GSM Mobile Radio System


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Course Overview
• • • • • • • • • • Introduction to GSM: services provided by a GSM network; GSM network components inc. BTS, BSC, MSC, GMSC; structure of a GSM network. GSM radio interface: principles of TDMA and FDMA; GSM frequency bands; speech processing; use of FEC; discontinuous transmission and power control. Principles of GSM location updating and handover. Role d R l and provision of G M control and traffic channels. f GSM l d ff h l Introduction to signalling in a GSM network inc. the role and operation of MAP signalling. Features, appl cat ons and bas c operat on of GSM data services inc. GPRS, HSCSD applications basic operation serv ces nc. and EDGE. The components of a mobile Internet service. Introduction to message services inc. SMS, EMS and XMS. Structure of a GPRS network; provision of l i l d S f k i i f logical data and control channels. d l h l Mobility in a GPRS network.

GSM: Properties cellular radio network (2nd Generation) digital transmission, integrated data communication roaming ( (mobility between different network operators) l ) good transmission quality (error detection and -correction) scalable (large number of participants possible) security mechanisms (authentication, authorization, encryption) good resource use (frequency and time division multiplex) integration with fixed telephone network g f p standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications Standards Institute)

GSM Frequency Bands

GSM: Structure
• • Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) - logical, central structure with HLR, AuC (Authentication Center) - authentication, storage of symmetrical keys, generation of encryption keys Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - storage of device attributes of allowed, faulty and blocked devices (white, gray, black list) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) - networking center, partially with gateways to other center networks, assigned to one VLR each Base Station Subsystem (BSS): technical radio center – Base Station Controller (BSC): control center – Base Transceiver Station (BTS): radio tower / antenna

Allocation of different carrier frequencies per user

Allocation of time slots on the same frequency to a user f

There is a continuous stream of TDMA frames between the MS and the BTS. Each time slot is regarded as a physical channel and it is called a burst period that is 0.557ms long. Information is transmitted as bursts each TDMA frame period thus burst is the content of a physical channel. The burst contains the payload and security information which guarantees high data reliability and transmission quality

Discontinuous transmission and Power control

All voice signals are transmitted the same way in a continuous data stream, the channel is occupied even d i silent i h h li i d during il intervals i di d l its disadvantage i that is h transmitting power is used during silent intervals thus wastes MS battery power. Secondly other users using the same frequency in more distant cells would be disturbed. Therefore, it is necessary to switch off the sender if the subscriber i not transmitting i f d h b ib is i i information thus the average i h h occupation of the radio link is less than 40%

GSM Radio Interfaces
MSC - Mobile Switching Center TC - T nsc d Transcoder BSC - Base Station Controller BTS - Base Transceiver Station MS - Mobile Station

The user and signalling data is transported over series of g g p interfaces; the A interface connects the MSC to the TC, the A-ter interface connects the TC to the BSC, the A-bis interface connects the BSC to the BTS while the air interface (Um) links the MS

GSM Radio Interface (contd)

Each of the interfaces (A, A-ter and A-bis) transmit information for the synchronization of the individual network elements point to point at a data rate of 64kbps using time slot 0 The 0. transcoder forwards the SS7 signalling between the MSC and the BSC in time slot 16. The TRX signalling is transmitted between the BSC and the BTS at bit rates 16, 32 and 64kbps depending on the producer. O&M alarms are transmitted over the A-ter and A-bis interface at 16; 16 or 64kbps respectively or as inband signalling in a traffic channel

Speech and user data is transmitted p at a data rate of 64kbps over the A interface; 16kbps over the A-ter interface after being converted to transcoded speech or rate adapted data and 16kbps per sub channel over the A-bis interface. SMS messages are transmitted via signalling channels.

Quality of Service

• • Home Location Register (HLR), stores data of participants which are registered in an HLR-area –Semi-permanent data: – Call number (Mobile Subscriber International ISDN Number) -MSISDN, e.g. +49/171/333 4444 (country, network, number) – Identity (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) -IMSI: MCC = Mobile IMSI: Country Code (262 for .de) + MNC = Mobile Network Code (01-T-Mobile, 02Vodafone, 03-eplus, 07-O2) + MSIN = Mobile Subscriber Identification Number – Personal data (name, address, mode of payment)•Service profile (call transfer, roaming-limits etc.) i li it t ) –Temporary data: – MSRN (Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number) (country, network, MSC)•VLRaddress, MSC-address , – Authentication Sets of AuC(RAND (128 Bit), SRES (128 Bit), KC(64Bit)) – Billing data

Databases (contd.)
• Visitor Location Register (VLR) – local database of each MSC with following data: • IMSI, MSISDN • Service profile • Billing and accounting information • TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) -pseudonym for data security • MSRN • LAI (Location Area Identity) • MSC-address, HLR-address

Data Transmission

Data transmission - structure

MAP is a GSM specific protocol for non-core related applications between elements in the NSS. MAP l h P based communication occurs when data is exchanged between NSS elements in the absence of a call.

Mobile Application Part
• The example of a location update procedure mentioned previously is not confined only to the MSC-BSC section, it spans multiple PLMNs. In case l l l of a first time location update by an international roaming subscriber (where he is not in his home network), the VLR has to get the data from the subscriber s HLR via the gateway MSC of the subscriber s home subscriber’s subscriber’s network. While a mobile terminated call is being handled, the MSRN has to be requested from the HLR without routing the call to the HLR. Therefore, for these cases another protocol layer was added to the SS7 called the Mobile Application Part (MAP). MAP is used for signalling communication between NSS elements.

Signalling between NSS

Signalling in GSM

Signalling in GSM
• Between the BSC and the BTS, a signalling protocol known as LAP-D (Link Access Protocol for the ISDN "D" channel) is used. This is the same p t c l th t us d s m protocol that is used in ISDN networks b t n t ks between th cust m n the customer and the network. Between the mobile station and the BTS, the same signalling protocol is used with small modifications to cope with the characteristics of the radio transmission medium. This protocol is known as LAP-Dm where the "m" denotes modified. The LAP-D message structure is similar to SS7, but it does not support networking capabilities, therefore, it is used for point to point connections. Protocols for Radio Resource (RR) management are passed using LAP-Dm LAP Dm and LAP D Other protocols for Mobility Management (MM) LAP-D. and Connection Management (CM) are passed between the mobile station and the MSC.


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