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# The Full-Bridge Inverter During the discussion of dc-to-dc conversion using the full-bridge converter, we pointed out that

it can also be used to obtain time-varying voltages with a zero dc component when the duty cycle is 0.5. We now explore the capabilities of the full-bridge circuit as a dc-to-ac converter or inverter.

## Full-Bridge Inverter Circuit

The full-bridge circuit feeding an inductive (RL) load is shown in Figure 1. Once again, we can use the pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique to obtain the required effective or maximum value of the time-varying output voltage. The output voltage, as shown in Figure-2, will undoubtedly have harmonic components in addition to the fundamental component. The harmonic components can be filtered out by including filter on the output side. The filter may not be necessary especially when the load is inductive such as an induction motor. A simple scheme of controlling the gating of the four switches is also shown. Although each switch is gated to be on for one-half the time period, each switch may not conduct for one-half the time period due to the constraints imposed by the load. The arrow-head shows the direction in which the current can flow through each switch. When a switch is gated on but the current is in the opposite direction, the freewheeling diode placed in antiparallel with the switch will provide the path for the current. Note that there are two intervals during which the output voltage is zero. During the time interval between a and b, the current i(t) circulates in the top-half of the circuit through S1 and D 3 and the voltage across the load is zero assuming the diode and the switch are ideal. Likewise, the current completes it path through S 4 and D 2 in the bottomhalf of the circuit during the time interval from c to d and the voltage across the load is zero.

## Full-Bridge Inverter Circuit

Let us now determine the necessary equations to quantify the operation of the full-bridge inverter. We begin by assuming that the circuit has been operating for some time and it has attained its steady state. In order to obtain an output voltage with zero dc components, each switching action must last for one-half of the time period. The switch S1 is closed at t = 0. At this instant, S 2 is already in the closed position and the current is negative (in the direction opposite to that shown in Figure-1) and is equal to I1 . The other two switches are in the open position. Since each switch can conduct current only in the direction shown by the arrow when it is closed, diode

D1 provides the path for the current to flow. As shown in Figure-3, the current is negative
from t = 0 to t = t1 . During this interval, the diodes D1 and D 2 are carrying the current and the load voltage is VS . Since there is a voltage pulse for each half-cycle, we can define the duty cycle as
D= Pulse Width during each half cycle T/2

The differential equation that describes the operation from t = 0 to t = a is L di( t ) + R i( t ) = VS dt (1)

## Applying the initial condition, i.e. i(0) = I1 when t = 0, we get A= VS I1 R

Hence, the expression for the current in the circuit during t = 0 and t = a is i( t ) = VS ( 1 e t / ) I1 e t / R (4)

The current attains its maximum value of I 2 at t = a = DT/2 and is obtained from (4) as

## Full-Bridge Inverter Circuit

I2 =

VS ( 1 e DT / 2 ) I1 e DT / 2 R

(5)

At t = a, the switch S 2 is opened and the switch S3 is closed while the switch

S1 remains closed. Note that both the switches in the top-half of the circuit are in the
closed position while both the switches in the bottom-half of the circuit are in the open position. The current now circulates through D 3 and S1 and the voltage across the load is zero. This situation prevails until the switch S1 is opened and S 4 is closed at t = b. During the time interval from t = a to t = b, the differential equation governing the current in the circuit is L di( t ) + R i( t ) = 0 dt (6)

Its general solution is of the form i( t ) = B e t / Applying the initial condition at t = a = DT/2, i.e. i(a ) = I 2 , we get B = I 2 e DT / 2 Thus, the current expression from t = a to t = b is i( t ) = I 2 e DT / 2 e t / At t = b = T/2, the current decays to I1 such that (8) (7)

I1 = I 2 e DT / 2 e T / 2
From (5) and (9), we obtain

(9)

I2 =
and

VS R

1 e DT / 2 1 + e T / 2

(10)

I1 =

VS R VS R

1 e DT / 2 DT / 2 T / 2 e 1 + e T / 2 e e DT / 2 1 eT / 2 + 1
(11)

Hence, the currents during the positive cycle of the output voltage, from (4) and (8), respectively, are

## Full-Bridge Inverter Circuit

i( t ) =
and

VS V ( 1 e t / ) S R R

e DT / 2 1 t / eT / 2 + 1 e

for 0 t DT / 2

(12)

i( t ) =

VS R

1 e DT / 2 DT / 2 t / e 1 + e T / 2 e

for DT / 2 t T / 2

(13)

At t = b = T/2, the negative half-cycle of the output voltage begins and lasts until t = T. During this half cycle, current reverses its direction because the voltage across the load is negative. From t = b = T/2 to t = T, the current expressions can be obtained from (12) and (13) by reversing the sign and changing t to (t T/2). That is,

i( t ) =

VS V e DT / 2 1 ( t 0.5T ) / e ( 1 e ( t 0.5T ) / ) + S T / 2 R R +1 e

(14)

## for T / 2 t (1 + D)T / 2 , and

i( t ) =

VS R

1 e DT / 2 DT / 2 ( t 0.5T ) / e 1 + e T / 2 e

(15)

for (1 + D)T / 2 t T.

Example: ____________________________________________________________
The full-bridge inverter is operating from a 120-V dc source and supplied power to a single-phase motor whose equivalent resistance and resistance are 5 and 20 mH, respectively. If the operating frequency is 50 Hz and the duty cycle is 50%, sketch the output voltage and current for one time period. Solution: From the given data, VS = 120 V, R = 5 , L = 20 mH, D = 0.5, f = 50 Hz, and T = 20 ms. The time constant is = L 20 10 3 = = 4 ms R 5

## Full-Bridge Inverter Circuit

T 20 10 3 = = 2 .5 2 2 4 10 3 e T / 2 = e 2.5 = 0.082 e T / 2 = e 2.5 = 12.1825 We can now compute the currents I 2 and I1 , from (10) and (11), as I2 =

VS R

I1 =

## e DT / 2 1 eT / 2 + 1 120 3.49 1 = = 4.534 A 5 12.1825 + 1

VS R

The current expressions for the 4 time periods are as follows: (a) For t = 0 to t = a = DT/2 = 5 ms: The current expression during this time period is given by (4) as

i( t ) =

## The current passes through zero at t = t 1 such that

t1 = (b) 1 28.534 ln = 0.692 ms 250 24

For t = DT/2 = 5 ms to t = T/2 = 10 ms: Equation (8) yields the current equation during this time period as

i( t ) = I 2 e DT / 2 e t / = 15.825 e1.25 e t / 0.004 = 55.235 e 250 t A (c) For t = T/2 = 15 ms to t = (1+D)T/2 = 15 ms: Although the current expression is given by (14), it is lot simpler to obtain it from (4) by reversing its sign and changing t to (t-T/2). That is
Guru/PEDC2AC/FullBridge/ February 25, 2006

## i( t ) = (24 28.534 e 250 ( t 0.01) ) = 24 + 347.614 e 250 t A

The current is zero when t2 = (d) 1 347.614 ln = 10.69 ms 250 24

For t = (1+D)T/2 = 15 ms to t = T = 20 ms: It is easier to obtain the current expression from (8) by reversing the sign and replacing t with t-T/2 as

## i( t ) = 15.825 e1.25 e ( t 0.01) / 0.004 = 672.9 e 250 t A

The waveforms for the voltage across and the current through the inductive are given below.