e s .
11a1 CCIS IOil musr be 11nplemcnred (o1herw1sc you re

. ..
Ethical reasoning cnn be focused on answering two kinds ol ..
I. Dcfinirivc questions (delining 1hc f;tcls rclcvantro 1hc qucsuon).
2. 1udgmenr (sorncwhm intuiti ve). : .
Four Ques1ions 10 f ocus on When Yotr /l ave ro Make an Ethi cal fJcclston: .
I . \VIw1 <tre the 01hcr competing, inlcrprclntions of 1he situ:ttion or problem? (Consldct
other perspectives or points of view.)
2. \Vha1 is rhe cash value of the situation or problem? (Both from a risk and benefit
3 By revH.'\\ing your vis ion. mission and value and company policies. is how
you handle 1hc siluation clear? ( 1 f not. revise thos._e statements and policies.)
For example, if your stalcmcnts clearl y indicate a strong commitment to a respectful
yet one of your customers has been abusive. bull ying and disrespectful , your
decrs,on in dealing wi th that situmion is clear: vou need to advise your customer that vou
canno1 that behaviour and that if they can;t accept your policy then you can no lot;gcr
be a suppl1er ro them.
4. A s the individual who needs to make the ethical decision. are you committed to doinu
the righ1 thing?
Wha t is the Definition of Echics? .
g ethics in a t?usiness environment is a little different than defini ng persona l
an va ues A business f . .
and . . . JS an
parts. Wllhrn that entity, there are both writte n
pnnc1ples 1ha1 dnve acltons, ideas and decisions The ind
vd 1
orgamzar1on dele h h . .' . 1 ua s w1 tn an
behaviour and po:J:e or nolr hose pnnclples manifest substantively; lhat is, in gpod
Ethical business behaviour may be defi ned b I b .
leadership. Generally speaking an aclion o ly. aw, Ul Jl also can be defined by
t r. . r c JOICe can be considered II . II . .
10nesr. ar. supporrs a benefi cial outcome(; b
e 11ca y correct tf 1t's
overall corporare image and vision. or Otl (or all) parries. and generally enablett he
Usin!,! this guideline it's easv to see why an o . . ...
10 bu ld" b - rgamza11on's manage
mg a usmess' ethical atmosphere and in . . . . rs are mcredibly important
crhics does nofhing in itsel f I . spmng_ Jt m others. . .
o mot 1va1e cth1cal beh .
any t:ompany lo 'Ioree' ethics rhe organizat" . avJOur. While the re is nc> way
.-...I'IAnlu hel ' JOn s cuhurc and
P create an atmosphere where ethical beh . wnrrcn code or conduct
avour becomes more nalural.
When employees feel fairly treated and
,. .I I I rewarded they' I l' k
ulturc. S 11111 ar y w 1en employees sec th .
. re ess 1 ely to undermine thai
c . . . etr cadcrs bem' tre"tcd II . h' ..
and 11 trust. ::- " equa y m e1 1cal dec1s1ons
With this in mind. understanding the deflnili .r . ,
f thics needs to be a hi gh-rankin . . on J and adopting a sound business code
o e g pnonty for socml\y responsible companies.
Primanl y it is individual. the consumer. the employee or the hutnan social unit of ihe
. ciety who benelrts from ethics In add' h'
so , . . . I\ ton et 1cs IS 1mponant because of the fo\\ow1ng:
I . Satl sfymg Baste Human Needs: Being fair, honest and ethical is one the basic human
Every desires to be such himself and to work for an organiution 1hat
1S fa1 r and cthtcaltn ils practi ces.
2. Creating Credibility: An organization that is believed to be driven bv moral values is
respected .in !he society even by those who may have no about the
working and the businesses or an lnfosys. for example is perceived as an
organization for good corporate governance and social responsibility initiatives. This
perception is held far and wide even by those who do not what b\1siness
the organization is into. " .
3. Uniting People and Leadership: An organization driven by 'alues is revered by Its
employees also. They arc the common thread that brings th: CI:'PI?yces the
decision makers on a common platform. This goes a \\ay 111 beha\
within the oroanization towards achievement of one. common goa\ or .
lmprovin!l Making: A mans destiny is the sum total of a\\ the that
4 - f Dectstons are
he/she takes in course of his life. The same holds true or organrz.auons. . . .
dri ven by values. For example an organization that not value IO
fierce in its operations aiming to wipe out its compemors and estabhsh a monop -
the market. . . . h. d values are profllab\e in the
5 Long Term Gains: Orgamzallons gutded by el an . Tata oroup one of the
. long run. though in the short run they seem to ose ;f at the
. l e ates in lndta was seen on b
largest busmess r rned out to be otherwise. The same company .s
beginning of \990 s, soon tu . d failed to do we\\ but the same ts
Tata NANO car was predicted as a failure, an
picking up fast now. .' . ds law in safeguarding the society. The
6 Securing the Society: Often ethtcs succee b\e to save the society and the
. d . gas a mute spectator, una b h
machinery is often .oun acttn . . at such a fast pace that the y t e
envi ronment. Technology, for IS ghrowmgnewer techno\oe.y with new thrc:ats
. h egulatton we ave a - h \ rea\
time law comes up' wtt a r d blic interest litigations may not epa g
o the older one. Lawyers an pu
rep acmo
deal but ethics can.
. nd of\en when the \aw
. h d wrong in the orgamz.auons a .
Ethics tries to a sense of ng t from harming the society or envronment.
fails, it is the ethiCS that may stop orga .
Allitudc "
"' prct 1sposir' . cenain ldl'a ob IOn or a rcndcncy .J.O respo,d posirively or negarlvcly rowards a
person o 'd I' I f
and responses ro I II . r SlluaiiOn. Auiwde inOucnces an 111dJVI un s c 10ICC o actio
c lfl cnges , I ' ) n.
our maior con
nCCllllvcs, and rewards (wocthcr called Sllnlu I .
b . 'J ponents of au d . c . .
el1ef or opinions IPld 11.u c arc ( J) Affect1ve: emouons .or feclmgs. (2) Cognitive
\altwri,e. posuive
e (J) Cognitive: inclination for . action. (
r negative re
sponse to srimuli.
The r elations hip between
' udcs :. nd behaviour
Once \ve've csrabl. I ,
Ror> b ,. ,
led people's all it d
bel. t'.
ug lfvvlmul:r (
1 960
) u cs, can \.VC then accur:ately pred1ct how they' I 1 lwhm r:''
a\ IOural - cogniti ve)

hree-componenrs' model (The ABC model : nll

\\IL 1 the ICS 11a1 th b 1 ...... c
cogn111 ve and nffccriv < e e1av1ouraf component will be highl v corr l
.e components. . t: <lied
An earl\
(I 93-lj.-
SltJ<.h ,,.,
. '
I 1 s lOWS (I . . .<
lt lnCOilSISIC 1 , f 1 c: o Mll tudes and behaviour is that of L
) .
. a 1crc
LaPicrc's st udy
me m 19"0
Ch - J and for 11
mese couple ( . le next two years l p
auirudes>\hJch al ) oung srudenr and his r )a around the USA w rl
10 \\OU d mak . d. Wl,e . expeC!I Cl I 1 a
ofrratel. the IITi.culr lor them ro find,ac ro .encounter anli -Orienlnl
pn:JUdJce. Ther \\e . y '' ere dlscriminared a . commodat ion. Bul in I he co . . .
re r used al on I;. onere /,I ven accommodal ion in on I)' one< and I here appeared o I
more than ordinary s;2rved in 184 'Tourisr Homes'
u 10 ofrhem. a and treatc.>d witlt .
nO\\ever h
. w en each f
ISkmg: 'Will yo o the 251 esrablisll ..
u accept menrs VIS 1 d
cent of the I J . members of the Chin ' e was sent a leucr .
nqualified y . _g wh,ch responded g ese race as guests in y SIX IIIOIIIIt:-.. I<Hrr
es and rhe rest said 'U d .ave an emphatic 'No' 0 our establishmcni'J' 9. 1
n ec1ded: de end . neesrablish
fluences on beha . P s upon Clrcumstallce , ment gave an
generally agreed lh .
at auuudes form o I
taton ".,ill depend to in particular n y one determinant
I evaluate our acr n rhe tmmediate conseq ways, but how we act ollf behaviow. Th<' v
and h . uences f ua v a
'.''on. lhere may be s . r. . abuual ways of b h o . our behaviour I ct Jn a p.1Jiind:"
.ere study, rhe in those we _lllllll:
eness, rogerhcr with ah.ry of his Chinese ti behaviour Fs of In
oven prejudice. nJUs of LaPiere clothes and lor example, in -the
rcprescnr a we experiencse , may have made _uggagc and ri;ci r
'"'c..oen rhern. e a confl icr of . It more di ffi c(tfr ro
alllludcs . I
anc hchaviour
cornratibility between a ttitu<l lAS
es and beha .
xpressed . 1 he sallle auiwde mav lx_: c .
1<1wards the Labour p
a vanety of wa F
any doesn't ys. or exampl h .
ember. or t 1at you attend bt necessarily m c. avng. a positi"c
pu tc meet' can that you II
election, people may qucsti mgs. But if you d , actua y -\>cc(lmc a
behaviour to some attitude. In other t vote in a gt:"cal
th1s IS extremely r . s, an an nude should predict
. . mtcd and specific.
Indeed. AZJCil & fishbcin (\
7?) . .
both are assessed at the sa ,argue that attitudes can predict beha .d
., .
. me eve\ of oe
. vtour. prov cd that
of C:OIIIf'{l ll >I uy (orcorre\pond ) b o nera
Y There needs to be h. 1 1
I ( L r . . ence etween the Th a g \ t (j.rec
researc 1 a s study included) suffered fr m.. ey that much of the t;:r\ler
from general attitudes. or vice versa a d h' om either trymg to predict specific behavtours
study by Davidson and Jaccard t d n
IS for the generally low correlations. A
ne to overcome this limitation.
Auitudes can predict behaviour r , .
1979) Davidson and Jaccard
)Odu ask nght questions (Davidson & Jaccard.
. < ana yse correlations between A
10wart s b1rth conlrol and their actual f marr.te"' women's athlmlcs
lollo,ving the !l tudy. use o oral contraceptives .. during the two yl!ars
\Vhen 'attitude towards birth co 1 I' d .
0 08 Cl I
n ro was use as the amtude measure. the correlation was
ear v. the corresponde h .
. nee ere was very low. But when 'attitudes to,,ards ural
contraceptives' were measured th 1 0"' .
. , e corre at10n rose to .J2. and "hen 'attitudes tO\\ (lrds usinl!
?ra.l contraceptives' measured, the correlation rose still further to 0.53 Finalh.
attitudes towards usmg oral contraceptives during the next two years' was used. it ;,till
further. to 0.57. Clearly, in the last three cases, correspondence '"as much higher.
According to Aj;en and Fishbein. every single instance of beha' iour invo\ four
I . a speci ticaction
2. performed with respect to a given target
3. in a given context
4. at a given point in time

According to the principle of compatibility. measures of attitude and behaviour arc
compatible to the extent that the target. action, context and time element are asscsstd -'
identical levels of generality or specificity (Ajzen, l 988).
for example. a person's attitude towards a 'healthy lifestyle' only specities the tarr,<'l
the other three unspecified. A behavioural measure that would be compatible w\ih l
aniwde would have to aggregate a wide range of health behaviour across daffere
and ti mes (Stroehc. 2000). Elaborating the psychological proceSSts underlyana \he Pf__..
of compati bility. A.izcn ( 1996) suggested that to:
... the ext<nt ti!Cll tile beliefS salient at the of 01USSJWffl
plans are jimnulatd or exec111td. strong atllt...,..bofta-..,.
Thl' r,fi :tbilil\ c:o .
""S it' IH'.' of hrha' io111
1.111\ l,,. ''ll' I ... l :Jssll' studr 1 I JUSt \111''

I l.:> \1 111.11 f.llkd 10 fiiiJ ,111 rC : tttOil Shlll <IS"'$
...... ',nf<c, of 1 1 -- ...,.sed
L ai'R'rt' stud'
.' >' lt11'ltllll (Sttoel)(!. As Wl' notl'J tliscussj
. . . . " ''""""I , "' I . . . o "' llbt.llll'C ,f
l I ll( son m.lll) r':1t'l'''" "' :-.ddton to the ;\ltltu<k. I ht s mak ..
. I ' . ''' HHtr tn I ll . . I es :l
mg nwn ;,q .. : un>< '" <' nd<"""'l '"'-'" ouuk -'"'"' ''"' I 'l9,) On 1 \ l
1 h
.Hl<.t:::. ol th l I -
- - >v
x l:l\h)lll ,,tlfthl' intlucnn: {ll -;pl'<'t 1c f:Jctors 'canct l
l:r or
. J ' . .... 1/IICIJII' (/ ... , I .. ' . OUt' :-Ill It's t s
11.:111 & Arzl.'n. 1 J h<lS dc:tnonstr:Hcd "' :1 m
-\cc-flrd.ins to I '''!lg & Vauohtn - :'"" uJo-s .md '"en t.h '. (
'l9> ), "hn< hns '"'" g<<l in 1 lu 1980s and 1990s is " .
rn.!o '"""''"'" lxha . '"0 '" nnn'< '""''I in o simpk on< lo-on< fashion. In od ""'
:muu f,. I I' - . 'ou II musr l .. ' II . ( er to 'Q. lt'b .1ud bcha . . '1<.: f'<1SSt > ,. 10 at:counl for thl.! inttraction bet .
JCII0n 0 'tour.ll tntcnrio, , II . ", .. ,,
. .
li..,lmal ,
1 s. as \\C :ts ho" all of these connect with th ,

1 9
., l .. 1St: 1 lese flnl,. . . 1 1 . l: <l(O: r
't. hshbc;
" \ ' - :s t:s I 1!! /ll'0/ 1' a/ r.aHmcd action (TRA) ( \ .
.. x JICn. 1 Q75). 'J?en &.
l'hl :S irt'll;.! lh ur :tllillldl' ;
\ h )\I modnn 1 h ,
, l 01 It.'S ;)l!n.' lh .
<:rl,drt 1.: .11 :ltlltUJl'S .. ,
deli,;'''" inn uence

an au; 1 U<k s
'"''""";ealh ,,,.,i,,n<d mor< inOu<n lxh"iour . "'lh)ter 17).
C'\3mple. I ,. ., nt: ,,lctor th::u sccms lc"> ... ... . . . . . a use I e) can be
- " ..lllna { 197S . t.K: Important
s d
. .
n ":'" l>eu}r of Sl udems' c a< or
b;. lht.> m<?rc "\ than if lhc' 'd ,! !their dfuwre parttCipation if thev'd a lred js
. "'""" u,. (Za' . 'n' "'' abo ' h T . . ""'
"uh "'"'" hm i or I 1968). accordi "" IO." hiS can be ex pi a; ned
.. I k more" e lil-.e them more contact we hav ..
So :mitudcs Jon't d' . '
- ICt b"l .
pro lcm. th:u . s h . . c la' totrr- ''hat's th
' -
e ladure IO lind e problem'? The so-call d
. ""'" <o unJ<rmmc <h, ' . a rehable relalionsh;p belli" e aunude-behav;OI.r
research <nwe Slud) of au;<udes. As " . :'". aunudes and bchav;our
cognu.on '"paniculor. for of soc;aJ <he Introduction anj
. I \elf lns<oty (Sia;n, R - o) '" general. and . I
Bur from rhe . - . on eta/ .. 1995). socra
1 ofd'
c.:orre au on incon.. fJSl'chol
. srsrenn be . th
radrlaonal m . . . '''ecn auirude . ere s no reason
Ch3pter 3). nrnstream. auirudc research s. and beha\ iour is "hat 'tdo ex_pect such a
30COrdrn ' 10 I . IS based we ex -
con ram. and " g " uch au;wdes 'bclo ,. , . . on <he fallac . . . : peel IO hnd.
auuudes are ""Pr<sS<'<I and ' Ot'"d" duals. 1 h;s mdMdualism
'eracaions "''' rsJO,ns of the ''orld rhaa are . In :IC!ha' iour. From a d. tes ftit. :
, or K:rs <011.\truclt!d b tscursrve pe - . . } people in tl rspectr\t>.
lc course of th,r
ISCUISII< psycilol . ,
'l\lllmg thing; rs concerned wiah acli . ..:
peop e are rvorf; on. as dtst'
' c:d rudy of I he d' ,..- orrmng actions h mer from cog . . .l
, sscoursc (e \\ ose na tHtron 1 .
I r 11"' ) Soc
.g. rocord;ngs of lure can n saymg or
I) t of r!- ,. have undc conver,;.,,iorn revealed thr_ough a...
netor1c heghl gh resumat d h ns. news .
Ill< are pan of ' IS lhe poinlrhal o ', ' e mrahrv of paper arrwi<<.
1 argumenrs. debaape pie
\t:rsions ,,f cvn.fluJ in
" es and event dralogucs unr s. and their o"n
g. 1987, IYYl. in
c om pared "ith traditional .
1 annude re .
IOtn '> tngk . rsolated indi\. I . search. dtscursivc psycholoo . -
a morCt elallonal or distrrh. d u<tl::. tO\\arJs interactions be , o'! .to shift the focus
ute (Pouer. 1996) mdl\'lduals and
Three Trends in 1 1 ora and Politiclll, h' l
I here ha,c been three ' d . or . ,.. g.oo trends Ill moral and par . I .
so. there has been a trend tO\\ard . phtlosophy over the last flftv 'ears
hctl by "ide spread aJopt' < ;cJhCcllng special foundations. a trend. that is
particular and . . I IOn o t e method John Rawls adopts h. h
.. 11 . o < pnnC1p CS are adju!'.ted h . 10 "' 1C
IC CCI I\'C equilibrium: to eac other in an auempt to reach
Sccontl. there ha' e be . . . en .lllcmpts to use intuitions abo .
nc\\ :lnd ohcn arcane moral pnnc I l'k ul panrcu\ar cases 'n order to arri'"e at
t II
P es 1 e that of double N' d' .
ro probkms eucct. as 10 of so-ca\\e.J
l hird. and perhaps most imponant there h . . .. . .
aml philosophical studies of .. I' as been tncreascd mteracuon between scientific
moro il\ as for exa 1 h' l
pS\cholog;cal accoun>S of moral de' I.. . mp '" P ' ""<lions ,.
morJI;<v. e opmem and evoluuonary explanations of"""'" of
2. lhjclting Special Founu:Hions
ofthe_old special foundationalism sa'' an iniportant difference between
other. non-foundauonal, beliefs. Justiftcation ''as to begin from a
hmHed number ol founda<ional bel;efs ond pro<eed from !here ,
':"I ><Is: behefs "ere. 10 be ei<her .:If"'' idenl m d;,ecl\ y justifoed by
.. Non-loundatlonal were supposed to be juStifieJ only if there was an
argume1." lor 1he'." from o<her 1h;ngs a "" jus<ifoed in beli<Ving. Sp:ial
foundauonahsts also S:lW an important ditTerence bet".een special foundational methods of
reasoning that were thought to be directly or self-e, idendy justifted and non-foundatinal
methods that could only be indirectly justified.
Special supposed that non-foundational beliefs and mcthods were
jusl;fied only ;f 1hey could be derived from spc<ial foundat;onal pmiSCS usUlg only
foundal;onal m<ihods. T1ie founJal;on:tl beliefs aod methods.,.,. foun<Jar;ooal m the sense
dl>l we n\Ust stan w;th 1hem aod jusl;fy e"=ryth;ng else in renns of lhcm. They""""'..,_.
;n <hal mosl of our beHefs and methods ""' not fowtdal;ooal In this view. beliefs -'
n1ethods 1ho1 hod no foundalional justificalion ,_supposed to os uojusaifood.
VAN KU . .
I. ir rt'<JIIII t'S rh,lf .til n
. J tl t' lhOt . . . ll(j I I
lidS .Ill
.. nd IIICihtld s . 1 pu Son d<'C{' pro;
mc1uron.r K
hdrch ' ..:. rh;u rhc.. a <Ir e no < '"' " ollt'r '
. I . l ,, , Ctlltl'l t; IICl .
lw ,usrrlt t't 111 tc111 ' .
I hods :t!i ln11ndar IOnal; it hk . .
. II ht'lr<'b ;lilt rm:
1 1 h
c us lr t:al
g lhtm . Gt' tll'lill II Oil <
' It' rr t' c,w tlrct:.
r, ml v when I K '
" """'"' J "' " " " ' " " ' L s o "ro "''"' of
. <loodrnnn. de:.< I I .
. . . 1 uc;siorr by .. "hose :1 1111 IS 10 ach1cvc wh,,

ll'klrtnu hi l!iC . I ' lt ld!!lllUII:s

c1 consu t:ft:v .
mwu.rf ad,u:s rnr trrt ll f P1 lllCiplc.: s '
R:Hds calls 'ltOct' lll' t' c quillhl ium .
.. . s hv mnk111g I hem n1on: colr

'-'nt . . h II prrfll'lll,u . . I t I .
\1 CO>II<CI <lOU oomsidcnd iniUU OOOIS n 0< >ou CCOIC<OJ Jll UICI V CS >y n>n <I OlJ> 1/l<no
. 1 we r orrt: t: 1 < 1
"ilh om cnn<idcocd gonc ml punoor cs '
IV c nwk C rrog'CSS uy <I< J \OSlo ne <>ur
I I wrt ICultll . . I
nooc cnho'ICOOI wu h Uo U j ndgnocn IS 0 lOIU I : . . SCI o>f pm I icu/no 0PHll On> Ill )( gCI>cral
. I . l 'll ol r<!achlll!_! .l .
. ' 'i<!ll s l<l <.\ll'h orhc:1. purs urng 11c I<''
. . , 1 1 ch orhe;:r. , ic:" ' rh:rr 111 t'<>mpklt' act ore 11111 .
. . , lh' ll we sr1r1 "'" 1 our I c . . .

lr'scnr vicwi n;1d try IO lli:Jf.:c lh<: lcasr
1 merho( CllllSt' llillllt 111 . .
1 1
, vie" Some of o ur optnrons ma\' he:
' Ill ' I th renee of Ott l " 10 c . .
ch<t ll!!l.' rh:11 I\ r 1csr pmnHllt:
t: u t . IIHHl in orhers But definitions arc

co 1 fide nee 111 some
Ji '""'' 1 ""' m ,, . .,, '"' "'"! "'''' "'
"' . ' . uc no a >rind fix cd poi nls.
no ll)(ln: p1 ll'ikgt>d 1h:1n o1hc1 !]Cntrnl 'lt:\\S ancl !ht:rc.: ' I
. . . . d . s ncla-
)rinciplcs aboUI choice
\:lfiOll I . '. r . d I . I
pnnclfJII::s o fUSitce an c 101ces 11a1
in ,.., '"'"in. o 1 Jl '" "'"' m1d a hou 1 1 he "' ""on '< '" . . .
11 d
, ar"lll' rhm nnv ol .the pnncrp es or me1a
II OufJ fl., lll.ldt II) :111 Oll!!lll;tl C: OCS 11 < c:- '
- h 1 -
o ns or known a pnon . lie lakes them 10
pnnc1pks "'-' tkllllllronallrtll !) or sc.. 1-L'VIuenr axr 1 . . . .
be pan ol '"' uvcm/1 accoun1 ani, cd m 1hrongh adjuSimcm o I o pu11ons m I he search f o;
rcllcCiove cqui/ibnum. This of Specoa/ Ill favour of r.eneoa
also plays, significan1 role in Rawls's la<co doscnss1on abou1 how people
a p/uralisoic miglu move from a "modus vivendi'" 10 an "ovcr/app<ng consensus
concerning principles ofju:.;1icc.
Princirles oflibcny of conscience and eligious 1olera1ioo. for example. inilially were
acccp1ed on/.' because lhc al1cm31i,e " "religious wao. Btu once lhc"y were acccp1ed. <heir
acceplanec had an imrac1 on Olher <hings people believed lhrough the mu1ual adjustmenl of
beliefs wil/1 each o<hcr aiming 31 reflec<ive equi librium. As people came 10 accepJ moral and
religious plinciples th31 /01 in wi1h liber1y of conscience and <oleration, <heir religiow; and
mo,./ views were reimeopnucd. E vcmuall y. ll>cy came 10 have more coherem sySI ems of
though! in which principlos of<olcr31ion and liber<y of conscience ligured as imporlam v""" ''
and not j OSI as some< hing agoccd lo as Jlllll o (a modus vi vendi. Many people wi lh u vm icly of
religious views now agree on principles of 1olcr31ion and libeny of <hough! even !hough lhc
principles fit in difiOrcm ways imo <heir vaoious religious views and seen as lwvinj!
difl<rcm Hawls aogues 1h31 !he o<her principles of juSiicc he defeo>lS
tan in""' same way become par< of an overlapping consensus in a pluraliSiic sociely.
Rawls's view. abo01 justice illuSirdiC a tendency lo rejec1 special found.,ionalism.
Uonald views provide anorher illuslr<Jtion.
II< defends moral and poli!ical principles as providing imerprelalions of our poli!ll:al .md
I or example. he argues 1ha1 cer1ain ways of undcrslanding imcgrity or the
"""""Y Of human life bo<h fi1 with our prac1ices and make lhe practices ou/ to be
IOOd P'IICIK:eS m IICCotd-., with our current undersJandings. Like Rawls, Dworkin sfaJU
ll h <lllr current vrews and rather than from de tOll 10m. ()r Cl c
th r <;elfCVIdCnl
lnumlati<l n;rl princrples. .
. . I a kmd of naturahsuc vu1uc , .
John t\ lcDowc\1 argues 10 a 1\ . .. holdir;l! that CliCil 11) ethiC'> we arc
ethiCS. he appeals to what he curJtuan r
"Neur.uh s boat.. b td '"'"
I "No ttbula rasa eXISts. c . W 'Ire hkc sailor" \\hO must rc Ul
According to Otto NcuJ<rtl. 'd. . tic it in dry-dock and to
. . len sea. never able Ill ..
slup on the 01 f the hcsr m:ncrwb
'<COOl ' " UCl " "'"' uon 0 I r "'"'"'' . Ro'''"''
. I McDo,, c\rs mcthm. or .
Other defenders of vcrtu_c invocalion of a "Ncurallllan
I lursthouse refers approvrngly
. d.
vcoy much i"'hc
. . . f trolley prohlcms tt: n . IC has been whether
Simi larly. philosophical camp. i<. condllctcd at the
ocnccoivc cquiliblium, N:"' : a 'd "lml IO ''" ' """' I I'"'"""' often ""'PlY
sm:h probh:ms :cfutc. and many othtr discussion
k\'d of rcflCCIIVC eqUI 'll ' b 1 approach withOUt any exp IC
adopt the ret1c.ctivc. cqur l nun . , , Kanuan!) seem
f undalionalism in cthccs. Our thconsts tn
NOt everyone has he

to have tned p , .. I foundilllonahsm. J . contcmpmary qnslc I
CJCCt spccta ftcn l"nort: In
increasing y r . 'tluilibrium arc. o ""
1 d rct1cctcvc c I
prQccdurcs a 1 I foundationa rsrn.
is still focused on spccoa co new
. . n an aucmpt to un
. ' pies h' l ophv consists ' t about cases.
Finding New nOTal and polioical P
ary inluitions oo judgmcn nd reason
The second toeo "' ' h a consideralion of or "'oo intuitions abou< cases:., cxomple. <hal "
moral poinctples wilh inioial e equiliboium. They ;:"" onle< to <e-.luc< th<
Here philosophers eg lhe seaoch fo oeOecuv lley lo a side '""'. ;:. same way oigbl oo
Neurathian permissible to tum ab does not seem tn nts who need them to
1\ y ng ll one u s to patte
seems mom I , killed from IO nd dislribule his oogan fi cto one.
number ol pcop e a hospital vtsltor a le who die from "'
missible IO cui up !he number of peop n hit hin> and stop
per .
will reduce trolley WI missile
r e even <flus . . !hal a runaway . "ble 10 di.c<IH
" ' ff a bndge so . ms pcomtsst h.,. liS. wha<
to ush a fat man o ped ahead; It see Worcester, Massac
II seems wrong p the five people traplodes instead over 'J

u over h tit exp
before runm k Cit) so I a . __._. b
. for New Yo< l>o<fies .. --
headmg wi ll be killed. he ...,ads that , ""'''"
fewer people . dto a bcgg8f on t I simplY 0111 of....,.
to refuse to gsvc foove food to the beggar
II seems wors\ than to oefuse to &' her dtilcloe "' ::1::
medica\ rcscarc d . benefits to lhal ft1iabt ICC*
be bothere to gave f
cannot . ht for someone to think o p
\t seems ng . hers then try. nd other cases. . ....._ op 'Wldlll '""' ..
. Ph1\osop bout tbese 8 pt the prtnaa-
chl\drcn .. d . dgments a nting \O ac:c.e
considere of not wa
about cases
I lll
ouohr : the princip'h: 1>f
r a ) mor<t c
Oflcn rhc principles in qucsrion arc unf..1miliM .'
10 1
someone else !111m
. . h. I . . to ' lt lll :11 h<tml 10 . . I II " I
according 10 \\ IC 111 IS \.\'OrSC ' ' fr ,
. the jlfllll:lj} C lu C
.: SldC 0.: '
10 act in .1 \\"<I) 1h:11 produces rhc samc hat Ill a:. :I llld
hum others; a ddlcc11on
. I ' liiVI.: duucs nor ' I I
duucs to hdp othc1s arc less srncr rtan neg. . lcr to
m;!vcnl uum to 01 H.:rs
. . . I 10 some Ill ore
principle rhat wkcs ir 10 be worsc ro uuu:llc tatm .
hers sec an nnnlogy bct,\ccn
than it is 10 deOecl ham1 from some 10 ot hers. Sornc plu osop
moral philosophy and linguisti cs.
t\ l or:ll Scicntc d thai moral philo"OIII\ , ,
In t-1odclll Moral Philosophy'' G. L M. Anscombc ari!.UC
imposs1blc in the of an adequate 111oral psychology.
1 lr arrrec with this. Out whnt did
M:my defenders of !he new nnalyt1c vu we ctliCS mtg t "" .
1 . 11 at moral psvcholouy IS a bran<: h
Anscombc mean by moral psychology? We m1g 11 suppose " c - .
. - 1 1 1 d' 1 1 f
... 1 de,clopntenl 111 children bur that 1s
0 SCICil ltlt C psyc 10 ogy. lllC ll 111g l lC Sill( Y 0 n1 r.. . '
prob<1bly nor what Anscomhc mcnnr. Nc,enhclcss. moral plulosophers ha ve been
increasingly inlercsrcd in rhc worl.. of moral psychologists as \.\ell . as .other scientists.
anthrorologists. cvolutionory l'Conomisrs .. ond lnstonans.
II is uue rhat. u1 kas1 for a 1clativdy brief period. some anal) ti c philosophers thought
mclucfing moral philosophy. was concerned only with lrurhs of language or or her
sorts or a priori 1ru1hs. This pernicious idea seems to have lost much or its force . in pan
perhaps because of justified skepticism abour analytic and a priori truth but especially
because certain developments in science arc so dearlv relevant to moral philosophy.
Someone may ask. "Wh<ll is the' difference. then. moral philosophy and moral
pS) cht>logy'!" r he answer may be that there is no inreresring difference and that the
ISSue is or tnlercsl only to university administrarors. It may seem that there is a difference in
degrel! of theoreucity. Psychologists rend to haw ro do experiments 10 back up their
whereas philosophers tend mainly 10 theorize. But psychologists also theorize and
join with psychologists in doing experimenJs and considering how
that e\Jdence from expenments may be relevant to philosophical theories.
Social that people are very quick 10 any son
of. unusual ac11on SJ?CCific character traits or the agent even when there is considerable
t:\rdence that the sl!uatton may be or a sort that mighr lead almost an}'One to act in the same
"ay. .
has been called ''the fundamental auribution error.''
ts raises the question whether the notion of a character trait is of anv real
va ue etther m socaal and personality psy h 1 1 h. '
th' k' Th' . . c
mora P rlosophy or in ordinary mor<1l
mg. as s sagmficant because ordinary thi nking about character l
rai ts can have terribly
11a and because of the n be 1 h'l 1
ethics. urn r o r> ' osop lcrs currently working in vi rtue
Bad consequences of thinking about character trai ts includ f; 1 , . .
when people say " It all comes d h .. . e ar ures Ill polttrcal reasonmg. as
when il is conceived as characteowde n tole aracter. _Mastakes are made about moral education
r ve opment. Mrsjudgments of h -:.: 1
assume that they could only ha d . Ot ers occur when pcvp e
ve actc as they dad because of bad I f . h
sor1 In cases this leads
eth . . . . c laracter o th1s 011 t at
conceme4 ro improve, moral ..

_m and Somal ia. I f philosophy is

chanlcrer is misconceived.
m mg,
11 15
htghly relevant if the whole-notion of
ViJ1ue ethtes may well give a good accoum of a
a m-us lheory gjves a oood spects ol ordmary moral thinking, just
r- o accounc of acn.o.-ts of
d' I
,.._...,.. Howewr as an account about &h ,.... r mary untutored phystca
and wrong and not jusl about what .People
believe about right and wrong, a cena .
. I . tn son of VIrtue etl .
nor ion ol n c tarnctcr Irati. If characwr is ' II . liCS presupposes the viability of Jhe
an 1 USIOI\ that S f
lab.:: . ' on o vtnue ethjcs is based on a
Some defenders ?f character-based virtue ethics sa . _
Ins character tra1ts. In their view it is
Y thar II docs not.matter whether anyone
1.' en if no one could be; cnoug
that be an ideal of a vinuous per:;on.
, \t'on we can still try to act as . vrnuous person, the sdeal can still function as a guide to
ac I a vtnuous person would act in our simation.
lo\\l!ver. this id<:<1 docs not applv if a . .
. . . , VIrtuous person would never be tn our situation and.
, 1, wav. tithe whole not ton of clt aracr k
" . . . . er ts a n11sra e and rhcre cannot be a vtmtous m
rhc sense. tl.ten II rs a vacuous illusion to suppose thai we could tigurc out 111 do
by asktng what a VIrtuous person would do in a given situarion. The best we can do is to
fi gure out the right thing to do is in the situation and rhen conclude that that is what a
virtuous person do in the situation, and that this is what we should do. But this ntluces
to saying we ought to do what we ought to do and does not represent an
rhcorctical position. Thi<; objection does not apply 10 the version of virtue ethics that is
concerned with honest. courageous. and other vinuous acts only. ".lilt no commtttncnt to
character traits.
Moral psychology also includes the study of moral development. a subJect that has
been of !l.reat interest to moral philosophers at least since Adam Smiths Theory of the Moral
More recently, philosophers have been impressed with the tradition fron: Jean
Piaget 10 Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan. In A Theory of Ra .. to
Pia!let. Kohlbere.. and other psychologists in de1eloping his own ol hO'-'

may arise in children. given a background ofjusttnSIItuuons.

1r would follow that certain constructed moralities that philosophers take .
such as Ulilitarianism. are not learnable by children in the


. . W . ht redictthat the children of uuhtanans wt acquuc a
chi ldren leam mora at y. e mag P . . . .
l'ke double effect They might
morality that. i.s but way, Just a!' people
sti ll later acquare as a mora aty ra y physical theories in a
have to learn formal logacal languages or contempo r
1 b " Plato
Allleamiflo /ras all emotiOna ase. -
., , . ?
What is Emotionallntclgencc. T ceive control and evaluate c-motions.
Emotional intell igence (EI) refers ;? to be learned and strengthen'--d while
Some researchers suggest that ante agen
others claim it is an inborn charactensuc.
h 0 M yer have been the mg
Since 1990, Peter and n Intelligence,." they detlaod "'*
In" theu intelligence that involves the abilatJ \0 = ;-'
rntclhgencc as, the su s . to discriminate amont tbem.-d to
d thers' feelings and emouons.
one's thinking and actionsM
The four of Emotional lnrelligcncc . f: ccors of emoti onal
Salovcy and Mayer proposed a model thm identified four d
the allilit v 10
. ,, . I . . . . US Ill !! Cill O I n>n . .
lnll' t!_!CI1Ctc'' 11l' J1CieCplt011 Of ClllOIIOn. till' ah1flty rC:lSOll - ' .
understand enwuon and the abiflt v to manngc cmmions. .
lv J>cn:ei, c
.. , . . . .
I . Pcrc(.'tnng F. mor wns: I he step 111 ulldc: starH.Irng.
:. .
StiCh no; h<Hh
. . . J' 0 1\'CI bll :.l g ll .l S
them. In cases. this m1ght mvolvc understnm 1ng n I c
language and facial cxpn:ssions.
5 10
promote thi11l it
2. Rcasoning With Emotions: The next step involves us1ng emotion.. ,. . ,.
. . . . I' . I . . . I ")' attcntiOil and n:au .
an cogn1t1VC act1v11y. :. mOtions he p prtontzc wHll we p ...
respond cmotionnlly to things that garner our attention.
3. Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry n wide variety of
meanings If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret
of thei1 anger and what 11 might mean. for example. i r your boss is acting angry. tl
mean that he is dissatisiJcd with ,our work: or it could be he g.ot a spced111g
tid.ct on hi:" \\<I) to \\'Otl.. that mon;ng. or that he's been lighting with his wtlc.
-1 \ 1anaging Enwtions: The ability 10 manage emotions effectively is a key part of
emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions. responding appropriately and responding to
the! c;:motions of others arc all important aspect of emotional management.
According to Salovey and Mayer. the four branches of their model are. "arranged from more
basic psychological processes to higher. more psychologically integrated processes. For
the lov.cst Jc,c:l branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of percei\'ing and
expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the conscious. rcf1ective
regulation of emotion" ( 1997).
A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence.
1930s- Edward Thorndike describes the concept of "social intelligef1ce" as the ability to
get aJong with other
I 940s - David Wc;:chsler suggests that affective components of intelligence mav be
essential to success in life.
1950s - Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow describe how people can
build emotional strength.
1975 - Howard Gardner publishes The Shalfered Mind, which introduces the concrpt or
multiple intelligences.
1985 - Wayne Payne introduces the tenn emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissc
entitled ''A of emotion:. developing emotional intelligence; self-integration;
ro fear. pam and desre (theory. stmcture of reality proble -s 1
. . . . . m o vmg.
<.oncracuon/expanston. tumng m/conung outlleumg go)."
1987 . In an ar1icle published in Me11.-.a Keith Beasley uses the term
quouenc .. h has lhat 1h1_s s first published u5e of the term, although.
Reuvcn Har-On IO have used the tem1 m an unpublished version of his
rJiesis .
J99Q Psyc.boloJjSfs and Mayer publish their landmark article.
lflfdJiJCAU 1n fhe JOurnallmollnotlon, Cognition. and Personality.

9">5 - ' I he concept of emotional
. .
. tnte t!!,encc 1s 1 . d . .

and Ne-w York Times s . - . popu anze after pubhcatton ol

- ' I . ctence wnter Daniel Gol . book . I
. /ntelhgcnLc! . II ty It Can ,\4utter More Than IO. 1 cman s moflona
(\l ca!>uring Intelligence -
1 to measuring emotional intell'
n . - . . . . tgencc - am a great believer that criterion-report
tS. abtltt y tcsttng) tS the only adequate method to cmplov. Intelligence is an abilitv. and
d. ctl y measured only by h , 1 .
IS tre .. avmg. pcop e answer questtons and evaluating the
of those answers. --John D. Mayer
Rcuven 13ar-On's CQ-i
A self-report test designed to measure competencies including awareness. stress tolerance.
problem solving, and happiness. According to BarOn. "Emotional intelligence is an
of noncognitive capabi lities. competencies. and skills that influence one's abilny to
sllcceed in coping with environmental demands and pressures."
Multi factor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) . . .
An ability-based \est in which test-takers perform tasks designed tQ abtltt}
perceive. identify. understand. and utili7c emotions.
Selioman Anributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ) Onginally designed as a
b M I' L. fc the SASQ measures opllml:.m l
for the life insurance company ctropo nan '
ons work for you by
J: . . . . . tkC \0111 CillO I . . W' lilt '..
the tntclluacnt usc of you tll lt'll tt on,llh rll ,
h;tt tnh:n' ) mer
- 1 1 nu ell "''""
tht' lll 10 help \'0111 hc:h;t\ 111111 ;1111 I llll , I

. 1 s 'IS\\l' ll<l "> 1h C

( \:J.,<;_Inger. ' tnd tc:dllll''> ol ol tel . '
"the ab1li1y 10 n!CO[!Illle illlU ((.' Spt>lld I() 1hl' l'lllollllll'>
sk ill to help others m:tr1ill'l' 1hc1r cnlo1H>11'> (St hnlllh. . If 2) be aW<IIC of. to
. ' xpll'SS oncst: .
"the allility to: I ) he ,twnrc of. to undcr<, talld. :111'-'
' nd control one.: s
Ill tlllOIHlll'
mderstmd nnd to 1cl:tt1.' to othtr, 1) ck:el w11 I .,trOI ::- tl (Jr t o;oc1al nattiiC
,)r ., pc:rc;oll.
and 4) ndapt to t'l l!III!'L' :tnd to .,Cl ive prohklll" '
(Rcuvcn nar-On. 19llH) . , t motH>rtall) intelligent I r'
Alt houuh tn:lll}' dl'luliiiOil '> ex1st. the Hlca' arc the "'
c e
11 111
fo1mation to gu1dc
1 I lC\ ll'> '
are;: aware of !heir ClllUIIOil '> :u1d the CllHIIIOil'> of ot ll'f'> ' J t rminCS \\ohCthCI a perSOn is
1 1 . Whrt IS 11 e
thcrr 1lunkrng and actrons I It' quest lOll llll'"
emotionall y intt:ll1gc.:n t?
Kc\' of E<) self .aw:trl.!ncss. self 1cgulmion.
;li e five compo1w11h ro l'lllOIHJIIal .
motivation. cmp:rt h) .rnd social st.. tlls . " ''Ill .
II I I ;l \'II lllt:.tllS. ' " C' '
Thl' ll rSI of l'lllOtlllll.lllllll' '\l \' . . ,. (C' I' .
1 - .,I 1nd dnvl'S eo m.m. .
undcrstandrnl! llf '>lll'llj'ths. \H',I"rwsses. nt:t:,
1 1 1 - . 1
st w11h thcmo;c Vl'S am ot 1ers.
People \\hO have il h11h kHI ol sell arl' 101c _
.. 1 1 1 "tllsllC'I II v hopdul.
I hey a"ord the l'Xtrenws ol oH'r v 1..1 rll Cil .111c . .
If 1 1 r 'tlttl their tob 1x: rlormancc
these people ! how thcrr h:l' li1ws .1 ct' t I 1cm. OtlC ' .
(Golem,m. 1995). . .
The second compontllttl l 1s self 1cguiJtron. This_is an . .
peopk han '' 1th the1nslh l'' "lud1 frees thl'lll from b\!tng pnsoners of therr_
feelings (Goleman. 1 ')'h) l'topk "ilh a lugh tllgrec of sell -n:gulation are more capable ol
faclllg the amb1gll 1tH.:s or an mh anl'ing industr) than thosl' whose degree of self-regulation is
Furthermore, peoph: with a hrgh level of self-regul ation can help to enhance the integrity of
an organization by bad decis1011s through impulse behaviours. Self-regulation will
help indi' idual s s tay in control of their fteltngs and mal..e thoughtful decisions.
The third component or emotional intelltgencc is motivation. Motivated individuals want to
achieve beyond their and e' eryone else' s expectations. t\1otivation exte!lds to the deep inner
desire to achieve sake of achievement. Some of the that an empl oyer wi ll see in
a motivated employcG are: passion for his or her work, quest for challenges, desire to Jearn,
and . pride in completing a j.ob well. Molivation makes people restless; lhercfore. they
contmuously new to find better of doing their jobs. ll ighly mot i vated
people constantly ra1se thc1r performance expectatiOns for themselves. their tea a d their
0 f I 1 ' m. n
orgamzatton. ne o 1 1c1r greatest qua 1t1cs. however is remaining opt tl uJ
1 . . . . 11111 StiC 10tJr-.
thev have expen enced failure or a setback. Th1s IS a valuable benet !
d 1 o an organ17.<IIIOI1.
because 11 means that a mott vate person s committed to seeing the c d ..
I d b
- . ompany succec m 1ts
goa san o
The fourth component of emotional intelligence is empathy \"I . . .
d rv ten an mdt vtdual sh()WS
empathy. he or she ts aware an constderate of other employee . fl r .
person combines employees' feelings and o1her factors in order

mgs ..
ree reasons why empathy is imponant to leade
. . e dects tons. There are
. . rs lt p. '" today's b . ' 'd .. h
increasing lise of reams. the raptd _pace of globalization and th WOIJ -

(Goleman 1995 ). When using teams empatl : . . growmg need to ret am
because aheir abilities to recognize' and llldtviduals can be astounding
. . erstand other . . E h tic
plav a key role when glo hz.auon is a factor bee opmaons. mpat e
" ause they can understand the
i mponancc or others cult ural d' rr. .

ercnces. Empathetic individ 1
tct.tllllllf! ta ent bccrusc thcv a e bl d ua s are also efrcclive in
. . " ' r a e to evclop personnl
dunn!! co:rchlll" md nlento T. h rappon Wllh n<:\" emplovces or
- t- nng stat'C<; rouuh th c;' .
empathetiC. leader can nrovldc them w'tl rt r d
c relatiOn<;hrps. an
1 1 1 c.: ectl\e 1ee back \\hrcl1 s 1
employee!> ' esscn11a tA rctam111g
I he fifth compont>nt of intelligence is social s 'rlls 1 d' d 1 1
f dt' " 11 lVI lla S liSe I 1Cif
ncn rness. tn order to have people do what they want. Social leaders arc able to build a
rarport some type of common ground wi th everyone, thus cs1ablishing a
hsmrd Circle ot (Goleman. 1995). In lhc soctal ' nd d 1
.f. ' I IV\ ua IS an
c persuader and IS able 10 manage 1eams cffcclivel-.. .
As d_c'><. nhed above the emotionally leader h;s wonderful auributcs. He or
sh.e IS an empathetiC and a grl-at mouvmor. In addiuon. an emotionally intclligenl
lt.rdcr hrs or her weaknesses and t S able to control h1s or her emolions.
As dcscnbed rn . the next emo1ionally intellil!.cnt leaders can utili;c these trails
di ffi.: rcntl y. thereby rormrng different leadership styles l hcsc leadersh1p styles can aftect the
climate of the organi'latron. both positively and negatively.
EQ, Lead ership St) lc, and Organinlion:tl Erfccti vcnc!>'>
. '
Yis1onary leaders arc empathic. self-confident. and ohen .tel a'> change agent s Afliliall\e
leaders, IOO, arc cmpalhrc. "1th strengths in blllldrng relationshrps and mamrgmg conflict. The
democratic leader encourages collaboration and teamwork and communicates effectively -
particularl y as an excellent listener.'[ he coaching leader is .emotionally self-aware. cmpa1hic.
and skilled at identifying and building on the potenlial of others (Goleman. 2001 ). The
coercive leader the power of his position and orders people to cxeci11e his wishes.
This type leader IS picall y handicapped by a lack ot fhe paccseurng leader sets
high standards and exemplifies them. He or she exh1bits inll1a1i ve and a high dri'e. to
achieve. but is oflen micromanaging or criti cizing those who fai l to meet h1s or her own h1gh
standards rather 1han helping them to improve.
Most effective leaders integrate four or more of the six styles regularly. They switch to the
one most appropriatein a given leadership situation. For instance. the study of leaders
found that. in those schools where the heads displayed four more styles.
students had superior academic perfonnance relative to m companson schools. In
schools where the heads displayed just one of two styles, academc performance was
Ofien the styles were the pacesetting or coercive ones. which tended to un mune
1eacher morale and enthusiasm (Hay/McBer, 2000).
. 1 ft ance morale and enthusiasm. many
In order to increase the level of emp oyees per orm .' , T ucceed in that
organizations today want to promote an emotionally intelhgent cu ture. o s
oruanizations must foster the following attributes (Book, 2:0): are the nom\'
organization "promotes a culture in a . transparency .
\ . Respectful asserti venesS must the orgamzatton. ..
2. The organization encourages dverst_ty. .
The Org
anization tolerates constructive dtsagreement. . ,. ....nno :..
3. fl bT and communca tOO - -
4. The organization values ext IllY - -
departments. . . f ally intelligent organization cao plea ..,... ,...
By having these aunbutes, an emo ' th each other more effectively.
advance, and its em_ployees can= an emotionally intt\li&.08l
In addition to havmg th: That is. the --capacity to roc:ruit.
understand and possess '
1 17
cJ J'(' IICI<II C Clll lll H tfl \
"Fmouon:tl intelligence is 1hc nbili1y 10 pc1ccive Clnolwns, 1o acccs-. '

, ) vlcde , 1111 10 r
son<> 10 a-;s1st lhought. to and <'rtWIIOl:l "
\ ..
1 cgulall' <.:rnol ions ,o ,,s 10 pf{)lllOI<' em of 1011a 1 and 11111'1 kef 11al "I owl!) ..
l'vl.l)el & $;1hl\ ev. I 997
. . 1
cll icncc at ww h a-;
I he follow1ng steps dcscnbc rhc five tomponcnts of crnoiiOfl,l
' ..
I l
. , . . . ,
wlln b1oul'hl crnoiHlll <d
t c:vclopc< bv Dumd CJOicrnon. (,olcfl wn ,., a scrcnce rou1 n.1 rs ..,
. II ' .. I h 11 1 I I t1 -1 ' f booJ.. s on rhc 'i trbJcCI.
llllc:' l!!l'lll'C On I 1C t'l lSI and has aut lOll'( a IHIIll v '
" 1 1 If' nee" 'lllll lnli: ly of
lllclud1ng hnouonnl lntclllg'-ncc." "Wo1 k1ng W1th I mo110n<l nil; lgc
"Son a I Intelligence I he New Scicncl" of llumnn Rdar ionships."
An ar11clc on IlK' r<.'l:llion between Ciolernnn and the psychological research communi1i y
app<'an:d 111 Salqn. oh June 28, 1999.
1 he Five of Emotional lnlclligcncc
Srlf-n'' a n 11 eso; f he <1h1lity 10 rttognitc lffl(krswnd personal and cmulions and
drnes, .t s well as 1hcir 011 olht'ls. tlallmarks' of sl' include sdl'-
renl rslic sdf-assessnwnt. and :.. sdf-dcplcC<Hi ng sense of htrntor. Scll'-:.twarencss
depend on one's abi lity 10 IHOnllor one's own emo1ion state and 10 con identify and naml.'
one's emotions.
r .. A hal llmlrk IS a sure sign: since sci,. awan:ncss necessary for. sav. realistic sci r-
thai is. wi1hou1 stlf-:lwnrcncss no rcalis11<: th-e (>lese;ll'C of ol
realistiC self-assessment is a sun; s1gn to condudc thai there is} scl f-nwan:ncss. J
The abili ty IO control or !\.direct disruptive nnpulscs and moods. and tl
to suspend judgment and to think before acting. lfallmarks include uustworthr rt\.''S
and mtegnl)'; comfort with ambiguity; and openness to change.
moli\l:ttion. A passion to work for_ internal reasons that go moncv and status
luch are external rewards. - such as an rnnt:r vision of what is import ant 1: (!
doing something. curiosity in learning, a no,\ that comes with irnrn;rscdrn_ I c. a m
A propensit y ro pursue . 1
111 an acu VII).
. . . goa s Will energy and persistence. I I all marks includ, l d . ,
achieve. optimism even in the face of fail ure, and organi tarional strong liVe to
Empathy. The. ability to understand the emoti onal makeup of oth
. . .
people accordmg to their emotional reacti ons

k . cr pcop c. A skill rn trc<Hrng
. amar s mcludccxnert
, b ' ll '
rcrcumng talent cross-cultural sensit ivit y md s . . ,, ' c 111 ur c rnp :In<
. < CfVICC 10 cftcnt S 'lnd f
e ucaronal empathy is oft en thought to incl d .
. ' customers. ( ll "I
u c. or cad to sympatl
. ,.
conccm. tlr care or a '"1sh to soften cmotio s . , . . 1y. w 11 c 1 1mp.r <.:.s
n or expel Ill others. )

lr is important to note that empathy does not necessa 1
. .
' used ' for compassionate or cruel behavior. Serial y ml p Y compass1on. Empathy he
. rs w 10 marry a 1 k'IJ .
a row to have great emphallc skills! m I many m
wor l.f
cc (Books, 2000) 13 , . bl . .
, . elng ct c to rctallt li S workfc .
Oft'llll/rtiiOil of the cxpcnsc r I . . ' . lrcc: IS an :tdvaulafc 1<1 .JII
lliiiiO\'cr tan r('<; ufl ill low crnpi <>)"'C ol'l< '.'r,r ngl,hlnd new Clllployl'C!i. I n addition luph
" lr.t c. cn:rore 11 1C. he t ' I ,
In ICt;lln liS CUII Cil t workforce Ro s kr . . s I .I t(ltnpanv ha:, an ahlltl\
u. lllg ' ' " wor r<)rcc I ' also m 1
ClliOIICIIIall y Intelligent organirliiOn\ Mot d
' ' mponant tsllnbulc hi
Hnd Will likely be I he . :t .Jsficd. ., ()lvatc Cllnp oycc<, will work harder lor the corrrpam
"' rouc.e 1 1c1r tmplovccs c

rhtnl in I he decision nwkin$? process and rccclgni7c their tndwll-
lt is '.o h;we all th1 ce attributes present 1n the company in order fo t \{ I I
crnOti On' d rnt lltuc II I r I '<eve op
' c c- net. owcvc1. t 1crc ure two even more imponmt factors !hat 11 1
kvtl of <: ' ,. I . II' f ' ' 111 ucnrc I H:
n o 1011a rnl c o lhc company I he lirsl one is the {'[-() , . 1
, nte 1 ltrcnt:e . s e nwuon,1
'I characlcrisli_cs <!I leaders high level of cmolional imclligcncc arc as lollo\\s
(S<tavedra, 2000)
t'hcy sci {!Oats !hat arc clear and mut uall y agreed upon.
I hey prclc1 pra1se us a tool for traintng and rnsptrtng
I hey rely on dcccntrilli;mion for nchieving 1hci1 goals.
I hey focus ()n employees and their feelings
I hey arc role model<,
1\s discussed previously, these leaders cxlub11 a h1gh degree of sell-actualltalum.
and a strong sense of sd f-awa rencss. 1 hey admit their rni5takcs and seck(() learn from the1n
The second factor that affects the organi7..ations abd1t V to fo.s1cr an emot lotn ll v mtell iucul
cult tile is ?rgani7ational structure (Book. 2000) \his structure must '
organ i 1<11 ional char 1. role dcscri ptions. lines ol accuuntab1ht ' and auth01 it v. and fi.mnal
chnnncls or communication up and down the organflallonal chart" (BooJ.. . 2000) Cumpa1ucs
wi 1h this organin tional strucllrrc in pl<tcc arc ll cxi hlc and allow ll>r hott om up
decision making.
Thi s approach can be broken down into four stages that will ensure the success of emotional
learning and encourage effective individual and group perfonnance. The four stages of
training are preparation, training, transfer and maintenance. and evaluating change.
The ti rst stage preparation - consists of assessing personAl strengths and weaknesses.
linking learning goal-s to values, and readiness. ! his stage of can
begin onl y if a student is motivated to commit to a change and IS ready to put m a grea1
amount of concentrated effort. This moti vation is critical because: college students ate
generall y unaware of their own emotional weaknesses and already possess an under$tandinl
of themselves and how they relate to other people. In order to generate the sclf-evl&ullton
needed to begin this stage. students must first examine their to 1pply etaOiiaMt
and evaluate their strengths and areas in which they need 1mproCIMDI
ll:\nirl fi\'e components of emotional intellicence
Emotional lntclligence. as o psychological theory. b1 ..... WMiiiMI
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