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20

pensator guide tremely run. more The nearly AR

IRE TRANSACTIONSMICROWAVE
ent

THEORY
of the

AND

TECHNIQUES
The what are. of a waveguide AR run compensator. is made itself for signals. ACKNOWLEDGMENT any about and If the run the can the amount values of cancellation, of minimum

October

equal

to

the

ARrnin is found

of the to

waveex-

frequency. on sections

howAR for

compensator device. CONCLUSIONS

be an

ever, the

depends various

broadbanded

The proved circular major too well and long. with waveequaminor The values The Bell the gan, those tests AR the minimum total cident

AR by

performance using AR AR an

be im-

minimum as the inproperly, of the

The guides tions, axes found The that When AR by The is

dominant-mode can when is small by easily the values and difference the of

AR be obtained

in nominally from between the quite

of the

compensator of the will be high

same

approximate is not

is oriented polarization

waveguide AR agree

dominant-mode

calculated

measurements. of the ellipticity amount sections sections the of on the dominant-mode is AR, author Telephone Jr., who were for

effect on

wishes

to

thank in

many

associates S. P.

at

the

crosstalk, are connected can

considerable. in series,

Laboratories, helpful of this criticism paper. at The Western in making

particular

Morin the to Some

waveguide individual orienting

and author the

suggestions is also measurements.

of the properly

be partially relative section

cancelled other. is independ-

preparation

indebted

sections waveguide

to each

assisted performed

orientation

of each

Electric

Company.

The

Design

of Ridged
SAMUEL HOPFERt

Waveguides

A
extent tions, in present The

S FAR

as we are on

aware, ridged by

the

only

published transmission and

design lines to some applicaand, The several more

CUTOFF

CURVES

AS ~ FUNCTION GEOMETRY

OF RIDGED

GUIDE

information is found in the

guide S. B.

in a paper Waveguide have more is largely curves those

Cohnl

Figs. cross shown

1 (a) and

1 (b) show their 1 (c).

the

singlecircuit with

and

double-ridged is

Handbook. a need design with here the

2 Recent for additional information. this differ in

sections; in Fig.

equivalent In keeping

representation common practice,

however, cases, paper design from

indicated accurate written presented found can in

some

mind. in The

respects important

literature. as follows: is

differences step

be stated

m! properly effect higher power the ridged The guide

B3

m s (b) Fig. 1

1. The

discontinuity in all calculations. the cut-off the

susceptance Omission frequencies calculation to ridged curves the edges. definition experimental considerable are take based guide

Id+l s IA-J
(a)

LA

lo-/-J
(c)

included

of this of the of the

in calculating modes, carrying 2. The 3. 4. 5. The of the The and The ters rigorous as well

as in

capacity, expression handling breakdown guide more are likely

leads calculations for at

errors. on a more account is different results. parame-

modes

are modes

given in govern are

the the the

same cutoff

designations waveconditions

attenuation power ridged seems data most

as the guide.

corresponding equations type

rectangular by

attenuation. proper

which

of theTEmo

of modes b

given

impedance in line to with

COt

K.1

tan

KcS/2

B/YOl

(1)

presented

in terms

of those in practice.

be specified

cot KZl +

cot KsS/2

B/yoI

O.

(2)

~ Polytechnic Res. & Dev. Co., Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y. 1 S. B. Cohn, Properties of ridge waveguide, PROC. IRE, vol. 35, pp. 783788; August, 1947. 2 Nathan lMarcuvitz, Waveguide Handbook, MIT Rad. Lab. Series, vol. 10, pp. 399-402.

Eq. in

(1) the

applies even x direction

to

the at

odd cutoff

TEno
K% is

modes is given

and by

(2)

applies constant

to the

TEno

modes.

the

propagation

and

KZ = 27r/A..

75)55

Hopfer:

The

Design

of

Ridged

Waveguides

21

rF-t-ll i;;
DOUBLE

RIOGE - TE,~ MODE CUT-OFF ~ I 1 t~l~

WAVELENGTH b/o =0.5

+HI+H+H+
w4.oLLlfHIL

uLuull/

Fig. 3

El
The as characteristic The which is taken book.3 proximity mination In the fixed single d/b that of s/a, at Figs. TE10, with 0.5. ridged ratios, of the but value of the represents from [n those effects4 of the the published cases, are

Fig. 2

admittances

YOI and

Yoz are

defined

normalized effect data where taken 4 the of

susceptance the in the the into step

term

B/

YOI,

SIa Fig. 4

discontinuity, Handguide deterb/aand the single data a b/a ridged ratio of

Waveguide of the in B/ factors aspect the YOI.

sidewalls account

0.25

is not

very
to

favorable
have

for single are

are relatively

close

to the step

discontinuity susceptance

of the ridge,

guideit for for the the to 7 (next factors range

is expedient b/a .08< = 0.45. (s/a) page).

ridged in Figs. because is a by itself factors other

available

These <.5

data

normalized

5, 6, and in but for than the this

In case of Fig. TEa mode mode. mode ridged 8 (next order b/a

7, no valexist ratios may This be de-

2, 3, and TE20, and d/b These guide

extension The are section ratio guide. of b/a

XC%o/a for as a function ratio s/a is one the b/a to and half ratio

ues of extension

are indicated, cannot The at aspect guide, page). extension

TE~o modes curves cross

are plotted directly

a parameter.

couples

TEOI TEIO single

applicable identical which the upon

fundamental as in the the

0.45, with

of an aspect ridged to various

determined termination value the of the form

help

of Fig. a first

double depend

Since

electrical

is essentially extension of an equation,


Aclo a ?+F1(:

correction = .45.

on the in

properties

degrees

factor

at

Expressed

we have (4)
-+

8 Ibid., p. 309. 4 J. R. j~hinnery, and H. JV. Jamieson, Equit-aIent discontmultles in transmission lines, PROC. IRE, VOI. 116; February, 1944.

circuits for 32, pp. 98

22

IRE TRANSACTIONSMICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES

Ociober

SINGLE

RI OGE-TE30 I

MO OE CUT-OFF

WAVELENGTH b/o = 0.45


1 I I

I I I I I 11!

I I I I

I I I

Fig. 7

Fig. 5

1 //f

I rt-.l5

123

.456.7

8910

s/a Fig. 6 where b/a factor and &10/a and I.IO/a


FIO is

Fig. 8

is the

desired of

extension factor the

factor at

at the b/a= s/a

actual The d/b The ratio and term of the the

BANDWIDTH bandwidth, cutoff

CONSIDERATIONS as used here, is defined as the mode the cutoff

is the a function by

extension

.45. and

parameters

wavelengths mode. By

of the

fundamental of

is given

next

higher

inspection

4 ~ a Flo = 27r(l m(l s/a) cscz [ A,IO/a s/a)

in csc (~d/2b)

(5)
+ 1 s/a . d/b 7rs/a see -+ AcJa 1.81ncsc~

1955

Hopfer:

The

Design

of

Ridged

Waveguides

23

54

BANDwIDTH ~ :0.5 52 a/b~O.10

5.

I I I

I I

1 I H-H
-~k

::}-3
CtiRVES ~

5J

-LLLLLLu

4.

4.

4.

-W1 I LU _ ]. : - El
1 1 :*

LLi

l\

l\

4.

i+

-1---1 H
L &

4,(

3. -N .2 > 34 g : 33 o :3

m 3.1
2.

.> .

2J 2.

2.

2.01

I I
I 02

I
0.3

I I
0.4 SIa

I
0.5

I
0.6

~\

).8 I 0.9

0.0 0.I
I
I

I 10 I

2.1 1.1

I I

Ililillltl

L---

-rkF

1tt-lt-i-1Hhttm
may close work. to be operated. lower Inexperience from 15 per The cuthas cent

--

$FFHwm

Slo Fig. 9 width curves, ridged always mode. always mode. TEOI mode upper mode made mode. it is seen the than the that the cutoff the that limit the large i5/a for any factor given of geometry the one of the TE20 for third of the the of mode the is TE~o is latter off over depends frequency that this cent which mainly one is the

Fi3. 10 guide how

upon willing range cutoff. GUIDE a of the

tc} the

guide, larger Thus, greater Ori mode ;.s very bandwidth cutoff, equal For the

extension

corresponding frequency cutoff the

shown

may above

anywhere

mode second for for

to 25 per

than other show nearly

frequency

hand,

cutoff cutoff to 2b. In ridged should extension this

calculations wavelength order guide, factor

the this the TEZO be TEZO b/a where The line

RIDGED attenuation

ATTENUATION ridged by -t 2 Q db/rn (6) guic[e transmission

equal ratio the

to extend to the of the the

is approximately

given

of the

~A./bA~ u = 8.686 ti(L/x)

approximately require

to one-half

1p

bandwidths,

would

F%[tan?+:sec:l+:%l an%+% see?


ratio b/a clf the ratio Figs. function guides, bandwidth double ridged guide the It to be about of be is not 0.4 and 0.45. as that a the and where P = ~ = fl = skin b/a d/a depth y = 6= 2in meters s/a 1 s/a k of the 9 and of s/a single and d/b ridged guide curves to be about bandwidth and the realized useful 10 show for the singleshould here. double-ridged the band-

>

(7)

= A/a

respectively. as defined

p == A./A.

24

IRE TRANSACTIONSMICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES

October

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Slo

0.5

0.6

0.7

0,8

0.9

Fig. 12

Fig. 11

A derivation to the tical to and curves u,, its the present it ridged cutoff

of ridged guide

(6)

is found guide

in

the

Appendix. data the in guide

In

order

6 5

attenuation to compare of a rectangular We thus define ridged

a general of atof iden-

fashion,

is convenient to that frequency. un, as the ratio guide ratio in Figs. at about not

attenuation

4 3

a normalized guide attenuation of identical

tenuation

of the at

rectangular this are shown value

attenuation a frequency with f = ~3f,. by In 11 and

cutoff Such that as per


Z6 5 4 3 Io- 8 7

evaluate increases average

f= ~~f,.

12. It can be shown frequency For more bandwidths than +25

monotonically,

reaching

large cent

as 5, crn does from the plotted data Thus, it

change values.

the that of and

calculations the the aspect as that double case

of the ratio of the ridged to a rectof the In

attenuation b/a of the the ridged standard to atf guide ridged guide, angular single most order guide lar quantity width, tively. guide over in guide. guide

is in

assumed guide the ratio case 0.5, fall

rectangular normalized of aspect guide

is the

same

attenuation to one of aspect the actual at in Fig. of

is referred in the 0.45. this of by the ratio within

162 8 7 6 5 4 ATTENuATON y

Actually, range. the rectangulatter guide respecmanner, ridged

waveguides ISn must

\\ I CON OUCTIVITY(SILVER) CONOUCTIVITY(MAT.I I

evaluate = ~~fc, is plotted attenuation

attenuation this frequency.

be multiplied

This of the 0.45,

13 as a function and the in the the the b/a= value

.4

5 .6 .7.B

1.0 o=

23 WIOTH OF

4567810 GUIOE IN CM

15

20

30

a, for

values

b/a = 0.5 that to

It should attenuation, very frequency the

be noticed, as obtained closely range, of

of the ridged attenuation always occurs the An ridged POWER approximate guide

Fig. 13 HANDLING expression is given by for CAPACITY the power carried by

described

corresponds the vicinity

minimum latter

since

f=

~~f,.

15)55

Hopfer:

The

Design

of

Ridged

Waveguides

25

,00 : 70

so 50

I I I I I I I RELATIVE POWER HA NOLING CAPACITY .SINGLE RIDGED ~~EGUIDE TE,,o MODE b/a :0.45 Co: 30,000 VlCM
FOR ANY OTHER FR\Q RDNATE T9 MULTIPLY

+0 30

I I ~w ~ATlo , ~ Ay -2.5 - -= ~

NOTES, 1,NO SAFETY FACTOR INCLUDED, 2 CORNER BREAKDOWN1S NOT CONSIDERED

20 ,, d

/J

3.0 ,0 , *
7 z u 6

A /
--.. . _ . _ h

=.=

._

3.5 ---.3 / Y \ 4.0 ----\ . ---\ 5.0 / $ / x / / d // / / / / ---i L _ \ \ % \ \ \ \

%5 &4 :

!! 18 !: = 1< -1 4

/ 2

7 / 4.5

0: o 80,7 0 6 / 05 0, 4
0 3

0. 2

0 o 0

a,

02

0.3 (s/0)

04

05

06

0.7

Fig. l-l

-.050d

-.025d

+.025d

+.o5O d

+.075d

Fig. 15 the the electric electric of intensity intensity curvature the ratio of in at the the the E./Eo with of Fig. to the vicinity center, edge. This of the edge in to Eo Fig. of a case

+:

27ry sin ~+

d b

COS27ry/k sin~

27T8/~ [ k at

1}
d 1 47r13 sin ~(8) 4 the center of the guide guide. is found in the s/a,

as a function is shown

of the

radius

15 in which the edge

is plotted the radius

as a function c)f curvature to the of ratio, static the

where ridged

IL

is the

electric

intensity

coordinate, The above curves Due ridged in Fig. case. is given

gap. m = 1 for the double ridged

parameter. of a corner in the

15 apply plane. variation the E~/Eo

a grounded

This

case is treated electric as found than in the for

literature.b in the

and m = 2 for A derivation In with the Fig. the power of 14, the bandwidth carried with being the by the conditions for ric~ged because is normally critical maximum that guide. the the This, electric higher dependence of the edge, the by the the the single above ridged

intensity from actual expression Pm/A/ E,/Eo the

gap, An by

curves

15, is always approximate

higher

dynamic dynamic

expression

Appendix. quantity ratio the electric is plotted against

a parameter. single ridged intensity per if

Pm represents guide Eo at at the infinite center seen at this of the the of on E,, It should

(EJEO)

dyn.

TS COS. ~

()
than cross is

E, ~

stat.

(9)

frequency, of the guide

be evident if

that much of the maximum it

the

curves

in Fig. any

15 are

only

equal maximum ridged

to 30 kv power guide,

cm. an

Pm is thus could air dielectric

applicable physical calculation of a ridged value then ever, of the

p is
of guide,

very

smaller ridged power

one of the In the first unity-, howvalue dym.).~ capacity

to represent be handled standard value the case, ridge of the the

which In order

possibly

dimensions the

section. to ascertain Ie:ss than directly, then the (E,/Eo)

handling

is assumed. power breakdown however, intensity than of at

to achieve ability, at the the center not of view In

is thus If the

necessary latter

handling occurs at the

it would

E,/Eo curves from

dyn. of Fig. dyn. Fig.

be necessary

14 may than

be used unity, by

is generally edges center.

if E,/Eo

is larger 14 must

obtained
5

be divided

the

electric

intensity to relate

roundness

it is convenient

R. Rothe, F. Ollendorf, and K. Pohlhausen, Theory of Functions as .kpplied to Engineering problems, Murray Printing4C0., pp. 129136; 1942. GMarcuvitz, op. cit.

26

IRE

TRANSACTIONSMICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES

October

RIDGED In order to and design

GUIDE

IMPEDANCE between or between to the any ridged two the disim-

applications lar this waveguide. purpose,

involve While

transitions tapered efficient

from ridges and

ridged could probably

to rectangube used for

transitions line

waveguide similar pedances pedance tionable, stances The the

a coaxial one two

it is more several The such we

less costly to effect be arratio be17, we transiwave

waveguides, of the it is,

is forced Although

compare the value in

to employ the over havior. ranged the If the in

quarter-wave various band to design the has formula a manner that

ridged ridged the

sections may

guides. in this

of imquesinof

transition.

sections standing used for the in

designations as shown in

connection very useful for the on special

is highly many

nevertheless, the section definition impedance Zo =

frequency refer by basic

a nearly

Tchebycheff Fig. stepped

applications. calculation

symbols

impedance ridged guide

adopted is vL1/2P,

see that tion

is given

a~ ln Z, the center power of the where

in Z,,

(11)

where ridge, by than of be the shown correct


! !0 18
.16 1* .! z

VO is the and the where impedance

peak

voltage

across the in

P represents For convenience, is plotted geometry. factor given infinite the

average the Fig. and

carried rather values therefore the

the

guide. ridged apply value

admittance admittance must

16, as a function

guide to by

The ~/A,,

frequency frequency.

multiplied

in order

to yield

at any

in

CENTER OF GUIDE

I
I I I I I I I , ACROSS llllllllltl, I I I I I I I
I I ! I I I I 1 I I

w
I STEP 2 Fig. 17 (11) is readily thus solved ratio for 21 Zin/Zout in terms which of the transformation is norspecified;

STEP I

4H-tH-t
.08

ii

Eq. mally

impedance

z;=
Once dances Z1 is determined by

()
by TABLE

Zi~

l/za~

(12)

Zoui
(12), all successive impe-

are given

,008

I 1/1/1 XK .J

al
1 1 1
1

ttFwMTt

la21a3 4 a51a61a7 %
l ll 1!1 l

11

1 1

1.41 2.12 2,83 3.53 4.24

1 2.12 3.83 6.03 8.73

~11 1! 2,83 6.03 10.94 I


1 ~

.?,53 8.73

4:24

3241 6.24 11.49 21,12 38.88

The
(s/.

cws in Table bandwidth ratio of

1, above, of the the AJs at

are computed standard to

to cover the

the

normal i.e., the

rectangular

guide; lowest waveare not covered. of input guides, the

corresponding which the

Fig. 16

and guide

highest

frequency when

rectangular They be is to

is operated

is assumed a smaller a plot each the of

to be 2.143. bandwidth

SPECIAL While guide ridged with the favor guide the large its use sections

APPLICATIONS obtainable by guides. itself, used with ridged

optimum Fig. steps and that nevertheless, in conjunction such used output by

bandwidths as a system are frequently rectangular

18 shows in

(12) it

for In was of

a varying specifying found the respective

number

transition. ZO~ values

impedance,

experimentally

standard

Invariably,

using

1955
better the the over-all characteristic design. The the results are obtained at the

Hopfer:

The

Design

of

Ridged

Waveguides

27

than center

by

specifying of where

K2

K, +

KCZ2+

KCv

(14)

impedance values

frequency geometry, obtained

for a given guide

ridged are the

guide directly

including from Fig.

rectangular

~ = fJJ2/w

16. Having we again guide

determined employ geometry Fig. to

ZO~s of the various obtain the the desired necesZO~. u = attenuation


K.u

sections, sary

16 to yield

ridged

constant numbers If
real

in nepers due dielectric consequently Consider to

permeter. resonances in the Fig. guide in is


Kcg

{5 the 14

K,.

and x and

are

wave

y directions. then K2 k

the and

lossless, must

KC. and

be complex

if K is complex.

1!). The

13 ..
12

II

. PROPAGATION kcx = WAVE


2 3 4 IMPEDANCE 5 ?ATIO 6 ZIN/ZouT 7 8 9

DIRECTION NUMBER
Fig. 19

I 0:

Fig. 18 value From to keep a standpoint the dimension The length of easy s, the of fabrication, width each AglAg2 1=
2(kgl + Xgz)

of KZ for for both the

propagation regions 1 and

along

the

guide AZ

must

be the

it

is desirable constant section is

same

2. Since if follows

is also the same


that

of the

ridge,

throughout

cross-section

throu~ghout. given by

transformer

In (13)

order

to

determine in the 10SSY top metallic

K,,I

and

K.v2,

we assume
walls, a

an

E
in

wave to propagate
by the slightly The Fig. 20.

y direction aud bottom has

ancl being complex

reflected phase

as shown

where band. the each the aid

h~l, The of section

and section A,s Fig. will

hc~ are at for 5. be In each

the the

guide two ends

wavelengths of the the are determined

of

the with

medium

respective

frequency length underlying simplifying predicYom kcy of

section

general, different. is

therefore, The on theory many

transformer

design which make

based

a.ssurnptions tion It of the has been

difficult<the for a given

accurate number that

vswr

response

of sections. transdesign with a

I
NUMBER
Fig. 20 a where is Ue/K,v is infinite, and bottom
for

PROPAGATION I2IRECTION

found

experimentally in accordance the entire

4 section the above band

formers formulas m~ximum tion

designed will vswr

with

= WAVE

cover

waveguide

between

1. 151 .20 for

ZO~ transformaconstant K~m=

ratios

of as high

as 4.3.

(1j)/p and
admittance

comple~ P is the for the an

characteristic s~~n deptJL medium E wave. The beAt ishing reverse


y = b/2

APPENDIX ATTENU.ATIO~ Rather field from the entirely method cuvitz. We variously system: start with directed the well-known periodicities relation in a between the than to in attempt the ridged is to CALCULATION to find guide in the presented line author the the and walls in by approximate to determine guide, and This N. Maris

admittance characteristic tween y = b/2 tangential itself.


is

Yom = ILJuP, parallel admittance E given plates

YO1, 170Z of since

the the The

distribution it the following based was current on

the nonvan walls must


1 at

distribution transmission

of the outline Dr.

at the top
by

derivation suggested

input

admittance

medium

calculations.

thus

Iom
j + ~ COt KCy,bj2

Yin

Yol
COt

(16)
Kcylb/2 + rom j j<

uniform

guided

28

IRE

TRANSACTIONSMICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES

October

In leads

view to

of

the

smallness

of

K.UI,

the

above

equation

g=

~AJbA2 {(A./A)2

Q
1

KCUI 2 =

(1

j) Kp/b,

(17)
Again

POWER consider mode step mode at the From

HANDLING the situation and all We by ridge line

CALCULATIONS at cutoff.
of the

and

similarly

for

medium %22 =

2 (1 j) K2p/d. numbers of Fig. by parts; it, the


KCZI

The

total

field set up fundatotal

(18)
and The K.Z2, constep dis-

in the

cross-section

is a superposition

fundamental

TEM To sider determine the equivalent is now is composed and, in series The and the wave circuit represented of two by the mental field mode. tribution 21. a shunt the

at cutoff discontinuity.

the shall

higher now

E modes treat that the the

distribution of the

assuming is that theory

continuity which tance, forming by by the

impedance, reacwall

center

of the the

fundamental voltage dis-

capacitive of the

transmission by
~(0) co~

with

impedance

is given ~(zj =

the step. wall losses,

former the

is assumed latter

to be unaffected to be given is thus Thus, the section


j/~
KX jz~@) sin K%

is assumed shunt

cwp (b d)/(1
by Y,

j).

The

total

admittance

when voltage is

V(o) is the distribution given t(x) = by

voltage in the

at the ridged

center part

of the of the

ridge, cross

represented

L+Lp(b d)/(1 j) Bwp(b d) .

~@) cos KX

05~5~/2

since I(IJ) = o part


KZ

~+s:;,, YQ i
Yom fins jB ~ ;

and

similarly v{z~) =

for

the

unridged sin

1 I Y02
I , I I Yms <jB
pLANE,

~z~~otj chosen x = s/2 This

0=s%s1 (O) the at the to x= effect side wall of two step

where

we have guide. At must shunt.

the

origin since to

Yom

the

corresponding leads

1, the of the

voltages is purely

be continuous

\cENTRAL ZERO
Fig. 21 The tion condition if + (Ye) all step. plans. transformed+ are of transverse resonance

E(x)

2?r E(o) COSfi x

o=<x

<s/2

ADMITTANCE
E(x) in the X direcin Y, = O, (19) = ;

d E(o)

Cos 27r/Acs/2

27r% sin sin 27r/iCL AC volume

O.ZXL1,

Now Fig.

consider 22.

a differential

element

as shown

is satisfied (Yom)

transformed convenience of the one (17) central

where to the ing


KCZZ,

for

admittances Y, is the zero (19) contains

transformed existK.xl and


1

plane

admittance both can into

at the

Eq.

however, (15),

of these and for Re Re


(K..,) (KGz2)

quantities If we take losses

be eliminated account the Fig. 22

by

using

(18). small
>> >>

following

conditions

~m

(Kc.,)

Irn

(KC .2) (KM)


(K,g2)

The mental

maximum mode

electric in the

energy

contained
Adz

in the is given

fundaby

Re (K..I)

>> Re

volume

element

Re (K, .2) >> Re and ignoring for all IC.z second from
2 jU)2 =

order the
K2

quantities, Finally, relationship


KC.12 KCV12

complex The above

=
value fundamental in the fringing mode field

[IJ+E2AIZ
equal any to the The by total energy in the at time. energy contained is approximated dU2 = ~CV2dz, first mode voltage at the to be the

solution constant

is obtained.

the

attenuation

is also

is obtained
KZ2 = K (~

Kc.22 KW22

to yield

the

expression

in the

text,

namely

where

V is assumed

1955

Cohn:

Shielded

Coupled-Strip

Transmission

Line

29

step

and

C is approximately

expressed

by

where

dzjdt

is

the

group

velocity of the

which last

is

given

by

C =

260 in csc (7rd/2b) T in the volume 1

(l/~eO,UO)A/A,. farads/meter. (8) of the text.

Evaluation

expression

yields

The

tc)tal

energy

dlr~

~ [ss
A

element

becomes

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The major by part the and of the work Bureau by the reported Corps carried in this under out by & paper was No.

coE~dA

CV2

1
dz,

sponsored NObsr-39294 No. lowing

of Ships Signal It was

under

Contract

Contract the fol-

and

the

power dUT dt=~

in the z direction

is given

by

DA36-039-sc-42662. people Co., Inc. L. Kent, of the staff:

[ss
1

Polytechnic W. E. and

Research Wailer, the M.

DevelopS.

eoEzdA

CVZ

1
dz z

ment Rubin,

Sucher,

C. ~ossmann,

author.

Shielded

CoupledStrip

Transmission

Line

S. B. COHN~

Surrvnarg-An
on a pair of parallel Rigorous while for strips impedances and tween grams acteristic nomograms over a wide sufficient ccmplec[-line formulas printed approximate

analysis co-planar

is made strips are given (AIL for the

of the odd and even TEM midway between of finite The ground

modes planes. strips, and

Due will of at

to the the odd

odd

symmetry the odd the joined It is clear strip

of the coupled-strip vertical

electric plane be the to fieldl

field, In of

this the by

mode case is

be called ground

mode. replaced the

are presented formulas on opposite

for the case of zero-thickness for strips construction). design of thickness sheet dielectric

mode, potential, wall

symmetry al thin that evetl horizontal

sides of a thin velocities

supported

and

may from

in air between

ground

planes

characteristic are necessary couplers, coupling work, benomoof the charof these

conducting ground capacitance

electrically

and the phase information filters, lines. in the The

of the two modes utilizing give the the

plates. per

plots the

the case

directional design

to ground

is less for

and other

components which

parallel-strip are included impedances. may range

In order paper in terms

to facilitate of the odd-

dimensions scales than

coupleckstrip

cross section be read

and even-mode

characteristic-impedance of better that is sufficient for most

\j
DIRECTIONAL COUPLER

to an accuracy

one per cent purposes.

~~

CI==l
FILTER

co

of values

BAND-PASS

INTRODUCTION r UMEROUS coupling N eter in are are strip-line between their shown parallel components strips utilize the

as a basic examples page),

paramof such cou-

design. in Fig.

Several 1 (next

q-ii= y
SINGLE STRIP LINE=*

components pled case. curate Solutions obtained, Fig. for pair two lines

where

L BALANCED STRIP LINE

used

to achieve these it

a particular circuits effects in this transverse modes is necessary of paper. field that parameters

effect to parallel

in each have acbeen

In order data for and 2 (next

to design specifications, on the are the most

to meet

prescribed
DELAY LINE

performance

coupling important shows TEM

strips. Fig. lSeveral and on a strip more for applications the odd two for (plus provide

SINGLE-TOSTRIP-LINE

EALANCEO TRANSFORMER

have

of coupled-strip case than for

1ine construe{ a single being paper, will velocities,

ion.

presented

page)

distributions can exist

isolated greater sol~ltions be given. which for the 1

fundamental

of the same

width.

Consequently, modes the the odd. mode sufficient

the characteristic

of parallel In equal even axis, In Fig.

conducting 2(a), strips in will strips equal

strips are

between at same direction. field the

parallel potential

ground and of verpo-

impedances for for are the the also 1 (After even two

of the than

are unequal, In this

planes. carry the tical mode. tentials

currents this Fig. mode 2(b), carry

the

same electric

Because about the

characteristic

impedances phase

symmetry

of the

These

quantities treated)

be called are currents


Park,

even coupled-strip but opposite directions.

information

at equal

and

in opposite
Calif.

this paper was prepared, a paper by D. Park appeared with a solution for ZO of the odd mode. The us,e of elliptic-integral identities shows Parks formula to be the same as mine. ) D, Park. Planar transmission lines, TRANS. IRE, VOI. lVITT-3, pp. 812;

~ Stanford

Res. Inst.,

Menlo

April,

1955.