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Cardiovascular System I. Functions A.

Transportation (from where to where) a) Oxygen b) Carbon dioxide c) Nutrients d) liquid wastes e) Hormones f) Enzymes g) Heat B. Regulation 1. pH levels How? a) b) pH range should be 7.35-7.45 c) narrow pH range to accommodate enzyme actions. 2. Body Temperature How? a) . b) Normal temperature range 98.6F and 100.4F in the blood stream. (1) maximum 112-114F (2) minimum 70-75F c) Why do you die if your temperature gets too high? 3. Water content in your cells a) Cells are usually 99.1% water. C. Protection 1. Against toxins, foreign microbes and substances. 2. Fluid loss from broken blood vessels - coagulation. Blood I. Composition A. ______% Plasma B. ______% Formed elements (cells or solids) C. Plasma Composition 1. 92% water a) 90% from absorption from________ b) 10% from metabolism. 2. 7-9% Proteins a) Albumins, antibodies, and clotting proteins 3. 1.5% Other solutes Trace Elements a) Nonprotein nitrogen - urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and salts (1) most of these removed in _________ b) Food substances- ____________, _________, ___________ c) Regulatory substances (1) Enzymes and hormones d) Respiratory gases (1) dissolved oxygen (only 2%) and 77% of CO2 is carried as carbonic acid e) Electrolytes - inorganic salts of plasma - Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, PO4-, SO4-, HCO3D. Blood Solids 1. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells; RBCs) a) Function - transport ________ (98%) and ___________ (23%) b) Structure (1) Biconcave disks Why? (2) Contain hemoglobin (3) RBCs have no nucleus and lack most cellular organelles (a) RBCs cant reproduce, only lives for 100-120 days c) RBCs are made in the ___________________ at a rate of 2 million/sec

2. Leucocytes (________ __________ __________ WBCs) a) Function - protection by phagocytosis or antibody production. b) Structure (1) They have nuclei and dont contain hemoglobin. (2) Largest type of blood cell. 3. Two basic groups of Leucocytes: granular and agranular Leucocytes. a) Granular Leucocytes (1) Contain small granules and have encapsulated nuclei (2) Phagocytic and release digestive enzymes (3) Three kinds: (a) Neutrophils (most common WBC) eosinophils and basophils b) Agranular Leucocytes (1) Produce antibodies and are phagocytic. (2) Two kinds: (a) Lymphocytes (b) Monocytes E. Thrombocytes (Platelets) 1. Smallest. 2. Function: initiate blood coagulation (a blood clot). *see coagulation notes. The Immune Response I . Nonspecific resistance A. Several types of non specific resistance: 1. Mechanical (______________________)Chemical (_____________), Phagocytosis, inflammation and fever II. Immunity or Specific Resistance A. Cellular (T cells) Immunity 1. T-lymphocytes are called T cells because they finish their development in the thymus gland. They then embed themselves in lymphoid tissues. 2. Begins when a wandering microphage engulfs a microbe (or foreign protein). 3. The macrophage presents, on its surface, the partially digested antigen protein fragments along with its own HLA antigen a) HLA antigens are specific for each person and are used to identify tissues. 4. Specific T cells interact with both proteins on the surface of the macrophage. a) Your body has thousands of different T cells; each one specific for a different antigen. 5. Those interactivated T cells are now called sensitized T cells. 6. Meanwhile, the macrophage produces interleukin I and interferons, which stimulate the monoclonal proliferation of these cells. 7. These clones now differentiates into several forms all with different functions (only three are listed below): a) Memory T cells - remain in circulation and can recognize the original invader if it returns again. b) Helper T cells - Induce antibody production by B cell descendants and also secrete interleukin II, which stimulates proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. c) Cytotoxic (killer) T cells - destroy antigens directly or secrete chemicals to attract phagocytes and produce interferon that blocks viral replication.

d) Diagram of Cellular Immunity

A. Humoral Immunity (B cells) 1. These cells do not leave the lymphoid tissue. 2. The process works along with cellular immunity 3. The antigen binds to antibodies on the surface of the B cell. 4. The B cell ingests, processes, and presents the processed antigen (along with its HLA antigens). 5. Specific helper T cells recognize and bind to the processed antigen and HLA antigens 6. The helper T cells produce a factor that stimulates B cells to enlarge, divide and differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells. a) Plasma cells then secrete specific antibodies (at a rate of 2000/sec. per cell) that enter circulation and bind to the surface proteins of the specific antigen. b) The remaining B cells that dont change into plasma cells remain as memory B cells.

Diagram of Humoral Immunity

A. Vaccines 1. Large numbers of virulent forms are collected and then heat or chemically treated to denature their nucleic acids. Why? a) To prevent the viral genetic info from actively attaching and taking over your cell. 2. Care must be taken to keep the surface proteins intact. Why? a) Viral antigens, so your body can go through the immunity steps. 3. Now this mixture (the vaccine) is injected into the person. 4. The person initiates an immune response. Coagulation of Blood I. The Process A. Coagulation time is usually between 5-15 minutes. B. Two pathways for coagulation, that can occur at the same time, depending on conditions. C. The initial steps are different but the final steps are similar. D. The Intrinsic Pathway 1. Factors (proteins) released from platelets activate thrombin which in turn converts fibrinogen into fibrin (which forms the treads of the clot) E. The Extrinsic Pathway 1. Damaged tissue surrounding the blood vessel releases factors which in turn converts fibrinogen into fibrin (which forms the treads of the clot) F. Coagulation process requires Calcium and Vitamin K. G. Retraction 1. After the fibrin threads form, they retract or shorten, closing off the injured blood vessel. H. Rh Factor. 1. If the Rh protein present on RBCs you are Rh +.. a) No agglutinins for Rh agglutinogens. 2. What does Rh- mean? a) Rh protein absent on RBCs. b) Anti-Rh agglutinins produced. I. The Problem with Rh factor and Pregnancy 1. Occurs in women that are Rh- and have Rh+ baby. 2. During pregnancy some of the fetal blood cells migrate back into the mothers circulation. a) Usually the RBCs and other large blood components are too large to pass through the placenta. 3. When the fetal blood mixes with the mothers, the mother starts to make agglutinins for the Rh agglutinogen.

4. However, the baby is born before enough agglutinins migrate back into the fetus, so baby is unaffected. 5. If the next baby is Rh+, the mother will start producing large numbers of agglutinins and these will attack the fetal blood, destroying RBCs. a) If the baby is Rh- it has no proteins to react with the mothers antibodies. 6. To prevent the problem, when a Rh- mother has a Rh+ baby, they give her a RHO GAM (anti-Rh gamma2-globulin agglutinin) shot. a) This shot tie up the agglutinogens so they cannot be recognized by the mothers immune system, and she does not produce the anti-Rh agglutinins.