AN ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENTIAL FUNCTIONS IN READER’S

DIGEST MAGAZINE’S SELECTED ARTICLES


A THESIS


By
DUMA SARI LUBIS
Reg. No. 050705011


















UNIVERSITY OF NORTH SUMATRA
FACULTY OF LETTERS
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
MEDAN
2008


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim,
Alhamdulillah, all Praise to ALLAH SWT who always gives me blessing,
power, strength and love in my entire life and in terms of my study, especially in
completing this thesis.
I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to the Dean of Faculty
of Letters, University of North Sumatera, Drs. Syaifuddin, M.A., Ph.D, the Head of
English Department, Dra. Swesana Mardia Lubis, M.Hum and the Secretary of
English Department, Drs. Yulianus Harefa, M.Ed. TESOL and to all the lecturers of
English Department for all the assistances, valuable knowledge and facilities during
my academic years. As your students, I truly appreciate for all you have done to me.
I would like to express my special feeling of gratefulness to my supervisor,
Prof. Dra. T. Silvana Sinar, M.A. Ph.D., and my Co-Supervisor Drs. Yulianus Harefa,
M.Ed. TESOL for their willingness to spend much time to give me guidance and
encouragement in writing this thesis.
My deep appreciation and thanks are also forwarded to my beloved family.
My beloved father, Baharuddin Lubis and my mother, Hj. Adja Syafinat and
Hanum. Thank you for your support, suggestions and especially for your
unconditional love, prayers, cares until the end of my study. My only beloved little
sister, Mila Sari Lubis, thank you for your cares, love and being my inspiration for
doing my thesis. I love you all.
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My special thanks to all my beloved friends Mira, Ira, Hanida, Ratih, Novie,
Mona, Rina, Nina, Debora, Dj, Novie D3, Dini D3 & bang Samsul, bang Nasution in
PPIA, Anta and all my comrades (the students of 2005 English Department), being
with you make me find a better life. Also thanks to “Angel Computer Rent”,
especially Kak Sondang, bang Umar, bang Ali. The last I would like to say deep
thank to my fiancé Lettu. Inf. AFC, for giving me support, cares, and love. I do love
you maz!!. I can’t be without you in this life. And also to my beloved relatives in
J ember. I love you all.
May ALLAH SWT bless us all. Amin.

Medan, J anuary 2009
The Writer,


DUMA SARI LUBIS
Reg. No. 050705011











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AUTHOR’S DECLARATION



I, DUMA SARI LUBIS declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. Except where
reference is made in the text of this thesis. This thesis contains no material published
elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper from a paper by which I have
qualified for or awarded another degree.
No other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the main text
of the thesis. This thesis has not been submitted in any tertiary education.

Signed :
Date : 21
th
March 2009











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COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

Name : DUMA SARI LUBIS
Title Thesis : An Analysis of Experiential Functions in Reader’s Digest
Magazine’s Selected Articles
Qualification : S1/Sarjana Sastra
Department : English

I am willing that my thesis should be available for reproduction at the discretion of
the Librarian of English Department Faculty of Letters, University of North Sumatra
on the understanding that users are made aware of their obligation under law of the
Republic of Indonesia.

Signed :
Date : 21
th
March 2009







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ABSTRACT


Skripsi ini berjudul “An Analysis of Experiential Functions in Reader’s Digest
Magazine’s Selected Articles” yaitu suatu analisis mengenai enam fungsi
eksperiensial yang dikaji berdasarkan Teori Halliday (Teori Linguistik Fungsional).
Teori ini memiliki perhatian yang besar melalui hubungan antara bahasa dengan
konteks. Berdasarkan Teori Linguistik Fungsional seperti Kress, Halliday, Stillar
menyebutkan bahwa wacana merupakan domein sosial dan teks termasuk domein
linguistik. Keduanya tentu saja memiliki domein yang terpisah, meskipun hubungan
antara teks dan wacana adalah realisasi. Wacana sangat erat kaitannya dengan
konteks, baik konteks situasi, konteks budaya, maupun konteks ideologi.
Data analisis diambil dari artikel terpilih dalam majalah bulanan Amerika
Serikat ”Reader’s Digest” edisi 2003 dengan menggunakan teori Rakhmat, yaitu
“sistem undi”, sedangkan untuk menghitung data digunakan teori Nawawi. Melalui
analisis data dapat ditemukan bahwa fungsi material yang paling banyak muncul dan
mendominasi dengan persentasenya adalah sebanyak 57,04%, kemudian diikuti
dengan fungsi relasional dengan persentasenya adalah 16,55%, kemudian diikuti
dengan 2 fungsi yang memiliki persentase yang sama yaitu fungsi verbal dan fungsi
mental dengan persentasenya adalah 11,97% dan persentase yang paling kecil yaitu
pada fungsi existensial 0%.






















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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................... i
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION .............................................................................. iii
COPYRIGHT DECLARATION .......................................................................... iv
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................ v
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................... vi
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Background of the Analysis ............................................. 1
1.2 The Problems of the Analysis ................................................ 5
1.3 The Objectives of the Analysis .............................................. 6
1.4 The Scope of the Analysis ...................................................... 6
1.5 The Significances of the Analysis ........................................... 6
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 An Overview of Discourse Analysis ................................... 7
2.2 Systemic Functional Linguistics Theory .............................. 10
2.2.1 Textual Framework .................................................. 12
2.2.2 Contextual Framework ............................................. 16
2.2.2.1 Context of Situation ..................................... 18
2.2.2.2 Context of Culture ........................................ 21
2.2.2.3 Context of Ideology ...................................... 22
2.3 Metafunctions of Language .................................................. 23
2.3.1 Ideational Function ................................................. 24
2.3.1.1 The Six Types of Experiential Function ...... 25
2.3.1.1.1 Material Function .......................... 26
2.3.1.1.2 Mental Function ............................ 27
2.3.1.1.3 Verbal Function ............................. 29
2.3.1.1.4 Behavioural Function .................... 29
2.3.1.1.5 Existential Function ...................... 30
2.3.1.1.6 Relational Function........................ 31
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2.3.2 Interpersonal Function ............................................ 34
2.3.2.1 Mood and Modality ...................................... 35
2.3.3 Textual Function ...................................................... 37
2.3.3.1 Theme .......................................................... 38
2.3.3.2 Cohesion ....................................................... 39
2.3.4 Review of Related Literature.................................... 40
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Method ................................................................. 42
3.2 Data Collecting Method ....................................................... 42
3.3 Data Analysis Method........................................................... 43
3.4 Data Analysis Procedures ................................................... 44
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENTIAL FUNCTIONS IN READER’S
DIGEST MAGAZINE’S SELECTED ARTICLES
4.1 The Data Analysis ................................................................ 45
4.1.1 Material Function ..................................................... 45
4.1.2 Mental Function ....................................................... 80
4.1.3 Verbal Function......................................................... 87
4.1.4 Behavioural Function ............................................... 95
4.1.5 Existential Function ................................................. 96
4.1.6 Relational Function ................................................. 97
4.2 The Findings ....................................................................... 107
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Conclusions ....................................................................... 109
5.2 Suggestions ....................................................................... 109
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................. 111
APPENDICES ........................................................................................................ 112
Appendix 1: A Pony Tale (J anuary 2007) ............................................................. 112
Appendix 2: The King of Cards (May 2007) ......................................................... 114
Appendix 3: A Stray Bottle Rocket Blinds a Child. Who’s to Blame? (J uly 2007) 115

Appendix 4: You Be The J udge. A Grandmother Wants The Right to See Her
Grandson. The Mother says no. Who wins? (October 2007) ………
118
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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Analysis
Human being as social figure needs the means of communication which is
commonly named language. It is a theory of Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 56) “Language
as a resource for making meaning which is situated in a context of situation and a
context of culture”. In other words, it concerns with the study of relationship between
language and contexts in which is used. “A language is a ‘metastable’ system; it
persists because it is constantly in flux” Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 47). It is also called
Systemic Functional Linguistics, Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 56), there are 3 major
functions of language:
1. The Ideational Function
It is language as representation or reflection in which the speaker as an
observer of reality construes “natural” reality. There are 2 sub functions in the
Ideational Function:
a.) The Experiential Function
It uses language as representation then; it is realized by the transitivity
system.
b.) The Logical Function
It uses language as natural logic. It is realized by the clause complexity
system of language.
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2. The Interpersonal Function
It is language as exchange or action, in which the speaker as an intruder of
reality construes intersubjective reality. It is realized by the mood system.
3. The Textual Function
It is as message or relevance in which the speaker construes semiotic reality
by realities to the contexts within which meanings are made. It is realized by the
theme system.
Based on the theory of Systemic, Sinar (2003: 55), language is a social
phenomenon, that is to say that language tends to be the means of doing something
than knowing something. Language is a system that consists of the choices of
meaning. Some of the important main points of Systemic Functional Language
Theory and how one relates to the other in forming basis of discourse analysis that
will be divided into 3 main explanations, they are:
1. Language is Functional
Language has evolved to serve human needs and then as such that one needs
to focus on how people use language in order to understand it. The way language is
organized is functional with respect to the human needs; it is not arbitrary by
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 55).
2. The Function of Language is to Make Meanings
When human beings express their needs through language, they are making
meanings in a text, which is a functional language. Contextualizing this to language
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learning, Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 56) views language learning as “learning how to
mean”, that is, learning how to make meanings.
3. Language Use is Contextual
Language use is contextual, particularly in the sense that it is contextually
bound or motivated. The contextualization of language proposed by Malinowski
(in Sinar 2003: 58) is extended by Firth, in which he argues that linguistics should be
linked to cultural context because the meaning of linguistic item is dependent on
cultural context (in Sinar 2003: 58). General Systemic-functional Linguistic Theory
views that language is an expression of social behaviour in contexts. In Malinowski’s
frequently quoted words (in Sinar 2003: 58), “the meaning of any single word is to a
very high degree dependent on its context”.
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 60) says that there are six Experiential Functions,
they are:
1. Material Function
The process of doings and happenings, in which a participant, i.e. ‘a thing’,
is engaged in a process of doing, which may involve some other participant(s).
2. Mental Function
The process of sensing, in which a participant, i.e. a conscious being or
thing, is engaged in a process of seeing, feeling, or thinking, which may involve some
other participant(s).


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3. Relational Function
The process of being, whose central meaning is something is
(attribute, identity).
4. Behavioural Function
The process of behaving, which may be exemplified by the processes of
breathing, dreaming, smiling, etc.
5. Verbal Function
The process of saying.
6. Existential Function
The process of expressing that something exists or happens.
According to Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 60), the framework of the process
status, as set up in the clause grammar is that a process consists, in principle, of three
components:
1.) The process itself
It is typically realized by a verb or a verbal group.
2.) Participants in the process
It is typically realized by a noun or nominal group.
3.) Circumstances associated with the process
It is typically by an adverbial group or prepositional group/phrase.
Regarding to Magazine, Hornby (1974: 511) says that it is paper-covered
(usually weekly or monthly, and illustrated) periodical, with stories, articles, etc by
various writers.
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Hornby (1974: 43) states that Article is a piece of writing, complete in
oneself, in a newspaper or the other periodical.
Reader’s Digest Magazine is a monthly magazine. It was founded in 1922
by Lila Bell Wallace and Dewitt Wallace. It is in New York. Although its circulation
has defined in recent years, the Audit Bureau of Circulation says Reader’s Digest
Magazine is still the best selling consumer magazine in the USA, with a circulation of
over 10 million copies in the United States, and a readership of 38 million as
measured by Mediamark Research (MRI). According to MRI, Reader’s Digest
Magazine reaches more readers with household incomes of $100.000 than other
magazines. The Magazine is compact, with its pages roughly half the size of most
American magazines. Accessed at http//www.wikipedia.com/ August 23, 2008; 20.15
pm.
In this thesis, I am going to analyze, to find out if there are any the
experiential functions or not in Reader’s Digest Magazine’s Selected Articles. I
choose Reader’s Digest Magazine of the 2003’s edition since I knew that this
compact – size magazine looks so unique and full of various texts for research
purposes.

1.2 Problems of the Analysis
In accordance with the title of this thesis, there are two questions to be
raised that motivate me to do this analysis:
1. What experiential functions are in Reader’s Digest Magazine’s Selected Articles?
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2. Which function is the most frequent in Reader’s Digest Magazine’s Selected
Articles?
1.3 Objectives of the Analysis
The objectives of the thesis are:
1. To find out the experiential functions occurred in Reader’s Digest Magazine’s
Selected Articles.
2. To identify the most frequent function occurred in Reader’s Digest Magazine’s
Selected Articles.
1.4 Scope of the Analysis
The analysis only focuses in the experiential functions in Reader’s Digest
Magazine’s Selected Articles.
1.5 Significances of the Analysis
It is expected that this thesis contribute something fruitful for the readers as
follows:
1. Assisting the learners of Discourse Analysis to find out the most frequent function
type in the other magazine.
2. Being as one of the references in analyzing function type using experiential
function in the article.
3. Expanding the writer’s understanding about Discourse Analysis especially about
the experiential functions.
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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 An Overview of Discourse Analysis
Discourse analysis is not a simple field of study. It covers the use of language,
spoken and written, in the real communication. Discourse analysis in its everyday
practice deals with texts as heterogeneous as advertisements, biological research
articles, police interviews, newspaper editorials, and life stories.
In order not to be wrong in the usage of discourse and text, there are some
definitions by the experts of linguistics:
Halliday & Hasan (in Sinar 2008: 7) say that text is the unit of the
language usage. It’s not the grammatical unit like clause and sentence; and it’s not
defined by following its length”. In discourse analysis, the word text generally, refers
to the record of situation process (discoursal according to Gregory (in Sinar 2008: 7)
involved without any limitation on language systems.
Halliday’s view (in Sinar 2008: 7) show that a text uses language where its
source is from oral and written medias without any limitations, which forms the
whole units, the unit of language usage; not grammatical unit like clause and
sentence; and is not defined based on its length; has a unity or texture which differs it
from the one which is not a text and it involves the semantic relation referred to
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which is called as Cohesion and Coherence in an expressed meaning , it’s not only in
CONTENT/FORM, but the WHOLE choice of the source of language semantics.
Sinar (2008: 7) cites as a language unit, a text consists of signals and
representing the actions undergone by the human beings or meaningful objects and
situations, the symbols which construct THE CONTENT/FORM and produce the
structure and have the unity of texture. The texture of the text produces a cohesive
and coherence message. The aspect of cohesion and textual coherence plays on
important role which show the unity of discourse in language and mark the relation of
the text simultaneously as a potential which is used by the speaker and discourse
writer.
Stillar, G (in Sinar 2008: 8) says that text shows a kind of unity or texture
which gives the capability to the text which is noticed socially as something intact.
Text is bound and tied up and as a means produced. The function is bringing together
the separated parts. Text has the meaningful unit, and it is the authority of the source
of meaning maker included the source of “material” which has a quality, such as
voice quality for an oral text or draft of a written text. The identification of text can
be accomplished through the togetherness of text substance which is associated by the
social agents in various situations.
Kress (in Sinar 2003: 23) says that “Discourse is a category that belongs to
and derives from the Linguistic domain. The relation between the two is one of
realization: Discourse finds its expression in text. However, this is never a straight
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forward relation; any on text may be the expression or realization of a number of
sometimes competing and contradictory discourses”.
Sinar (2008: 8) says that text is just like a live thing on language level and text
is also as a semantic unit that is the source of meaning maker, it can realize the meaning
which is controlled by the discourse meaning. As a matter of fact, morpheme, word,
phrase, and clause realize awording which is controlled by the grammar and lexicon.
Phoneme realizes the sound (phonology) and realizes grapheme/a letter (graphology).
The analysis of text can be done in the level below text that is investigating some
aspects, such as: grapheme/phoneme, morpheme, word, phrase, clause that is vertically
to the bottom that is analyzing the linguistic variables. Next, we can analyze the text
vertically to the top by investigating the context variables that is contexts of situation,
culture, and ideology. The variable that still exists above the text interacts or influences
each other with the text. All the variables of contexts are found in the text, the variables
of linguistics are also found in the text and globally all the potentials are analyzed
depending on the needs or aim which is intended by the researcher and how far the
relevance or the involvement of variable in which will be searched.
From those definitions of discourse and text, I agree with the experts of the
Systemic Linguistic Theory like Kress, Halliday, and Stillar as emphasized (in Sinar
2008: 8) who mentioned that discourse is a social domain and text belongs to
linguistic domain. The discourse and text, of course, have separated domains;
nevertheless the relation between text and discourse is a realization. In addition,
discourse moves actively and can do something in the real context which determines
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the social life. The discourse is closely related to the contexts of situation, culture,
and ideology.

2.2 Systemic Functional Linguistics Theory
Language theory has various ways in seeing a language phenomenon. These
theories spread fast and become more sophisticated in its development in society.
Theory of Systemic Linguistic Functional then stands for SFLT is one of a linguistic
theory where its philogenetic development in language as the phenomenon since Firth
age in 20
th
century who has led his people called linguistic people. The fact shows
that for many years, SFLT focus its research and academic activities towards
language, text, discourse, and contexts, to make a theory, to be a model to describe,
and to explain the theories for the various needs and purposes. Inferred from this
historical background, discourse analysis is concerned with the study of the
relationship between language and the contexts in which it is used. It grew out of
work in different disciplines in the 1960s and early 1970s, including linguistics,
semiotics, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. Discourse analysts study
language in use, written text of all kinds, and spoken data, from conversation to
highly institutionalized forms of talk. Discourse analysis has grown into a wide
ranging and heterogeneous discipline which finds its unity in the description of
language above the sentence and an interest in the contexts and cultural influences
which affect language in use. It concerns with wider context, analyzing language
which address involvement of language, ideology, and power, discourse in socio-
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cultural change, analysis of discourse in different field of sciences, and critical
language awareness. The latest development is under the influence of Norman
Fairclough (in Refnaldy, dkk, 2006: 6.22).
Systemic Functional Theory has a big notice through the relation between
language and context. For some ten years, Systemic Functional Theory has a view
that an activity of using language can be illustrated in a way that relates to the relation
one discourse with other discourse, until it becomes a discourse which has a
composition of grammar, afterwards, the whole of the discourse is stated in by
rhythm and intonation.
Each clause has a function and meaningful, they are: meanings or functions of
ideational, interpersonal, and textual. In a clause, there are some units, they are group
or phrase. They are lower than the clause. In Systemic Functional Theory, a term
group or phrase is as a unit of grammar having a difference. In other words, a group
or phrase is expansion. A unit of words is found in a group or phrase. A unit of words
contains a morpheme. A word is a unit of grammar as the element of a group or
phrase builder and a morpheme is a unit of grammar which builds a word. Then,
based on Systemic Functional Theory, a sentence is not the unit of language but, it is
the unit of written language that it is started with a capital letter and ended with a full
stop. For instance, she gets angry with you (Sinar, 2003: 13-18), for instance: noun
group or noun phrase (the ugly girl) verb group or verb phrase (has come, will come),
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adverb group or adverb phrase (very beautiful). On the contrary, a phrase is a
decreasing of clause, such as: preposition phrase (at home).

Picture 1.1 Unit of Language Grammar
Clause



Group/Phrase


Word




Morpheme




2.2.1 Textual Framework
A text is traditionally understood to be a piece of written language. A rather
broader conception has become common within discourse analysis where a text may
be either written or spoken discourse. In cultural analysis, by contrast, text does not
need to be language at all: any cultural artifact – picture, a building, music – can be
seen as a text. A text in contemporary society is increasingly multi-semiotic; text
whose primary semiotic form is language increasingly combines language with other
semiotic form. There are 2 kinds of text (Refnaldy, dkk, 2006: 6.24-6.25):

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a. Spoken texts
The problems encountered with the notion of text as the verbal record of a
communicative act become a good deal more complex when we consider what is
meant by spoken text. The simplest view to assume is that a tape-recording of a
communicative act will preserve the ‘text’ as well as the extraneous to the text
(coughing, chairs creaking, buses going past, lighting a cigarette). In general,
discourse analyst works with a tape recording of an event from which she then makes
a written transcription, annotated according to her interest on a particular occasion.
She has to determine what constitutes the verbal event, and what form will transcribe
it in. However, it must be further noticed that, however objective the notion of ‘text’
may appear as we have defined it, the perception and interpretation of each text is
essentially subjective. Different individuals pay attention to different aspects of text.
However, in discussing texts we idealize away from this variability of the
experiencing of the text and assume that readers of a text or listener to a text share the
same experience. A text frequently has a much wider variety of interpretations
imposed upon it by analysts studying it. Once the analyst has created a written
transcription from a recorded spoken version, the written text is available to her in
just the way the literary text is available to the literary critic. When we discuss spoken
text, it is important to remember the transitoriness of the original.
It must be clear that our simple definition of ‘text’ as ‘the verbal record of
communicative act’ requires at least two hedges: the representation of a text which is
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presented for discussion may in part consists of a prior analysis or interpretation of a
fragment of discourse and features of the original production of the language.
b. Written Texts
A text may be differently presented in different editions, with different type-
face, on different sixes of paper, in one or two columns. It is important to consider
just what it is that is ‘the same’. Minimally the words should be the same words,
presented in the same order.
The differences between spoken and written text:
a. The syntax of spoken language is typically much less structured than that of
written language: spoken language contains many incomplete sentences, often
simply sequences of phrases, spoken language typically contains rather little
subordination, in conversational speech, active declarative forms are normally
found.
b. In written language an extensive set of metalingual markers exists to mark
relationships between clauses (logical connectors). The speaker is less explicit
than a writer.
c. In written language, rather heavily premodified noun phrases are quite common –
it is rare in spoken language.
d. Whereas written language sentences are generally structured in subject-predicate
form, in spoken language it is quite common to find topic-comment structure.
e. In informal speech, the occurrence of passive construction is relatively infrequent.
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f. In chat about the immediate environment, the speaker may relay on gaze direction
to supply a referent.
g. The speaker may replace or refine expression as she goes along.
h. The speaker typically uses a good deal of rather generalized vocabulary.
i. The speaker frequently repeats the same syntactic form several times.
j. The speaker may produce a large number of prefabricated filler: well, erm, I think,
you know, if you see what I mean, of course, and so on.
Discourse analysis in its everyday practice deals with texts as heterogeneous
as advertisements, biological research articles, police interview, newspaper editorials,
and life stories.
Furthermore, size is not principle in excluding texts from analysis since text
may have varies in length. There are, of course, theoretical and practical
considerations related to size. First of all, there is the issue of limits of text as a unit;
discourse analysis is based on analyzing a text as an entity, a unit from beginning to
an end. The increasing spreads of computer technology is also bound to influence
conception of text and redefine its limit. From a practical point of view, there are
difficulties in the analysis and presentation of results related to very large texts. As a
result, most applications have been limited to rather small text – although there is a
whole range of very small text that have not been studied: answering-machine talk,
e-mail massages, headlines and captions, small ads, etc, (Refnaldy, dkk 2006: 6.24-
6.28).

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2.2.2 Contextual Framework
At the level of context (i.e. systems of higher-level meaning), in view of this
study there are stratally four broad contextual (connotative) semiotic systems: religious,
ideological, cultural and situational. Any aspects of higher-level meaning and systems of
higher-level meaning within the contextual stratification dimension under discussion are
in principle relevant and potentially critical for investigation, extrinsically and
functionally, at the level of context, the different modes of meaning can be diversified
into four broad contextual modes of meaning: religious, ideological, cultural and
situational. Following the SFLT framework, the situational mode of meanings can be
diversified into two major dimensions: the dialectal and the diatypic, aspects of the latter
being identifiable through the situational (discoursal) variables of field, tenor and mode.
Moving downwards, these variables lead to the phasal mode of meaning. Any aspects of
diversified contextual modes of meaning and systems of diversified contextual modes of
meaning within the contextual diversification dimension under discussion are in principle
relevant and potentially critical for investigation, (Sinar 2003: 9).
The researcher has tried to show globally the various aspects and dimensions of
the overall semiotic space of language-in context in an attempt to set the lecture
discourse-in texts under study in a context of theoretical underpinning. A comprehensive
account of discourse phenomena in contextually motivated linguistic texts in general is
one that takes into account all the contextual and linguistic aspects and dimensions of the
overall language-in-context complex, (Sinar 2003: 13).
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SFLT works on ‘language-in-context’ are available in a great variety of forms
(books, congress/conference proceedings, journals, computerized and internet
programs, etc.). To explore different ways of interpreting things theoretically such as
text, texture, cohesion, coherence, discourse, register, genre, context, situation,
culture, ideology and other relevant phenomena and to specify the theoretical
significance they derive from the location in the overall SFLT references on the
notions of such terms are traceable through those sources. Which are circulated
worldwide. Matthiessen (in Sinar 2003: 25).
SFLT views that the study of language always means a study of overall
language related to its study of overall context in which language is used.
Consequently, it studies not only language as such but also many other things that are
around, above and beyond language but they have relevance to it, (Sinar 2003: 45).
In general terms, the models develop as ways of critically understanding
language and context (including the concepts of so-called text, discourse, register,
etc.), the nature of their relationship, and the aspects, features and dimensions that are
involved therein. While one needs to relate language to context in order to understand
how and why language means what it does. In this context there will never be any
clear-cut boundaries between whether one is in fact still talking about language as a
system and process or one is already talking about context (situation, culture,
ideology, etc.) as a system and process. Despite the fact that attempts to relate
language to context when Malinowski (in Sinar 2003: 48) introduced the terms so-
called context of situation and context of culture. In this respect, it is not surprising to
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find Halliday’s register (in Sinar 2003: 48) that he sees as something linguistic being
understood as something contextual (i.e. situational) by others.
In the global and general modelling of language and context, all the existing
models of GSFLT generally share the same conceptual views. For example, they
would share the same views as expressed in statements such as these : (1) language
does not live in isolation but it lives in environments, social environments (i.e. social
contexts), (2) to understand language is to see how and why language means what it
does in social contexts, (3) to understand language is to relate language to the social
contexts in which it lives, (4) to understand language is to see how language users use
language to talk to each other, (5) the relationship between language and social
contexts is one of mutual engendering: language construes the social contexts in
which language users live, and it is at the same time construed by the social contexts,
and (6) the relationship is one of realisation: language as a semiotic system realises
social context as a social system, (Sinar 2003: 49).

2.2.2.1 Context of Situation
Language is a social semiotics system and exists in a context. As a semiotics
system, language socializes with other semiotics system and borrows them, such as
context of situation. The relationship between language and the context is a language
realization as the social semiotics system. In other words, language is the existence of
something in the context and there is no language without the social context (in Sinar
2008: 53).
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The social context system is at the level of the language connotative
semiotics which consists of the contexts of situation, culture and ideology so that, in
investigating the language, an interpretation which is focused on the text, has to
notice its social domain that is contexts of situation (register), culture (genre) and
ideology. The whole contexts relates to the characteristic of text linguistics
(language). Halliday (in Sinar 2008: 53) connects the contexts of situation to 3
functions of language – determine the speaker’s relation, elaborates the experience of
the speaker in social activity, combine the agreement process, and analyzes all
contexts as a significant discourse.
In the context of situation’s perspective, the term situational and “discoursal”
can be understood and interpretated by the expert of systemic with a different way.
For example: The noun for situational term, such as: “situation”, is used to represent
Systemic-Functional Linguistic Theory’ space of concept semiotics “context of
situation” or register as a variety in language or register.
According to Halliday and Gregory (in Sinar 2008: 53) register has 2 main
dimensions, that is (1) semiotics dimension “dialectical”, and (2) semiotics dimension
“diatipic”. In this occassion, dialectical dimension consists of “language in context
based on the user” or which has a conceptual category, such as: dialects of social,
geographical, variety of sub-cultural (standard and non standard languages), language
variable (caste, social class, age, sex, etc) which includes in sociolinguistics
discussion.
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Whereas the dimension of diatipic, consists of ‘language-in context based
on the usage’, or as a way conveying the language. The language variety is seen from
semantics knowledge’s and realized through the lexicogrammatica, there is a
conceptual category ‘field of discourse’, tenor of discourse, and mode of discourse.
In register discussion, component placement of functional tenor of discourse
and the mode of discourse. Gregory (in Sinar 2008: 54) discusses functional tenor of
discourse that refers to phatic, exposition, didactic, persuasive, order and narration.
Thus, Halliday and Hasan (in Sinar 2008: 54) discuss the component of a rhetorical
mode that refers to the aim which will be reached by the text that can be different, but
it depends on the characteristics of text (persuasive, exposition, didactic, and others).
By following Systemic Functional Linguistics, the function of language organization
intrinsic interacts with the function of language organization extrinsic of context of
situation. The field of discourse has a close relationship with Ideational Function, the
tenor of discourse with Interpersonal Function, and the mode of discourse with
Textual Function. The division of register as a semiotics system of context of
situation with genre as the semiotics system of context of culture brings an important
discovery in the development of Systemic Functional Theory.
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 40) uses the same term “register” to refer to functional
variation of language as an aspect of a separate dimension of organization within
language.

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2.2.2.2 Context of Culture
Martin (in Sinar 2008: 64) says:
Genre are referred to as social processes because members of a culture
interact with each other to achieve them; as goal oriented because they have
evolved to get things does; and as staged because it usually takes more than
one step for participants to achieve their goals.

According to Martin (in Sinar 2008: 66), language is a part of society culture
and genre is a language harmony as a product of the society culture. In other words, a
writer or a speaker from the group of culture uses a language, sets up the interaction
socially and becomes the producer of genre.
Martin and Hasan (in Sinar 2008: 68) say that the division of register as a
semiotics system of context of situation with genre as the semiotics system of context
of culture brings an important discovery in the development of Systemic Functional
Theory.
Refnaldy, dkk (2006: 643) argues that culture does not exist without
discourse. Discourse gives structure and contents to what we understand by culture.
In this view, discourse analysis becomes an umbrella concept not only for text
studies, but for language and interaction studies in general. The impacts of addressing
questions of ontology have far-reaching consequences. For example, everybody will
agree that ‘context’ is one of the most crucial concepts in pragmatics. However, in
contextualization itself is to be seen in term of discourse, the status of any presumed
common denominator for understanding will be questionable. Further research in this
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field will no doubt give us a better understanding of notions like variability,
indeterminacy and ambivalence.
Sinar (2008: 84) says that in the context of culture of discourse, the
schematic structure has the harmony although the basic system is the background, the
content, and the closing. The harmony of schematic structure is as the aim that is
suitable with the kinds of genre. The writer or the speaker of genre is pleased to be
understood the discourse schematic structure to fulfill their needs before the process
of discourse writing begins. So that, the writing of discourse is suitable with the needs
that can reach the target.

2.2.2.3 Context of Ideology
Ideology is a belief, the value that is obeyed by the society, such as: Ideology
of Pancasila, Marxism, others. Ideology also becomes a social concept which
determines the value in a society. In other words, Ideology is controlled by a power of
group which dominates the society in positive meaning. It is said as positive because
the idea or a set of value becomes the ways of society in managing and justifying
their life as the representation in relationship with the condition of their existence in
the society.
Kress (in Sinar 2008: 83) says that Ideology can be created by the influence of
power towards the history of politics, the society system, the value, literature and
culture formed the view of society, so that believe the “concept”.
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Max (in Sinar 2008: 83) says that Ideology is a system which misleads
purposely.
Besides that, Hasan (in Sinar 2008: 83) cites that Ideology is as a live thing
through the daily habit action of a social group either a verbal or a nonverbal which is
far from their conscious mind to the things.
Kress and Hodge (in Sinar 2008: 84) say that a study of ideology talks the
relationship between language with the society and culture because there is an
influence of the politic social guidance. The influence of power towards the history,
politics, the society system, the value, the literature and culture formed a view
society, so that believe a concept as the right truth. For example: The view that
becomes “a knowledge” or “a theory” which is believed by the world west that is “the
Middle East people is a terrorist”, or “Malayan is lazy”. This concept is founded by
the ruler who is dominant informing a view of society towards the object, so that the
society properly entrusts the view or “knowledge”. The naturalness represents the
process that becomes valid and be trusted.
Sinar (2008: 84) says that in the context of ideology, there is a relationship
between language with the society and the ruler. The power can form the view of
society towards the object, so that the society believes the view becomes the truth.

2.3 Metafunctions of Language
In every language usage in the social contexts semiotics, metafunction of
language that is present to explain 2 things that influences each other between the
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language and another language. The metafunctions as the theoretical concept give
someone the capability to understand the language and another language, also as a
meeting which has formed shape of grammar. In other words, the metafunction
concept which connects the forms of language internal and its function to the social
context semiotics. The system of social semiotics is the system of linguistic meaning
is Semantics that is a form of realization from social semiotics (Sinar 2008: 28).
The metafunction has an implication either the relationship of paradigmatic or
sintagmatic. Paradigmatically, they arrange the system of the chain of the selection
group that relies on each other, with the internal dependence which is extremely in
the metafunctions but a little relationship of metafunctions. Sintagmatically,
metafunction is related to the kinds of structure, Halliday (in Sinar 2008: 28).
The metafunction of language has 3 components: Ideational, Interpersonal,
and Textual Functions, Halliday (in Sinar 2008: 28).

2.3.1 Ideational Function
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 56) cites that Ideational Function is language as
representation or reflection in which the speaker as an observer of reality construes
“natural” reality.
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 59) says that the Ideational Function relates to the
inner and outer words of reality, it is “language about something”. Whenever one
reflects on the external world of phenomena or the internal world of one’s
consciousness, the representation of that reflection would take the form of “content”.
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This form of content is called the Experiential Function, which stores information
about the way in which one situation is related to the other.
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 60), the framework of the process status, as set up in
the clause grammar, is that a process consists, in principle, of three components:
1) The process itself
It is typically realized by a verb or a verbal group.
For example: Yesterday, the waiter of the restaurant did not serve us well.
2) Participants in the process
It is typically realized by a noun nominal group.
For example: Yesterday, the waiter of the restaurant did not serve us well.
3) Circumstances associated with the process
It is typically by an adverbial group or prepositional group/phrase.
For example: Yesterday, the waiter of the restaurant did not serve us well.

2.3.1.1 The Six Types of Experiential Function
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 60) says that focusing language on the clause level
with respect to the notion of clause as representation, clause as a representation
means that one function of the clause is as a representation of experience of both
external reality (i.e. reality outside oneself) and internal reality. (reality inside
oneself). The experiential or representational function of language (clause) is realized
by the transitivity system of language (clause). The outer world of reality that is
brought into the inner world of reality in one’s consciousness, which is encoded in
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the transitivity system of language, is interpreted as a what-is-going-on process,
which is related to material actions, events, states and relations. The what-is-going-an
process falls into various process. Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 60) has identified the
encoding processes of the realities under discussion, and he has also linguistically
(grammatically) classified the various processes in question into various process
types, particularly the process types in the transitivity system of the English clause. In
this, Halliday categorizes the processes into three principal process types: (1)
Material, (2) Mental, (3) Relational; and he classifies other processes into three
subsidiary process types: (1) Behavioural, (2) Verbal, and (3) Existential.

2.3.1.1.1 Material Function
Material function the process of doings and happenings, in which a
participant, i.e. ‘a thing’, is engaged in a process of doing, which may involve some
other participant(s). For example:
He overcame the problem
He overcame the problem
Actor Material Goal

According to Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 61) says that there are 2 participants
inherent in the process, i.e. He overcame the problem. He as the actor and the
problem as the goal. The actor is the active participant in the process or the one that
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does the deed, whereas the goal is the one to which the process is extended, or the one
being affected by the process.

2.3.1.1.2 Mental Function
Mental Function is the process of sensing, in which a participant, i.e. a
conscious being or thing, is engaged in a process of seeing, feeling or thinking, which
may involve some other participant(s). In the case of a mental process having two
participants, the second participant may be a thing or a fact. The first participant as
the conscious being or thing is the one that senses-perceives, feels or thinks. This
sensing (perceiving, feeling, thinking) participant is typically human, or else human-
like, and is referred to as senser. The second participant, i.e. the sensed (perceived,
felt or thought) participant, is called phenomenon, Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 61-62).
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 62) categorizes mental processes into three principal
subtypes: (1) perception, (2) affection, and (3) cognition. As has been stated, in a
mental process there should be one participant that is human or human-like, i.e. the
one that senses-perceives, feels or thinks. In order to function as the one capable of
perceiving, feeling or thinking, this participant should be a conscious being, and a
human being is a conscious. It is possible that a non-human being can be the sensing
participant if it is endowed with consciousness. This being the case, the sensing
participant is called a human-like sensing participant. For example:

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1. Mental: cognition
I believe you
Senser Process : Mental,
cognition
Phenomenon : fact

2. Mental: Perception
I hear your voice
Senser Process : Mental,
perception
Phenomenon : act

3. Mental: Affection
I love you
Senser Process : Mental, affection Phenomenon

Phenomena may be realized in embedded clauses. There are tow types of
embedded phenomena: acts and facts. An act phenomenon typically occurs in a
mental process of perception (seeing, hearing, noticing, etc), and it may be realized
by a non-finite participle clause acting as if it were a simple noun. On the other hand,
a fact phenomenon may be realized by a finite embedded clause and is usually
introduced by a that functioning as if it were a simple noun.



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2.3.1.1.3 Verbal Function
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 66) cites that verbal function is the process of saying.
In verbal function, there may be 2 participants involved: the participant that says,
which is structurally labelled sayer, and the said, which is referred to as Verbiage.
Apart from the Sayer and the Verbiage as participants, there are two other
participants, which are labelled Receiver and Target. A receiver is a participant to
whom the saying is addressed, where as a Target is an entity or object.
For example:
Virna speaks Arabic slowly
Sayer Verbal Verbiage Circumstance
1).


2).
The government did not tell the people the truth
Sayer Verbal Receiver Verbiage


The stundent criticised the teacher’s way of studying
Sayer Verbal Target
3).

2.3.1.1.4 Behavioural Function
According to Halliday (in Sinar, 2003: 65) behavioural function is the process
of behaving, which may be exemplified by processes of breathing, dreaming, smiling,
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etc. These processes relate to physiological and psychological behaviours, putting
themselves in between material and mental processes. The only inherent participant
in the process is Behaver, which is typically a conscious being which functions like a
Senser, but the process itself functions more like a doing process. From the point of
view of material process, a Behaver may also be treated as an Actor, in which case
the second participant would be a goal; or it can function as a circumstance.
For example:
Mila smiles a broad smile
Behaver Behavioural Phenomenon
1.


2.3.1.1.5 Existential Function
According to Halliday, Existential Function is the process of expressing that
something exists or happens. In English, the processes are typically realized by be
verbs (am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being) and other verbs such as exist, arise or
some other.Verbs representing existence which, together with nouns or nominal
groups, represent the participant function Existent.

For example:
There are some books on the table
- Existential Existent Cir : Location
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2.3.1.1.6 Relational Function
Relational function is the process of being; whose central meaning is
something is (attribute, identity). English relational functions are categorized into
three principal types: (1) Intensive, (2) Circumstantial, and (3) Possessive. Each of
these comes in two modes: (a) attributive, and (b) identifying, thus extending the
English relational functions into six types, Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 63)
1) Intensive: Attributive
Mila is beautiful
Carrier Process: Intensive Attribute

2) Intensive: Identifying
J ason Is the leader
Identified Process: Intensive Identifier

3) Circumstantial: Attributive
The meeting Is on a Friday
Carrier Process: Intensive Attribute/Circumstance

4). Circumstantial: Identifying
Yesterday is the second day
Identified Process : intensive Identifier/ Circumstance

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5). Possessive: Attribute
The king has a queen
Carrier/possessor Process : possession Attribute/possessed

6). Possessive: Identifying
The king owns the queen
Identified Process : possessive Identifier

In the attribute mode, an entity has some quality ascribed or attributed to it.
This quality is structurally labeled Attribute, and the entity to which is ascribed is
called Carrier. The Attribute may be a quality (intensive), a circumstance of time,
place, etc. circumstantial, or a possession (possessive).
In the identifying mode, an entity is used to identify another entity, their
relationship being one of token and value (intensive), of phenomenon and
circumstance of time, place, etc. (circumstantial), or of ownership and possession
(possessive). The concepts of Token and Value may be generalized among all the
three major types of relational processes of the identifying mode. The two structural
functions in this mode are called Identified and Identifier.
Other than be, there are some intensive verbs like stay, become, turn, go,
grow, keep, feel, appear, equal, play, act as, call, mean, define, signify, etc., verbs of
possession or ownership such as have, own, belong to, involve, contain, comprise,
provide, etc., and circumstantial verbs like takes up, follow, accompany, cost, last,
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etc. These verbs may occur in either identifying or attribute clauses,
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 64).

Bunga is known as the actress
Token Process : intensive Value
7).

She accompanies me
Identified Token Process : circumstantial Identifier/value
8).

I have some money
Identified/Token Process : Possessive Identifier/value
9).


GSFLT
stands for
General systemic-functional
Linguistic Theory
Identified/ Token Process : intensive Identifier/value
10).


Logical Function
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 56) says that Experiential function uses language as
representation then; it is realized by that transitivity system, while logical function
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uses language as natural logic. It is realized by the clause complexity system of
language from the language system, logico-semantic and interdependency relations.
For example:
Last week, the lecturer explained about Atlantic Ocean and the lecturer explained
about Hindi Ocean, too.
Lost week The lecturer explained about
Atlantic Ocean
And the lecturer explained about
Hindi ocean, too.
Logico-Semantic relations
(Primary)
Interdependency relations
(secondary)

2.3.2 Interpersonal Function
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 75-76) says that the interpersonal function is an
interpretation of language in its function as an exchange, which is a doing function of
language; it is concerned with language as action. This meaning represent the
speaker’s meaning potential as an intruder that takes into account the interactive
nature of relations between the addresser (speaker/ writer) and the addressee (listener/
reader).
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 76) says that at the grammatical level of
interpretation with respect to the clause function, it is interpreted that the clause is
also organized as an interactive event that involves speaker, or writer, and audience
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(listener or reader). Clauses of the interpersonal meaning function as clauses of
exchange, which represent speech role relationships.
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 76) suggests, whenever two people use language to
interact, one of the things they do with it is establishing a relationship between them.
In this, he sets out two most fundamental types of speech role or function: (1) giving,
and (2) demanding. These meanings are realized in wordings through the Mood
systems and Modality.

2.3.2.1 Mood and Modality
The interpersonal function of language (clause) in its function as an exchange,
in which clauses of the interpersonal meaning that function as clauses of exchange
representing the speech role relationships, is realized by the mood system of language
(clause). The mood system of the clause is represented by the mood structure of the
clause, which comprises two major elements: (1) mood, and (2) residue. In this
respect, the functional constituents that are involved in an exchange typically have
mood-residue structures. A mood element of an English clause typically consists of a
subject and a finite, where as a residue element consists of a predicator, one or more
complement(s), and any number of different types of adjuncts.
According to Gerot (1994: 77) Modality indicates the speaker’s judgment of
the probabilities or the obligations involved in what he or she is saying.
For example:
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She is talking about mood and
Residue
Subject Finite Predicator Adjunct
Mood Residue

The mood element represents that part of the clause that is made up of the
Subject she and the Finite element is, whereas the residue consists of the Predicator
talking and the Adjunct about mood and residue. In this case of exchange of
information, the focus is on the maintenance of a proposition. In other words, the
clause takes on the form of a proposition. The semantic function of the mood element
is in its role of maintaining the interactive value of the clause as exchange. When the
mood element remains constant, so will the proposition. When the proposition in
question is changed, then this will involve changing one of the features in mood. The
role of the subject is to provide some reference point by which to affirm or deny such
analysis (Sinar 2003: 80).
Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 77) cites that an act of speaking is an interact, i.e.
an exchange, in which there is something given. If not, there is no interaction. In
other words, in an interaction involving speaker and listener, the speaker is either
giving something, which implies that the listener is giving something in response.
What is exchanged (demanded/ given or given/ received) is a kind of commodity
exchanged and the commodity exchanged falls into two principal types: (1) goods-&
services, and (2) information. These two variables or types of commodity exchanged
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define the four primary speech functions of (1) offer, (2) command, (3) statement,
(4) question.
For example:
1. Would you like to drink some coffee? (Offer)
2. Close the door! (Command)
3. Virna makes us laughing out loud (Statement)
4. When will you have your graduation? (Question)

2.3.3 Textual Function
Textual function of language is an interpretation of language in its function as
a message, which is a text-forming function of language. This is interpreted as a
function that is intrinsic to language itself, but it is at the same time a function that is
extrinsic to language, in the sense that it is linked with the situational (contextual)
domain in which language (text) is embedded. In other words, it is a relevance
function, an interfacing function that makes language (text) relevant internally (i.e. to
itself) as well as externally (i.e. to the situation (context) in which language or text is
used). This is an enabling function that enables one to distinguish a text as a
functional or contextually motivated language on the one hand, from a context as a
language in vaccua on the other.
At the clause level, the textual meaning is concerned with how intra clausal
elements are organized to make meanings. At the text level, it is concerned with how
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inter clausal elements are organized to form a unified whole text that makes
meanings. In this, the textual function indicates the way the text is organized or
structured. The textual function of language (clause) in its function as a message is
realized by the theme system of language (clause). The theme system of the clause is
represented by the thematic structure of the clause, which comprises two major
elements: (1) theme, and (2) rheme, Halliday (inSinar 2003: 80).

2.3.3.1 Theme
At the clause level, the theme is realized as the departure point of the clause
for the message, Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 81):
“The Theme is one element in a particular structural configuration which,
taken as a whole, organizes the clause as a message; this is the
configuration of Theme and Rheme. A message consists of a Theme
combined with a Rheme. Within that configuration, the Theme is the
starting - point for the message; it is the ground from which the clause is
taking off”.

According to Halliday (in Sinar 2003: 82) the rheme is look at morphology
and morphophonemic, which is part the message to which the theme is developed.
In an analysis of a thematic structure of a text, it is possible to examine
language in terms of Halliday’s three metafunctions: the textual, the interpersonal,
and the ideational. The theme choices in the language may be of three kinds: (1)
textual, (2) interpersonal and (3) topical. The topical theme creates the topic that the
speaker chooses to make the point of departure of the message. The interpersonal
theme, Eggins (in Sinar 2003: 82) occurs at the beginning of a clause when a
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constituent is assigned a Mood label (the unfused Finite, Modal adjuncts: Mood,
Polarity, Vocative and Comment). The textual theme give thematic prominence to
textual elements and has the function of linking one clause or clause element to
another clause or clause element, whereby all clauses or clause elements are related to
each other as such that they form a unified whole text within contexts. For the
ideational (topical), interpersonal and textual themes related to the grammatical
functions and classes and their realizations in clauses, Matthiessen (in Sinar
2003: 83).
For example:
Right, Students, today we learn
vocabulary
Textual Interpersonal Topical _
T H E M E R H E M E

2.3.3.2 Cohesion
Cohesion refers to the resources within language that provide continuity in a
text, over and above that provided by clause structure and clause complexes. Hence,
cohesive relations are non-structural relations which work to help a text hang
together. We shall be looking at three of these kinds of relationship in this chapter:
reference, lexical cohesion, and conjunction (Gerot 1994: 170).

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2.3.4 Review of Related Literature
Some researchers have done analysis about Transitivity system; so this
analysis is only a verification of the earlier research findings. Because of that, in
conducting this analysis, I have consulted some thesis and previous research findings
to help me finish this thesis.They are:
Teori & Analisis Wacana Pendekatan Sistemik – Fungsional by Sinar (2008).
Sinar says that Analisis Wacana adalah aktivitas semiotik yang melibatkan diri
seseorang dalam penganalisisan wacana untuk mendeskripsikan wacana – wacana
sebagai suatu karya interpretasi, yaitu karya teoritis. Teori Linguistik Sistemik
Fungsional (TLSF) yang dapat digunakan sebagai kerangka teori dalam menganalisis
wacana.
The first study was done by Sinar (2003) in her thesis Phasal and Experiential
Realizations of Lecture Discourse: A Systemic - Functional Analysis. Sinar introduces
general systemic functional linguistic theory (GSFLT) as a theoretical framework that
accommodates certain aspects and dimensions of interpretation that will in turn
enable analysts to make appropriate choices whereby the target direction and goal can
be achieved efficiently and effectively as an end of a discourse analysis.
Another work about SFL was done by Sofina (2002), in her thesis An Analysis
of Transitivity Process Types on President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s Selected
Speeches. In this work, she analyzes President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s
selected speeches to find the transitivity process that occurred. In her final analysis,
she finds the material process (50, 92%) as the most dominant process that occurred.
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In addition in the two mentioned studies, Inanda (2004), in her thesis An
Analysis of Lexical Cohesion In the Cover Story of Tempo. In this work, she analyzes
the 5 lexical cohesions in the cover story as a discourse. They are: repetition,
synonym, antonym, meronymy, hyponymy. She finds the most dominant lexical
cohesion; it is Repetition (69, 19%).
Martinez (2001), also analyzed text on the transitivity system. The study
focuses on the transitivity structure in the corpus of 21 experimental Research
Articles (RAs) in the field of Physical, Biological, and Social Science. He concluded
the material and relational process dominated the Research Articles (45% and 35%)
and very low percentage of behavioural process (0, 2%). That is to say, it appears that
academic writing does not use behavioural process frequently.
Esmat Babaii and Hasan Ansary (2005) from Islamic Azad University,
Tehran, with their article titled “On the effect of Disciplinary Variation on
Transitivity; the case of Academic Book Reviews”. They analyze the 90 books
Reviews (BRs) from various Disciplines (Physics, Sociology, and Literature) in terms
of both processes and participants of transitivity system. In this study, the
classifications of processes and participants introduced by Halliday (1985) and
Eggins et.al (1993) were used as the analytical frameworks for the study of BRs texts.
The conclusion of their analysis shows the dominant frequency of material process
(37, 9%). While Existential and Behavioural processes in texts appeared quite
inconspicuous that it could be neglected in the final analysis.

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CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Method
In carrying out this analysis, I do the library research. Regarding to this
method, Syafri (2001: 74) says:
“Penelitian perpustakaan hanya mengumpulkan informasi dari berbagai
jurnal, artikel, buku, monograf yang ada di perpustakaan”.

3.2 Data Collecting Method
I choose the Reader’s Digest Magazine as the primary source of the
analysis. In addition, I also use some books, theses, written materials that related to
the topic of the analysis. The data are collected by using simple random sampling
(Rakhmat, 1991: 79). Firstly, there are 12 Reader’s Digest Magazines as the data of
population. They are 2003’s editions. Then, I take a piece of paper. Afterwards, I cut
a piece of paper into 12 little pieces. Then, I number them one by one. After that, I
draw them to get the samples. It is called “Gambling System”. After drawing the 12
Reader’s Digest Magazines as the population, I only take 4 Reader’s Digest
Magazines as the sample. So, only 4 Reader’s Digest Magazines will be chosen and
analyzed. The 4 Reader’s Digest Magazines that have been chosen by gambling
system are:

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1. Reader’s Digest on J anuary, 127-129. 2003.
“A PONY TALE”
2. Reader’s Digest on May, 97-99. 2003.
“THE KING OF CARDS”
3. Reader’s Digest on J uly, 97-99. 2003.
“YOU BE THE J UDGE”
(A Stray bottle rocket blinds a child. Who’s to blame?)
4. Reader’s Digest on October, 117-119. 2003.
“YOU BE THE J UDGE”
(A grandmother wants the right to see her grandson. The mother says no. Who
wins?)
For each Reader’s Digest Magazines above, I only take 1 selected article. The
selected articles are chosen by using “Purposive Sampling” (Umar, 2003: 92) says:
“Pemilihan sampel berdasarkan pada karakteristik tertentu yang
dianggap mempunyai sangkut paut dengan karakteristik populasi yang
sudah diketahui sebelumnya”.

In conclusion, I pick up the selected articles as the representatives of the whole data
here.

3.3 Data Analysis Method
It is a qualitative analysis method (Umar, 2003: 36-37) says:
“Penelitian kualitatif umumnya sulit diberi pembenaran secara matematik,
ia lebih kepada penyampaian perasaan atau wawasan yang datanya
diambil berdasarkan sampel. Walaupun demikian, penelitian kualitatif bisa
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menyediakan informasi penting yang kemudian bisa dijelajahi lebih lanjut
melalui penelitian kuantitatif. Penelitian kualitatif menggunakan data yang
bukan dalam bentuk skala rasio, tetapi dalam bentuk skala yang lebih
rendah yaitu skala nominal, ordinal ataupun interval yang kesemuanya
dapat dikategorikan, sehingga jelas apa yang akan disamakan dan
dibedakan dari apa yang akan diperbandingkan dalam rangka menjawab
permasalahan yang telah dirumuskan dalam penelitian”.

In order to gain the most frequent function type in the selected article, the following
formula from Nawawi (1991: 127) will be used:
N 100% x
Y
X
=

Y : Total number of all data
N : Percentage of experiential function
X : Number of each of experiential function

3.4 Data Analysis Procedures
In analyzing the data, the applied procedures are:
1. Reading the chosen selected articles.
2. Identifying and selecting the data that belongs to the experiential
function.
3. Categorizing and underlining the experiential function.
4. Analyzing the data that belongs to the experiential function.
5. Listing and recapitulating the most frequent function type.
6. Making the percentage of experiential function.
7. Determining the most frequent function to the least.
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CHAPTER IV
AN ANALYSIS OF EXPERIENTIAL FUNCTIONS
IN READER’S DIGEST MAGAZINE’S SELECTED ARTICLES

4.1. The Data Analysis
These are the data analysis of each function or the experiential functions in
READER’S DIGEST MAGAZINE’S SELECTED ARTICLES that I have analyzed.

4.1.1 Material Function
1. Berg who lives outside Santa Fe
Berg who lives Outside Santa Fe
Actor - Material Cir : Location

2. It was okay for him
It was Okay for him
Material
Actor




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3. He gets shaved with listerine (the antiseptic eliminates his natural horsey smell)
He gets shaved
with listerine (the antiseptic eliminates his
natural horsey smell)
Actor Material Cir : Commitative/Positive

4. He gets sprayed with listerine (the antiseptic eliminates his natural horsey smell
He gets sprayed
with listerine (the antiseptic eliminates his
natural horsey smell)
Actor Material Cir : Commitative/Positive

5. He gets shampooed with listerine (the antiseptic eliminates his natural horsey
smell
He gets shampooed
with listerine (the antiseptic eliminates his
natural horsey smell)
Actor Material Cir : Commitative/Positive

6. The far side of the thick hedgerow lined the petersons’ driveway
The far side of the thick
hedgerow
lined the petersons’ driveway
Actor Material Goal



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7. He didn’t keep
He didn’t keep
Actor Material

8. For these sick children, petie rides to the rescue
For these sick children petie rides to the rescue
Client Actor Material Cir: Location

9. Everyday, Petie makes his rounds
Everyday petie makes his rounds
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal

10. Petie walks up to the bed
Petie walks up to the bed
Actor Material Goal

11. Petie can enter a hospital
Petie can enter a hospital
Actor Material Goal


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12. His hoofs and tail are covered with bandages
His hoofs and tail are covered with bandages
Goal Material Cir: Comitative/positive

13. He walks through the revolving doors
He walks through the revolving doors
Actor Material Cir : Location

14. The process takes his handler, Richard Miller about an hour
The process takes his handler, Richard Miller about an hour
Actor Material Goal Cir: Extent

15. He’s not working
He ‘S not working
Actor Material

16. Petie hangs out on the Victory Gallop farm
Petie hangs out on the Victory Gallop farm
Actor Material Cir: Location


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17. Kids from the riding program help groom him
Kids from the riding program help groom him
Actor Material Goal

18. He gets through the fence
He gets through the fence
Actor Material Cir : Location

19. He doesn’t go anywhere
He doesn’t go anywhere
Actor Material Cir” Location

20. A kid lets him
A kid lets him
Actor Material Goal

21. For a moment, we’ve done something good
For a moment we ‘ve done something good
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal Cir: Manner


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22. Tyler carter gets a big kick out of the little horse at his bedside
Tyler carter gets a big kick out of the little horse at his bedside
Actor Material Goal Cir: Purpose Cir: Location

23. They have something to share
They have something to share
Actor Ma- Goal Terial

24. A Horse came to my room today
A horse came to my room to day
Actor Material Cir: Location Cir: Time

25. Each child gets a photo
Each child gets a photo
Actor Material Goal

26. He can prove it
He can prove it
Actor Material Goal


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27. A miniature stuffed petie
A miniature stuffed petie
Actor Material Goal

28. When it comes to stacking the deck
When it comes to stacking the deck
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal

29. No one trumps
No one trumps
Actor Material

30. It took more than 30 years
It took more than 30 years
Actor Material Cir: Time

31. To build the capital building in washington, D.C
To build the capitol building in washington, DC
Material Goal Cir: Location


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32. Bryan Berg did it in three days
Bryan Berg did it in three days
Actor Material Goal Cir: Time

33. He used playing cards
He used playing cards
Actor Material Goal

34. Berg was inspired to re-create the iconic building exclusively for reader’s digest
because its rounded dome
Berg was inspired to
re-create
the iconic
building
exclusively for
reader’s
digest
because its
rounded dome
Actor Material Goal Cir: Manner Recipient Cir: Cause

35. Square façade and myriad, columns posed enough
Square façade and myriad columns posed enough
Actor Material Cir: Extent




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36. It challenges to fire up this Guinness world Record holder
It challenges to fire up this guinness world record holder
Actor Material Goal

37. To build the capitol
To build the capitol
Material Goal

38. He used 450 decks of low gloss Pla-Mor Card from the U.S playing cards
company.
He Used 450 decks of low gloss
pla-mor cards
from the u.s playing cards
company
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

39. It can hold 660 pounds per square feet
It can hold 660 pounds per square feet
Actor Material Goal Cir: extent, Spatial

40. That strength came in handy
That strength came in handy
Actor Material Cir: Manner
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41. Berg built the world’s largest house of cards
Berg built the world’s largest house of cards
Actor Material Goal

42. In bed after a long day of work, he received the phone call
In bed after a long day of work he received the phone call
Cir: Location Cir: Time Actor Material Goal

43. A Squirrel’s loose in the room
A Squirrel’s loose in the room
Actor Material Cir: Location

44. It’s throwing it self a party inside the castle walls
It ‘S throwing itself a party inside the castle walls
Actor Material Receiver Goal Cir: Location

45. By the time, he returned
By the time he returned
Cir: Time Actor Material



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46. The guard entry had been toppled
The guard entry Had been toppled
Actor Material

47. But the castle stood
But the castle stood
- Actor Material

48. A stray bottle rocket blinds a child
A stray bottle rocket Blinds a child
Actor Material Goal

49. For years, Kennon threw a party at their house in Picayune, Mississippi, on New
Year’s Eve
For years Kennon Threw A party At their house in picayune
Mississippi on New Year’s Eve
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal Cir: Location




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50. For years, Betty Peterson threw a party at their house in Picayune, Mississippi
on New Year’s Eve
For years Betty Peterson threw a party at their house in Picayune,
Mississippi on New Year’s
Eve
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

51. That tradition would end in tragedy
That tradition would end in tragedy
Actor Material Cir: Matter

52. Before the bash one year, Kennon bought a large supply of firecrackers from
nearby J oey’s fireworks
Before the bash
one year
kennon bought a large of supply
firecrackers
from nearby
J oey’s fireworks
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal Cir: Location





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53. Before the bash one year, Kennon bought bottle rockets from nearby J oey’s
fireworks
Before the bash
one year
kennon bought bottle rockets from nearby J oey’s
fireworks
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

54. Before the bash one year, Kennon bought Roman Candles from nearby J oey’s
fireworks
Before the bash
one year
kennon bought roman
candles
from nearby J oey’s
fireworks
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

55. Before the bash one year, Kennon bought aerial sparklers from nearby J oey’s
fireworks
Before the bash
one year
kennon bought aerial
sparklers
from nearby J oey’s
fireworks
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

56. The Petersons asked to supply extra fireworks for the night’s finale
The Petersons asked to supply extra fireworks for the night’s finale
Actor Material Goal Cir: Purpose

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57. Mary Mc Millen lived across the street
Mary Mc Millen lived across the street
Actor Material Cir: Location

58. Mary Mc Millen was invited
Mary Mc Millen was invited
Actor Material

59. She brought Brandon Keith
She brought Brandon Keith
Actor Material Goal

60. Brandon Keith was visiting from New Orleans
Brandon Keith was visiting From New Orleans
Actor Material Goal

61. By the time, everyone had arrived
By the time Everyone Had arrived
Cir: Time Actor Material



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62. The Peterson’s traditional bonfire was beginning in the front yard
The Peterson’s traditional bonfire was beginning in the front yard
Actor Material Cir: Location

63. The Peterson’s traditional bonfire was to blaze in the front yard
The Peterson’s traditional bonfire was to blaze in the front yard
Actor Material Cir: Location

64. Later that evening, the younger kids waved sparklers
Later that evening the younger kids waved sparklers
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal

65. The high light of the bash came
The high light of the bash came
Actor Material

66. Every body included
Every body included
Actor Material



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67. Children Included
Children included
Actor Material

68. Everybody set off the fireworks
Everybody Set off The fireworks
Actor Material Goal

69. Children set off the fireworks
Children set off the fir
Actor Material Goal

70. The fun lasted until shortly after midnight
The fun lasted until shortly after midnight
Actor Material Cir: Time

71. The party came to a close
The Party came to a close
Actor Material


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72. The next Morning, trash covered the Peterson’s yard
The next morning trash covered the Peterson’s yard
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal

73. The revelers had dropped unused fireworks
The revelers had dropped unused fireworks
Actor Material Goal

74. The revelers had dropped spent fireworks
The revelers had dropped spent fireworks
Actor Material Goal

75. The revelers had dropped all over the property
The revelers had dropped all over the property
Actor Material Goal

76. Betty’s sister, Mae langston helped Kenno
Betty sister, Mae langston helpd kennon
Actor Material Goal


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77. Betty’s sister, Mae Langston get rid of the mess
Betty’s sister, Mae Langston get rid of the mess
Actor Material Goal

78. Betty’s sister, Mae Langston Helped throwing trash
Betty’s sister, mae langston helped throwing trash
Actor Material Goal

79. Betty’s sister, Mae langston helped throwing some fireworks
Betty’s sister, Mae Langston helped throwing some fireworks
Actor Material Goal

80. Some fireworks had never been lit
Some fireworks had never been lit
Actor Material

81. Luckily, none of them ignited
Luckily none of them ignited
Cir: Manner Actor Material


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82. In the meantime, two of the Peterson’s sons, ages eight and seven
In the meantime two of the Peterson’s sons ages eight and seven
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal

83. Two of the Peterson’s Son played in the yard
Two of the Peterson’s Son played in the yard
Actor Material Cir: Location

84. Betty took care of their one year old son inside the house
Betty took care of their one year old son inside the house
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

85. Brandon Keith had stayed overnight at his grandmother’s
Brandon Keith had stayed overnight at his grandmother’s
Actor Material Cir: Time Cir: Location

86. He could go to the Peterson’s house
He could go to the peterson’s house
Actor Material Location


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87. He could go
He could go
Actor Material

88. It was to play in her yard
It was to play in her yard
Actor Material Cir: Location

89. He J oined the Peterson boys in their game of hide and seeks
He J oined the Peterson boys in their game of hide and seek
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

90. Betty Peterson testified
Betty Peterson testified
Actor Material

91. Brandon was playing in the yard
Brandon was playing in the yard
Actor Material Cir: Location


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92. Brandon had joined his sons
Brandon had joined his sons
Actor Material Goal

93. When it was to hide his turn
When it was to hide his turn
Cir: Time Actor Material Range

94. Brandon ran to the far side of the thick hedgerow
Brandon ran to the far side of the thick hedgerow
Actor Material Cir: Location

95. Moments later, Kennon happened to fooling around with the unused bottle
rockets
Moments
later
Kennon happened to fooling
around
with the unused bottle rockets
Cir: Time Actor Material Cir: Manner

96. She picked up one
She picked up one
Actor Material Goal
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97. She lit it high in the air
She lit it high in the air
Actor Material Goal Cir: manner Cir: Location

98. She tossed it high in the air
She tossed it high in the air
Actor Material Goal Cir: Manner Cir: Location

99. The rocket flew up the driveway
The rocket flew up the driveway
Actor Material Cir: Location

100. The rocket was falling behind the bushes
The rocket was falling behind the bushes
Actor Material Cir: Location

101. Brandon was hiding
Brandon was hiding
Actor Material


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102. One of the children had been hiding behind the shrubbery
One of the children had been hiding behind the shrubbery
Actor Material Cir: Location

103. The bottle rocket had hit Brandon in his right eye
The bottle rocket had hit Brandon in his right eye
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

104. Betty rushed Brandon and his grandmother to a hospital in Picayune
Betty rushed Brandon and his grandmother to a hospital in picayune
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

105. They were unable to get help
They Were unable to get Help
Actor Material Range

106. After Picking up Brandon’s mother, Michelle, they drove to children’s Hospital
in New Orleans
After picking up Brandon’s
mother, Michelle
They Drove to Children’s hospital in
New Orleans
Cir: Matter Actor Material Cir: Location
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107. Eye doctor referred them to nearby charity Hospital
Eye doctor Referred Them To nearby charity Hospital
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

108. Doctors finally operated on the boy
Doctors Finally Operated On the boy
Actor Cir: Manner Material Cir: Location

109. Brandon lost sight in the eye permanently
Brandon Lost Sight In the eye Permanently
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location Cir: Manner

110. Michelle Keith took the Petersons to court
Michelle Keith took the Petersons to court
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location






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111. The party throwers should have been more cautious with the dangerous
fireworks on the property
The party
throwers
should have
been
more cautious with the
dangerous
fireworks
on their property
Actor Material Cir:
Comparative
Cir: manner Cir: Location

112. The children and fireworks don’t Mix
The children and fireworks don’t mix
Actor Material

113. He’d asked to play her permission there
He ‘d asked to play her permission there
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

114. Fireworks were scattered around the property
Fireworks were scattered Around the property
Actor Material Cir: Location


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115. The other adults were looking for them
The other adults were looking for them
Actor Material Goal

116. This volatile combination should have put on notice the couple
This volatile combination should have put on notice the couple
Actor Material Goal

117. An accident could happen
An accident could happen
Actor Material

118. Petersons will fully engaged in dangerous behaviour
Petersons will fully engaged in dangerous behaviour
Actor Cir: Manner Material Cir: Manner

119. She found fireworks in the yard
She found fireworks in the yard
Actor Material Goal Cir: Location



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120. Brandon did nothing
Brandon did nothing
Actor Material Goal

121. Brandon takes part game of hide and seeks
Brandon takes part in a game of hide and seek
Actor Material Cir: Location

122. He lost half his sight forever because of the Peterson’s negligence
He lost Half his
sight
forever because of the Peterson’s
negligence
Actor Material Goal Cir: Time Cir: Cause

123. Mae Langston would set off a rocket
Mae Langston would set off a rocket
Actor Material Goal

124. Brandon was hiding
Brandon was hiding
Actor Material

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125. They had exercised
They had exercised
Actor Material

126. They search for the fireworks
They search for the fireworks
Actor Material Goal

127. A grandmother wants the right to see her grandson
A grandmother wants the right to see her grandson
Actor Ma- Goal Terial Goal

128. All Cindy Flynn wanted to spend time with her grandson
All Cindy Flynn wanted to spend time with her grandson
Actor Material Range Cir: Commitative/ Positive

129. Elias was born in May 2003
Elias was born in May 2003
Actor Material Cir: Time


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130. Alice wasn’t married to Elias’s father
Alice wasn’t married to Elias’s father
Actor Material Cir: Recipient

131. Cindy’s son Cory was serving time in an Illinois state Prison
Cindy’s son Cory was serving time in an Illinois state Prison
Actor Material Range Cir: Location

132. Alice and her newborn had moved into her mother’s home
Alice and her newborn had moved into her mother’s home
Actor Material Cir: Location

133. Before her grandson’s birth, Cindy had sent items for the baby to Alice
Before her grandson’s
birth
Cindy had sent items for the baby to Alice
Cir: Matter Actor Material Goal Recipient

134. She sent Alice a card
She sent Alice a card
Actor Material Recipient Goal

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135. A month went by before
A month went by before
Cir: Time Material

136. She is inviting her
She is inviting her
Actor Material Goal

137. Cindy and her husband, Mike began visiting Elias once a week
Cindy and her husband, Mike began visiting Elias once a week
Actor Material Goal Cir: Time

138. She claimed to find Cindy
She claimed to find Cindy
Actor Material Goal

139. She used a name with god daughter
She Used A name With goddaughter
Actor Material Goal Cir: Matter

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140. In J une, Cindy and Mike J oined the Henkel family at the baby’s Catholic
baptism
In J une Cindy and Mike J oined the Henkel
family
at the baby’s catholic
baptism
Cir: Time Actor Material Goal Cir: Location

141. The situation deteriorated that summer
The Situation deteriorated that summer
Actor Material Goal

142. Cory had been released from prison
Cory had been released from prison
Actor Material Cir : Location

143. Cory filed a petition in family court
Cory filed a petition in family court
Actor Material Goal Cir : Location




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144. Cory is for visiting privileges with his son
Cory is for visiting privileges with his son
Actor Material Goal Cir : Commitative/
positive

145. He wanted him out of the baby’s life entirely
He wanted him out of the baby’s
life
entirely
Actor Material Goal Cir: Matter Cir: Manner

146. She couldn’t visit Elias
She Couldn’t visit Elias
Actor Material Goal

147. Alice got a court
Alice Got A court
Actor Material Range

148. Alice got an order requiring supervision anytime
Alice Got an Order requiring supervision Anytime
Actor Material Range Cir: Matter Cir: Time
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149. The space allocated for the visits
The space allocated for the visits
Actor Material Cir: Purpose

150. When the venue was switched to Alice’s mother’s house
When the venue Was switched To Alice’s mother’s house
Cir : Time Goal Material Cir: Location

151. Cindy stopped accompanying him
Cindy Stopped accompanying him
Actor Material Goal

152. She didn’t want to deal with the growing tension between her and Alice
She didn't want to deal with
the growing
tension
between her and
Alice
Actor Material Goal Cir: Manner






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153. Cindy asked to have an hour each month each month with Elias
Cindy asked to have an hour
each
month
with Elias
Actor Material Range Cir : Time Cir : Commitative/
positive

154. Finally, the two women found themselves before a judge in the county circuit
court
Finally
the two
women
found themselves
before a judge in the county
circuit court
Cir : Manner Actor Material Goal Cir : Time

155. Cindy had chosen not to attend all the allowed supervised visits with her son
Cindy
had chosen not to
attend
all the allowed
supervised visits
with her son
Actor Material Goal Cir : Commitative/
Positive

156. Cindy changed her life
Cindy changed her life
Actor Material Goal
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157. Cindy started serving the lord
Cindy started serving the lord
Actor Material Goal

158. Cindy tried to take over during visits
Cindy tried to take over during visits
Actor Material Goal

159. Cindy had undermined her as a parent by questioning her decision
Cindy had undermined her as a parent
by questioning
her decision
Actor Material Goal Cir : role, goise Cir : Matter

160. Cindy had to have placed tuber in Elias’s ears because of chronic ear infections
Cindy had to have placed tubes in Elias’s ears
because of
chronic ear
infections
Actor Material Goal Cir : Location Cir : Cause



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161. The feel good effects last a long time
The feel good effects last a long time
Actor Material Cir : Time

162. Petie will stay close
Petie will stay close
Actor Material Cir: Manner


From all the tables above, there are sometimes only participant in a clause. It
can be Actor and goal. Every clause has different meaning and sometimes they have
different circumstances.

4.1.2 Mental Function
163. Alice felt
Alice felt
Carrier Mental

164. People need him
People need him
Senser Mental Phenomenon

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165. “She ignored her wishes”
She ignored her wishes
Senser Mental Phenomenon

166. He just seems to know
He just Seems to know
Senser - Mental

167. When people need him
When People Need him
Cir: time Senser Mental Phenomenon

168. I saw the doctor
I saw The doctor
Senser Mental Phenomenon

169. He deserves it
He deserves it
Senser Mental Phenomenon


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170. She had to see her grandson
She had to see her grandson
Senser Mental Phenomenon

171. Cory resented having to see his son there
Cory resented having to see his son there
Senser Mental Phenomenon Cir: Location

172. It bothered Alice
It bothered Alice
Senser Mental Phenomenon

173. Moments later, Kennon happened to see Mae
Moments later Kennon happened to see Mae
Cir: Time Senser Mental Phenomenon

174. He just seems to know
He just seems to know
Senser Mental


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175. I saw the doctor
I saw the doctor
Senser Mental Phenomenon

176. Every card stacker dreads
Every card stacker dreads
Senser Mental

177. She didn’t know
She didn’t know
Senser Mental

178. Kennon knew
Kennon knew
Senser Mental

179. He also didn’t know
He also didn’t know
Senser - Mental


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180. They looked around in confusion
They looked around in confusion
Senser Mental Cir : Matter

181. Nobody realized
Nobody realized
Senser Mental

182. Within seconds, the adults heard a child scream
Within seconds the adults heard a child scream
Cir : Time Senser Mental Phenomenon

183. Petersons should have known
Petersons should have known
Senser Mental

184. She also knew
She also knew
Senser - Mental

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185. The children should have been kept a safe distance from any unexploded
fireworks
The children
should have been
kept
a safe distance
from any unexploded fire
works
Senser Mental Phenomenon Cir : Matter

186. They also didn’t know
They also didn’t know
Senser - Mental

187. The baby’s mother Alice Henkel saw things differently
The baby’s mother Alice
Henkel
Saw things differently
Senser Mental phenomenon Cir : Manner

188. At first, the kids are shocked
At first The kids Are shocked
Cir: time Senser Mental



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189. Cindy heard about Elias’s birth
Cindy heard about Elias’s birth
Senser Mental Phenomenon

190. She is over to see the baby
She is over to see the baby
Senser Mental Phenomenon

191. Cory saw his son
Cory saw his son
Senser Mental Phenomenon

192. Cindy could see Elias
Cindy could see Elias
Senser Mental Phenomenon

193. Alice disagreed
Alice disagreed
Senser Mental


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194. She didn’t see
She didn’t see
Senser Mental

195. She didn’t see
She didn’t see
Senser Mental

196. Her wishes were ignored
Her wishes Were ignored
Senser Mental

In Mental Function, every clause can have different circumstance. It depends
on the meaning of the clause. We can find that in a clause has one participant, senser
or phenomenon.

4.1.3. Verbal Function
197. Sue explains
Sue explains
Sayer Verbal

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198. She was refused
She was refused
Verbiage Verbal

199. Upset by Cory’s court filing, she decided to call Cindy
Upset by Cory’s court filing she decided to call Cindy
Cir: Matter Sayer Verbal Verbiage

200. Alice never responded
Alice never responded
Sayer Verbal

201. Cindy tried to contact her
Cindy tried to contact her
Sayer Verbal Target

202. Thanks to a honey comb design
Thanks to a honeycomb design
Verbal Verbiage

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203. No horsing around if you ask the young patients in two Ohio children’s
hospitals.
No horsing
around
If you ask
the young
patients
in two Ohio children’s
hospitals
Cir : Matter - Sayer Verbal Target Cir : Location

204. They‘ll tell you
They ‘ll tell you
Sayer Verbal Target

205. A parent will tell us
A parent will tell us
Sayer Verbal Target

206. “Escaping” says Sue Miller
Escaping says Sue Miller
Verbiage Verbal Sayer

207. Sue says
Sue says
Sayer Verbal

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208. They can say
They can say
Sayer Verbal

209. The Petersons asked their guests
The Petersons asked their guests
Sayer Verbal Target

210. Brandon Keith asked her
Brandon Keith asked her
Sayer Verbal Target

211. She said “He asked Betty”
She Said
Sayer Verbal

He asked Betty
Sayer Verbal Target



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212. Brandon said “Michelle Keith is arguing”
Brandon said
Sayer Verbal

Michelle Keith Is arguing
Sayer Verbal

213. She said
She said
Sayer Verbal

214. The mother says no
The mother says no
Sayer Verbal Verbiage

215. She said
She said
Sayer Verbal



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216. Alice requested
Alice requested
Sayer Verbal

217. Cory tells her
Cory tells her
Sayer Verbal Target

218. Cindy asked the court
Cindy asked the court
Sayer Verbal Target

219. Cindy argued
Cindy argued
Sayer Verbal

220. Cindy told the circuit court
Cindy told the circuit court
Sayer Verbal Target


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221. She said “She pointed out”
She said
Sayer Verbal

She pointed out
She Pointed out
Sayer Verbal

222. Alice added
Alice added
Sayer Verbal

223. Finally, Alice said
Finally Alice said
Cir : Manner Sayer Verbal

224. Cofounder Sue Miller says
Cofounder Sue Miller Says
Sayer Verbal


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225. She claimed
She Claimed
Sayer Verbal

226. The little boy said
The little boy Said
Sayer Verbal

227. Michelle Keith claimed
Michelle Keith Claimed
Sayer Verbal

228. The Petersons argued
The Petersons Argued
Sayer Verbal

229. They argued
They Argued
Sayer Verbal


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230. The court refused
The court Refused
Sayer Verbal

In verbal Functions, the participants that are used are Sayer, Verbiage, and
Receiver. Every clause may have different participant and circumstance. We can find
that one clause can have one participant.

4.1.4 Behavioural Function
231. They call home
They Call Home
Behaver Behavioural Range

232. Elias could respect
Elias could respect
Behaver Behavioural

233. The rocket across the driveway
The rocket across the driveway
Actor Beharvioural Cir: Range

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234. Petie nuzzles them
Petie nuzzles them
Actor Behavioural Range

235. They‘ll usually giggle
They ‘ll giggle
Behaver Behavioural

236. He’s laughed in weeks
He ‘s laughed in weeks
Behaver Behavioural Cir : Time

237. They smile
They smile
Behaver Behavioural
In Behavioural function, the participants that are used are Behaver
and Range. Each clause can have one or two circumstances.

4.1.5 Existential Function
There is no existential function in these articles.
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4.1.6 Relational Function
238. It’s a unique approach to equine therapy from Victory Gallop
It ‘s
a unique approach to
equine therapy from Victory Gallop
Carrier Relational Attribute

239. His sons were in the yard
His sons were in the yard
Carrier Relational Cir : Location

240. Brandon was in the yard
Brandon was in the yard
Carrier Relational Cir : Location

241. Tyler carted had pneumonia
Tyler carter had pneumonia
Possessor Possessive Possessed





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242. Alice also had a problem with Cindy’s nondenominational christian beliefs
Alice also had a problem
with Cindy’s
nondenominational christian
beliefs.
Carrier Relational Attribute Cir : Commitative/positive

243. She had a right
She had a right
Possessor Possessive Possessed

244. Elias would be harmful to the child
Elias would be harmful to the child
Carrier Relational Attribute Goal

245. It was to be involved in Elias’s life for Cindy
It was to be involved in Elias’s life for Cindy
Carrier Relational Attribute

246. I just want to be part of Elias’s father
I just want to be part of Elias’s father
Carrier Relational Attribute


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247. Elias would benefit from the visits
Elias would benefit from the visits
Carrier Relational Cir : Location

248. Cindy got permission for four visits with her grandson over a two-month period
Cindy got permission
for four
visits
with her
grandson
over a two
month period
Possessor Possessive Possessed Purpose Cir :
Commitative/
positive
Cir : Time

249. A staff person had to be present in the four-by-four foot room
A staff person had to be present in the four-by-four foot
room
Carrier Relational Cir : Location

250. She could be the supervisor for the visits
She could be the supervisor For the visits
Token Relational Value Cir: Purpose



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251. He got older
He got older
Carrier Relational Attribute

252. She be called Grandma Cindy
She be called Grandma Cindy
Token Relational Value

253. Cindy referred to herself as Nana
Cindy referred to herself as Nana
Carrier Relational Attribute Cir: Role

254. She is very intimidating
She is very intimidating
Carrier Relational Attribute

255. Cindy got a call from Alice’s mom
cindy got a call from alice’s mom
Possessor Possessive Possessed Cir: Location



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256. When he got her permission
When he got her permission
Cir: Time Possessor Possessive Possessed

257. Petie the pony is just what the doctor ordered
Petie the pony is just what the doctor ordered
Token Relational Value

258. This is the first time
This is the first time
Token Relational Value

259. His favorite snacks are popcorn and peppermints
His favorite snacks are popcorn and peppermints
Token Relational Value

260. These kids are in the hospital for a reason
These kids are in the hospital for a reason
Carrier Relational Cir: Location Cir : Cause



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261. Professional card stacker, Berg is 34
Professional card stacker, Berg is 34
Token Relational Value

262. Berg is a Harvard-educated architect
Berg is a Harvard-educated architect
Token Relational Value

263. His structures are free-standing
His structures are free-standing
Carrier Relational Attribute

264. Though they may look flimsy
Though they may look Flimsy
- Carrier - Relational Attribute

265. Berg’s buildings are quite strong
Berg’s buildings are quite strong
Carrier Relational Attribute



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266. A house of cards is by its nature impermanent
A house of cards is by its nature impermanent
Token Relational Value

267. Berg has no problem kissing
Berg has no problem kissing
Possessor Possessive Possessed

268. Berg has his amazing creations goodbye
Berg Has his amazing creations goodbye
Carrier Relational Attribute

269. The art form is not complete
The art form is not complete
Carrier Relational Attribute

270. It’s torn down
It ‘s torn down
Carrier Relational Attribute


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271. It was too late
It was too late
Carrier Relational Attribute

272. Betty Peterson was aware
Betty Peterson was aware
Carrier Relational Attribute

273. Brandon’s injury was a tragic
Brandon’s injury was a tragic
Carrier Relational attribute

274. Neither Kennon nor Betty had any idea
Neither Kennon nor Betty had any idea
Possessor Possessive Possessed

275. The focus of their battle was Alice’s young son
The focus of their battle was Alice’s young son
Token Relational Value


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276. Alice wasn’t happy about the arrangement
Alice wasn't happy about the arrangement
Carrier Relational Attribute Cir : Matter

277. She felt disrespected
She felt disrespected
Carrier Relational Attribute

278. “Cory wasn’t the kind of person”
Cory wasn’t the kind of person
Carrier Relational Attribute

279. The child was barely seven months old
The child was barely seven months old
Carrier Relational Cir : Manner Attribute

280. Cory was present
Cory was present
Carrier Relational Attribute



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281. Initially, visits were a nearby behavioural health-care facility at sinnissippi
Initially visits were
a nearby behavioural
health-care facility
at sinnissippi
Cir : Manner Carrier Relational Attribute Cir : Location

282. It wasn’t until J anuary 2006
It wasn't until J anuary 2006
Carrier Relational Attribute

283. When Elias was two and a half
When Elias was two and a half
Cir : Time Carrier Relational Attribute

284. It was important
It was important
Carrier Relational Attribute

From the tables above, there is only one clause which uses the participants as
Token and Value. The other clauses use the participants Carrier and Attribute. Every
clause has different circumstances that also have different meaning.


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4.2. The Findings
In 4 selected articles of Reader’s Digest Magazine that I have analyzed, there
are some different total clauses and its function. There are 162 clauses as Material
Function, 34 clauses as Mental Function, 34 clauses as Verbal Function, 7 clauses as
Behavioural Function, 0 clause as Existential Function and 47 clauses as Relational
Function.
After analyzing all the data of the experiential Functions in Reader’s Digest
Magazine’s Selected Articles, I would like to give the findings by following the
formula of Nawawi (1991: 127) to gain the most frequent function type in the
selected article. The percentages of each function will be shown below:
1) Material Function 57,04% 100% x
284
162
=
2) Mental Function 11,97% 100% x
284
34
=
3) Verbal Function 1,97% 1 100% x
284
34
=
4) Behavioural Function ,46% 2 100% x
284
7
=
5) Existential Function % 0 100% x
286
0
=
6) Relational Function ,55% 16 100% x
284
47
=
From the percentages above, it shows that the most frequent function type in
the selected article is Material Function (57,04%), followed by Relational Function
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(16,55%), then Verbal Function and Mental Function have the same percentages
(11,97%), afterwards followed by Behavioural Function (2,46%), and the least is
Existential Function (0%).
My interpretation to the results of the analysis is due to the story in the 4
selected articles in Reader’s Digest Magazine that contains about the interesting
personal experiences of American people. It means that the meaning showed in that
text consists of action verbs realized through process of doings and happenings. In the
case, the material function dominates the 4 selected articles.
As the relational function dominated in the second position, it is interpreted
that the meaning in the 4 selected articles in Reader’s Digest Magazine showed about
close relation among the American people. It’s also the reason why the relational
function is in the second position.
The third position, the verbal and mental functions, predominated only
(11, 97%) in the clause. This happens because the meaning of the 4 selected articles
are delivered by unreported speeches is relatively small in frequency. Then, so is the
total number of mental function implies about feelings and senses.
Lastly, the behavioural function is rare to happen in the reader’s discourse, it
means that behavioural function that contains of process of behaving relates to
physiological and psychological behaviours.

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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1. Conclusions
After analyzing all the data of the experiential functions in Reader’s Digest
Magazines Selected Articles, I would like to provide some conclusions, they are:
1. Material Function is as the most Frequent Function type in the selected Article
(162 clauses =57, 04%) followed by Relational Function (47 clauses =16, 55%),
Verbal Function (34 clauses =11, 97%), Mental Function (34 clauses =11, 97%),
Behavioural Function (7 clauses =2, 46%), and the least is Existential Function
(0 clause =0%).
2. There are only 5 experiential functions in all 4 Reader’s Digest Magazine’s
Selected Articles, there’s no existential function. Material Function is as the most
frequent function type in the selected articles.
5.2. Suggestions
There are some suggestions to the readers or students who are interested in
analyzing the experiential Functions:
1) The students who are interested in the analysis of experiential Functions to make
the analysis in the literary works or in their kinds of discourse, either spoken or
written, such as: newspaper, novels, magazines, etc.
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2) The students who are interested in analyzing the experiential Functions to do
further research or analysis by applying the whole aspects of Systemic Functional
Linguistics (SFL).



































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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gerot, Linda and Wignell, P. 1994. Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Sidney:
Gerd Stabler.

Hornby , AS. 1974. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English
Revised and Updated. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Inanda, Yoan. 2004. An Analysis of Lexical Cohesion in the Cover Story of TEMPO.
Thesis. Medan.

Nawawi, Hadari. 1991. Metode Penelitian Bidang Sosial. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada
University Press.

Rakhmat, J alaluddin. 1991. Metode Penelitian Komunikasi Dilengkapi Contoh
Analisis Statistik. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.

Refnaldy, dkk. 2006. Introduction to Linguistics. J akarta: Universitas Terbuka.
Silvana, Sinar T. 2003. Phasal and Experiential Realizations in Lecture Discourse A
Systemic – Functional Analysis. Unpublished Dissertation. University of
Malaya, Kuala Kumpur.

Silvana, Sinar T. 2008. Teori & Analisis Wacana Pendekatan Sistemik – Fungsional.
Medan: Pustaka Bangsa Press.

Sofina, Aida. 2002. An Analysis of Transitivity Process Types on President Susilo
Bambang Yudhoyono’s Selected Speeches. Thesis. Medan.

Syafri, Harahap Sofyan. 2001. Tips Menulis Skripsi & Menghadapi Ujian
Komprehensif. J akarta: Pustaka Quantum.

Umar, Husein. 2003. Metode Penelitian Untuk Skripsi dan Tesis Bisnis. J akarta: Raja
Grafindo Persada.

Wallace, Lila Bell & Dewitt Wallace. 2003. Reader’s Digest Magazine. USA:
The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc, 1 Reader’s Digest Rd., Pleasantville,
N.Y.

http://www.wikipedia.com/August 23, 2008; 20.15 pm.
http://www.asian-elf journal.com/February 16, 2009; 20.20 pm.
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Appendix 1: A PONY TALE (January 2007)


For these sick children, Petie rides to the rescue

No horsing around if you ask the young patients in two Ohio children’s
hospital, they’ll tell you: Petie the Pony is just what the doctor ordered. Every Friday,
Petie makes his rounds all three feet, 400 pounds of him – visiting kids like tearues
Merritt, 17 (shown), who has cerebral palsy, it’s a unique approach to equine therapy
from Victory Gallop, a riding program in Bath, Ohio, “At first the kids are shocked”,
says cofounder Sue Miller. “And then when Petie walks up to the bed and nuzzles
them, they’ll usually giggle. Sometimes a parent will tell us, ”This is the first time
he’s laughed in weeks.”
The MANE Event before Petie can enter a hospital, he gets shaved,
shampooed and sprayed with listerine (the antiseptic eliminates his natural horsey
smell). His hoofs and tail are covered with bandages, which come off before he walks
through the revolving doors (yes, he fits!). The process takes his handler, Richard
Miller, about an hour.
PONY Up When he’s not working, Petie hangs out on the Victory Gallop
farm. Kids from the riding program help groom him. His favorite snacks are popcorn
and peppermints. His favorite activity? “Escaping” says Sue Miller. “Which is funny
because once he gets through the fence, he doesn’t go anywhere.”
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BEDSIDE MANNER Petie will stay close as long as a kid lets him. “He just
seems to know when people need him, explains sue. “These kids are in the hospital
for a reason, so if they smile, even for a moment, we’ve done something good “Six—
year old TYLER Carter, who had pneumonia, gets a big kick out of the little horse at
his bedside. And the feel good effects last a long time. When they call home, they
have something to share besides “I saw the doctor,” says Sue, “They can say,”A horse
came to my room today”. Each child gets a photo, so he can prove it, and miniature
stuffed Petie.







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Appendix 2: THE KING OF CARDS (May 2007)

When it comes to stacking
The deck, no one trumps
It took more than 30 years to build the Capitol building in Washington, D.C.,
but Bryan Berg did it in three days. Okay, he used playing cards but still. Professional
card stacker Berg, 34, was inspired to re create the iconic building exclusively for
Reader’s Digest because its rounded dome, square façade and myriad columns posed
enough challenges to fire up this Guinness World Record holder.
To build the Capitol, Berg, a Harvard - educated architect who lives outside
Santa Fe, used 450 decks of low-gloss Pla-Mor cards from the U.S. Playing Card
Company (and no glue, tape or anything else- his structures are free standing). Thought
they may look flimsy, Berg’s buildings are quite strong, thanks to a honeycomb design
that can hold 660 pounds per square foot. That strength came in handy when Berg built
the world’s largest house of cards a replica of Cinderella Castle for Disney World in
2004. In bed after a long day of work, he received the phone call every card stacker
dreads: “A squirrel’s loose in the room, and it’s throwing it self a party inside the castle
walls” By the time he returned, the guard entry had been toppled, but the castle stood.
A house of cards is by its nature impermanent, so Berg has no problem kissing
his amazing creations goodbye. “The art form is not complete until it’s torn down”, he
says.

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Appendix 3: A Stray bottle rocket blinds a child Who’s to Blame?
You Be The Judge (July 2007)
For years, Kennon and Betty Peterson threw a party at their house in
Picayune, Mississippi, on New Year’s Eve. But that tradition would end in tragedy.
Before the bash one year, Kennon bought a large supply of firecrackers, bottle
rockets, Roman candles and aerial sparklers from nearby J oey’s Fireworks. The
Petersons also asked their guests to supply extra fireworks for the night’s finale.
Among the neighbors invited was Mary McMillen, who lived across the
street. She brought along her seven year old grandson, Brandon Keith, who was
visiting from New Orleans.
By the time every one had arrived, the Petersons’ traditional bonfire was
beginning to blaze in the front yard. Later that evening, the younger kids waved
sparklers. But the highlight of the bash came when everybody, children included, set
off the fireworks. The fun lasted until shortly after midnight, when the party came to
a close.
The next morning, trash covered the Petersons’ yard. The revelers had also
dropped unused and spent fireworks all over the property. Betty’s sister, Mae
Langston, helped Kennon get rid the mess, throwing trash and some fireworks that
had never been lit-into the still smoldering bonfire. Luckily, none of them ignited.
In the mean time, two of the Petersons’ sons, ages eight and seven, played in
the yard while Betty took care of their one-year old son inside the house.
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Brandon Keith, who had stayed overnight at his grandmother’s asked her if he
could go to the Petersons’ house. She said he could, so, said Brandon, he asked Betty
if it was okay for him to play in her yard. Brandon said that when he got her
permission, he joined the Peterson boys in their game of hide and seeks.
Betty Peterson testified that she didn’t know Brandon was playing in the yard.
Kennon knew that his sons were in the yard, but he didn’t keep track of where they
were. He also didn’t know that Brandon had joined his sons.
When it was his turn to hide, Brandon ran to the far side of the thick
hedgerow that lined the Petersons’ driveway. Moments later, Kennon happened to see
Mae fooling around with the unused bottle rockets. She picked one up, lit it and
tossed it high in the air. The rocket flew up and across the driveway, falling behind
the bushes where Brandon was hiding.
Within seconds, the adults heard a child scream, and they looked around in
confusion. No body realized that one of the children had been hiding behind the
shrubbery. The bottle rocket had hit Brandon in his right eye.
Betty rushed Brandon and his grandmother to a hospital in Picayune, where
they were unable to get help. After picking up Brandon’s mother, Michelle, they then
drove to Children’s Hospital in New Orleans, where an eye doctor referred them to
nearby Charity Hospital. Doctors there finally operated on the boy. But it was too
late. Brandon lost sight in the eye permanently.
Michelle Keith took the Petersons to court, arguing that the party throwers
should have been more cautious with the dangerous fireworks on their property. She
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claimed the Petersons should have known that children and fireworks don’t mix.
Betty Peterson was aware that brandon was in the yard, after all, the little boy said
he’d asked her permission to play there. She also knew that fireworks were scattered
around the property and that the other adults were looking for them.
This volatile combination should have put the couple on notice that an
accident could happen, Michelle Keith claimed, and that the children should have
been kept a safe distance from any unexploded fireworks. She also said the Petersons
willfully engaged in dangerous behavior by throwing ignitable fireworks on the
smoldering fire, and by failing to warn Mae Langston to safely dispose of any fire
works she found in the yard. Brandon did nothing other than take part in a game of
hide and seek, but because of the Petersons’ negligence, he lost half his sight forever.
The Petersons argued that Brandon’s injury was a tragic but unforeseeable
accident. Neither Kennon nor Betty had any idea that Mae Langston would set off a
rocket. They also didn’t know where Brandon was hiding nor did Mae, for that
matter. They argued they had exercised due care by having adults, not the children,
search for the fireworks.
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Appendix 4: YOU BE THE JUDGE (October 2007)
A grandmother wants the right to see her grandson. The mother says
no. Who wins?

All Cindy Flynn wanted was to spend time with her grandson. But the baby’s mother,
Alice Henkel, saw things differently.
The focus of their battle was Alice’s young son, Elias, born in May 2003.
Alice wasn’t married to Elias’s father, Cindy’s son Cory, who was serving time in an
Illinois state prison for the second time on a drug-related charge. Alice and her
newborn had moved into her mother’s home.
Before her grandson’s birth, Cindy had sent items for the baby to Alice and
tried to contact her, but Alice never responded. When Cindy heard about Elias’s birth,
she sent Alice a card. A month went by before Cindy got a call from Alice’s mom,
inviting her over to see the baby. Aftar that, Cindy and her husband, Mike, began
visiting Elias once a week.
Alice wasn’t happy about the arrangement. She claimed to find Cindy very
intimidating and said she ignored her wishes. It bothered Alice, for instance, that
Cindy once referred to herself as Nana, a name she used with her goddaughter. Alice
requested that she be called Grandma Cindy, and she felt disrespected when her
wishes were ignored.
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In J une, Cindy and Mike joined the Henkel family at the baby’s Catholic
baptism. But the situation deteriorated that summer, when Cory, who had been
released from prison, filed a petition in family court for visiting privileges with his
son. Alice felt Cory wasn’t the kind of person. Elias could respect when he got older
and wanted him out of the baby’s life entirely. Upset by Cory’s court filing, she
decided to call Cindy and tell her she couldn’t visit Elias anymore.
When the child was barely seven months old, Alice got a court order requiring
supervision anytime Cory saw his son. Cindy asked the court if she could be the
supervisor for the visits, but the court refused.
After that, Cindy could see Elias only when Cory was present. Initially, visits
were at Sinnissippi, a nearby behavioral health-care facility. A staff person had to be
present in the fourby-four-foot room, the space allocated for the visits. Cory resented
having to see his son there, and when the venue was switched to Alice’s mother’s
house, Cindy stopped accompanying him. She didn’t want to deal with the growing
tension between her and Alice.
It wasn’t until J anuary 2006, when Elias was two and a half, that Cindy got
permission for four visits with her grandson over a two-month period. Cindy then
asked to have an hour each month with Elias but she was refused.
Finally, the two women found themselves before a judge in the county circuit
court. Cindy argued that she had a right to see her grandson and that Elias would
benefit from the visits. “I just want to be part of Elias’s life.” Cindy told the circuit
court. “He deserves it”. Alice disagreed. She said she didn’t see why it was important
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for Cindy to be involved in Elias’s life. She pointed out that Cindy had chosen not to
attend all the allowed supervised visits with her son. Alice also had a problem with
Cindy’s nondenominational Christian beliefs, ever since Cindy, in her works,
“changed her life and started serving the Lord”.
Alice added that Cindy tried to “take over” during visits and that Cindy had
undermined her as a parent by questioning her decision to have tubes placed in
Elias’s ears because of chronic ear infections. Finally, Alice said she didn’t see how
keeping Cindy from seeing Elias would be harmful to the child.
Should Cindy have the right to see her grandson? You Be the J udge.