INTISARI TATA BAHASA INGGRIS

Disusun oleh: Rishan Azhari, S.Pd, M.Pd (untuk kalangan terbatas) ===================================================================== 1. Sebagian besar kalimat kompleks (kalimat yang memilki induk dan anak kalimat / lebih dari satu Subyek dan Predikat) memiliki pola keteraturan yang sama, yaitu PARALEL dalam bentuk kata kerja. Misalnya: A. Jika salah satu bagian kalimat memiliki kata kerja PAST ( Verb2), maka kata kerja lainnya juga PAST (V2). Contoh: I was sleeping when he called me. B. Jika salah satu bagian kalimat memiliki kata kerja PRESENT (V1), maka kata kerja lainnya juga PRESENT (V1). Contoh: She will dance, sing, shout, and cry in her performance. C. Jika salah satu kata kerja merupakan kata kerja continous (VERB ing), maka semua kata kerja juga VERB ing. Contoh: They are reading, writing, and discussing in the library right now. Contoh soal: The students ... in the workshop when a group of students from another province came to do comparative study. a. Practice c. Have practiced b. are practising d. Were practising karena came adalah kata kerja PAST, maka jawaban : d (were practicing), karena were juga berbentuk PAST, sedangkan a-b-c salah karena merupakan kata kerja PRESENT. Pelajari TABEL berikut: PRESENT Is Am Are Will Can Shall May Has / Has to Have / Have to Do Does Semua Verb 1, contoh: Listen Study Go PAST Was Was Were Would Could Should Might Had / Had to Had / Had to Did Did Semua Verb 2, contoh: Listened Studied Went

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2. Kata kerja yang didahului Preposition dan kata kerja tertentu HARUS dalam bentuk VERB ing. Preposition dan Kata Kerja Tertentu At, On, Off, By, With Begin While Before Help In, Deny Of, Hate For, Go Do After Finish Like Mind About Stand Love Cancel

V + ing

Contoh Soal: The generous child loves ... food and money, but he canceled giving the things yesterday because he forgot to bring them. a. give b. Gave c. Giving d. given Karena kata kerja pada soal tersebut didahului LOVED, maka jawaban : c (giving). 3. Sebagian besar kalimat tunggal dalam bahasa Inggris memiliki susunan : ADJECTIVE (kata sifat) – NOUN (kata benda) – VERB (kata kerja) – ADVERB (Kata Keterangan) Perhatikan Tabel Berikut: Adjective Noun Verb Adverb Happy Students Study Hard New Culture Comes Well ......ive: .....se: Went ....ly: Positive Response Slept Easily ....ful: ....ion / tion: Gone Loudly Beautiful Nation Talking Beautifully ....ble / ..able: ....ity: Understandable Reality ....less: ....ness: loudless loudness Contoh Soal: The beauty girl studies hard every nights and days. A B C D Bagian kalimat yang salah pada kalimat tersebut adalah A (beauty), semestinya Beautiful karena Beautiful adalah Kata Sifat (Adjective), sedangkan Beauty adalah Kata Benda (Noun). Susunan Kalimat tersebut adalah: The beautiful girl studies hard every nights and days. Adjective Noun Verb Adverb 4. Terdapat Tiga Tipe Utama COMPARISON (Kalimat Perbandingan), yaitu: A. Perbandingan Sebanding / Sama Rumus: S + (is/am/are/was/were) + as + adjective (kata sifat) + as + S Contoh: My friend is as clever as my girl friend (is.) B. Perbandingan Lebih (comparative) 1. Jika kata sifat yang dibandingkan terdiri atas satu suku kata (big, small, cheap, clever, ...) maka rumusnya: S + (is/am/are/was/were) + adjective + r/ er + than + S Contoh: 2

My father is 175 cm tall. My mother is 158 cm tall. My father is taller than my mother. 2. Jika kata sifat yang dibandingkan terdiri lebih dari satu suku kata (beautiful, handsome, dilligent, intelligent, crowded) maka rumusnya: S + (is/am/are/was/were) + more + adjective + than + S Contoh: My girlfriend is more beautiful than your girlfriend. C. Perbandingan Paling (superlative) 1. Jika kata sifat yang dibandingkan terdiri atas satu suku kata (young, small, short) maka rumusnya: S + (is/am/are/was/were) + the + adjective + st/ est Contoh: My father is 175 cm tall. My mother is 158 cm tall. My brother is 180 cm tall. My brother is the tallest. 2. Jika kata sifat yang dibandingkan terdiri lebih dari satu suku kata (careful, handsome, ..) maka rumusnya: S + (is/am/are/was/were) + the + most + adjective Contoh: Sierra Leone is the most dangerous country in the world. Terdapat beberapa pengecualian dalam tata kalimat perbandingan ini: Adjective Comparative Superlative Good Better Best Bad Worse Worst Little Less Least Far Further Farthest Contoh: Ronaldo is good. Pele is better than Ronaldo. Diego is the best. Yusuf Kalla who comes from South Sulawesi is one of the ... people in Eastern Indonesia. a. more richer b. Richer c. Richest d. Most rich jawaban: c (richest) karena dalam soal terdapat artikel the, maka perbandingan yang digunakan adalah perbandingan Paling. Rich terdiri atas satu suku kata sehingga Rich + est. The flash camera is not quite as ... as the Horizon snap camera. a. expensive b. More expensive c. Expensively d. Most expensive Jawaban : a (expensive). Perbandingan di atas merupakan Perbandingan Sama (Sebanding). B (more expensive) jelas salah karena di dalam kalimat soal tidak terdapat kata Than. C (Expensively) adalah kata Keterangan (diakhiri –ly), sedangkan D (most expensive) juga salah (tidak terdapat kata The sebelum Kata Sifat yang dibandingkan).

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5. Berikut adalah KATA - KATA yang selalu diikuti Kata Kerja (VERB) 1, yaitu kata kerja yang MURNI, tanpa tambahan apapun (misalnya mendapat tambahan akhiran: s, es, ed, d, ing): Do / Does Did Will Would Can Could Shall Should May Might Must Have to Has to Had to ...to (semua kata kerja yang didahului to): Like to / want to / wanted to / need to / needed to

VERB 1

Contoh Soal: She might sleeping when she thought she was very tired. A B C D Bagian kalimat yang harus diperbaiki adalah B (sleeping), semestinya sleep karena setelah kata Might harus Kata Kerja 1 (Verb 1). 6. Elliptical: kalimat yang terdiri atas dua atau lebih Subject yang mempunyai Kata Kerja yang sama. Contoh: 1. – I can swim - Irwan can swim Dua kalimat tersebut dapat digabung menjadi: I can swim and Irwan can too, atau: I can swim and so can Irwan. 2. - I can not fly - Irwan can not fly Dua kalimat tersebut dapat digabung menjadi: I can not fly and neither can Irwan, atau: I can not fly and Irwan can not either.

Positive So + Auxilary (Kt.Bantu) + Subject Subject + Auxilary + Too

Negative Neither + Auxilary + Subject Subject + Auxilary + NOT + either

Contoh soal: Tya likes singing English songs and Aris ... too. a. does b. Did c. Is d. Was Jawaban : a (does), karena kata Bantu (auxilary) pada kalimat: Tya likes singing English song adalah Does (Like + Does = Likes). 7. A. Conjunction (kata sambung) dalam bahasa inggris dapat berupa kata tanya Who, Whom, Whose, Which yang berarti Yang (Adjective Clause). Conjunction Indonesian Fungsi dalam Contoh (Adj. Clause) Meaning kalimat Who Yang Subject (orang) The man wears a hat. The man is Mr. Jones. The man who wears a hat is Mr. Jones. 4

Whom

Yang

Object (orang)

I like the girl. She is wearing t-shirt. The girl whom I like is wearing t-shirt. The girl is my sister. I borrowed her book. The girl whose book I borrowed is my sister. He likes the animal. The animal is spider. The animal which he likes is spider.

Whose

Yang ... nya Yang

Which

Whose+Noun (kt.benda) (milik...nya) Subject, Object

Contoh soal: The doctor carefully examined patients ... heads had been injured in an accident. a. that b. Whom c. Who d. Whose Jawaban: d (whose), karena dalam soal ... diikuti kata benda (heads), maka arti kalimat menjadi ....yang kepala nya... I can say, that the person ... I like best is Ms. Tia a. who b. Whose c. Whom d. Whoever Jawaban : c (whom). Kalimat tersebut terdiri atas: I like the person. She is Ms. Tia. SP O S P O Dari kalimat tersebut terlihat bahwa the person / Ms. Tia adalah Objek Kalimat. B. Conjunction (connector) juga dapat berupa kata sambung penjelas: Conjunction Indonesian Meaning Conjunction Indonesian Meaning Although Meskipun Provided that Jika While Meskipun Because Karena Though Meskipun Since Karena Although Meskipun So that Karena Eventhough Meskipun Whereas Karena Whereas Meskipun In order that Karena If Jika But Tapi Even if Jika However Tapi Unless Jika Besides Disamping itu / juga Only if Jika Also Juga Once Jika Therefore Oleh karena itu / In case Jika Moreover sehingga Whether or not Jika So that Lagi pula Sehingga Contoh soal: Amelia is smart and dilligent and ... she nice to all her classmates. a. however b. Besides c. Nevertheless d. Therefore Jawaban: b (besides)

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8. Delapan Tenses Utama yang sering digunakan: Nama Tenses 1. Present Tense Formula/ Rumus S + Verb 1 (untuk She, He, It, Verb 1+s/es Kata Kunci Every.... Everyday, every week, every month, every year, every Sundays,.. .....s Mondays, Tuesdays, .. Always, frequently, occasionally, hardly ever, seldom, never Fungsi Menyatakan Kebiasaan (sesuatu/kegiatan yang selalu dilakukan) Contoh We always go to school every morning. He never watches TV at nights.

2. Past Tense

S + Verb 2

Last... Menyatakan Last week, last month, Kegiatan yang last year, last night,... telah dilakukan. ....Ago Two days ago, seven weeks ago, ten years ago, .. Yesterday Right now, now, nowdays, these days, at this moment, right away. Menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung saat pembicara sedang mengucapkan kalimat tersebut. Menyatakan satu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada saat kegiatan lain telah terjadi. Kegiatan yang telah terjadi sejak dulu dan sampai saat ini masih terjadi Kegiatan yang telah terjadi sejak dulu dan masih terjadi pada saat kegiatan lain berlangsung.

I went to Loksado last month. We camped in Riam Langga waterfall two years ago.

3. Present Continous

S+ (is,am,are) + V ing

My lecturer is writing a composition now. My family and I are having lunch right now.

4. Past Continous

S+ (was,were) + V ing

Then, at that time, yesterday, Last.... .....Ago (seperti pada Past Tense)

She was reading a book when you came last night. Diego was dribbling the ball when Peter blocked him. He has taught English at this university since 1999. I have studied here for 3 years. He had lived in Banjarbaru for 2 years when his son was born.

5. Present Perfect

S + have/ has + Verb 3

6. Past Perfect

S + had + Verb 3

since... since last year, since two months ago. For ... For 2 weeks, For 3 years since... since last year, since two months ago. For ... For 2 weeks, For 3 years

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7. Present Future

S + will + Verb 1

Next ... Next year, next month, next week, Tomorrow Pelajari: Conditional !

Kegiatan yang akan terjadi.

We will study at a university next year. She will get married next month. Pelajari: Conditional !

8. Past Future

S + would + Verb 1

Pelajari: Conditional !

Contoh Soal: Look, people ... on the queue to get an admission letter to do the test for the job. a. stand b. Are standing c. Stood d. Will stand Jawaban : b (are standing) / Present Continous Tense. Meskipun tidak terdapat kata Keterangan Waktu pada kalimat tersebut, namun terdapat kata Look (lihat) maka jelas bahwa Tenses yang digunakan adalah yang berkaitan dengan waktu saat pembicaraan berlangsung (Present Continous Tense) My brother always smile cheerfully to people who cuddle him. A B C D Bagian kalimat yang salah adalah A (smile), semestinya Smiles (Verb 1 +s/es) karena kalimat tersebut merupakan suatu kebiasaan (kata kunci: always) sehingga berpola Present Tense. 9. Terdapat Tiga Tipe Utama CONDITIONAL Sentence (Kalimat Pengandaian), yaitu: Type 1 Form (Rumus) S + WILL + VERB 1 , IF + S + VERB 1 S + WOULD + VERB 1 , IF + S + VERB 2 S + WOULD+ HAVE + VERB 3 , IF + S + HAD + VERB 3 Fungsi Kemungkinan yang bisa terjadi pada waktu akan datang Khayalan (Imaginasi) Penyesalan atas sesuatu yang telah terjadi CONTOH I will study in a university if I graduate from this school. I would travel around the world if I were a millioner. I would have passed the test if I had studied hard

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Keterangan: - Pada TYPE 1, saya akan melanjutkan ke perguruan tinggi jika saya nanti lulus dari sekolah ini. - Pada TYPE 2, seandainya saya seorang jutawan maka saya akan keliling dunia. Kalimat ini merupakan khayalan saya saat ini. Semua TOBE yang digunakan pada Type 2 adalah WERE. - Pada TYPE 3, seandainya saya belajar keras maka saya pasti lulus ujian. Kalimat ini merupakan penyesalan karena faktanya saya tidak lulus akibat tidak belajar keras. Contoh Soal: Agustin ... you if she had your phone number. a. will call b. Would call c. Called d. Would have called Pada kalimat di atas, setelah kata “if” terdapat Subject + Verb 2 “had”, sehingga pola kalimat pengandaian yang dipakai adalah Type 2. Jawaban: b (would call)

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10. Terdapat beberapa kata yang SELALU dalam bentuk singular (tunggal): Every ....(everybody, everyone, everything) ; Some...(somebody, someone, something) ; Any ... (anybody, anyone, anything) ; No... (noone, nobody, nothing). Each ; Either ; Neither. Contoh soal: Neither of these books are very new. A B C D Dalam kalimat tersebut, bagian yang salah adalah D (are). Meskipun terdapat these books (bukunya lebih dari satu), namun terdapat kata Neither, maka predikat / kata kerja / tobe pada kalimat tersebut adalah IS. 11. Ekspresi yang berkaitan dengan jumlah waktu, uang, berat, volume, HARUS dalam bentuk tunggal (Singular). Contoh : Four days is enough time for a nice hike. Meskipun four days dalam bentuk jamak, namun merupakan satu kesatuan, maka kata kerja yang digunakan dalam bentuk tunggal, IS. SINGULAR Is Am was Has, had Does PLURAL Are, Were Have Do

Contoh soal: 100 kilometers are very hard and long way to walk. A B C D Bagian kalimat yang salah adalah b (are), semestinya is. 12. Perhatikan Tabel Perubahan Bagian Kata di bawah ini: Subject I You We They He She It Object Me You Us Them Him Her It Possessive Mine Yours Ours Theirs His Hers Its

My ....(Noun/kt.Benda) Your ..(Noun/kt.Benda) Our ....(Noun/kt.Benda) Their....(Noun/kt.Benda) His ....(Noun/kt.Benda) Her ....(Noun/kt.Benda) Its ....(Noun/kt.Benda)

Myself Yourself Ourself Themselves Himself Herself Itself

Contoh soal: They asked me to copy the report, but I told them to do theirselves. A B C D Bagian kalimat yang salah adalah D (theirselves). Semestinya: Themselves. Please introduce ... to all the people inside the room. a. mine b. Yours c. Themselves Jawaban: d (yourself)

d. Yourself

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13. Articles (Artikel) BIASANYA selalu ada di depan kata benda (NOUN). Artikel (kata depan) dalam bahasa Inggris misalnya: A untuk BUNYI konsonan, BUKAN HURUF Konsonan. An untuk BUNYI vokal (a, e, o, u, i ), BUKAN HURUF vokal. The untuk benda yang sudah disebutkan sebelumnya atau benda yang sudah diketahui. Contoh: An hour is not enough time to answer all the questions. An digunakan karena Hour dibaca “AWER” (didahului BUNYI vokal A) Contoh soal: The ... has been made that we won’t go further to the west bank of the river. a. Determined c. determination b. Determinant d. Determinate Karena bagian kalimat yang kosong didahului artikel The, maka jawaban yang diinginkan adalah Kata Benda (Noun). Jawaban : c (determination). Determined adalah Kata Kerja 3, Determinant adalah Kata Sifat, sedangkan Determinate adalah kata Kerja. 14. Preposition Preposition Fungsi At Untuk segala yang berhubungan dengan nomor / angka, misalnya jam, tanggal, nomor rumah On Nama Jalan, Bulan dan Tanggal In Nama Kota Tahun Bulan saja Contoh I live at 75 Nusantara Street. He will wait me at 7 am tomorrow morning.

Lambung Mangkurat University is on Jalan Akhmad Yani. Wanadri was born on July, 24th 2001 We study in Banjarbaru Heavy Metal was very popular in 1980s My lecturer was born in July

Contoh soal: He has lived on New Jersey for many years. A B C D Bagian kalimat yang salah adalah : B (on), semestinya in (New Jersey adalah nama kota) The graduation day will be held ... June 10, 2004. a. on b. In c. At d. Since Jawaban : a. (on) 15. Pola UMUM Kalimat Passive (Passive Voice):

S + TOBE + VERB 3
Contoh: A. Kalimat Aktif Present Tense Kalimat Pasif : I meet my students every day. : My students are met by me every day. S BE V3

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B. Kalimat Aktif Past Tense Kalimat Pasif

: I met my students last week : My students were met by me last week. S BE V3

C. Kalimat Aktif Present Continous : I am meeting my students now. Kalimat Pasif : My students are being met by me now. S BE V3 D. Kalimat Aktif Past Continous : I was meeting my students when the bel rang. Kalimat Pasif : My students were being met by me when the bel rang. S BE V3 : I have met my students since 7 a.m. : My students have been met by me since 7 a.m. S BE V3 F. Kalimat Aktif Past Perfect : I had met my students for 2 hours when the bel rang. Kalimat Pasif : My students had been met by me for 2 hours when the bell rang. S BE V3 G. Kalimat Aktif Present Future Kalimat Pasif : I will meet my students tomorrow. : My students will be met by me tomorrow. S BE V3 E. Kalimat Aktif Present Perfect Kalimat Pasif

H. Kalimat Aktif Past Future : I would meet my students if they came next year. Kalimat Pasif : My students would be met by me if they came next year. S BE V3 Contoh Soal: New products ... in the electronic exibition in Jakarta Expo Centre a week ago. a. display b. Displaying c. Were displayed d. Is played Jawaban: c (were displayed). Kalimat di atas berbentuk Past Tense kalimat Pasif. Kata kunci pada kalimat pasif di atas adalah: products (jumlahnya lebih dari satu) dan kata ago yang berarti lampau (PAST), maka jawaban yang dicari adalah TOBE jamak untuk kalimat PAST yaitu: were + kata kerja 3. Your future will be ... on what kind of activities you always do in your everyday life. a. basic b. Based c. Basing d. base Jawaban: b. Based (Based adalah Kata Kerja 3). Kalimat ini adalah Kalimat Pasif. 16. Kata – kata berikut SELALU berpasangan: Both .... and ..... ; Between ...... and ............. ; Not only .........but also ........ Neither............nor..................; Either.................or................. Contoh soal: Both you with me are the students of SMK N 2 Banjarbaru. A B C D Bagian yang salah adalah B (with) mestinya And, karena pasangan Both selalu And.

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17. Perubahan dari Kalimat Langsung (Direct Speech) menjadi Kalimat Tidak Langsung (Indirect Speech) secara umum adalah: Direct Speech Indirect Speech Pertanyaan (Introgative) Pernyataan (Affirmative) Present .... Past ... Past Tense Past Perfect Contoh: Arie : When do you study English? Iwang : Everyday. What did Arie ask Iwang? a. He asked Iwang when do you study English. b. He asked Iwang when Iwang studies English. c. He asked Iwang when Iwang studied English. d. He asked Iwang when did you study English. Jawaban: c (He asked Iwang when Iwang studied English). Kalimat langsung pada soal berupa kalimat pertanyaan dengan pola Present Tense, sehingga kalimat Tidak langsungnya menjadi Kalimat Pernyataan dengan pola Past tense. Apabila kalimat langsung berupa pertanyaan yang jawabannya Yes / No, maka Kalimat Tidak Langsung memerlukan kata Sambung If / Whether yang berarti Apakah. Contoh Soal: Anita : Can you draw perfectly? Irwan : Sure. What did Anita ask Irwan? She asked ... a. Can you draw perpectly b. Can he draw perfectly c. If he can draw perfectly d. If he could draw perfectly. Jawaban : d (If he could draw perfectly). Pertanyaan pada kalimat Langsung pada soal berbentuk Yes / No question, sehingga memerlukan kata sambung If / whether. Sedangkan bentuk Past dari modal Can adalah Could. 18. Penggunaan TOBE

TOBE:

VERB + ING

He conducts a research

Is, am, are Was, were, Be Being Been

VERB 3

A researcher is conducted (by him). She is wonderful

Adjective We are here Adverb

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Contoh soal: After having a long and tiring discussion, a better solution is finally chose. a b c d pada soal tersebut, d. Chose salah, karena chose adalah Verb2, sedangkan pada kalimat tersebut terdapat tobe IS, sehingga Verb yang benar adalah Verb+ing atau Verb 3. Kalimat tersebut bermakna Pasif sehingga yang benar adalah Verb3 (CHOSEN). 19. Penggunaan VERB 3: Present/ Past Perfect:

HAVE / HAS HAD

VERB 3

Neither you nor I have visited Mount Everest. She had gone home already. Passive Voice:

TOBE

The letter was sent yesterday

Contoh soal: For the rest of his life, he has never ........his youth. a. Forget c. forgot b. Forgets d. Forgotten Jawaban yang tepat adalah d. Forgotten (Verb 3) karena pada kalimat tersebut terdapat auxilary (kt. Bantu) has. 20. Penggunaan Auxilary (kata bantu): Positive / Affirmative 1. I go 2. I went home 3. I’m going home 4. I will go 5. I have gone 6. I should go Negative 1. I don’t go 2. I didn’t go 3. I’m not going home 4. I won’t go 5. I haven’t gone 6. I shouldn’t go Introgative / Question 1. Do I go? 2. Did I go? 3. Am I going home? 4. Will I go? 5. Have I gone? 6. Should I go?

Untuk membuat Informative (WH) question: WH + Aux. + S + Verb ?

Contoh: When will I go home? How do I go home? Kecuali pertanyaan menggunakan WHO yang menanyakan informasi Subject: Contoh: Who is going home? Who comes to school everyday?

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21. LET MAKE OBJECT VERB 1 ex: Let’s Go! They made her cry

22. Penggunaan artikel THE : A. Sesuatu yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya. Contoh: I have a very interesting book. The book is new. B. Benda Satu – Satunya (the one and the only). Contoh: I see the sun on the blue sky.

23. Jika dalam kalimat tidak terdapat auxilary (kata bantu),maka auxilary-nya adalah: PRESENT : DO / DOES I GO I DON’T GO HE GOES HE DOESN’T GO PAST : DID I STUDIED I DIDN,T STUDY HE WENT HE DIDN’T GO ===========================================arieenglish@yahoo.co.id=====

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