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MODULE ONE Introduction to CAD/CAM

During this lab you will design and manufacture a simple part. The part you will design is a keychain which is shown in Figure 0.2. The keychain will be machined from a workpiece that is shown in Figure 0.3. The features of the keychain are labeled in Figure 0.1. These features will be referred to throughout the tutorial. A computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling machine will perform the machining. The milling machines are located in the Keller Engineering Laboratory building. The following steps must be successfully performed to complete the lab. 1. Create a model of the keychain using the Pro/Engineer (Pro/E) software 2. Create a part program using Pro/Manufacture. A part program is a set of instructions that allow the CNC milling machine to create the keychain. 3. Use a CNC milling machine to create the keychain from the workpiece.

Free Form Cut

Hole

Square Pocket

Figure 0.1. Solid model of the key chain.

Square Pocket

Hole Free Form Cut Figure 0.2. Example keychain.

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Figure 0.3. Workpiece to be machined to produce the keychain.

Creating the Model of the Keychain


0) Starting Pro/E Wildfire a) b) c) d) e) Press Ctrl-Alt-Delete simultaneously, if you are not currently logged in. At the login screen enter your PSE username and password. If you are unsure ask your instructor. When the boot up procedure is finished, click on the start button. Select the following sequence: Start Button>All Programs>PTC> Pro ENGINEER> Pro ENGINEER When the Pro/E program screen appears, a blank black MSDOS window will appear in front of the Pro/E window. DO NOT close this window! This window maintains the license connection for your current Pro/E session, so closing the window will crash Pro/E. Simply click on the Pro/E window behind the blank window to send it to the back, or minimize the blank window. Once Pro/E has started you MUST change the working directory. The default working directory is located on the hard drive. This is a not a secure location for storing your files since others will be using the computers and they are periodically purged. NOTE: The following steps must be performed every time you start Pro/ENGINEER. To change the working directory: i. From the main tool bar that runs across the top of the window select 1. File>Set Working Directory ii. From the Look In drop down menu select the drive labeled with your username on gladius (H:)

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Note: The H: drive is a folder set up on the engineering server for your use. It has 20 MB of storage room. It will not fit all of your work for the semester. Please purchase a USB memory stick for storing your files (at least 128 MB). If you already have a USB drive with you, repeat the above step, but change your working directory to the USB drive instead of H:. Typically, the USB drive will appear as E:. If you have any questions please speak to your lab instructor.

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iii. Use the New Directory Icon located to the right of the Look In drop down menu to create a folder named EGR 101. iv. Use the New Directory Icon again to create a folder named Module 1. v. Finally set the Module 1 folder as your working directory by clicking on the OK button. 2) To Create a New File Once Pro/E has been started you must create a new file for the key chain you will be creating. To begin, select File > New from the main tool bar. When Pro/E asks you to choose a file type, select Part. Verify Solid is checked as the subtype as shown in Figure 2.1. Type in a filename in the Name input box, and leave the Common Name blank. Spaces are not allowed in Pro/E filenames. All file names you use in EGR 101 must begin with your last name, see the Figure below. This file name convention will be used for grading purposes. Accept your choices by clicking OK.

Figure 2.1. New file pop-up menu. 3) The Pro/E Workspace Once you have started your new file, your screen should resemble Figure 3.1. You will notice in Figure 3.1 the three intersecting planes in the Pro/E workspace. These planes labeled TOP, FRONT, and RIGHT, respectively, form what is called the UCSYS, or Universal Coordinate System. A good way to think about the UCSYS is that it is like the x, y, and z axes in the Cartesian coordinate system. As you model the keychain, its orientation will be referenced to the UCSYS.

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The model tree shown in Figure 3.1 lists every feature that has been created. The message center is important because it alerts the user to what information Pro/E is requesting. When you are confused, consulting the message center can help.

Pro/E Workspace Main Main Toolbar Toolbar

Model Tree Model Tree Base Feature Toolbar Message Center UCSYS

Figure 3.1 Pro/ENGINEER opening screen. To begin creating the part, pick the Extrude Tool from the Base Feature toolbar . Pro/E will display the Dashboard above the message center. The Dashboard is shown in Figure 3.2. The dashboard displayed depends on the feature being created. The dashboard is designed to guide you through the feature creation process. Thickness of Extrusion Placement Panel Remove Material

Figure 3.2 The dashboard for the extrude feature.

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To create an extrusion you must first create a two dimensional section. The section is a closed area that will be extruded perpendicular to the area. To create the sketch, click on the placement panel button along the top edge of the dashboard, see Figure 3.2. On the panel, click the Define button. Pro/E will then display the Sketch window. The sketch window requires information that will identify what plane you wish to sketch on. The sketch window is shown in Figure 3.3. For the keychain, select the FRONT plane in the Pro/E workspace, see Figure 3.1. Move your cursor over the planes and you will see different planes highlighted. When the front plane is highlighted, click with your left mouse button.

Figure 3.3 The sketch window. After you select the front plane, Pro/E will fill in the section window. Click on the sketch button of the section window and the Pro/E will display the sketcher. 4) Drawing the Part in the Sketcher. Now you are in the sketcher mode of Pro/E, see Figure 4.1. Notice the positioning of the planes. You will be sketching on the FRONT plane. Close the references window to accept the default references suggested by Pro/E.

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Figure 4.1. Sketcher mode in Pro/E. Pro/E handles design information differently than 2D drafting programs. In Pro/E, parts are sketched and dimensions are modified to the intended size. This is done using the Intent Manager. The Intent Manager will anticipate what you are trying to draw and modify the sketch to match your intentions. For instance, if you draw two lines that are close to parallel, the intent manager will modify the lines to be parallel. Similarly if two or more circles are drawn with nearly identical radii, Pro/E will modify the radii to be identical. Figure 4.2 shows the drawing menu available to you on the right side of the screen.

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Figure 4.2. Drawing menu shown with icons labeled. The following commands will explain how to draw your parts using Sketcher and the Intent Manager. Note: Whenever you see an icon like this: the drawing menu. 4.1) Create the Outside Shape of the Keychain you should select that icon from

Create a rectangle by choosing the create rectangle icon, , from the drawing menu. Click on the origin of the coordinate system and a point in the upper right quadrant. This will create a rectangle similar to the rectangle shown in Figure 4.3. If your rectangle does not look correct you may undo your work by selecting EDIT/UNDO from the main toolbar at the top of the window. Pro/E automatically places dimensions on the rectangle, you must change the dimensions of the rectangle to match the design.

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Figure 4.3. Creating the rectangle. 4.2) Changing Dimensions

From the drawing menu, click on the change dimensions icon, , then click on the vertical dimension and then the horizontal dimension. This will open an editing window where both the vertical and horizontal dimensions will be displayed. Change the vertical dimension to 2.5 and the horizontal dimension to 1.5, once both dimensions are changed, click the green checkmark to exit the change dimension menu. Pro/E automatically re-scales the drawing. You may also select the arrow icon changed and enter a new value. 4.3) , then double-click the dimension to be

Creating Fillets in the Corners of the Rectangle

A fillet (pronounced fill-it, unlike a fish fillet) is simply an arc with a certain radius that rounds off the corner of two intersecting lines or planes. We will create a fillet in each corner. Begin by clicking on the create fillet icon . Look at the regular corners of the rectangle in Figure 4.3 and compare them to the filleted corners of the rectangle in Figure 4.4. To create fillets on the part, pick the two lines closest to the corner you would like to fillet. Pro/E will then connect the points with a radius that fits them. Repeat this for all four corners. Your design should look similar to Figure 4.4, although the exact dimensions of your fillets may be different.

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Figure 4.4. Rectangle with filleted corners. To change the radii click on the change dimensions icon, , just as you did in section 4.2, and select each of the fillets radial dimensions. Change all of them to 0.125, once done, click on the green checkmark to exit the change dimension menu. 4.4) Creating the hole

To create the hole, click on the create circle icon, , in the drawing menu. In the sketcher view, near the top and middle of the part, click on the screen to place the center of the circle. Now move the cursor to the edge of the circle and click on the screen again. Do not worry about the circles position or size. We will adjust these later. As you can see, ProE automatically places all of the relevant dimensions on the circle to specify its size and location

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Figure 4.5. Hole and its associated dimensions. Click on the change dimensions button, . First, select the horizontal and vertical dimensions that locate the circle in relation to the rectangle. Then select the diameter dimensions that specify the size of the circle. Change the vertical dimension to 0.25, the horizontal dimension to 0.75 and the diameter to 0.27. Your sketcher window with all of the modified dimensions should now look similar to Figure 4.6.

Figure 4.6. Circle and rectangle in sketcher.

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4.5) Creating the Solid from the 2 Dimensional Shape Once you have created the rectangle and the circle click on the continue icon, will close the sketcher and return you to the grey Pro/E workspace.

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Enter the thickness in the box in the dashboard. See Figure 3.2 for details. The thickness should be .25. Press enter to confirm the thickness. To complete the extrusion click on the green check mark located on the extreme right side of the dashboard. You are now done with the first portion of the key chain.

SAVE YOUR WORK!!!!!!!


To save your work click on the save icon on the main tool bar at the top of the screen Click on the OK button to accept the file name and save the file. 4.6) Changing Views of the Model .

Below is the tool bar that is used to change how Pro E displays the part.

Figure 4.7 Options to view the model. By clicking the different buttons Pro-E will display the model differently, to manipulate your part in Pro E is also quite easy. The following three options are available to you to change how the part is displayed on the screen: Depress the Middle Mouse button and drag the cursor to Rotate the model. Press the Ctrl key on the keyboard and hold down the Middle Mouse Button to Zoom Press the Shift key on the keyboard and hold down the Middle Mouse Button to Drag Spend some time working with these options and the model display buttons described above. To return to the default orientation, press the control button and D (Ctrl-D). When you are ready to continue, save your file. 5) Creating the Square Pocket 5.1) Creating the square pocket

Now that the base part is done we will create the first cut in the part, which will take material away from the part. To begin creating the pocket, select the Extrude icon from the base feature tool bar. Pro/E will then display the dashboard. Click on the Placement button on the dashboard and click Define on the window that appears.
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You must now select the sketching plane. When you pick sketching planes you are telling Pro/E how to orient your part in the sketcher. We want to sketch the extrusion on the large flat surface of the part. Pick this surface by clicking the large flat surface of the part as shown if Figure 5.1. When you do this a yellow arrow will appear on your part, make sure the arrow is pointing into the part, if it is not, click the Flip button on the Sketch window. This arrow indicates the viewing direction for when you will be looking at the sketching plane. Figure 5.1 shows the arrow orientated correctly. Top Surface

Yellow Arrow

Large Flat Surface

Figure 5.1. Arrow Pointing into the Part. Next rotate the model and pick the top surface as shown in Figure 5.1 (NOT the top datum plane). In the sketch window, set the orientation pull down menu to Top. This information tells Pro/E that the top of the part should face the top of the screen in the sketcher. Close the Sketch window by clicking on the sketch button.

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References Window

Figure 5.2. References Window. Before any sketching can take place, the references must be fully placed. A reference is a surface, edge or vertex relative to which all sketched entities will be located. The square pocket will be located relative to the top and left edges of your base feature. Click on the left vertical and the top horizontal edges to place these references. Close the references window by clicking on the close button in the references window. Figure 5.2 shows the references window.
5.2) Continuing the Cut

Choose the create rectangle icon, within the edges of the rectangle.

. Place a rectangle in your part under the hole and

Once the rectangle is placed on the part, change the dimensions as previously described in section 4.2. The rectangle is located 0.5 from the top of the part and 0.25 from both sides.

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The rectangle should be 1.75 high and 1 wide. When you are finished changing the dimensions, your sketch should look similar to Figure 5.3

Figure 5.3. Dimensioned sketch showing square pocket.


5.3) Creating the Fillets for the Cut

We will once again place fillets at all four corners as described above in Section 4.3. Once again the fillet radius must be changed to 0.125 as described in Section 4.3. Click on the continue icon,
5.4)

, to complete the sketch.

Completing the Square Pocket

Enter the depth of the extrusion in the dashboard. The depth is .125 inches. Next click on the . See Figure 3.2 for the location of the remove remove material icon on the dashboard material icon. Finally rotate the model and search for two yellow arrows. The first arrow is in the sketch plane. This arrow indicates where the material will be removed. If the arrow points into the section then the material in the section will be removed. If the arrow points away from the section then the material outside of the section will be removed. Since you want to remove the material in the section, force the arrow to point into the section. To change the direction of the arrow, simply click on the arrow.

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The second arrow is perpendicular to the sketch plane. This arrow indicates the direction of the extrusion. If the extrusion extends away from the key chain click on the arrow and force the extrusion to extend into the keychain. You can preview the feature by clicking on the glasses on the extreme right of the dashboard . Accept the feature by clicking on the green check mark at the extreme right of the dashboard. Spin the part using the middle mouse button to verify that the cut has been made correctly.

SAVE YOUR WORK!!!!!!!


6) Creating the Freeform Cut in the Part

To begin creating the freeform cut, select the extrude icon from the base feature tool bar. Pro/E will then display the dashboard. Click on Placement and then Define from the dashboard. You must now select the sketching plane. Remember, when you pick sketching planes you are telling Pro/E on what face of the part you want to draw on. We want to sketch the profile for the extrusion on the bottom surface of the square pocket that you just cut. Click on the bottom surface of the square pocket. A yellow arrow will appear in the Pro/E workspace, make sure that the arrow is pointing into the part as shown in Figure 6.1. If the arrow points in the opposite direction, click on the flip button on the sketch window. Next rotate the model and pick the top surface of the part (not the top datum plane) as shown in Figure 5.1. In the sketch window, set the orientation pull down menu to Top. This information tells Pro/E that the top of the part should face the top of the screen in the sketcher. Close the Sketch window by clicking on the sketch button.

Figure 6.1. Arrow direction for freeform cut.

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If the references window shows Fully Placed click on the close button. Otherwise, click on the top horizontal and left vertical edge, and then close the window.
6.2) Defining the Free Form Cut

. Pick several points To create your personalized pattern, click on the spline icon, within the square pocket to create your cut out. Be sure to choose your first point as your last point to create an enclosed area. An example of a cut out is shown in Figure 6.2. If you do not like the shape of your cut out simply click on it and push the delete key on the keyboard. Then go back and create another shape. Remember, the shape will be cut by a inch diameter end mill. Therefore, be sure that the end mill can access all surfaces of the cut. To help estimate this size remember that the hole diameter is just a little larger that a quarter of an inch. When you are satisfied with your cut continue with the tutorial.

Figure 6.2. Freeform shape example. Click on the continue icon,


6.3) Completing the Cut

, to complete the sketch.

To complete the cut, click on the Options button on the dashboard. The dashboard should look like Figure 6.3. Under depth for Side 1 select Through All as shown in Figure 6.3. Rotate the part and verify that the cut direction is into the part. If it is not, use the Change Depth Direction icon on the dashboard to toggle the cuts direction . Click the Remove Material icon on the dashboard to change the extrusion from a protrusion to a cut. Finally,

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click on the green check mark at the right side of the dashboard to complete the freeform cut feature. The feature should now be recorded in the Model Tree window.

Figure 6.3. The dashboard with the options menu deployed. Your part should now look similar to Figure 6.4 below. If you are looking directly at the front of the part, spin the part to verify that the cut has been made correctly.

Figure 6.4. Finished part.

SAVE YOUR WORK!!!!!!!


Congratulations! You have finished creating your first part in Pro/E. The next step is to transfer the part to Pro/Manufacture. This step is necessary to create the part program to control the CNC mill. You may now begin the Pro/Manufacture tutorial.
Creating the Part Program Using Pro/Manufacture 1) To Open Pro/Manufacture

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1) We will now create the machine sequences and codes for use with the CNC mills. We will be using Pro/E and an internal program called Pro/Manufacture. If you still have your part file open, you should close this so that the program runs faster. To do so, click on File and then Close Window.
2) Starting Pro/Manufacture 2.1) Selecting the Part Type

You will create a new manufacturing file from the key chain part file that was created in Pro/E. Be sure to set your working directory to the same directory you used in the first part of the tutorial if you have not done so already. When in Pro/E, select the following from the main tool bar: File > New.

Figure 2.1. Pro/Manufacture Startup Window. When Pro/MANUFACTURE asks you to choose a file type, select Manufacturing, when asked for a sub type, you will choose NC Assembly as shown in Figure 2.1. Following the file naming conventions described in section 2, enter the name of your manufacturing file beginning with your name. Select OK to close the Startup window.
2.2) Importing the Base Part File Created Previously

The menu manager window will appear at the top right of your screen. In Pro/Manufacture, menus will appear at the right side of the Pro/E workspace. The user makes selections from 1-18

the bottom menus to carry out tasks. As you pick menu options Pro/Manufacture will display other menus from which to pick. For this part of the tutorial, the (>) designates an option on the next menu and the (/) designates an option within the same menu. Once you get accustomed to this menu structure it is very easy to use.

Figure 2.1. The menu manager window. The first step in this process is to import the model of the keychain you already created. Execute the commands below to import the model. Manufacture>Mfg Model>Assemble>Ref Model> Select Your File Once you do this, the Component Placement window will appear as shown below in figure 3.1. Fix component button

Figure 3.1. The component placement window. 1-19

To fully constrain the component within the manufacturing assembly, simply click the Fix Component button (see figure 3.1) and then press the OK button. Back on the menu manager, press Done/Return.
3) To begin your part in Pro/MANUFACTURE Once you have started or opened your new file, your screen should look like Figure 3.2 below. The model of your keychain may be in a different orientation.

Figure 3.2. Pro/Manufacture Startup.

SAVE YOUR WORK!!!!!!!


3.1) Modifying the Part Model.

The thickness of the part model must be increased from 0.25 inches to 0.30 inches. This will ensure the end mill will cut all the way through the inch thick plastic workpiece. Always remember that the quarter inch thick plastic may be thicker or thinner than a quarter inch. Fortunately, Pro/E allows us to change the 0.25 dimension to 0.3 easily. Use the following commands:
Manufacture>Modify>Mod Dim>Value

Click anywhere on the inch thick region of the keychain. Then, double click on the 0.25 thickness dimension. If no dimensions are visible in the part window, click on the part to make them appear. You may have to rotate and resize your model to find the 0.25 thickness dimension. When the dimension has been selected, an input window will appear on the screen. Change the 0.25 dimension to 0.30 and accept the value by depressing the enter key.

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To finish the changing the dimension, issue the following commands:


OK >Done>Done Return>Regenerate> click on the keychain model/ OK /Done The message in the message center should read Regeneration completed successfully.

SAVE YOUR WORK!!!!!!!


4) Manufacturing Setup 4.1) Selecting a CNC Milling Machine

Seven Microkinetics CNC milling machines are located in the Plastics Lab of the Keller Engineering Laboratories Building. You must tell Pro/Manufacture the type of mill to use. To do this, follow the commands below. From the Menu Manager , Manufacture choose Mfg Setup. When you do this, the Operation Setup menu will appear, see Figure 4.2 below.

NC Machine Icon

Figure 4.2. Operation Setup Menu with the NC Machine Icon Labeled. Click on the NC Machine icon shown in Figure 4.2. A new window will appear. In the new window, shown in Figure 4.3, select File>Open. Change folder to C:\ProE_Machine (you

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will likely have to scroll the view of the directory all of the way back to the left). Open the file named Microkinetics.gph. This will load the information on the Microkinetics into the Pro/Manufacture database. Be sure to verify that the Number of Axes field is set to 3 Axes then click [OK].

Figure 4.3. Machine Tool Setup Window.


4.2) Locating the Machines Zero Point

The next step is to define the location and orientation of the coordinate system to be used by the CNC milling machine. The coordinate system must be located on the top surface of the keychain. Specifically it must be located at the intersection of the edges of the keychain. To set the location of the coordinates system in Pro/E, click on the black arrow immediately to the right of Machine Zero, this will bring up the Menu Manager. From the Menu Manager select Create. The message in the message center will read Pick model to create coordinate system in. Click on the keychain model. The Coordinate System menu will appear. The Coordinate System window is shown in Figure 4.4. In order to specify the location of the origin of the coordinate system, select three perpendicular planes. (The correct location for the coordinate system is shown in figure 4.5.)

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Therefore you need to click on the top surface and two side surfaces of the part while holding down the Ctrl key on the keyboard. Remember, the origin of the coordinate system will be located at the intersection of the three planes you pick. If you allow the curser to hover over the surface, Pro/E will highlight the surface, edge, or point that will be selected if you click. Orientation Tab

Figure 4.4. The Coordinate System window. After the tree planes have been selected, the coordinate system will appear at their intersection. Figure 4.5 shows the order of the selection process, and the proper coordinate system location. (If the orientation of the coordinate system is different, click the Cancel button, and begin the process again.) 1. Orient your Key Chain as shown! 2. Hold down the CTRL key on the keyboard. 3. Click Top Surface with left mouse button 4. Click Shorter Surface with left mouse button c. Click Longer Surface with left mouse button

Figure 4.5. Selecting surfaces on the Keychain model to set the Coordinate System. 1-23

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4.4) Orienting the Coordinate System

To specify the orientation of the coordinate system, click on the orientation tab in the coordinate system window. This tab is labeled in Figure 4.4 and shown in Figure 4.6.

Drop down list

Flip button

Figure 4.6. The Orientation tab of Coordinate System window. The correct orientation of the coordinate system is shown in Figure 4.7. The X axis is pointing along the longest edge of the part, the Y axis is pointing along the shortest edge of the part and the Z axis is on the top surface of the part, pointing away from it. To use the orientation tab of the coordinate system window, only click on the Flip buttons, and the drop down lists next to the to determine and to project identifiers (see Figure 4.6 above). (Changing the Use entities will effectively undo the selections you made during the previous step.) Change the drop down lists coordinate letter to the coordinate letter that it needs to be. For example, suppose that the axis of the coordinate system coming off of the top surface of your part on the drawing screen is labeled as X. According to Figure 4.7, this axis should be Z. Thus, on the orientation tab of the coordinate system window, whichever identifier is currently shown as X, select the Z option from the drop down list for that identifier. If after doing this, the coordinate axis does change to Z, but it is pointing towards the part instead of away from it, click the Flip button. Continue to change the letters from what they currently are to what they should be and flipping their directions until your coordinate system is oriented like the one shown in Figure 4.7.

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Figure 4.7. The correct orientation of the coordinate system.


4.5) Setting the Retraction Plane

The retraction plane is the level that the endmill will move up to before moving across the part. This level is important to prevent the end mill from crashing into any tooling that will be used to secure the work piece to the table of the milling machine. Click on the black arrow to the right of the Surface menu in Operation Setup window. Select the button, [Along Z axis] and enter a value of 1. Click [OK] to exit the retraction plane menu. A new plane should appear above the key chain and a new datum should be added in the model tree window. A tolerance value of 0.1 appears in the window, this is the default value and does not need to be changed. To complete the manufacturing setup select [OK] from the Operation Setup menu and Done Return from the menu manager..

SAVE YOUR WORK!!!!!!!


2) Milling the Internal Features of the Keychain

The internal features of the keychain are the hole, the square pocket and the free form cut. In order to mill these features the volume of material to be removed must be defined.
5.1) Creating the Milling Volume

Execute the following commands from the Menu Manager. MFG SET UP> MFG GEOMETRY> Mill Volume > Create In the message center Pro/MANUFACTURE asks you to enter the name for the milling volume, type in Internal_features and click on the green check mark to the right. Do not use any spaces in the name.

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You must now specify the volume you want removed. To do this, execute the following commands in the Create Volume menu.
Sketch > Extrude > Solid > Done / One Side / Done

Now pick the upper surface of the part as shown in figure 5.1. Make sure that the red arrow is pointing into your part. If it is not, select [Flip], if it is select [OK]. This tells Pro/MANUFACTURE you want to remove material from the volume the red arrow is pointing into. Your screen should look similar to Figure 5.1 below. Upper Surface of Part

Long Edge of Part

Red Arrow

Figure 5.1. Correct arrow direction to specify the volume to remove. Select [Top] from the Sket View and then select the long edge on the top surface of your part as shown in figure 5.1. This will bring you into the sketcher mode. Click on the bottom edge and left edge of the part to create your references. You will see two reference lines appear along these lines. You will see the Reference Status change to (Fully Placed), when this happens click [Close].

5.3) Enclosing the Volume to Mill

You will now draw a box around the specific area you want to mill out and trim it up to the edge of where you want to mill.

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Create a rectangle by choosing the create rectangle icon, , from the drawing menu. Draw a rectangle around the volume to be milled out, but inside the boundaries of your part. The rectangle you draw must enclose the square pocket, the hole and the free form cut but not go outside of the part. An acceptable rectangle is shown in Figure 5.2. The dimensions of the rectangle are not important because it will be trimmed later.

Figure 5.2 Acceptable Rectangle for Specifying the Volume of Material to Remove. Once you have created the rectangle click on the continue icon, sketcher. . This will close the

Select [Blind] > Done and enter 0.30 for the depth in the input box at the bottom of the screen. Click the check mark to the right of the input box to make the change. Finally select [OK] from the Protrusions: Extrude menu.
5.3) Trimming the Volume

You must now trim the rectangle to fit the mill volume. To do this select [Trim] from the Create Volume menu. In the message center Pro/E will ask for the part to trim by, click on the keychain. Finally select [Done/Return] from the Menu Manager. Pro/MANUFACTURE allows you to view the area to be milled out to ensure successful completion of the trim operation. Select Shade from the Mill Volume menu. Pick the mill volume on the screen and Pro/Manufacture will shade this selected volume. You will see the volume to be removed appear shaded on the screen. Rotate your part as described previously to ensure this is the volume of material you want to remove. The

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shaded volume should look similar to the volume shown in Figure 5.3. (If it does not, try clicking the wireframe view icon to redraw how the part is currently displayed.)

Figure 5.3 Volume to be removed, as viewed from the bottom. From the Menu Manager execute the following:
Done/Return > Done/Return

Congratulations! You have now completed creating the volume to be milled.

SAVE YOUR WORK!!!!!!!


5.4) Defining the Cutting Tool

Execute the following commands to get to the Manufacture menu.


Machining > NC Sequence > Machining > Volume > 3 Axis > Done

When the SEQ SETUP menu pops up verify that Tool, Parameters and Volume are the only selections checked. Click on [DONE] to continue. When the Tool Setup menu appears select T0002 and verify the following values: Cutter_Diam: .25 Length: 4 To exit the Tool Setup menu click on [OK].
5.5) Setting the Cutting Parameters

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To completely define the cutting parameters, follow the steps below. Under the MFG PARAMS menu click on [Set]. The Param Tree menu will then appear. Change the following values: CUT_FEED to 45 (inches per minute) STEP_DEPTH to 0.075 (inches) STEP_OVER to 0.1 (inches) SCAN_TYPE to TYPE_SPIRAL (from pull down menu) SPINDLE_SPEED to 300 (rpm) Note: This is a place holder because the spindle speed on the miicrokinetics is set by physically positioning belts on the machine, not through the g-codes.) CLEAR_DIST to 1 (inch)

Figure 5.4. Amended Param Tree window with correct parameters. When you are done select File and then Exit and click on [Done] in MFG PARAMS window. You now need to select the volume to be milled. To do this, click on [Select Vol] in the Define Volume menu. Click on the volume to be machined. To view the results, select [Play Path], then [Screen Play]. Set your display speed to slow and then click on the play forward and backward buttons to see the cutter path. When you are finished viewing the cutter path, close the Play Path window and click on [Done Seq]. 1-29

SAVE YOUR WORK!!!!!!!


3) Profile Milling

You must now tell Pro/MANUFACTURE how to cut around the outside edges of your part. This type of machining is called profile milling. To do this, execute the following commands under the Menu Manager.
NC Sequence / New Sequence > Profile > 3 Axis > Done

When the SEQ SETUP menu appears, verify that only the Parameters and the Surfaces options are checked. When you are done select [Done]. The MFG PARAMS menu will appear. Select [Set] and the Param Tree will pop up. Change the following values: CUT_FEED to 45 (inches per minute) STEP_DEPTH to 0.075 (inches) SPINDLE_SPEED to 300 CLEAR_DIST to 1 (inches) Once completed, select File and Exit in the Param Tree window. Now, under the Mfg. Parameters select [Done]. When the SURF PICK menu comes up, select [Model] and then [Done]. You must now click on the eight (8) outside surfaces of your part. To allow the selection of more than one surface at a time, press the control key while selecting the surfaces. As you select each one, the surfaces will change color from white to red. Please note that the rounded surfaces in the corners of the part must be selected. You will need to use the rotate function to choose surfaces on the back of the part. When you have selected all eight (8) surfaces, click on [OK] button, [Done], [Done/Return], and [Done/Return]. Again you can display the cutter path by going to [Play Path] and [Screen Play]. Select [Done Seq] when you have finished viewing the cutter path. You are now finished specifying the milling sequences.
SAVE YOUR WORK!!!!!!! 6) Creating the Part Program

A part program is a series of codes the CNC milling machine will use to machine your part. To generate these codes a cutter location (CL) file must be generated first. CL files contain a series of points that the cutter must pass through to machine your part. CL files are independent of the machine used to manufacture the part. The cutter location file is then post processed to create the part program. The part program contains codes that are specific to each type of machine.
6.1) Creating the Cutter Location (CL) File

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To create the CL file execute the following commands, from the Menu Manager, under Machining select: CL Data / Output / Operation / OP010 Under the Path menu, select [File]. Make sure that under OUTPUT TYPE, CL File and Interactive are checked. Then select [Done]. The Save a Copy screen will pop up and ask you to save your CL File. Name your CL file beginning with your last name, and then keychain. After you have named it, click [OK].
6.1) Post Processing the Cutter Location (CL) File

Under Path select [Done Output]. Now the CL DATA menu will pop up and you will select [Post Process]. When you do this, the Open menu will appear. Select the CL File that you just created and click [Open]. In the PP OPTIONS menu make sure the all three options, Verbose, Trace and MACHIN, are checked. Now select [Done] in the PP OPTIONS menu. Pro/E will create a file with a .tap extension. This is the file that the mill will use to machine your part. If your file is post processed correctly your screen will look like Figure 6.1 below.

Figure 10.3 Post Processing Options

Figure 6.1. Screen displayed after successful post-processing. Save your work and exit Pro/MANUFACTURE. To do so, click on File and then Exit. Pro/MANUFACTURE will ask you if you would like to exit, click on [OK]. This will bring you back to the desktop. To view your G-codes open up NotePad. To start this program, click the Windows Start button, then Run , and then type in Notepad and press the Enter key. When you are in NotePad click on File and Open. (You will have to change the Files

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of Type: to All Files.) Select from your disk your G-code file with the .tap extension. Your screen should now look similar to Figure 6.2 below.

Figure 6.2. G-codes contained in the part program. Now examine your G-codes. Verify that all of the x values are between -.5 and 3, all of the y values are between -.5 and 2, and all of the z values are between -.3 and 1. If all of your values are within the specified ranges you are ready to simulate the machining of your part. Use the save as command to save the part program as *.cnc file on a 3.5 inch floppy disk (change the Save as type option to All Files when saving). Close NotePad and continue.

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7)

Simulating the cutting of your key chain

Simulating your G-codes will allow you to see any errors that might be present. The software called Mill Master Pro will perform the simulation. This software is also used to control the milling machines. To start Mill Master Pro click: Start Button>All Programs>Mill Master Pro>Mill Master Pro For Windows Version 4.1 After launching the software, the window shown in Figure 7.1 will appear. Several error messages will likely appear when using Mill Master Pro. This is not an actual problem with the software, it is just that the computer detects that an actual CNC mill is not attached to the computer you are using. The first of these will be a system message that appears that says Card not found!; just click the OK button. Familiarize yourself with the parts of the window. Note the position of the tool and that the window in Figure 7.1 indicates that the program is in Graphics mode. When the program is in graphics mode the tool on the screen will move but the machine tool will not move. When the program is in Machine or Both mode the program will command the machine tool to move.

Program Modes

Tool Position

Part Program Area

Figure 7.1. Mill Master Pro main window. 1-33

Step 4. Simulating Your Part Program

When you simulate the part program, the computer machines the part on the screen. This allows the user to assess the part program without ruining valuable work pieces. a) Load your part program using the File>Open pull down menus.(You may have to rename your file to have a .cnc extension. The part program will appear in the section of the window labeled Part Program Area. b) Use the Options>Material Size Pull down menus to set the size of our starting stock. For the keychain lab our stack is roughly 3.5 inches by 2 inches by .35 inches. Use the Run> Auto Run Pull down menus to begin the simulation. This is another time you will likely encounter error messages because a physical CNC mill is not attached to your computer. You will likely see Error 75, press OK, then it will ask you if you want to recover from the error, say Yes. This cycle will repeat one more time, so press OK and Yes again, and then the program should run fine. Does the tool move as you expected? Notice the other options under the run menu. They can be helpful in debugging a part program. Run the program several times to ensure that the G-codes are correct. c) When you are satisfied your codes are correct go to the Lab in Keller to machine your part.

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Safety Checklist for CNC Mills


Before you enter the work area: Put on safety glasses. Tie back loose hair and clothing. Remove jewelry including rings, bracelets and wristwatches. Before machining a part: Make sure you have the correct tool for the job. Secure the tool properly. Make sure all tool positions have been properly initialized Verify the NC program on the computer before machining. Remove all loose parts and pieces from the machine. Remove adjusting keys and wrenches from the machine. Close the safety shield. Only operate the machine after being properly trained in its use. Perform a dry run: Set the spindle motor switch to lowest manual speed setting. Make certain there is no work piece in place. Run the NC program to make sure all the moves make sense before running the program with a work piece in place. After completing the dry run, properly secure the work piece to the machine. Keep fluids away from all electrical connections, electronic or electrical devices, the computer and nearby electrical outlets. While machining a part: Do not touch moving or rotating parts. Press the Emergency Stop button before opening the safety shield. Only open the safety shield after the spindle has stopped rotating. Press the Emergency Stop button whenever changing tools or mounting or removing a work piece. Pull the Emergency Stop button out only after closing the safety shield. Keep all unauthorized persons away from the work area.

The CNC mills have been equipped with emergency stop buttons and other safety device. The emergency stop button cuts power to the machine and the proximity switch prevents the machine from operating when the plastic shield is not in place. These safety features are in 1-35

place for your protection. Anyone found tampering with or bypassing the safety features will receive a grade of F for the lab portion EGR 101. Please note that interrupting the operation of the machine tool by pressing the emergency stop button while the machine is moving causes the control software to lose track of the current position of the tool. Therefore, the part you are machining will become scrap.

Machining Your Part


Step 1. Familiarize yourself with the machine

a) Locate the motors and identify which way they drive the table or the tool. b) Locate the emergency stop button and actuate it. c) Inspect safety shield. How is it held to the machine table? d) Locate the computer and the disc drive you will use.

Step 2. Setting up the Machine Tool

a) Ensure that a two-flute 1/4 inch end mill is installed in the milling machine. b) Place a scrap piece under your work piece and then toe clamp your work piece to the table. Clamp the work piece in the middle of the table. Tooling is hung on the side of the black machine base. The setup is shown in Figure 1.

Work Piece Scrap Piece

Machine Table
Figure 1. Toe clamping the work piece to the table.

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Step 3. Setting up the software


a) Turn on the computer. b) When the computer finishes booting, click on the Mill Master Pro Icon. The window shown in Figure 2 will appear. c) Place the disc with the your *.cnc file on it in the drive.

Program Modes

Tool Position

Part Program Area

Figure 2. Mill Master Pro main window.


Step 4. Simulating Your Part Program

When you simulate the part program, the computer machines the part on the screen. This allows the user to assess the part program without ruining valuable work pieces. a) Follow the instructions in the preceding section.

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Clamp

Work Piece

End Mill
Figure 3. The origin of the machines coordinate system.
Step 4. Zeroing the Machine Tool

After successfully simulating your part program, you must indicate the origin of the work coordinates to the machine tool. We will use the Jog Tool command to move the tool to the origin and then the Set New Position command to tell the machine tool it is at the origin. The origin must be located on the top surface of the work piece. For the keychain locate the origin on the edge of the work piece closest to you and at least 1/2 inch away from any tooling. This position is shown in Figure 3. a) Click on the program mode Both. b) Use the Control>Jog Tool pull down menus to move the tool to the origin. c) With a metal scale ensure that the tool can move al least 2.5 inches in the x direction and 1.5 inches in the Y direction without hitting any tooling! d) Use the Control>Set New Position pull down menus to set the X, Y, and Z positions to zero.

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Step 5. Verifying Your Part Program

To verify that your part program is correct, you must re-zero the Z axis approximately one inch above the top of the part. You will then run the part and observe the movement of the table. Since the origin of the machine's coordinate system has been lifted approximately one inch, the tool will not touch the work piece. Instead the tool will move in air. This will give you the opportunity to ensure that the tool will not hit the clamps or the table when you machine the part. Follow the steps below to verify your part program. a) Use the Control>Jog Tool pull down menus to move the tool approximately 1 inch in the Z direction. b) Use Control>Set New Position pull down menus to again set the X, Y, and Z positions to zero. c) Install the safety shield. d) Have the instructor or lab supervisor turn the power onto the control box. e) Use the Run> Auto Run pull down menus to start the machining process. f) While the tool is moving keep your hand on the emergency stop button and your eye on the end mill. g) Verify that all tool movements are correct.
Step 6. Running Your Program

a) Use the Jog Tool and Set New Position commands to re-zero the Z axis. The z = 0 plane should again be the top surface of the work piece. The tool position window should again read 0.000 for all three axes. b) Jog the tool one half inch above the plastic. The Z axis entry in the tool position window should now contain a positive, non-zero number. c) Install the safety shield. Be sure your safety glasses are on. Turn the spindle control Knob to the forward Position. d) Use the Auto Run command to start the machine tool. e) While the tool is moving keep your hand on the emergency stop button and your eye on the end mill. f) When the program is finished engage the emergency stop button, remove the part and vacuum the all chips created. g) Place the clamps back in their holder and replace the safety shield

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Module One Assignment

Complete the module including the manufacturing of the keychain by the next lab meeting. The assignment is due at the beginning of the next laboratory. Hand-in printouts of your 3D Pro/E model and your G-codes. Only one model per page should be used. Staple the pages together in the upper left-hand corner with a cover sheet formatted as shown in Appendix E of this lab manual.
EGR 101 Module One Scoring Rubric Student Name: __________________________________ Item Points Score

Plastic keychain Intended design vs. actual (Does your part match your solid model? Was the mill able to manufacture all of the features you specified?) List of NC Codes 3D printout of Solid model in the format specified by your lab professor Quality of manufacturing Presentation/Organization/Neatness/Cover Page
TOTAL

25 15 25 15 10 10
100

Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Eric Fleischmann and Dave Nagy for their efforts in EGR 499 Advanced CAD/CAM in producing this tutorial.

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