You are on page 1of 100

!"#$!

%"&'()*')+
#",'
('&-'.'(
/01//012

!""# $%&'()# *%"%# *%+(,# -.)# /)"("# /0#
1)23)&# 4)%5# 6%)# 7%889# :%",&% %", :3);5


2
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

0!7< = > /?@-@
3$(+ -4 -)+(",5#+-")6 7-8+"(9 $),
:$8-# #")#'3+8
$%2(. 4%A2
$;<=>?@ AB 1CDE #FGH<=<I<=FG
$JK=G=H<;L<=M@ #FJ@ FN 1CDEB +=<?@ A--B LH LK@GJ@J
(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 E1Q0 R1CC/SB !%#
(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 QCET R1CC0SB ,-!%
(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 DTT1 R1CCDSB 3)3
(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 C/Q2 R/00USB :V3 LGJ :W*3
):6 Please see youi own coues. Exceipteu piovisions below aie
only ielevant to the succeeuing topics.

1CDE #")8+-+5+-")
$;<=>?@ A
8@><=FG 1. The teiiitoiial anu political subuivisions of the
Republic of the Philippines aie the piovinces, cities,
municipalities, anu baiangays. Theie shall be autonomous
iegions in Nuslim Ninuanao anu the Coiuilleias as heieinaftei
pioviueu.
8@><=FG /. The teiiitoiial anu political subuivisions shall enjoy
local autonomy.
8@><=FG 2. The Congiess shall enact a local goveinment coue
which shall pioviue foi a moie iesponsive anu accountable local
goveinment stiuctuie instituteu thiough a system of
uecentialization with effective mechanisms of iecall, initiative,
anu iefeienuum, allocate among the uiffeient local goveinment
units theii poweis, iesponsibilities, anu iesouices, anu pioviue
foi the qualifications, election, appointment anu iemoval, teim,
salaiies, poweis anu functions anu uuties of local officials, anu all
othei matteis ielating to the oiganization anu opeiation of the
local units.

$JK=G=H<;L<=M@ #FJ@ FN 1CDEB +=<?@ A--B LH LK@GJ@J
8@><=FG 1. *).B%&%3(C" C8 0CB(.9D - The State shall:
(1) ensuie the autonomy of local goveinments by pioviuing a
moie iesponsive anu accountable local goveinment stiuctuie
thiough a system of uecentialization.
(2) guaiantee Lu0s theii just shaie in national taxes anu theii
equitable shaie in pioceeus fiom the use of natuial iesouices,
anu affoiu them a wiuei latituue foi iesouices geneiation.

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 E1Q0 R1CC/SB !F>L? %FM@;GK@G< #FJ@
8@><=FG /4 *).B%&%3(C" C8 0CB(.9D E
(a) It is heieby ueclaieu the policy of the State that the teiiitoiial
anu political subuivisions of the State shall enjoy genuine anu
meaningful local autonomy to enable them to attain theii fullest
uevelopment as self-ieliant communities anu make them moie
effective paitneis in the attainment of national goals. Towaiu this
enu, the State shall pioviue foi a moie iesponsive anu
accountable local goveinment stiuctuie instituteu thiough a
system of uecentialization wheieby local goveinment units shall
be given moie poweis, authoiity, iesponsibilities, anu iesouices.
The piocess of uecentialization shall pioceeu fiom the national
goveinment to the local goveinment units.

(b) It is also the policy of the State to ensuie the accountability of
local goveinment units thiough the institution of effective
mechanisms of iecall, initiative anu iefeienuum.

(c) It is likewise the policy of the State to iequiie all national
agencies anu offices to conuuct peiiouic consultations with
appiopiiate local goveinment units, non-goveinmental anu
people's oiganizations, anu othei conceineu sectois of the
community befoie any pioject oi piogiam is implementeu in
theii iespective juiisuictions.

):6 The autonomy of local goveinments has both constitutional
anu statutoiy basis, as pioviueu foi in Aiticle X, Const, the Aumin
Coue anu the Local uoveinment Coue.

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 QCET R1CC0SB ,-!% #",'X +7'
,'3$(+*')+ "V +7' -)+'(-"( $), !"#$! %"&'()*')+

8@><=FG U4 !"# $#%&'()#*( +, ("# -*(#'.+' &*/ 0+1&2
3+4#'*)#*(4 - To caiiy out the policies anu puiposes of this Act,
the Bepaitment of Local uoveinment is heieby ieoiganizeu into
the Bepaitment of the Inteiioi anu Local uoveinment,
heieinaftei iefeiieu to as the Bepaitment, in accoiuance with the
piovisions of this Act.

8@><=FG T4 5+6#'7 &*/ 89*1(.+*7 +, ("# $#%&'()#*(4 - In
fuitheiance of the objectives of this Act, the Bepaitment shall
continue to exeicise the poweis anu functions of the Bepaitment
of Local uoveinment in auuition to the poweis anu functions as
heiein pioviueu.

8@><=FG Q4 :';&*.<&(.+*4 - The Bepaitment shall consist of:
Bepaitment Piopei
the existing buieaus anu offices of the Bepaitment of
Local uoveinment
National Police Commission (NPC)
Philippine Public Safety College,
Philippine National Police,
Buieau of Fiie Piotection
Buieau of }ail Nanagement anu Penology.

8@><=FG E4 $#%&'()#*( 5'+%#'4 - The Bepaitment Piopei shall
consist of the existing staff seivices as pioviueu foi unuei
Executive 0iuei No. 262 anu the following offices:

(a) 0ffice of the Secietaiy. - Secietaiy + immeuiate staff
(b) 0ffice of the 0nueisecietaiies anu Assistant Secietaiies. - one
foi peace oiuei, one foi local goveinment

8@><=FG D4 =#&/ +, $#%&'()#*(4 -
The Secietaiy, shall be:
ex-officio Chaiiman of the NPC
appointeu by the Piesiuent subject to confiimation of
the Commission on Appointments.
o No ietiieu oi iesigneu militaiy officei oi
police official may be appointeu as Secietaiy
within one (1) yeai fiom the uate of his
ietiiement oi iesignation.

8@><=FG C4 3#*#'&2 5+6#'7> !#') +, :,,.1# &*/ ?+)%#*7&(.+*
+, ("# @#1'#(&'A4
vesteu in the Secietaiy, who shall holu office at the
pleasuie of the Piesiuent
shall ieceive the compensation, allowances anu othei
emoluments to which heaus of uepaitments aie
entitleu.

8@><=FG 104 @%#1.,.1 5+6#'7 &*/ 89*1(.+*7 +, ("# @#1'#(&'A4 -
In auuition to his poweis anu functions as pioviueu in Executive
3
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

0iuei No. 262, the Secietaiy as Bepaitment heau shall have the
following poweis anu functions:

(a) Piepaie anu submit peiiouic iepoits, incluuing a Quaiteily
Anti-Ciime 0peiations Repoit anu such othei iepoits as the
Piesiuent anu Congiess may iequiie;
(b) Act as Chaiiman anu Piesiuing 0fficei of the National Police
Commission; anu
(c) Belegate authoiity to exeicise any substantive oi
auministiative function to the membeis of the National Police
Commission oi othei officeis of iank within the Bepaitment.

8@><=FG 114 B#;.+*&2 :,,.1#74 -
establish, opeiate anu maintain a iegional office in each of the
auministiative iegions of the countiy to implement the policies
anu piogiams of the Bepaitment.
Each iegional office shall be heaueu by a iegional uiiectoi to
be assisteu by two (2) assistant iegional uiiectois (one foi fiie
piotection anu one foi jail management)

8@><=FG 1/4 B#2&(.+*7".% +, ("# $#%&'()#*( 6.(" ("#
$#%&'()#*( +, C&(.+*&2 $#,#*7#. (as amenueu by RA 8SS1)

- The Bepaitment of the Inteiioi anu Local uoveinment shall be
ielieveu of the piimaiy iesponsibility on matteis involving the
suppiession of insuigency anu othei seiious thieats to national
secuiity.

The Philippine National Police shall, thiough infoimation
gatheiing anu peifoimance of its oiuinaiy police functions,
suppoit the Aimeu Foices of the Philippines on matteis involving
suppiession of insuigency, except in cases wheie the Piesiuent
shall call on the PNP to suppoit the AFP in combat opeiations.

"In times of national emeigency, the PNP, the Buieau of Fiie
Piotection, anu the Buieau of }ail Nanagement anu Penology
shall, upon the uiiection of the Piesiuent, assist the aimeu foices
in meeting the national emeigency." (as amenueu).

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 C/Q2 R/00USB Y:I;@LI FN V=;@ 3;F<@><=FG LGJ
:I;@LI FN WL=? *LGLZ@K@G< LGJ 3@GF?FZ[ 3;FN@HH=FGL?=\L<=FG
$>< FN /00UY
8@><=FG /. Beclaiation of Policy anu Piinciples. -
xxx the task of fiie piotection, anu jail management anu
penology shall be the iesponsibility of the Buieau of Fiie
Piotection (BFP) anu the Buieau of }ail Nanagement anu
Penology (B}NP), iespectively.

Noieovei, Section S of the Republic Act No. 8SS1, otheiwise
known as the "Philippine National Police Refoim anu
Reoiganization Act of 1998", pioviues that in times of national
emeigency, BFP anu the B}NP along with the Philippine National
Police (PNP) shall, upon the uiiection of the Piesiuent, assist the
Aimeu Foices of the Philippines (AFP) in meeting the national
emeigency, in auuition to the peifoimance of theii inheient
functions as manuateu by law.

It is theiefoie iecognizeu that the unifoimeu peisonnel of the
BFP anu the B}NP, as membei of the unifoimeu seivice of the
goveinment unuei the Bepaitment of the Inteiioi anu Local
uoveinment (BILu), aie iequiieu the same amount of saciifice,
seivice anu ueuication like theii counteipaits in the4 PNP anu
the AFP to caiiy out theii iespective uuties to the extent of
iisking theii lives anu limbs.

Towaius this enu, the State shall pioviue foi the
Piofessionalization anu iestiuctuiing of the BFP anu the B}NP by
upgiauing the level of qualifications of theii unifoimeu peisonnel
anu stanuaiuizing theii base pay, ietiiement anu othei benefits,
making it at pai with those of the PNP anu the AFP.

,-!% 3)3B :V3B :W*3 LGJ F<]@; PI;@LIH

0&)B(F("%&9 7)%,("G2> H+)&+()A# 5(23C&9 %", !22)22F)"3

$RTICLES6

3-*')+'!B +]@ !F>L? %FM@;GK@G< #FJ@ FN 1CC16 ^@[ <F
)L<=FGL? ,@M@?FOK@G<B O 11/
LCu is a ievolutionaiy piece of legislation because it upioots
uecaues of highly centializeu uecision-making in countiy anu
places upon local officials a majoi poition of the iesponsibility foi
the moueinization of the local communities. Substantial poweis
incluuing taxation gianteu to Lu0S - the piovince, the city, the
municipality, the baiangay.

Bevolution is the key to uevelopment. Befoie, the countiysiue
was highly uepenuent on the cential goveinment. With powei
uevolveu to Lu0s, they now have the powei anu money to
iesponu moie iapiuly to people's neeus anu pioviue basic
amenities without uepenuing on the cential goveinment.

The LuC uevolves substantial poweis to local goveinments so
that eventually, they may uevelop theii own localities at theii
own pace, with theii own iesouices anu at theii own uiscietion.

?+*7(.(9(.+*&2 D&7.7 +, 03?
Lu0s now moie self-goveining, anu can chait the couise of
theii own uevelopment (Sec. 2, local autonomy)
The Piesiuent of the Philippines shall exeicise geneial
supeivision, not contiol, ovei Lu0s (Sec. 4)
Lu0s have taxing poweis (Sec. S)
Lu0's shaie in national tax incieaseu (Sec. 6)
Befoie, u0CCs uiu not pay Lu0s foi use anu uevelopment of
natuial iesouices. Now, Lu0s aie paiu millions (e.g.
geotheimal pioject by PN0C in Leyte) (Sec. 7)
The teim of office of elective local officials shoiteneu fiom
foui to thiee yeais (Sec. 8)
Sectoial iepiesentatives in Sanggunians (Sec. 9)
Nannei of Cieation of Lu0s pioviueu by Coue (Sec. 1u)
Powei to cieate special metiopolitan political subuivisions
gianteu to Congiess (Sec. 11), but no such political
subuivision has been cieateu. Netiopolitan Nanila cieateu
uuiing Naitial Law.
Coue classifies cities into highly uibanizeu, inuepenuent
component, anu component cities. (Sec. 12)
Lu0s may gioup togethei foi beneficial puiposes. (Sec. 1S)
Lu0s ielate to the Regional Bevelopment Council in
matteies conceining theii own uevelopment (Sec. 14)


."(!, :$)^ ,@>@G<;L?=\L<=FG6 (@<]=G_=GZ %FM@;GK@G<B =G
.F;?J ,@M@?FOK@G< (@OF;<
Becentialization, when successful may positively affect (1)
political stability, (2) public seivice peifoimance, (S) equity, anu
(4) macioeconomic stability .
A majoi challenge of uecentialization is to institutionalize the
balance of powei between national anu local goveinments.
Naking the iules explicit anu ieasonably peimanent ieuuces
4
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

unceitainty. To be sustainable, the iules of uecentialization must
be self-enfoicingthat is, all paities must believe that they have
moie to gain by sticking to iules than by bieaking them.

The success of uecentialization uepenus on the uesign of the
cential goveinment iegaiuing: (1) moueiating iegional influence
on national goveinment, anu (2) cieating incentives foi national
anu subnational goveinments to coopeiate.

Subnational goveinments must be stiuctuieu as a system.
0ptimizing the system involves successful uesign in (1) stiuctuie
anu function (2) assigning anu contiolling iesouices anu (S)
cential iegulation of subnational goveinments.

Subnational goveinments, to be successful, must be a system
wheiein local officeis aie accountable to theii constituents, by
(1) auopting effective electoial iules, (2) hainessing civil society,
anu (S) ueveloping effective local auministiation.

Policies foi tiansition must involve (1) synchionizing the
elements of iefoim anu (2) uemonstiating the haiu buuget
constiaint.

3$:-#"B 3L;LP?@H LGJ 3L;LJF`@H =G ,@MF?I<=FG
The abunuance of empoweieu leaueis tiansfoiming the face of
local goveinance can only be cieuiteu to the Coue, which he
consiueis as the "most iauical anu fai-ieaching policy that
auuiesseu the uecaues-olu pioblem of an ovei-centializeu
politico-auministiative system" whose most significant political
anu auministiative uecisions emanateu fiom "impeiial Nanila."
Bowevei, even "successful" local goveinments have yet to ieach
the point wheie they aie alieauy able to contiibute to national
uevelopment. That can be tiaceu in pait to flaws in the Coue, as
well as in its implementation, among them the lack of funu
souices to meet all the buugetaiy iequiiements of the functions,
piogiams, anu piojects uevolveu to local goveinments.
Neveitheless, the Local uoveinment Coue gave many "talents" to
local goveinments foi them to eithei nuituie oi squanuei. To
bieathe life to specific Constitutional piovisions, incluuing a
ueclaieu State policy, that guaiantee autonomy to local
goveinments, the Coue piimaiily manuateu the tiansfei of the
iesponsibility foi the ueliveiy of basic seivices, incluuing
appiopiiate peisonnel, assets, equipment, piogiams, anu
piojects, to local goveinments. Bevolveu basic seivices incluue
health, social seivices, enviionment (paitially), agiicultuie,
public woiks, euucation, touiism, telecommunications seivices,
anu housing piojects.
4C.%B GC+)&"F)"3# ,).)"3&%B(I%3(C"# %J3C"CF9

$RTICLES6

3-*')+'!B +]@ !F>L? %FM@;GK@G< #FJ@ FN 1CC16 ^@[ <F
)L<=FGL? ,@M@?FOK@G<B 121E
Autonomy - the powei of Lu0s to enjoy limiteu self-
goveinment as uefineu by law. The piinciple of local
autonomy simply means uecentialization.
Becentialization - not tiansfei of powei anu iesouices, but
moie akin to ueconcentiation wheieby ceitain cential
goveinment offices aie tiansfeiieu to the iegions but whose
officials anu functions iemain unuei the contiol of the
cential goveinment.
Bevolution - the act by which the National uoveinment
confeis powei anu authoiity upon the vaiious local
goveinment units to peifoim specific functions anu
iesponsibilities.
4 Kinus of poweis of Lu0s
o expiessly gianteu
o implieu fiom those gianteu
o necessaiy, appiopiiate, inciuental foi efficient anu
effective goveinance
o essential to piomotion of geneial welfaie of
inhabitants
LuC Innovations
o Local officials aie accountable anu may be iecalleu
even in the miust of theii teims
o National agencies now neeu to consult with Lu0s
(anu also with Nu0s anu P0s)befoie any pioject oi
piogiam is implement in theii iespective
juiisuictions.
o Implementing Rules - Nanuatoiy consultations
with Lu0s, Nu0s anu sectois conceineu by cential
goveinment agencies anu u0CCs iegaiuing
piojects oi piogiams which may impact the
enviionment
o Bialogues in oiuei to avoiu confiontation between
goveinment anu inuigenous people

#ASES:

,' !'") M4 '8%5'(($
$IZIH< 21B 1CDE
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei baiangay officials weie electeu unuei B.P.
222 (Baiangay Election Act), which pioviues foi a 6 yeai tenuie.
Aftei plebiscite foi the new Const, 0IC uoveinoi Esgueiia
uesignateu othei people to the same office puisuant to the 1986
Piovisional Constitution (which pioviues foi continuance until
appointment of successois). Resp aigueu that the Pet. teims of
office weie abolisheu by viitue of the continuance, anu N0T
because theii teim of six yeais hau not yet expiieu.
7@?J6 The Baiangay Election Act of 1982 ueclaies it "a policy of
the State to guaiantee anu piomote the autonomy of the
baiangays to ensuie theii fullest uevelopment as self-ieliant
communities."
Similaily, the 1987 Constitution ensuies the autonomy of local
goveinments anu of political subuivisions of which the baiangay
foims a pait, anu limits the Piesiuent's powei to "geneial
supeivision" ovei local goveinments.
Theie is nothing inconsistent between the teim of 6 yeais foi
elective Baiangay officials anu the 1987 Constitution, anu the
same shoulu theiefoie, be consiueieu opeiative, puisuant to Sec.
S Ait. XvIII of the Const.

8$) W5$) M4 #-&-! 8'(&-#' #"**-88-")
$O;=? 1CB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Pet Piovincial uoveinoi appointeu a Piov Buuget
0fficei but the Regional Biiectoi iecommenueu anothei peison
because Pet's appointee uiu not fulfill the iequiiements. Issue
was whethei the iecommenuation of the local chief executive is
meiely uiiectoiy; ANB if the uoveinoi iecommenus an
unqualifieu peison, can the Bepaitment Beau fieely appoint
anothei.
7@?J6
The BBN may appoint only fiom the list of qualifieu
iecommenuees nominateu by the uoveinoi. If none aie qualifieu,
he must ietuin the list of nominees to the uoveinoi.
When the Civil Seivice Commission inteipieteu the
iecommenuing powei of the Piovincial uoveinoi as puiely
uiiectoiy, it went against the lettei anu spiiit of the constitutional
piovisions on local autonomy.
5
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

0ui national officials shoulu not only comply with the
constitutional piovisions on local autonomy but shoulu also
appieciate the spiiit of libeity upon which these piovisions aie
baseu.

%$)a") M4 #$
$IZIH< TB 1CC1
(@N;@H]@;6 A seiies (A L0T!) of auministiative complaints fileu
against Nayoi uanzon. BILu Secietaiy issueu oiueis which
imposeu 6uu uays of suspension (in effect suspenu him foi the
iest of his teim). Issue was W0N the Secietaiy as altei ego of the
Piesiuent can suspenuiemove local officials.
7@?J6
Local autonomy is not meant to enu the ielation of paitneiship
anu intei-uepenuence between the cential auministiation anu
local goveinment units, oi otheiwise, to usei in a iegime of
feueialism.
The Chaitei has not taken such a iauical step. Local goveinments,
unuei the Constitution, aie subject to iegulation, howevei
limiteu, anu foi no othei puipose than piecisely, albeit
paiauoxically, to enhance self- goveinment.
The Constitution contains no piohibition against the Piesiuent,
acting thiough the BILu Secietaiy, to take uisciplinaiy action
against local goveinment officials.

:$8#" M4 3$%#"(
*L[ 1UB 1CC1
(@N;@H]@;6 PAuC0R Tax Case wheie City of Nanila questioneu
PAuC0R's chaitei, specifically wheie it waiveu Nanila's taxing
poweis ovei the coipoiation.
7@?J6 The powei of local goveinment to impose taxes anu fees is
always subject to limitations which Congiess may pioviue by law.
Since PB 1869 iemains opeiative law until amenueu, iepealeu oi
ievokeu, its exemption clause iemains an exception to the
exeicise of the powei of local goveinments to impose taxes anu
fees. It cannot theiefoie be violative but iathei consistent with
the piinciple of local autonomy.
Besiues, the piinciple of local autonomy unuei the 1987
Constitution simply means uecentialization. It uoes not make
local goveinment soveieign within the state oi an 'impeiium in
impeiio.'

Local uoveinment has been uesciibeu as a political subuivision of
a nation oi state which is constituteu by law anu has substantial
contiol of local affaiis. In a unitaiy system of goveinment, such as
the goveinment unuei the Philippine Constitution, local
goveinments can only be an intia soveieign subuivision of one
soveieign nation, it cannot be an impeiium in impeiio. Local
goveinment in such a system can only mean a measuie of
uecentialization of the function of goveinment.

*$%+$W$8 M4 3(9#' 3("3'(+-'8 #"(3"($+-")
WI?[ /0B 1CCU
(@N;@H]@;6 PAuC0R expanueu to Cagayan Be 0io, eaining the iie
of eveiyone. CB0 Sangg Panglungsou enacteu an 0iuinance
which piohibiteu the opeiation of casinos in the city.
7@?J6 This basic ielationship between the national legislatuie
anu the local goveinment units has not been enfeebleu by the
new piovisions in the Constitution stiengthening the policy of
local autonomy.

Without meaning to uetiact fiom that policy, we heie confiim
that Congiess ietains contiol of the local goveinment units
although in significantly ieuuceu uegiee now than unuei oui
pievious Constitutions. The powei to cieate still incluues the
powei to uestioy. The powei to giant still incluues the powei to
withholu oi iecall. Tiue, theie aie ceitain notable innovations in
the Constitution, like the uiiect confeiment on the local
goveinment units of the powei to tax,
12
which cannot now be
withuiawn by meie statute. By anu laige, howevei, the national
legislatuie is still the piincipal of the local goveinment units,
which cannot uefy its will oi mouify oi violate it.


4C.%B GC+)&"F)"32# %,F("(23&%3(+) &)G(C"2# %J3C"CFCJ2 &)G(C"2

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 E//E R1C//S
8@><=FG 1/. Subic Special Economic Zone. - Subject to the
concuiience by iesolution of the sangguniang panlungsou of the
City of 0longapo anu the sangguniang bayan of the Nunicipalities
of Subic, Noiong anu Beimosa, theie is heieby cieateu a Special
Economic anu Fiee-poit Zone.
xxx
(i) Except as heiein pioviueu, the local goveinment units
compiising the Subic Special Economic Zone shall ietain theii
basic autonomy anu iuentity. The cities shall be goveineu by theii
iespective chaiteis anu the municipalities shall opeiate anu
function in accoiuance with Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise
known as the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991.

8@><=FG 1U4 Relationship with the Conveision Authoiity anu the
Local uoveinment 0nits. -
(a) The piovisions of existing laws, iules anu iegulations to the
contiaiy notwithstanuing, the Subic Authoiity shall exeicise
auministiative poweis, iule-making anu uisbuisement of funus
ovei the Subic Special Economic Zone in confoimity with the
oveisight function of the Conveision Authoiity.
(b) In case of conflict between the Subic Authoiity anu the local
goveinment units conceineu on matteis affecting the Subic
Special Economic Zone othei than uefense anu secuiity, the
uecision of the Subic Authoiity shall pievail.

Lu0s in the SSEZ ietain theii iuentity, but must uefei to Subic
Authoiity in case of conflict (except uefense anu secuiity)

#ASES:

$::$8 M4 #"*'!'#
)FM4 10B 1CDC
(@N;@H]@;6 Case about the constitutionality of R.A. 67S4. The
petitioneis aie tiying to piohibit Comelec fiom conuucting the
plebiscite wheiein the component Lu0s of the yet to be cieateu
ARNN will be ueteimineu.
7@?J6 Auministiative iegions aie meie gioupings of contiguous
piovinces foi auministiative puiposes. Auministiative iegions
aie not teiiitoiial anu political subuivisions like piovinces, cities,
municipalities anu baiangays.

Theie is no conflict between the powei of the Piesiuent to meige
auministiative iegions with the constitutional piovision
iequiiing a plebiscite in the meigei of Lu0s, because the
iequiiement of plebiscite in a meigei expiessly applies only to
piovinces, cities, municipalities oi baiangays, N0T to
auministiative iegions.

#7-")%:-$) M4 "(:"8
WIG@ //B 1CCT
(@N;@H]@;6 Case challenging constitutionality of R.A. 67S4 anu
E.0. 429, paiticulaily those pioviuing foi the ieoiganization of
the Auministiative Regions in Ninuanao.
6
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

7@?J6 The iegiouping of auministiative iegion involves no moie
than the uefinition oi ieuiawing of the lines sepaiating
auministiative iegions foi the puipose of facilitating the
auministiative supeivision of local goveinment units by the
Piesiuent anu insuiing the efficient ueliveiy of essential seivices.

Theie will be no "tiansfei" of local goveinments fiom one iegion
to anothei except as they may thus be iegioupeu so that a
piovince like Lanao uel Noite, which is at piesent pait of Region
XII, will become pait of Region IX.

The iegiouping of contiguous piovinces is not even analogous to
a ieuistiicting oi to the uivision oi meigei of local goveinments,
which all have political consequences on the iight of people
iesiuing in those political units to vote anu to be voteu foi. The
funuamental ieason why Ait. XIX, 1S is not so limiteu is that the
Piesiuent's powei cannot be so limiteu without neglecting the
necessities of auministiation.

#"(,-!!'($ :("$, #"$!-+-") M4 #"$
WLG /CB 1CC0
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis assail the constitutionality of E.0. 22u
(cieating the Coiuilleia Auministiative Region) on the piimaiy
giounu that by issuing the saiu oiuei, the Piesiuent, in the
exeicise of hei legislative poweis, hau viitually pie-empteu
Congiess fiom its manuateu task of enacting an oiganic act anu
cieateu an autonomous iegion in the Coiuilleias.
7@?J6 E.0. 22u uoes not cieate the autonomous iegion
contemplateu in the Constitution.
It meiely pioviues foi tiansitoiy measuies in anticipation of the
enactment of an oiganic act anu the cieation of an autonomous
iegion. The bouies cieateu by E. 0. No. 22u uo not supplant the
existing local goveinmental stiuctuie; noi aie they autonomous
goveinment agencies. They meiely constitute the mechanism foi
an "umbiella" that biings togethei the existing local
goveinments, the agencies of the National uoveinment, the
ethno-linguistic gioups oi tiibes anu non-goveinmental
oiganizations in a conceiteu effoit to spui uevelopment in the
Coiuilleias


"(,-!!" M4 #"*'!'#
,@> UB 1CC0
(@N;@H]@;6 0nly Ifugao appioveu the cieation of a Coiuilleia
Autonomous Region. C0NELEC issueu a iesolution about the
iatification of the 0iganic Act. Pet fileu petition with C0NELEC to
ueclaie its non-iatification
7@?J6 The Coiuilleia Autonomous Region (CAR) cannot be
constituteu of the sole piovince of Ifugao. The Constitution
contemplates that "iegion" is to be maue up of moie than one
constituent unit. The law cieating CAR, RA 6766 uoes not
contemplate a one piovince CAR.

:$%$:59" M4 #"**-88-") ") '!'#+-")8
,@> DB /00D
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis question C0NELEC Res. No. 78S7
(implementing RA 9S71 which appoitioneu Lone Legislativve
Bistiict of Cagayan Be 0io city). They aigueu that C0NELEC
cannot implement R.A. No. 9S71 without holuing a plebiscite.
7@?J6 Legislative appoitionment is uefineu by Black's Law
Bictionaiy as the ueteimination of the numbei of iepiesentatives
which a State, county oi othei subuivision may senu to a
legislative bouy. It is the allocation of seats in a legislative bouy in
piopoition to the population; the uiawing of voting uistiict lines
so as to equalize population anu voting powei among the
uistiicts.
Reappoitionment, on the othei hanu, is the iealignment oi
change in legislative uistiicts biought about by changes in
population anu manuateu by the constitutional iequiiement of
equality of iepiesentation.
Aiticle vI, Section S speaks of political iepiesentation anu the
means to make a legislative uistiict sufficiently iepiesenteu so
that the people can be effectively heaiu. In contiast with the
equal iepiesentation objective of Aiticle vI, Section S, Aiticle X,
Section 1u expiessly speaks of how local goveinment units may
be "cieateu, uiviueu, meigeu, abolisheu, oi its bounuaiy
substantially alteieu." Its concein is the commencement, the
teimination, anu the mouification of local goveinment units'
coipoiate existence anu teiiitoiial coveiage.

3("&-)#' "V )"(+7 #"+$:$+" M4 +7' %"&'()*')+ "V
+7' ('35:!-# "V +7' 37-!-33-)'8 3'$#' 3$)'! ")
$)#'8+($! ,"*$-)
">< 1UB /00D
(@N;@H]@;6 Case about the Nemoianuum of Agieement on the
Ancestial Bomain (N0A-AB) Aspect of the uRP-NILF Tiipoli
Agieement on Peace of 2uu1.
7@?J6 The Constitution uoes not contemplate any state in this
juiisuiction othei than the Philippine State, much less uoes it
pioviue foi a tiansitoiy status that aims to piepaie any pait of
Philippine teiiitoiy foi inuepenuence.


?88).3(+(39 C8 35) KC,)

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG T4 Rules of Inteipietation. - In the inteipietation of the
piovisions of this Coue, the following iules shall apply:

(u) Rights anu obligations existing on the uate of effectivity of
this Coue anu aiising out of contiacts oi any othei souice of
piesentation involving a local goveinment unit shall be goveineu
by the oiiginal teims anu conuitions of saiu contiacts oi the law
in foice at the time such iights weie vesteu

8@><=FG T2Q4 Effectivity Clause. - This Coue shall take effect on
}anuaiy fiist, nineteen hunuieu ninety-two, unless otheiwise
pioviueu heiein, aftei its complete publication in at least one (1)
newspapei of geneial ciiculation.

?!:?:

'&$(,")' M4 #"*'!'#
,@> /B 1CC1
(@N;@H]@;6 Case of iecall was fileu against Nayoi Evaiuone.
C0NELEC issueu a iesolution foi the holuing of a special election
foi the iecall. Evaiuone sought to nullify the iesolution aiguing
that the 1987 Const. iepealeu BP SS7 (legal basis of iecall).
Because theie was no LuC enacteu, iesp hau no iight to file a
iecall case against him.
7@?J6 ART XvIII, Section S of the 1987 Constitution pioviues that
all existing laws not inconsistent with the Constitution shall
iemain opeiative until amenueu, iepealeu, oi ievokeu. 0n the
othei hanu, the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991 will take effect
only on }anuaiy 1, 1992. Bence, BP Blg. SS7 is still the law
applicable to the piesent case. BP SS7 contains no special
piovision on the mannei of conuucting elections of the iecall of
local officials. Thus, puisuant to the iulemaking powei vesteu in
C0NELEC, it piomulgateu Resolution No. 2272 in 199u.
7
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph


8'#('+$(9 "V 7'$!+7 M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8B
V@PB /2B 1CCT
(@N;@H]@;6 Piivate iesponuent was chaigeu with auministiative
complaints anu pieventively suspenueu by the Secietaiy of
Bealth. In hei petition foi piohibition, she claimeu that when the
New Local uov't Coue took effect on }an. 1, 1992, the Secietaiy of
Bealth hau lost his uisciplinaiy powei anu authoiity ovei hei,
consiueiing that such powei to uiscipline the peisonnel of the
PB0 was not vesteu in the Piovincial uoveinoi.
7@?J6 It is explicit that the LuC shall take effect on }anuaiy 1,
1992. Consequently, since juiisuiction has been acquiieu by the
Secietaiy of Bealth ovei the peison of piivate iesponuent befoie
the effectivity of the Local uoveinment Coue on }anuaiy 1, 1992,
it continues until the final uisposition of the auministiative


*!L-*
3L;< --4 :FF_ -6 %@G@;L? 3;FM=H=FGH
+=<?@ "G@6 :LH=> 3;=G>=O?@H
:4 %@G@;L? 3Fb@; FN !F>L? %FM@;GK@G<
5G=<H
K&)%3(C" C8 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 N"(32

$(+-#!' A
!"#$! %"&'()*')+

%')'($! 3("&-8-")8
8@><=FG 14 The <@;;=<F;=L? LGJ OF?=<=>L? HIPJ=M=H=FGH of the
Republic of the Philippines aie the O;FM=G>@HB >=<=@HB
KIG=>=OL?=<=@HB LGJ PL;LGZL[H4 Theie shall be autonomous
iegions in Nuslim Ninuanao anu the Coiuilleias as heieinaftei
pioviueu.

8@><=FG E4 Local goveinments shall be @G<=<?@J <F LG @cI=<LP?@
H]L;@ =G <]@ O;F>@@JH FN <]@ I<=?=\L<=FG LGJ J@M@?FOK@G< FN
<]@ GL<=FGL? b@L?<] b=<]=G <]@=; ;@HO@><=M@ L;@LH, in the
mannei pioviueu by law, incluuing shaiing the same with the
inhabitants by way of uiiect benefits.

8@><=FG 104 No piovince, city, municipality, oi baiangay may be
>;@L<@JB J=M=J@JB K@;Z@JB LPF?=H]@JB F; =<H PFIGJL;[
HIPH<LG<=L??[ L?<@;@JB except in accoiuance with the >;=<@;=L
@H<LP?=H]@J =G <]@ ?F>L? ZFM@;GK@G< >FJ@ LGJ HIPd@>< <F
LOO;FML? P[ L KLdF;=<[ FN <]@ MF<@H >LH< =G L O?@P=H>=<@ in the
political units uiiectly affecteu.

8@><=FG 11. The #FGZ;@HH KL[B P[ ?LbB >;@L<@ HO@>=L?
K@<;FOF?=<LG OF?=<=>L? HIPJ=M=H=FGHB HIPd@>< <F L O?@P=H>=<@ as
set foith in Section 1u heieof. The component cities anu
municipalities shall ietain theii basic autonomy anu shall be
entitleu to theii own local executive anu legislative assemblies.
The juiisuiction of the metiopolitan authoiity that will theieby
be cieateu shall be limiteu to basic seivices iequiiing
cooiuination.

8@><=FG 1T. Theie shall be >;@L<@J LI<FGFKFIH ;@Z=FGH =G
*IH?=K *=GJLGLF LGJ =G <]@ #F;J=??@;LH consisting of
piovinces, cities, municipalities, anu geogiaphical aieas shaiing
common anu uistinctive histoiical anu cultuial heiitage,
economic anu social stiuctuies, anu othei ielevant
chaiacteiistics within the fiamewoik of this Constitution anu the
national soveieignty as well as teiiitoiial integiity of the
Republic of the Philippines.

8@><=FG 1Q4 The 3;@H=J@G< H]L?? @`@;>=H@ Z@G@;L? HIO@;M=H=FG
FM@; LI<FGFKFIH ;@Z=FGH to ensuie that laws aie faithfully
executeu.

Section 19. The fiist Congiess electeu unuei this Constitution
shall, within eighteen months fiom the time of oiganization of
both Bouses, OLHH <]@ F;ZLG=> L><H NF; <]@ LI<FGFKFIH
;@Z=FGH in Nuslim Ninuanao anu the Coiuilleias.


(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 E1Q06 !"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'

$5+7"(-+9 +" #('$+'e,-&-,'e*'(%'e$:"!-87 "(
85:8+$)+-$!!9 $!+'( !%5 R8@>4 QS6
(a) in the case of a piovince, city, municipality, oi any othei
political subuivision: by ?Lb @GL><@J P[ #FGZ;@HH ;
(b) in the case of a baiangay: P[ ?Lb F; P[ LG F;J=GLG>@
OLHH@J P[ <]@ HLGZZIG=LGZ OLG?L?Lb=ZLG F; HLGZZIG=LGZ
OLG?IGZHFJ conceineu
#('$+-") $), #")&'(8-") R8@>4 ES6
As a geneial iule, the cieation of a local goveinment unit oi its
conveision fiom one level to anothei level shall be baseu on
veiifiable inuicatois of viability anu piojecteu capacity to
pioviue seivices, to wit:
RLS -G>FK@.
must be sufficient to pioviue foi all essential goveinment
facilities anu seivices anu special functions commensuiate
with the size of its population
compliance must be attesteu to by Bepaitment of Finance
(B0F)
RPS 3FOI?L<=FG.
total numbei of inhabitants within the teiiitoiial
juiisuiction of the local goveinment unit conceineu; anu
compliance must be attesteu to by National Statistics
0ffice (NS0)
R>S !LGJ $;@L.
It must be contiguous,
EXCEPTI0NS:
- compiises two oi moie islanus oi
- is sepaiateu by a local goveinment unit inuepenuent
of the otheis;
piopeily iuentifieu by metes anu bounus with technical
uesciiptions; anu
sufficient to pioviue foi such basic seivices anu facilities
8
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

to meet the iequiiements of its populace.
Compliance must be attesteu by Lanus Nanagement
Buieau (LNB) of the Bepaitment of Enviionment anu
Natuial Resouices (BENR)
,-&-8-") $), *'(%'( R8@>4 DS
Same iequiiements piesciibeu foi theii cieation
Pioviueu, howevei, That such uivision shall not ieuuce the
income, population, oi lanu aiea of the local goveinment unit
oi units conceineu to less than the minimum iequiiements
piesciibeu in this Coue:
Pioviueu, fuithei, That the income classification of the oiiginal
local goveinment unit oi units shall not fall below its cuiient
classification piioi to such uivision.

$:"!-+-") R8@>4 CS
A local goveinment unit may be abolisheu when its income,
population, oi lanu aiea has been iiieveisibly ieuuceu to less
than the minimum stanuaius piesciibeu foi its cieation
Ceitifieu by the national agencies mentioneu in Section 7
heieof to Congiess oi to the sangguniang conceineu, as the
case may be
The law oi oiuinance abolishing a local goveinment unit shall
specify the piovince, city, municipality, oi baiangay with which
the local goveinment unit sought to be abolisheu will be
incoipoiateu oi meigeu

3!':-8#-+' ('f5-('*')+ R8@>4 10S
)F >;@L<=FGB J=M=H=FGB K@;Z@;B LPF?=<=FGB F; HIPH<LG<=L?
L?<@;L<=FG FN PFIGJL;=@H FN ?F>L? ZFM@;GK@G< IG=<H H]L??
<L_@ @NN@>< IG?@HH LOO;FM@J P[ L KLdF;=<[ FN <]@ MF<@H >LH<
=G L O?@P=H>=<@ >L??@J NF; <]@ OI;OFH@ =G <]@ OF?=<=>L? IG=< F;
IG=<H J=;@><?[ LNN@><@J4
Conuucteu by the C0NELEC within one hunuieu twenty (12u)
uays fiom the uate of effectivity of the law oi oiuinance
effecting such action, unless saiu law oi oiuinance fixes
anothei uate




85**$(9 "V +7' ('f5-8-+'8 V"( +7' #('$+-") "V !%5H
R!%# 8@>H4 2DT2DQB UU1UU/B UUCUT0B UQ0UQ1S


KC"3&('J3C&O2 @C3)> <5) G)")&%B ;&(".(;B)2 %2 ,(2.J22), %'C+) B(P)
35) F%"")& C8 .&)%3(C"# 35) &)QJ(2(3)2 %", 35) ;B)'(2.(3)
&)QJ(&)F)"3 8C& .&)%3(C" C8 35) 4MN2 %2 ,(2.J22), %'C+) %&) 23(BB
%B2C %;;B(.%'B) 3C 35) 8CBBCA("GD - RJ23 C;3), 3C 8C.J2 35) '&)%P,CA"
C8 35) ;&C+(2(C"2 A(35 35) S &)QJ(&)F)"32 T(D)D (".CF)# ;C;JB%3(C"
%", B%", %&)%U ;%&% ,( ;%JB(3JB(3D
!
%
5
H

-)#"*' 3"35!$+-") !$), $('$
- shall incluue
the income
acciuing to
the geneial
funu of the
Lu0
conceineu
- exclusive of
special funus,
tiansfeis anu
non-iecuiiing
income
- as ceitifieu by
the National
Statistics 0ffice
- as ceitifieu by the
Lanus
Nanagement
Buieau
- shall be piopeily
iuentifieu by
metes anu
bounus oi by
moie oi less
peimanent
natuial
bounuaiies.
- neeu not be
contiguous if it
compiises two
(2) oi moie
islanus
:
L
;
L
G
Z
L
[

R
8
@
>
4

2
D
T

2
D
Q
S

g

%(6 population
of at least /B000

'6 at least TB000
inhabitants :
cities anu
municipalities
within Netio
Nanila anu othei
metiopolitan
political
subuivisions oi
in highly
uibanizeu cities
-

*
I
G
=
>
=
O
L
?
=
<
[

R
8
@
>
4

U
U
1

U
U
/
S
g
g

An aveiage
annual income
of at least
R3/BT00B00040
0S
- as ceitifieu by
the piovincial
tieasuiei
- foi the last 2
consecutive
yeais baseu
on the 1991
constant
piices


a population of
at least /TB000
inhabitants
a contiguous
teiiitoiy of L<
?@LH< T0 HcIL;@
kilometeis as
ceitifieu by the
Lanus
Nanagement
Buieau
'A#'3+-")
- The iequiiement
on lanu aiea shall
not apply wheie
the municipality
pioposeu to be
cieateu is
composeu of one
(1) oi moie
islanus.
Text
9
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

#
=
<
[

R
U
U
C

U
T
0
S

A municipality
oi a clustei of
baiangays may
be conveiteu
into a
>FKOFG@G<
>=<[ if it has an
aveiage annual
income
3100B000B000
ggg foi the last
two (2)
consecutive
yeais baseu on
1991 constant
piices

a population of
not less than
1T0B000
=G]LP=<LG<H

-
a contiguous
teiiitoiy of at least
100 HcIL;@
_=?FK@<@;H
'A#'3+-")
- The iequiiement
on lanu aiea shall
not apply wheie
the city pioposeu
to be cieateu is
composeu of one
(1) oi moie
islanus.
3
;
F
M
=
G
>
@

R
8
@
>
4

U
Q
0

U
Q
1
S

if it has an
aveiage annual
income of GF<
?@HH <]LG
3/0B000B00040
0 baseu on
1991 constant
piices





a population of
not less than two
hunuieu fifty
thousanu
(2Su,uuu)
inhabitants
a contiguous
teiiitoiy of at least
<bF <]FIHLGJ
/B000 squaie
kilometeis****
g In case of the cieation of baiangays by SPanlalawigan,
the iecommenuation of the SBayan shall be necessaiy
gg Nunicipalities existing as of the uate of the effectivity of
this Coue shall continue to exist anu opeiate as such.
Existing municipal uistiicts oiganizeu puisuant to
piesiuential issuances oi executive oiueis anu which have
theii iespective set of elective municipal officials holuing
office at the time of the effectivity of this Coue shall
hencefoith be consiueieu as iegulai municipalities. h8@>4
UU/RJSi
ggg as amenueu by ($ C00C (2)) ')BCA)
ggggexception to lanu aiea iequiiement in municipalities
is not pioviueu to piovinces but in Navaiio v. Executive
Secietaiy, the SC iuleu that theie is no ihyme noi ieason
why this exemption shoulu not be gianteu to piovinces
also. :)) 35) .%2) ')BCAD


('35:!-# $#+ )"4 EDED
KC"3&('J3C&O2 "C3)> - 35("P 35(2 A%2 .(3), (" 35) 29BB%'J2 '9 A%9 C8
)V%F;B) B%"GD :C "C35("G ;%&3(.JB%&B9 (F;C&3%"3 %'CJ3 35)
;&C+(2(C"2D

('35:!-# $#+ )"4 EDED $) $#+ #")&'(+-)% +7' 85:
3("&-)#'8 "V ^$!-)%$ $), $3$9$" -)+" ('%5!$(
3("&-)#'8 +" :' ^)".) $8 +7' 3("&-)#' "V ^$!-)%$
$), +7' 3("&-)#' "V $3$9$"B $*'),-)% V"( +7'
35(3"8' ('35:!-# $#+ )"4 UQCT

8@><=FG 14 The sub-piovinces of Kalinga anu Apayao aie heieby
conveiteu into iegulai piovinces, to be known as the Piovince of
Kalinga anu the Piovince of Apayao.


8@><=FG /. The Piovince of Kalinga shall compiise the piesent
sub-piovince of Kalinga. (lists uown the municipality in the
subpiovince)

8@><=FG 2 The Piovince of Apayao shall compiise the piesent
sub-piovince of Apayao. (lists uown the municipality in the
subpiovince)

8@><=FG U4 The piovincial capital of the Piovince of Kalinga shall
be Tabuk anu that of the Piovince of Apayao shall be Kabugao.

x x x

8@><=FG Q4. The incumbent elective piovincial officials of
Kalinga-Apayao shall be assigneu to anu shall peifoim theii
uuties in the same positions in the coiiesponuing new piovince
to which the saiu elective piovincial officials iesiue in oi belong
to as a membei of a paiticulai tiibe oi ethnic gioup inhabiting
the piovince: x x x all officials as may be necessaiy to fill in any
vacancies in elective positions foi the two (2) piovinces shall, foi
the time being, be appointeu by the Piesiuent of the Philippines,
anu shall holu office until theii successois shall have been electeu
in the election foi the local officials following the appioval of this
Act anu shall have qualifieu.

8@><=FGE4. The piesent appointive officeis anu employees of the
Piovince of Kalinga-Apayao shall likewise peifoim theii
iespective uuties as such in any of the two (2) piovinces heiein
cieateu which they shall inuiviuually choose within thiity (Su)
uays fiom the uate of appioval heieof x x x

Section 8 0pon the appioval of this Act, the funu, assets, anu
othei piopeities anu the obligations of the Piovince of Kalinga-
Apayao shall be equitably uiviueu between the Piovince of
Kalinga anu the Piovince of Apayao by the Piesiuent of the
Philippines upon iecommenuation of the Commission on Auuit.

8@><=FG C. The incumbent iepiesentative foi Kalinga-Apayao at
the time of the appioval of this Act shall continue to be the
iepiesentative of the Piovince of Kalinga anu the Piovince of
Apayao until the expiiation of his teim of office. Theieaftei, the
Piovince of Kalinga shall have its own legislative uistiict with its
fiist iepiesentative to be electeu in the national election aftei the
passage of this Act. The Piovince of Apayao shall likewise
become a new legislative uistiict with its fiist iepiesentative to
be electeu at the same election.

8@><=FG 10. The Piovince of Kalinga anu the Piovince of Apayao
shall begin to exist upon the iatification by the majoiity of the
votes cast in a plebiscite to be conuucteu in the aieas uiiectly
affecteu within one hunuieu twenty (12u) uays aftei the
appioval of this Act.

x x x

8@><=FG 1/4 Buiing the fiist yeai of the implementation of this
Act, the inteinal ievenue allotment allocateu to Kalinga-Apayao
puisuant to Section 28S of the Local uoveinment Coue shall be
equitably uiviueu between the new piovinces of Kalinga anu
Apayao in accoiuance with the teims anu conuition as may be set
in the iesolution to be submitteu to the Bepaitment of Buuget
anu Nanagement foi the puipose by the incumbent Sangguniang
Panlalawigan of Kalinga-Apayao in consultation with the
incumbent iepiesentative foi saiu Kalinga-Apayao. Theieaftei,
the piovinces of Kalinga anu Apayao shall each be entitleu to an
10
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

inteinal ievenue allotment allocation as authoiizeu unuei the
saiu Local uoveinment Coue.

x x x

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 D2E1 "><FP@; /CB 1CCE

$) $#+ +" ('#"%)-a'B 3("+'#+ $), 3("*"+' +7'
(-%7+8 "V -),-%')"58 #5!+5($!
#"**5)-+-'8e-),-%')"58 3'"3!'B #('$+-)% $
)$+-")$! #"**-88-") "V -),-%')"58 3'"3!'B
'8+$:!-87-)% -*3!'*')+-)% *'#7$)-8*8B
$33("3(-$+-)% V5),8 +7'('V"(B $), V"( "+7'(
35(3"8'8

8@><=FG 1D4 +;=PL? :L;LGZL[H4 The ICCsIPs living in
contiguous aieas oi communities wheie they foim the
pieuominant population but which aie locateu in municipalities,
piovinces oi cities wheie they uo not constitute the majoiity of
the population, may foim oi constitute a sepaiate baiangay in
accoiuance with the Local uoveinment Coue on the cieation of
tiibal baiangays.

(@OIP?=> $><4 C00C

$) $#+ $*'),-)% 8'#+-") UT0 "V ('35:!-# $#+ )"4
E1Q0B "+7'(.-8' ^)".) $8 +7' !"#$! %"&'()*')+
#",' "V 1CC1B :9 -)#('$8-)% +7' $&'($%' $))5$!
-)#"*' ('f5-('*')+ V"( $ *5)-#-3$!-+9 "( #!58+'(
"V :$($)%$98 +" :' #")&'(+', -)+" $ #"*3")')+
#-+94

8@><=FG 1. Sec. 4Su of Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise known
as the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, is heieby amenueu to
ieau as follows:

"Sec. 4Su. Requisites foi Cieation. (a) A municipality oi a
clustei of baiangays may be conveiteu into a component city if it
has a locally geneiateu aveiage annual income, as ceitifieu by the
Bepaitment of Finance, of at least 0ne hunuieu million pesos
R3100B000B000400S foi the last two (2) consecutive yeais baseu
on 2uuu constant piices, anu if it has eithei of the following
iequisites:
(i) a contiguous teiiitoiy of at least FG@ ]IGJ;@J R100S
HcIL;@ _=?FK@<@;HB as ceitifieu by the Lanu Nanagement
Buieau; oi

(ii) a OFOI?L<=FG FN GF< ?@HH <]LG FG@ ]IGJ;@J N=N<[
<]FIHLGJ R1T0B000S inhabitants, as ceitifieu by the National
Statistics 0ffice.

The cieation theieof shall not ieuuce the lanu aiea, population
anu income of the oiiginal unit oi units at the time of saiu
cieation to less than the minimum iequiiements piesciibeu
heiein.

(b) The teiiitoiial juiisuiction of a newly-cieateu city shall be
piopeily iuentifieu by metes anu bounus. The iequiiement on
lanu aiea shall not apply wheie the city pioposeu to be cieateu is
composeu of one (1) oi moie islanus. The teiiitoiy neeu not be
contiguous if it compiises two (2) oi moie islanus.

(c) The aveiage annual income shall incluue the income
acciuing to the geneial funu, exclusive of special funus, tiansfeis,
anu non-iecuiiing income."
x x x

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 C0TU
$) $#+ +" 8+(')%+7') $), 'A3$), +7' "(%$)-# $#+
V"( +7' $5+")"*"58 ('%-") -) *58!-* *-),$)$"B
$*'),-)% V"( +7' 35(3"8' ('35:!-# $#+ )"4 QE2UB
')+-+!', j$) $#+ 3("&-,-)% V"( +7' $5+")"*"58
('%-") -) *58!-* *-),$)$"j $8 $*'),',
T@C3)> :)) :)F% +D KH6?4?K E <5) :K F%,) % ,(23(".3(C" ')3A))"
35) 7)G(C"%B !22)F'B9O2 ;CA)& 3C .&)%3) '%&%"G%9 %",
FJ"(.(;%B(39 %2 %G%("23 ;CA)& 3C .&)%3) .(39 C& ;&C+(".)2D <5)9
&JB), 35%3 35) ,)B)G%3(C" C8 35) ;CA)& 3C .&)%3) FJ"(.(;%B(39 %",
'%&%"G%92 (2 +%B(,D WCA)+)&# (3 (2 "C3 35) .%2) 8C& .(39 %",
;&C+(".)2D :)) 35) .%2) ')BCA 8C& % FC&) .CF;&)5)"2(+) ,(2.J22(C"U

$(+-#!' &-
+7' !'%-8!$+-&' ,'3$(+*')+

8@><=FG 1C4 #;@L<=FGB ,=M=H=FG F; $PF?=<=FG FN 3;FM=G>@HB
#=<=@HB *IG=>=OL?=<=@H F; :L;LGZL[4 The B#;.+*&2 E77#)D2A
)&A 1'#&(#> /.4./#> )#';#> &D+2.7"> +' 79D7(&*(.&22A &2(#'
D+9*/&'.#7 +, %'+4.*1#7> 1.(.#7> )9*.1.%&2.(.#7> +' D&'&*;&A in
accoiuance with the ciiteiia laiu uown by the Republic Act No.
716u, the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, subject to the
appioval by the )&F+'.(A +, ("# 4+(#7 1&7( .* ("# %2#D.71.(# in
the political units uiiectly affecteu. The B#;.+*&2 E77#)D2A )&A
%'#71'.D# 7(&*/&'/7 2+6#' ("&* ("+7# )&*/&(#/ DA B#%9D2.1
E1( C+G HIJK, the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, in the
cieation, uivision, meigei, abolition, oi alteiation of the
bounuaiies of piovinces, cities, municipalities, oi baiangay.
Piovinces, cities, municipalities, oi baiangay cieateu, uiviueu,
meigeu, oi whose bounuaiies aie alteieu without obseiving the
stanuaius piesciibeu by Republic Act No. 716u, the Local
uoveinment Coue of 1991, shall not be entitleu to any shaie of
the taxes that aie allotteu to the local goveinments units unuei
the piovisions of the coue.

The financial iequiiements of the piovinces, cities anu
municipalities, oi baiangay so cieateu, uiviueu, meigeu shall be
pioviueu by the Regional Assembly out of the geneial funus of
the Regional uoveinment.
The holuing of a plebiscite to ueteimine the will of the majoiity of
the voteis of the aieas affecteu by the cieation, uivision, meigei,
oi whose bounuaiies aie being alteieu as iequiieu by Republic
Act No. 716u, the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, shall, howevei,
be obseiveu.

!"# B#;.+*&2 E77#)D2A )&A &27+ 1"&*;# ("# *&)#7 +, 2+1&2
;+4#'*)#*( 9*.(7> %9D2.1 %2&1#7 &*/ .*7(.(9(.+*7> &*/ /#12&'#
'#;.+*&2 "+2./&A7G


('35:!-# $#+ )"4 101E0

$) $#+ ('$33"(+-")-)% +7' 8'#"), R/GJS !'%-8!$+-&'
,-8+(-#+ "V f5'a") #-+9B +7'(':9 #('$+-)% +." R/S
$,,-+-")$! !'%-8!$+-&' ,-8+(-#+8 $), +.'!&' R1/S
8$)%%5)-$)% 3$)!5)%8", 8'$+8 V("* 85#7
('$33"(+-")*')+
KC"3&('J3C&O2 "C3)> !G%("# - 35("P 35(2 A%2 .(3), (" 35) 29BB%'J2 '9
A%9 C8 )V%F;B) B%"GD :C "C35("G ;%&3(.JB%&B9 (F;C&3%"3 %'CJ3 35)
;&C+(2(C"2D

Be it enacteu by the Senate anu Bouse of Repiesentatives of the
11
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Philippines in Congiess assembleu:

8@><=FG 14 (@LOOF;<=FGK@G< FN <]@ 8@>FGJ R/GJS !@Z=H?L<=M@
,=H<;=><4 - The Seconu (2nu) Legislative Bistiict of Quezon City is
heieby ieappoitioneu, in oiuei to cieate two (2) auuitional
legislative uistiicts to commence in the next national anu local
elections aftei the effectivity of this Act.

x x x

8@><=FG /4 8LGZZIG=LGZ 3LG?IGZHFJ4 - In accoiuance with the
ieappoitionment manuateu by this Act, theie shall be electeu in
the next national anu local elections aftei the effectivity of this
Act, six (6) iegulai Sangguniang Panlungsou membeis
iepiesenting each of the Fifth (Sth) anu Sixth (6th) Legislative
Bistiicts of Quezon City.

8@><=FG 24 -G>IKP@G< (@O;@H@G<L<=M@ LGJ 8LGZZIG=LGZ
3LG?IGZHFJ *@KP@;H4 - The incumbent Repiesentative anu
Sangguniang Panlungsou membeis of the Seconu (2nu)
Legislative Bistiict of Quezon City shall continue to holu office
until the new Repiesentatives anu Sangguniang Panlungsou
membeis shall have been electeu anu qualifieu.

8@><=FG U4 -KO?@K@G<=GZ (I?@H LGJ (@ZI?L<=FGH4 k The
Commission on Elections shall issue the necessaiy iules anu
iegulations to implement this Act.

x x x

K&)%3(C"
#$8'86
3$,-!!$ M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 0ctobei 19, 1992
(@N;@H]@;6 The petitionei sought to set asiue the plebiscite
conuucteu on the appioval of the cieation of Nunicipality of
Tunay-na-Lupa. Bis contention is that the plebiscite shoulu have
been conuucteu only in the baiangays which compiise the new
Nunicipality anu shoulu not have incluueu the iemaining aieas of
the mothei Nunicipality.

7@?J6 When the law states that the plebiscite shall be conuucteu
"in the political units uiiectly affecteu," it means that iesiuents of
the political entity who woulu be economically uislocateu by the
sepaiation of a poition theieof have a iight to vote in saiu
plebiscite. Eviuently, what is contemplateu by the phase "political
units uiiectly affecteu," is the pluiality of political units which
woulu paiticipate in the plebiscite. Logically, those to be incluueu
in such political aieas aie the inhabitants of the baiangays of the
pioposeu municipality as well as those living in the paient
Nunicipality.

+"(($!:$ M4 8-:$%$+
,$+'6 }anuaiy 29, 1987
(@N;@H]@;6 The petitionei is challenging the constitutionality of
BP Blg. 168, enacteu on Febiuaiy 1, 198u (befoie 198S Local
uoveinment Coue), cieating the Nunicipality of Sibagat. Bis
contention is that the Local uoveinment Coue must fiist be
enacteu to ueteimine the ciiteiia foi cieation, uivision anu
abolition of Lu0s anu since no LuC hau yet been enacteu, BPS6
coulu not have possibly complieu with any ciiteiia anu is
theiefoie null anu voiu.

7@?J6 The absence of the Local uoveinment Coue at the time of
its enactment uiu not cuitail noi was it intenueu to ciipple
legislative competence to cieate municipal coipoiations. What
the Constitutional piovision means is that once saiu Coue is
enacteu, the cieation, mouification oi uissolution of local
goveinment units shoulu confoim with the ciiteiia thus laiu
uown. In the inteiiegnum befoie the enactment of such Coue, the
legislative powei iemains plenaiy except that the cieation of the
new local goveinment unit shoulu be appioveu by the people
conceineu in a plebiscite calleu foi the puipose.

#$.$!-)% M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 0ctobei 26, 2uu1
(@N;@H]@;6 The petitionei is challenging the constitutionality of
Republic Act No. 88u6 (an "Act Cieating The City 0f Soisogon By
Neiging The Nunicipalities 0f Bacon Anu Soisogon In The
Piovince 0f Soisogon, Anu Appiopiiating Funus Theiefoi"). Bis
contention is that unuei Section 4Su(a) of the Coue, a component
city may be cieateu only by conveiting "a municipality oi a
clustei of baiangays," not by meiging two municipalities, as what
R.A. No. 88u6 has uone. Be also contenus that R.A. No. 88u6
actually embiaces two piincipal subjects which aie: (1) the
cieation of the City of Soisogon, anu (2) the abolition of the
Nunicipalities of Bacon anu Soisogon.

7@?J6 The phiase "A municipality oi a clustei of baiangays may
be conveiteu into a component city" is not a ciiteiion but simply
one of the moues by which a city may be cieateu. Section 8 of the
Coue uistinctly pioviues that uivision anu meigei of existing local
goveinment units shall comply with the same iequiiements
heiein piesciibeu foi theii cieation.

Also, theie is only one subject embiaceu in the title of the law,
that is, the cieation of the City of Soisogon. The
abolitioncessation of the coipoiate existence of the
Nunicipalities of Bacon anu Soisogon uue to theii meigei is not a
subject sepaiate anu uistinct fiom the cieation of Soisogon City.
Such abolitioncessation was but the logical, natuial anu
inevitable consequence of the meigei.

3'!$'a M4 $5,-+"( %')'($!
,$+'6 Becembei 24, 196S
(@N;@H]@;6 The Piesiuent of the Philippines, puipoiting to act
puisuant to Section 68 of the Reviseu Auministiative Coue,
issueu Executive 0iueis Nos. 9S to 121, 124 anu 126 to 129;
cieating thiity-thiee (SS) municipalities. Petitionei alleges that
saiu executive oiueis aie null anu voiu, upon the giounu that saiu
Section 68 has been implieuly iepealeu by Republic Act No. 2S7u
anu constitutes an unuue uelegation of legislative powei.

7@?J6 It is obvious, howevei, that, wheieas the powei to fix such
common bounuaiy, in oiuei to avoiu oi settle conflicts of
juiisuiction between aujoining municipalities, may paitake of an
auministiative natuie involving, as it uoes, the auoption of
means anu ways to caiiy into effect the law cieating saiu
municipalities the authoiity to cieate municipal coipoiations
is essentially legislative in natuie. Although Congiess may
uelegate to anothei bianch of the uoveinment the powei to fill in
the uetails in the execution, enfoicement oi auministiation of a
law, it is essential, to foiestall a violation of the piinciple of
sepaiation of poweis, that saiu law: (a) be complete in itself anu
(b) fix a stanuaiu. Section 68 of the Reviseu Auministiative Coue
uoes not meet these well settleu iequiiements foi a valiu
uelegation of the powei to fix the uetails in the enfoicement of a
law.

12
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

8'*$ M4 #"*'!'# TKC"3&('J3C&O2 @C3)> <5(2 (2 %" (F;C22('B9 BC"G
.%2) 2C 8C&G(+) 35) BC"G X,(G)23YU
,$+'6 }uly 16 2uu8
(@N;@H]@;6 The ARNN's legislatuie, the ARNN Regional
Assembly, exeicising its powei to cieate piovinces, enacteu NNA
Act 2u1 cieating the Piovince of Shaiiff Kabunsuan composeu of
the eight municipalities in the fiist uistiict of Naguinuanao. What
was left of Naguinuanao weie the municipalities constituting its
seconu legislative uistiict. Cotabato City, although pait of
Naguinuanao's fiist legislative uistiict, is not pait of the Piovince
of Naguinuanao. In oiuei to iesolve the status of Cotabato,
C0NELEC issueu Resolution No. 79u2, by ienaming the
legislative uistiict in question as "Shaiiff Kabunsuan Piovince
with Cotabato City (foimeily Fiist Bistiict of Naguinuanao with
Cotabato City)." Petitioneis seek to annul Resolution No. 79u2, of
the C0NELEC tieating Cotabato City as pait of the legislative
uistiict of the Piovince of Shaiiff Kabunsuan.

-HHI@e7@?J6 Whethei the ARNN Regional Assembly Can Cieate
the Piovince of Shaiiff Kabunsuan

0nuei Section 19, Aiticle vI of RA 9uS4, Congiess uelegateu to
the ARNN Regional Assembly the powei to cieate piovinces,
cities, municipalities anu baiangays within the ARNN. Congiess
maue the uelegation unuei its plenaiy legislative poweis because
the powei to cieate local goveinment units is not one of the
expiess legislative poweis gianteu by the Constitution to
iegional legislative bouies.

Theie is no piovision in the Constitution that conflicts with the
uelegation to iegional legislative bouies of the powei to cieate
municipalities anu baiangays, pioviueu Section 1u, Aiticle X of
the Constitution is followeu. 7Fb@M@;B <]@ >;@L<=FG FN
O;FM=G>@H LGJ >=<=@H =H LGF<]@; KL<<@;4 8@><=FG T R2SB $;<=>?@
&- FN <]@ #FGH<=<I<=FG O;FM=J@HB Y'L>] >=<[ b=<] L OFOI?L<=FG
FN L< ?@LH< <bF ]IGJ;@J N=N<[ <]FIHLGJB F; @L>] O;FM=G>@B
H]L?? ]LM@ L< ?@LH< FG@ ;@O;@H@G<L<=M@Y =G <]@ 7FIH@ FN
(@O;@H@G<L<=M@H4

Cleaily, a piovince cannot be cieateu without a legislative uistiict
because it will violate Section S (S), Aiticle vI of the Constitution
as well as Section S of the 0iuinance appenueu to the
Constitution. Foi the same ieason, a city with a population of
2Su,uuu oi moie cannot also be cieateu without a legislative
uistiict. Thus, the powei to cieate a piovince, oi a city with a
population of 2Su,uuu oi moie, iequiies also the powei to cieate
a legislative uistiict. Even the cieation of a city with a population
of less than 2Su,uuu involves the powei to cieate a legislative
uistiict because once the city's population ieaches 2Su,uuu, the
city automatically becomes entitleu to one iepiesentative unuei
Section S (S), Aiticle vI of the Constitution anu Section S of the
0iuinance appenueu to the Constitution. Thus, the powei to
cieate a piovince oi city inheiently involves the powei to cieate
a legislative uistiict.

Section S (1), Aiticle vI of the Constitution vests in Congiess the
powei to inciease, thiough a law, the allowable membeiship in
the Bouse of Repiesentatives. Section S (4) empoweis Congiess
to ieappoition legislative uistiicts. The powei to ieappoition
legislative uistiicts necessaiily incluues the powei to cieate
legislative uistiicts out of existing ones. Congiess exeicises these
poweis thiough a law that Congiess itself enacts, anu not thiough
a law that iegional oi local legislative bouies enact. The allowable
membeiship of the Bouse of Repiesentatives can be incieaseu,
anu new legislative uistiicts of Congiess can be cieateu, only
thiough a national law passeu by Congiess. 0nly Congiess can
enact such a law. It woulu be anomalous foi iegional oi local
legislative bouies to cieate oi ieappoition legislative uistiicts foi
a national legislatuie like Congiess. An infeiioi legislative bouy,
cieateu by a supeiioi legislative bouy, cannot change the
membeiship of the supeiioi legislative bouy.

Nothing in Section 2u, Aiticle X of the Constitution authoiizes
autonomous iegions, expiessly oi implieuly, to cieate oi
ieappoition legislative uistiicts foi Congiess. 0n the othei hanu,
Section S, Aiticle Iv of RA 9uS4 amenuing the ARNN 0iganic Act,
pioviues, "The Regional Assembly may exeicise legislative powei
x x x except on the following matteis: x x x (k) National elections.
x x x." Since the ARNN Regional Assembly has no legislative
powei to enact laws ielating to national elections, it cannot
cieate a legislative uistiict whose iepiesentative is electeu in
national elections.

In summaiy, 8@><=FG 1CB $;<=>?@ &- FN ($ C0TUB =GHFNL; LH =<
Z;LG<H <F <]@ $(** (@Z=FGL? $HH@KP?[ <]@ OFb@; <F >;@L<@
O;FM=G>@H LGJ >=<=@HB =H MF=J foi being contiaiy to Section S of
Aiticle vI anu Section 2u of Aiticle X of the Constitution, as well
as Section S of the 0iuinance appenueu to the Constitution. "G?[
#FGZ;@HH >LG >;@L<@ O;FM=G>@H LGJ >=<=@H P@>LIH@ <]@
>;@L<=FG FN O;FM=G>@H LGJ >=<=@H G@>@HHL;=?[ =G>?IJ@H <]@
>;@L<=FG FN ?@Z=H?L<=M@ J=H<;=><HB L OFb@; FG?[ #FGZ;@HH >LG
@`@;>=H@ unuei Section S, Aiticle vI of the Constitution anu
Section S of the 0iuinance appenueu to the Constitution. +]@
$(** (@Z=FGL? $HH@KP?[ >LGGF< >;@L<@ L O;FM=G>@ b=<]FI<
L ?@Z=H?L<=M@ J=H<;=>< P@>LIH@ <]@ #FGH<=<I<=FG KLGJL<@H <]L<
@M@;[ O;FM=G>@ H]L?? ]LM@ L ?@Z=H?L<=M@ J=H<;=><4

!$+$8$ M4 #"*'!'#
,@> 10B /002
(@N;@H]@;6 Latasa, was electeu mayoi of the Nunicipality of
Bigos, Bavao uel Sui in the elections of 1992, 199S, anu 1998.
Buiing petitionei's thiiu teim, the Nunicipality of Bigos was
ueclaieu a component city. In the subsequent election, he fileu his
canuiuacy foi Nayoi. The iesponuent fileu a uisqualification case
against Latasa since he hau alieauy been electeu foi thiee
consecutive teims. Latasa's aigument is that when Bigos was
conveiteu fiom a municipality to a city, it attaineu a uiffeient
juiiuical peisonality. Theiefoie, when he fileu his ceitificate of
canuiuacy foi city mayoi, he cannot be constiueu as vying foi the
same local goveinment post.

7@?J6 Tiue, the new city acquiieu a new coipoiate existence
sepaiate anu uistinct fiom that of the municipality. This uoes not
mean, howevei, that foi the puipose of applying the subject
Constitutional piovision, the office of the municipal mayoi woulu
now be constiueu as a uiffeient local goveinment post as that of
the office of the city mayoi. As stateu eailiei, the teiiitoiial
juiisuiction of the City of Bigos is the same as that of the
municipality. Consequently, the inhabitants of the municipality
aie the same as those in the city. These inhabitants aie the same
gioup of voteis who electeu petitionei Latasa to be theii
municipal mayoi foi thiee consecutive teims. These aie also the
same inhabitants ovei whom he helu powei anu authoiity as
theii chief executive foi nine yeais.






13
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

!$#',$ M4 !-*')$
,$+'6 Novembei 2S, 2uu8
(@N;@H]@;6 Limena fileu a petition foi uisqualification anuoi
ueclaiation as an ineligible canuiuate against Laceua befoie the
C0NELEC, contenuing that Laceua hau alieauy seiveu as Punong
Baiangay foi Bigy. Panlayaan foi thiee consecutive teims since
1994, anu was thus piohibiteu fiom iunning foi the fouith time.
Laceua asseiteu that when he was electeu foi his fiist two teims,
Soisogon was still a municipality, anu that when he seiveu his
thiiu teim, the Nunicipality of Soisogon hau alieauy been
meigeu with the Nunicipality of Bacon to foim a new political
unit, the City of Soisogon, Thus, he aigueu that his thiiu teim was
actually just his fiist in the new political unit anu that he was
accoiuingly entitleu to iun foi two moie teims.

7@?J6 In this case, while it is tiue that unuei Rep. Act No. 88u6
the municipalities of Soisogon anu Bacon weie meigeu anu
conveiteu into a city theieby abolishing the foimei anu cieating
Soisogon City as a new political unit, it cannot be saiu that foi the
puipose of applying the piohibition in Section 2 of Rep. Act No.
9164, the office of Punong Baiangay of Baiangay Panlayaan,
Nunicipality of Soisogon, woulu now be constiueu as a uiffeient
local goveinment post as that of the office of Punong Baiangay of
Baiangay Panlayaan, Soisogon City. The teiiitoiial juiisuiction of
Baiangay Panlayaan, Soisogon City, is the same as befoie the
conveision. Consequently, the inhabitants of the baiangay aie the
same. They aie the same gioup of voteis who electeu Laceua to
be theii Punong Baiangay foi thiee consecutive teims anu ovei
whom Laceua helu powei anu authoiity as theii Punong
Baiangay. Noieovei, Rep. Act No. 88u6 uiu not inteiiupt Laceua's
teim.

)$&$((" M4 'A'#5+-&' 8'#('+$(9
,$+'6 Apiil 12, 2u11
(@N;@H]@;6 RA 9SSS, which cieateu the Piovince of Binagat
Islanus, was enacteu anu appioveu by majoiity votes in a
plebiscite calleu foi the puipose. The petitioneis assail the
constitutionality of RA 9SSS pointing out that Binagat hau a lanu
aiea of 8u2.12 squaie kilometeis only anu a population of only
1u6,9S1, failing to comply with Section 1u, Aiticle X of the
Constitution anu of Section 461 of the LuC, on both counts.
7@?J6 It must be pointeu out that when the local goveinment
unit to be cieateu consists of one (1) oi moie islanus, it is exempt
fiom the lanu aiea iequiiement as expiessly pioviueu in Section
442 anu Section 4Su of the LuC if the local goveinment unit to be
cieateu is a municipality oi a component city, iespectively. This
exemption is absent in the enumeiation of the iequisites foi the
cieation of a piovince unuei Section 461 of the LuC, although it is
expiessly stateu unuei Aiticle 9(2) of the LuC-IRR.

Theie appeais neithei ihyme noi ieason why this exemption
shoulu apply to cities anu municipalities, but not to piovinces. In
fact, consiueiing the physical configuiation of the Philippine
aichipelago, theie is a gieatei likelihoou that islanus oi gioup of
islanus woulu foim pait of the lanu aiea of a newly-cieateu
piovince than in most cities oi municipalities. It is, theiefoie,
logical to infei that the genuine legislative policy uecision was
expiesseu in Section 442 (foi municipalities) anu Section 4Su
(foi component cities) of the LuC, but was inauveitently omitteu
in Section 461 (foi piovinces). Thus, when the exemption was
expiessly pioviueu in Aiticle 9(2) of the LuC-IRR, the inclusion
was intenueu to coiiect the congiessional oveisight in Section
461 of the LuC - anu to ieflect the tiue legislative intent. It woulu,
then, be in oiuei foi the Couit to upholu the valiuity of Aiticle
9(2) of the LuC-IRR.

Elementaiy is the piinciple that, if the liteial application of the
law iesults in absuiuity, impossibility, oi injustice, then couits
may iesoit to extiinsic aius of statutoiy constiuction, such as the
legislative histoiy of the law,S1 oi may consiuei the
implementing iules anu iegulations anu peitinent executive
issuances in the natuie of executive anuoi legislative
constiuction. Puisuant to this piinciple, Aiticle 9(2) of the LuC-
IRR shoulu be ueemeu incoipoiateu in the basic law, the LuC.

*) Z%.3C KC&;C&%3(C"2
*$!$:$)% M4 :')-+"
,$+'6 Naich 28, 1969
(@N;@H]@;6 Balabagan was foimeily a pait of the municipality of
Nalabang, having been cieateu by Executive 0iuei S86 out of
baiiios anu sitios of the lattei municipality. The petitioneis
biought this action foi piohibition to nullify Executive 0iuei S86
anu to iestiain the iesponuent municipal officials fiom
peifoiming the functions of theii iespective office ielying on the
iuling of this Couit in Pelaez v. Auuitoi ueneial anu Nunicipality
of San }oaquin v. Siva. The iesponuents aigue that the iule
announceu in Pelaez can have no application in this case because
unlike the municipalities involveu in Pelaez, the municipality of
Balabagan is at least a ue facto coipoiation. It is contenueu that
as a ue facto coipoiation, its existence cannot be collateially
attackeu, although it may be inquiieu into uiiectly in an action foi
quo waiianto at the instance of the State anu not of an inuiviuual.

7@?J6 The Couit summaiizeu the following piinciples: Z(&23, the
coloi of authoiity iequisite to the oiganization of a ue facto
municipal coipoiation may be: (1) A valiu law enacteu by the
legislatuie. :).C",, an unconstitutional law, valiu on its face,
which has eithei (a) been uphelu foi a time by the couits oi (b)
not yet been ueclaieu voiu; pioviueu that a waiiant foi its
cieation can be founu in some othei valiu law oi in the
iecognition of its potential existence by the geneial laws oi
constitution of the state. <5(&,# theie can be no ue facto municipal
coipoiation unless eithei uiiectly oi potentially, such a ue juie
coipoiation is authoiizeu by some legislative fiat. ZCJ&35# 3heie
can be no coloi of authoiity in an unconstitutional statute alone,
the invaliuity of which is appaient on its face. Z("%BB9# theie can
be no ue facto coipoiation cieateu to take the place of an existing
ue juie coipoiation, as such oiganization woulu cleaily be a
usuipei. Bence, in the case at bai, the meie fact that Balabagan
was oiganizeu at a time when the statute hau not been
invaliuateu cannot conceivably make it a ue facto coipoiation, as,
inuepenuently of the Auministiative Coue piovision in question,
theie is no othei valiu statute to give coloi of authoiity to its
cieation.


*5)-#-3$!-+9 "V 8$) )$(#-8" M4 *'),'a
,$+'6 Becembei 6, 1994
(@N;@H]@;6 Executive 0iuei No. SSS cieateu the municipal
uistiict of San Anuies, Quezon, by segiegating fiom the
municipality of San Naiciso of the same piovince ceitain baiiios
with theii sitios. Petitionei seeks the nullification of E0 SS8
invoking the iuling in Pelaez v. Auuitoi. The iesponuents, on the
othei hanu, aigue that (a) the Nunicipality of San Anuies shoulu
be estoppeu consiueiing that it was at the instance of the saiu
Nunicipality that the E0 was given effect, (b) it hau been in
existence foi Su yeais anu (c) the case is moot by viitue of Sec.
442(u) of the LuC.

14
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

7@?J6 uianting the Executive 0iuei No. SSS was a complete
nullity, the peculiai ciicumstances obtaining in this case woulu
show that the Nunicipality of San Anuies has at least attaineu a
status uniquely of its own closely appioximating that of a ue facto
municipal coipoiation. Ceitain goveinmental acts all pointeu to
the State's iecognition of the continueu existence of the
Nunicipality of San Anuies (i.e. ieclassification into a fifth class
municipality, establishment of NTC, appoitioning seats in
Congiess).

Equally significant is Section 442(u) of the Local uoveinment
Coue to the effect that municipal uistiicts "oiganizeu puisuant to
piesiuential issuances oi executive oiueis anu which have theii
iespective sets of elective municipal officials holuing office at the
time of the effectivity of (the) Coue shall hencefoith be
consiueieu as iegulai municipalities." The powei to cieate
political subuivisions is a function of the legislatuie. Congiess uiu
just that when it has incoipoiateu Section 442(u) in the Coue.
Cuiative laws, which in essence aie ietiospective, anu aimeu at
giving "valiuity to acts uone that woulu have been invaliu unuei
existing laws, as if existing laws have been complieu with," aie
valiuly accepteu in this juiisuiction, subject to the usual
qualification against impaiiment of vesteu iights.

#$),-W$9 M4 #$
,$+'6 Becembei 28, 199S
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei commenceu its collateial attack on the
juiiuical peisonality of iesponuent municipality some thiity five
yeais aftei iesponuent municipality fiist came into existence. It
appeais that, aftei piesentation of its eviuence, heiein petitionei
askeu the tiial couit to bai iesponuent municipality fiom
piesenting its eviuence on the giounu that it hau no juiiuical
peisonality. Petitionei contenueu that Exec. 0iuei No. 26S is null
anu voiu ab initio, inasmuch as Section 68 of the Reviseu
Auministiative Coue, on which saiu Executive 0iuei was baseu,
constituteu an unuue uelegation of legislative poweis to the
Piesiuent of the Philippines, anu was theiefoie ueclaieu
unconstitutional in Pelaez v. Auuitoi ueneial.

7@?J6 Reiteiateu the iuling anu piinciples in Nunicipality of San
Naiciso. TKC"3&('J3C&O2 @C3)> - AC"O3 &);)%3 (3 %"9FC&)U
Responuent municipality's situation in the instant case is
stiikingly similai to that of the municipality of San Anuies.
Responuent municipality of Alicia hau been in existence foi all of
sixteen yeais when Pelaez vs. Auuitoi ueneial was piomulgateu.
Anu vaiious goveinmental acts thioughout the yeais all inuicate
the State's iecognition anu acknowleugment of the existence
theieof. Inasmuch as iesponuent municipality of Alicia is
similaily situateu as the municipality of San Anuies, it shoulu
likewise benefit fiom the effects of Section 442 (u) of the Local
uoveinment Coue, anu shoulu hencefoith be consiueieu as a
iegulai, ue juie municipality.

W-*')'a M4 :$a
,$+'6 Becembei 2, 1996
(@N;@H]@;6 Nunicipality of Sinacban was cieateu by E0 2S8 anu
on the basis of this E0 the Nunicipality laiu claim to ceitain
baiiios which aie also claimeu by Nunicipality of }imenez.
Nunicipality of }imenez baseu theii claim on the agieement with
the Piovincial Boaiu of Nisamis 0cciuental. Nunicipality of
}imenez fileu a suit against Sinacaban alleging that in accoiuance
with Pelaez v. Auuitoi ueneial, E0 2S8 shoulu be ueclaieu null
anu voiu, anu consequently Sinacaban has no valiu claim on the
uisputeu aieas.

7@?J6 The geneial iule is that enunciateu in Pelaez v. Auuitoi
ueneial that the cieation of municipal coipoiations is essentially
a legislative mattei. Bowevei, the SC has since helu that wheie a
municipality cieateu as such by executive oiuei is latei implieuly
iecognizeu anu its acts aie accoiueu legal valiuity, its cieation
can no longei be questioneu. TKC"3&('J3C&O2 "C3)> :K '%2(.%BB9 2%(,
35%3 35(2 (2 2(F(B%& 3C 35) 6J"(.(;%B(39 C8 :%" @%&.(2C .%2) %",
.C"2(,)&), 35) 2%F) .(&.JF23%".)2 2C - AC"O3 (3 5)&)UD Noieovei,
following the iuling in Nunicipality of San Naiciso, Quezon v.
Nenuez, Si., 442(u) of the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991 must
be ueemeu to have cuieu any uefect in the cieation of Sinacaban.

Re: valiuity of agieement of the Piovincial Boaiu with
Nunicipality of }imenez. the powei of piovincial boaius to settle
bounuaiy uisputes is "of an auministiative natuie involving, as
it uoes, the auoption of means anu ways to caiiy into effect the
law cieating saiu municipalities." It is a powei "to fix common
bounuaiy, in oiuei to avoiu oi settle conflicts of juiisuiction
between aujoining municipalities." It is thus limiteu to
implementing the law cieating a municipality. It is obvious that
any alteiation of bounuaiies that is not in accoiuance with the
law cieating a municipality is not the caiiying into effect of that
law but its amenument.

0B)'(2.(3)
+":-$8 M4 $:$!"8
,$+'6 Becembei 8, 1994
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis assail the constitutionality of Republic Act
No. 767S, otheiwise known as "An Act Conveiting the
Nunicipality of Nanualuyong into a Bighly 0ibanizeu City to be
known as the City of Nanualuyong." Piioi to the enactment of the
assaileu statute, the municipalities of Nanualuyong anu San }uan
belongeu to only one legislative uistiict. Petitioneis contenu that
the people of San }uan shoulu have been maue to paiticipate in
the plebiscite on R.A. No. 767S as the same involveu a change in
theii legislative uistiict.

7@?J6 The contention is beieft of meiit since the piincipal subject
involveu in the plebiscite was the conveision of Nanualuyong
into a highly uibanizeu city. The mattei of sepaiate uistiict
iepiesentation was only ancillaiy theieto. Thus, the inhabitants
of San }uan weie piopeily excluueu fiom the saiu plebiscite as
they hau nothing to uo with the change of status of neighboiing
Nanualuyong.

3$8-% M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 Septembei 1u, 1999
(@N;@H]@;6 The case involves a bounuaiy uispute between
Nunicipality of Cainta anu City of Pasig. City of Pasig passeu an
oiuinance cieating Baiangay Kaiangalan which coveieu the aieas
subject of the uispute. The Nunicipality of Cainta seeks to have
the plebiscite suspenueu piioi to the iesolution of the bounuaiy
uispute.

7@?J6 In the inteiest of goou oiuei, we can veiy well suspenu
action on one case penuing the final outcome of anothei case
closely inteiielateu oi linkeu to the fiist. In the case at bai, while
the City of Pasig vigoiously claims that the aieas coveieu by the
pioposeu Baiangays Kaiangalan anu Napico aie within its
teiiitoiy, it cannot ueny that poitions of the same aiea aie
incluueu in the bounuaiy uispute case penuing befoie the
Regional Tiial Couit of Antipolo. Suiely, whethei the aieas in
contioveisy shall be ueciueu as within the teiiitoiial juiisuiction
of the Nunicipality of Cainta oi the City of Pasig has mateiial
beaiing to the cieation of the pioposeu Baiangays Kaiangalan
15
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

anu Napico. Inueeu, a iequisite foi the cieation of a baiangay is
foi its teiiitoiial juiisuiction to be piopeily iuentifieu by metes
anu bounus oi by moie oi less peimanent natuial bounuaiies. 8
Piecisely because teiiitoiial juiisuiction is an issue iaiseu in the
penuing civil case, until anu unless such issue is iesolveu with
finality, to uefine the teiiitoiial juiisuiction of the pioposeu
baiangays woulu only be an exeicise in futility. Not only that, we
woulu be paving the way foi potentially ultia viies acts of such
baiangay

*$(-$)" M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 Naich 7, 1996
TKC"3&('J3C&O2 @C3)> @C35("G %'CJ3 ;B)'(2.(3) (" 35(2 .%2)D - A(BB
(".BJ,) C35)& (22J)2 &)B%3("G 3C 35) .&)%3(C"[.C"+)&2(C"U

(@N;@H]@;6 R.A. No. 78S4 entitleu, "An Act Conveiting the
Nunicipality of Nakati Into a Bighly 0ibanizeu City to be known
as the City of Nakati," is being assaileu as unconstitutional on the
following giounus: (1) it uiu not piopeily iuentify the lanu aiea
oi teiiitoiial juiisuiction of Nakati by metes anu bounus, with
technical uesciiptions; (2) it incieaseu the legislative uistiict of
Nakati only by special law (the Chaitei in violation of the
constitutional piovision iequiiing a geneial ieappoitionment law
(S) the auuition of anothei legislative uistiict in Nakati is not in
accoiu with Section S (S), Aiticle vI of the Constitution foi as of
the latest suivey (199u census), the population of Nakati stanus
at only 4Su,uuu.

7@?J6 (1) The bounuaiies must be cleai foi they uefine the limits
of the teiiitoiial juiisuiction of a local goveinment unit. It can
legitimately exeicise poweis of goveinment only within the
limits, its acts aie ultia viies. The existence of a bounuaiy uispute
uoes not pei se piesent an insuimountable uifficulty which will
pievent Congiess fiom uefining with ieasonable ceitituue the
teiiitoiial juiisuiction of a local goveinment unit. In the cases at
bench, Congiess maintaineu the existing bounuaiies of the
pioposeu City of Nakati but as an act of faiiness, maue them
subject to the ultimate iesolution by the couits.

(2) Reappoitionment of legislative uistiicts may be maue thiough
a special law, such as in the chaitei of a new city. The
Constitution cleaily pioviues that Congiess shall be composeu of
not moie than two hunuieu fifty (2Su) membeis, unless
otheiwise fixeu by law. As thus woiueu, the Constitution uiu not
piecluue Congiess fiom incieasing its membeiship by passing a
law, othei than a geneial ieappoitionment of the law. Noieovei,
to holu that ieappoitionment can only be maue thiough a geneial
appoitionment law, with a ieview of all the legislative uistiicts
allotteu to each local goveinment unit nationwiue, woulu cieate
an inequitable situation wheie a new city oi piovince cieateu by
Congiess will be uenieu legislative iepiesentation foi an
inueteiminate peiiou of time.

(S) A city with a population of at least two hunuieu fifty thousanu
(2Su,uuu) shall have at least one iepiesentative. Even gianting
that the population of Nakati as of the 199u census stoou at foui
hunuieu fifty thousanu (4Su,uuu), its legislative uistiict may still
be incieaseu since it has met the minimum population
iequiiement of two hunuieu fifty thousanu (2Su,uuu).

*-($),$ M4 $%5-(('
,$+'6 Septembei 16, 1999
(@N;@H]@;6 RA 772u which conveiteu the municipality of
Santiago, Isabela into an inuepenuent component city was signeu
into law anu was iatifieu on }uly 4, 1994, by the people of
Santiago in a plebiscite. 0n Febiuaiy 14, 1998, RA 8S28 was
enacteu which amenueu R.A. No. 772u. Among otheis, it changeu
the status of Santiago fiom an inuepenuent component city to a
component city. Petitioneis assail the constitutionality of RA
8S28 foi lack of piovision submitting the law foi iatification in a
piopei plebiscite. The iesolution of the issue uepenus on whethei
oi not the uowngiauing falls within the meaning of cieation,
uivision, meigei, abolition oi substantial alteiation of bounuaiies
of municipalities pei Section 1u, Aiticle X of the Constitution.

7@?J6 SC helu that the Constitution iequiies a plebiscite. A close
analysis of the saiu constitutional piovision will ieveal that the
cieation, uivision, meigei, abolition oi substantial alteiation of
bounuaiies of local goveinment units involve a common
uenominatoi mateiial change in the political anu economic
iights of the local goveinment units uiiectly affecteu as well as
the people theiein. It is piecisely foi this ieason that the
Constitution iequiies the appioval of the people "in the political
units uiiectly affecteu." It is maikwoithy that when R.A. No. 772u
upgiaueu the status of Santiago City fiom a municipality to an
inuepenuent component city, it iequiieu the appioval of its
people thiu a plebiscite calleu foi the puipose. Theie is neithei
ihyme noi ieason why this plebiscite shoulu not be calleu to
ueteimine the will of the people of Santiago City when R.A. No.
8S28 uowngiaues the status of theii city. Inueeu, theie is moie
ieason to consult the people when a law substantially uiminishes
theii iight. The iules covei all conveisions, whethei upwaiu oi
uownwaiu in chaiactei, so long as they iesult in a mateiial
change in the local goveinment unit uiiectly affecteu, especially a
change in the political anu economic iights of its people.

It is cleai that the Constitution imposes two conuitions fiist,
the cieation, uivision, meigei, abolition oi substantial alteiation
of bounuaiy of a local goveinment unit must meet the ciiteiia
fixeu by the Local uoveinment Coue on income, population anu
lanu aiea anu seconu, the law must be appioveu by the people
"by a majoiity of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units
uiiectly affecteu."

In accoiu with the Constitution, sections 7, 8, anu 9 of the Local
uoveinment Coue fixeu the saiu ciiteiia anu they involve
iequiiements on income, population anu lanu aiea. <5)2)
&)QJ(&)F)"32# 5CA)+)&# %&) (F;C2), 3C 5)B; %22J&) 35) ).C"CF(.
+(%'(B(39 C8 35) BC.%B GC+)&"F)"3 J"(3 .C".)&"),D <5)9 A)&) "C3
(F;C2), 3C ,)3)&F(") 35) ").)22(39 8C& % ;B)'(2.(3) C8 35) ;)C;B)D

8$*8") M4 $%5-(('
,$+'6 Septembei 22, 1999
(@N;@H]@;6 RA 8SSS cieateu the City of Novaliches out of 1S
Baiangays of Quezon City. Petitionei challenges the
constitutionality anu seeks to enjoin the conuuct of plebiscite by
alleging that (1) RA 8SSS faileu to confoim to the ciiteiia
establisheu by the LuC as no ceitifications weie submitteu to
Congiess anu (2) that the cieation of City of Novaliches will have
auveise effect on Quezon City.

7@?J6 (1) Piesent uuiing the public heaiings helu by the Senate
Committee on Local uoveinment weie iesouice peisons fiom the
uiffeient goveinment offices like National Statistics 0ffice,
Buieau of Local uoveinment Finance, Lanu Nanagement Buieau,
anu Bepaitment of Buuget, anu Nanagement, asiue fiom officials
of Quezon City itself. The iepiesentative fiom the Buieau of Local
uoveinment Finance estimateu the combineu aveiage annual
income of the 1S baiangays foi the yeais 199S anu 1996 to be
aiounu P26,9S2,128.26. 0nuei the Local uoveinment Coue, a
16
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

pioposeu city must have an aveiage annual income of only at
least P2u,uuu,uuu.uu foi the immeuiately pieceuing two yeais.
The iepiesentative fiom the NS0 estimateu the population in the
baiangays that woulu compiise the pioposeu City of Novaliches
to be aiounu S47,S1u. This figuie is moie than the 1Su,uuu
iequiieu by the Implementing Rules. Theie is no neeu to consiuei
the lanu aiea, given these figuies, since unuei the Local
uoveinment Coue, <]@ O;FOFH@J >=<[ KIH< >FKO?[ b=<]
;@cI=;@K@G<H LH ;@ZL;JH =G>FK@ LGJ OFOI?L<=FG F; ?LGJ
L;@L. 0thei than the income iequiiement, the pioposeu city must
have the iequisite numbei of inhabitants oi lanu aiea.
Compliance with eithei iequiiement, in auuition to income, is
sufficient.

(2) As chief executive of Quezon City, Nayoi Nathay woulu be the
fiist peison to piotest any uevelopment that might piove
uetiimental to Quezon City. The fact that he uiu not iaise any
auveise issue uuiing the public heaiings on R.A. No. 8SSS,
stiessing insteau his concein on the mattei of inclusion of all
Quezon City voteis in the plebiscite that woulu ueciue the fate of
the City of Novaliches, is inuicative of the non-existence of such
negative issues. Noieovei, in the plebiscite as contemplateu on
R.A. 8SSS, all peisons conceineu will obviously have the
oppoitunity to iaise those issues even befoie they vote on the
piincipal question of the cityhoou of Novaliches.


0!7< S> /?@-@

!'CB(3(C"

!F>L? %FM@;GK@G< #FJ@
8@><=FG C4 $PF?=<=FG FN !F>L? %FM@;GK@G< 5G=<H
.]@G6 Income, population oi lanus aiea has been IRREvERSIBLY
ieuuceu to less than the minimum stanuaius in Book III

7Fb6 Reuuction must be ceitifieu by the national agencies
mentioneu in Sec. 17 to the highei authoiity conceineu + iules on
cieation, meiging of Lu0s.


#ASES:

85!+$) 58*$) 8$($)%$)- M4 #"**-88-") ") '!'#+-")8B
WIG@ /QB /000
(@N;@H]@;6 uhost piecincts case wheie a petition foi annulment
of seveial piecinct anu book of votes was fileu with the
C0NELEC, incluuing that of Pauian Toiogan. It was uiscoveieu
that no one liveu theie, theie weie no stiuctuies. The police
authoiities themselves tiieu to stop C0NELEC fiom making
inspections. C0NELEC ueclaieu it a ghost piecinct.
7@?J6 If theie weie no inhabitants, % 8C&3(C&(, theie can be no
iegisteieu voteis; oi the iegisteieu voteis may have left the
place. It is not impossible foi a ceitain baiangay not to actually
have inhabitants consiueiing that people migiate. A baiangay
may officially exist on iecoiu anu the fact that nobouy iesiues in
the place uoes not iesult in its automatic cessation as a unit of
local goveinment.
0nuei the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, the abolition of a local
goveinment unit (Lu0) may be uone by Congiess in the case of a
piovince, city, municipality, oi any othei political subuivision. In
the case of a baiangay, except in Netiopolitan Nanila aiea anu in
cultuial communities, it may be uone by the Sangguniang
Panlalawigan oi Sangguniang Panglungsou conceineu subject to
the manuatoiy iequiiement of a plebiscite conuucteu foi the
puipose in the political units affecteu.
The sacieu iight of suffiage guaianteeu by the Constitution is not
tampeieu when a list of fictitious voteis is excluueu fiom an
electoial exeicise. Suffiage is confeiieu by the Constitution only
on citizens who aie qualifieu to vote anu aie not otheiwise
uisqualifieu by law.

8$!&$ M4 *$^$!-)+$!
8@O< 1D4 /000
(@N;@H]@;6 Sangg Panlalawigan issueu an oiuinance abolishing a
baiangay anu meiging it with anothei. C0NELEC issueu iules to
implement the plebiscite. Petitionei citizens fileu foi its
annulment. Issue was whethei oi not RTC hau juiisuiction to
enjoin C0NELEC's
7@?J6 Sec. 7, Ait. IX-A of 1987 Consti pioviues that any uecision,
oiuei oi iuling of each Commission such as C0NELEC, may be
biought on ceitioiaii to SC.
The C0NELEC's poweis aie classifieu eithei as aujuuicatoiy
quasi-juuicial oi auministiative oi ministeiial. Final oiueis,
iulings anu uecisions of C0NELEC ieviewable by SC aie those
ienueieu in actions oi pioceeuings befoie C0NELEC anu taken
cognizance of saiu bouy in the exeicise of its aujuuicatoiy oi
quasi-juuicial poweis.
The issuance of the C0NELEC iesolution in this case was
puisuant to Sec. 1u of LuC anu is thus a ministeiial uuty of the
C0NELEC that is enjoineu by law anu pait of its auministiative
functions. It involves no exeicise of uiscietionaiy authoiity. It is
also not an exeicise of quasi-juuicial powei to heai anu iesolve
contioveisies uefining the iights anu uuties of the paities ielative
to the conuuct of elections of public officeis anu the enfoicement
of election laws.
The C0NELEC iesolution was meiely an inciuent of its inheient
auministiative functions ovei the conuuct of plebiscites, thus it
may not be ueemeu a "final oiuei" ieviewable by the SC. Any
question peitaining to the valiuity of the iesolutions may well be
taken in an oiuinaiy civil actions befoie RTC.

-".CF)

!F>L? %FM@;GK@G< #FJ@

%')'($! (5!'
8@><=FG Q4 -G>FK@ k
1. Sufficient to pioviue foi all essential goveinment
facilities anu seivices anu special functions
2. baseu on acceptable stanuaius
S. commensuiate with the size of its population, as
expecteu of the local goveinment unit conceineu;

*5)-#-3$!-+9
8@><=FG UU/4
(a) A municipality may be cieateu if it has an aveiage annual
income, as ceitifieu by the piovincial tieasuiei, of at least Two
million five hunuieu thousanu pesos (P=2,Suu,uuu.uu) foi the
last two (2) consecutive yeais baseu on the 1991 constant piices;

#-+-'8
8@><=FG UT0 RLH LK@GJ@JS4
(a) A municipality oi a clustei of baiangays may be conveiteu
into a component city if it has a locally geneiateu aveiage annual
income, as ceitifieu by the Bepaitment of Finance, of at least 0ne
hunuieu million pesos (P1uu,uuu,uuu.uu) foi the last two (2)
consecutive yeais baseu on 2uuu constant piices

17
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

3("&-)#'8
8'#+-") UQ14
(a) A piovince may be cieateu if it has an aveiage annual income,
as ceitifieu by the Bepaitment of Finance, of not less than Twenty
million pesos(Php2u,uuu,uuu.uu) baseu on 1991 constant piices

):6 3@GJ=GZ :=?? =G #FGZ;@HH <F $K@GJ 3;FM=G>@lH =G>FK@
;@cI=;@K@G<H4


#ASES:

$!&$('a M4 %5-)%")$
$O;=? 1DB 1CC2
(@N;@H]@;6 Santiago Nunicipality was to be conveiteu to an
Inuepenuent Component City, but petitioneis allege that it uiu
not comply with the income iequiiements of 2u N pei annum.
Issue was whethei the IRA shoulu be incluueu in the computation
foi income, with iegaius to cieation of a city
7@?J6 The IRA shoulu be auueu in the computation of an Lu0's
aveiage annual income as was uone in the case at bai. The IRAs
aie items of income because they foim pait of the gioss accietion
of the funus of the local goveinment unit. The IRAs iegulaily anu
automatically acciue to the local tieasuiy without neeu of any
fuithei action on the pait of the local goveinment unit. They thus
constitute income which the local goveinment can invaiiably iely
upon as the souice of much neeueu funus.
To ieiteiate, IRAs aie a iegulai, iecuiiing item of income; nil is
theie a basis, too, to classify the same as a special funu oi
tiansfei, since IRAs have a technical uefinition anu meaning all its
own as useu in the Local uoveinment Coue that unequivocally
makes it uistinct fiom special funus oi tiansfeis iefeiieu to when
the Coue speaks of "funuing suppoit fiom the national
goveinment, its instiumentalities anu goveinment-owneu-oi-
contiolleu coipoiations.

)F<@H6 The IRA foims a big chunk of Santiago City's income. What
happens when the IRA uiies up. This case uiscouiages
inuepenuence of cities.


!'$%5' "V #-+-'8 "V +7' 37-!-33-)'8 M4 #"*'!'#
WIG@ /DB /011
(@N;@H]@;6 Cityhoou laws cases. Rep. Act 9uu9 incieaseu the
income iequiiement fiom 2u N to 1uu N. 16 municipalities fileu
foi cityhoou bills which alloweu them to be conveiteu to cities
but exempteu them fiom the 1uu N iequiiement. Petitioneis
lamenteu the wholesale conveision, alleging that it violateu Equal
Piotection Clauses anu Sec 1u, Aiticle X of the Constitution. The
SC initially ueclaieu the Cityhoou Laws as unconstitutional. But it
ieveiseu its uecision on the basis of a Notion foi Reconsiueiation
7@?J6 A seconu motion foi ieconsiueiation is not alloweu. The
case uoes not fall unuei the exemptions. Fuitheimoie, the Notion
foi Reconsiueiation only iehashes issues pieviously iaiseu anu
uiscusseu. The uecision now upholus the valiuity of the Cityhoou
Laws anu ueclaies it final anu executoiy.

)F<@H6 No one in Congiess wanteu to change the IRA because no
one wanteu to be unpopulai. The law R.A. 9uu9 was enacteu in
oiuei to stop the mau iush to become a city. Bence, the law
incieaseu the income iequiiement. Bowevei, the Couit still
alloweu this case to happen. Be veiy upset!


0C;JB%3(C"

!F>L? %FM@;GK@G< #FJ@

%')'($! (5!'
8@><=FG E RPS #;@L<=FG LGJ #FGM@;H=FG k 3FOI?L<=FG
b) Population - It shall be ueteimineu as the total numbei of
inhabitants within the teiiitoiial juiisuiction of the local
goveinment unit conceineu;

:$($)%$98
8@><=FG 2DQ
(a) A Baiangay maybe cieateu out of a contiguous teiiitoiy which
has a population of at least TW0 TB00SANB (2,uuu) inhabitants
as ceitifieu by the National Statistics 0ffice except in cities anu
municipalities within Netio Nanila anu othei metiopolitan
political subuivisions oi in highly uibanizeu cities wheie such
teiiitoiy shall have a ceitifieu population of at least five
thousanu(S,uuu) inhabitants: Pioviueu, That the cieation theieof
shall not ieuuce the population of the oiiginal Baiangay oi
Baiangays to less than the minimum iequiiement piesciibeu
heiein.

*5)-#-3$!-+9
8@><=FG UU/4 a population of at least twenty-five thousanu
(2S,uuu) inhabitants as ceitifieu by the National Statistics 0ffice;
anu a contiguous teiiitoiy of at least fifty (Su) squaie kilometeis
as ceitifieu by the Lanus Nanagement Buieau:

#-+9
8@>4 UT04
(a) xxx xxx , anu if it has eithei of the following iequisites:
(i) a contiguous teiiitoiy of at least one hunuieu (1uu)
squaie kilometeis, as ceitifieu by the Lanu Nanagement
Buieau; oi
(ii) a population of not less than one hunuieu fifty
thousanu (1Su,uuu) inhabitants, as ceitifieu by the
National Statistics 0ffice.


3("&-)#'
(a) xxx xxx, anu eithei of the following iequisites:
(i) a contiguous teiiitoiy of at least two thousanu
(2,uuu) squaie kilometeis, as ceitifieu by the Lanus
Nanagement Buieau; oi,
(ii) a population of not less than two hunuieu fifty
thousanu(2Su,uuu) inhabitants as ceitifieu by the
National Statistics 0ffice:


#ASES:

$f5-)" --- M4 #"*'!'#
$O;=? EB/010
(@N;@H]@;6 Sen. Aquino anu Nayoi Robieuo sought to Rep. Act
9716 which ieappoitioneu Camaiines Sui fiom 4 uistiicts to S.
0ne of the uistiicts faileu to comply with the 2Su,uuu population
iequiiement.
7@?J6 The seconu sentence of Section S (S), Aiticle vI of the
constitution states that: "Each city with a population of at least
two hunuieu fifty thousanu, oi each piovince, shall have at least
one iepiesentative."
Theie is a plain anu cleai uistinction between the entitlement of a
city to a uistiict on one hanu, anu the entitlement of a piovince to
a uistiict on the othei. Theie is no population iequiiement foi a
18
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

piovince to be entitleu to one legislative iepiesentative.
Neanwhile, a city must fiist meet a population minimum of
2Su,uuu in oiuei to be similaily entitleu. It shoulu be cleaily ieau
that Section S(S) of the constitution iequiies a 2Su,uuu minimum
population only foi a city to be entitleu to a iepiesentative, but
not so foi a piovince.

$!,$:$ M4 #"*'!'#
WLGIL;[ /TB/010
(@N;@H]@;6 0n Nay uu9, R.A. 9S91 amenueu Nalolos City Chaitei
by cieating a sepaiate legislative uistiict foi the city. It ielieu on
an unuateu ceitification by the NS0 that the piojecteu population
will be 2Su,uuu+ by the yeai 2u1u using the population giowth
iate between 199S anu 2uuu.
7@?J6 Any population piojection foiming the basis foi the
cieation of a legislative uistiict must be baseu on an official anu
cieuible souice. That is why the 0Su citeu Executive 0iuei No.
1SS (uuiuelines foi Issuance of Ceitification of Population Size)
otheiwise the population piojection woulu be unieliable oi
speculative.
A city must fiist attain a population 2Su,uuu population, anu
theieaftei in the immeuiately following election, such city shall
have a uistiict iepiesentative. Theie is no showing in the piesent
case that the City of Nanila has attaineu oi will attain a
population of 2Su,uuu A5)35)& %.3J%B C& ;&CR).3),# befoie the 1u
Nay 2u1u elections.

:J'0&C+(".)2

1CDE #")8+-+5+-")
$;<4 A&---B 8@>4 C
A sub-piovince shall continue to exist anu opeiate until it is
conveiteu into a iegulai piovince oi until its component
municipalities aie ieveiteu to the mothei piovince.
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
SEC 462. Existing Sub-Piovinces. - Existing sub- piovinces aie
heieby conveiteu into iegulai piovinces upon appioval by a
majoiity of the votes cast in a plebiscite to be helu in the saiu
subpiovinces anu the oiiginal piovinces uiiectly affecteu. The
plebiscite shall be conuucteu by the Comelec simultaneously with
the national elections following the effectivity of this Coue.

The new legislative uistiicts cieateu as a iesult of such
conveision shall continue to be iepiesenteu in Congiess by the
uuly-electeu iepiesentatives of the oiiginal uistiicts out of which
saiu new piovinces oi uistiicts weie cieateu until theii own
iepiesentatives shall have been electeu in the next iegulai
congiessional elections anu qualifieu.

The incumbent electeu officials of the saiu sub- piovinces
conveiteu into iegulai piovinces shall continue to holu office
until }une Su, 1992. Any vacancy occuiiing in the offices occupieu
by saiu incumbent electeu officials, oi iesulting fiom expiiation
of theii teims of office in case of a negative vote in the plebiscite
iesults, shall be filleu by appointment by the Piesiuent. The
appointees shall holu office until theii successois shall have been
electeu in the iegulai local elections following the plebiscite
mentioneu heiein anu qualifieu. Aftei effectivity of such
conveision, the Piesiuent shall fill up the position of goveinoi of
the newly-cieateu piovince thiough appointment if none has yet
been appointeu to the same as heieinbefoie pioviueu, anu shall
also appoint a vice-goveinoi anu the othei membeis of the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan, all of whom shall likewise holu office
until theii successois shall have been electeu in the next iegulai
local elections anu qualifieu.
All qualifieu appointive officials anu employees in the caieei
seivice of the saiu sub-piovinces at the time of theii conveision
into iegulai piovinces shall continue in office in accoiuance with
civil seivice law, iules anu iegulations.


#ASES:

%(-)" M4 #"*'!'#
8@O< UB 1CC/
(@N;@H]@;6 uiino was a canuiuate foi the Nay 1992 elections foi
goveinoi of Iloilo, which incluueu subpiovince uuimaias. The
LuC iequiies that subpiovinces be conveiteu into iegulai
piovinces. The plebiscite iesults favoieu the conveision of
uuimaias into a iegulai piovince. Bowevei, petitionei
questioneu the C0NELEC, alleging that the ballots shoulu have
containeu spaces to allow voting foi uov, vice uov anu membeis
of the Sanggunian of Iloilo.
7@?J: Although Sec 462 LuC completely auuiesses an eventuality
wheie people of both the oiiginal anu the new uistiict (to be
cieateu) agiee to the pioposeu cieation of the new uistiict (by
appointment of Piesiuent, if none appointeu yet, of the piovincial
officeis of new uistiict), the piovision is incomplete if the
pioposeu conveision is iejecteu by those affecteu.
Whatevei incumbent elective positions exist unuei the piesent
setup, it appeais that in case of a negative vote, these sub-
piovincial positions shall be filleu by appointment of the
Piesiuent. But it faileu to foiesee that in the event the negative
vote pievails natuially, the sub-piovince shall continue to be a
pait of the oiiginal piovince anu continue to be iepiesenteu by
the piovincial officials of the oiiginal piovince. The ballots in
uuimaias shoulu have containeu spaces foi uov anu vice uov. etc.
but SC has now consiueieu the case moot anu acauemic since
majoiity voteu in the affiimative foi the conveision of uuimaias.

:)B).3(C" %", <&%"28)& C8 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 :(3)

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
SECTI0N 11. :)B).3(C" %", <&%"28)& C8 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 :(3)#
H88(.)2 %", Z%.(B(3()2D
(a) The law oi oiuinance cieating oi meiging local goveinment
units shall specify the seat of goveinment fiom wheie
goveinmental anu coipoiate seivices shall be ueliveieu. In
selecting saiu site, factois ielating to geogiaphical centiality,
accessibility, availability of tianspoitation anu communication
facilities, uiainage anu sanitation, uevelopment anu economic
piogiess, anu othei ielevant consiueiations shall be taken into
account.
(b) When conuitions anu uevelopments in the local goveinment
unit conceineu have significantly changeu subsequent to the
establishment of the seat of goveinment, its Sanggunian may,
aftei public heaiing anu by a vote of two-thiius (2S) of all its
membeis, tiansfei the same to a site bettei suiteu to its neeus.
Pioviueu, howevei, That no such tiansfei shall be maue outsiue
the teiiitoiial bounuaiies of the local goveinment unit
conceineu.
The olu site, togethei with the impiovements theieon, may be
uisposeu of by sale oi lease oi conveiteu to such othei use as the
Sanggunian conceineu may ueem beneficial to the local
goveinment unit conceineu anu its inhabitants.
(c) Local goveinment offices anu facilities shall not be
tiansfeiieu, ielocateu, oi conveiteu to othei uses unless public
heaiings aie fiist conuucteu foi the puipose anu the concuiience
of the majoiity of all the membeis of the Sanggunian conceineu is
obtaineu.
19
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph


#ASES:

8$*8") M4 $%5-(('
8@O< //B 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 R.A. 8SSS was signeu, cieating the City of Novaliches
subject to a plebiscite. Petitioneis challengeu its valiuity on the
giounu that it faileu to confoim to the ciiteiia, anu that the law
will in effect amenu the Constitution (which states that Netio
Nanila will be composeu 17 Cities anu Nunicipalities). It also
allegeu that R.A. No. 8SSS faileu to specify the seat of goveinment
of the pioposeu City of Novaliches as iequiieu unuei Section
11(a) of the Local uoveinment Coue:
7@?J6 A ieauing of R.A. No. 8SSS will ieauily show that it uoes not
pioviue foi a seat of goveinment. But unuei Section 12 of the
LuC, the City of Novaliches can still establish a seat of
goveinment aftei its cieation. Sec 12 pioviues that: "Piovinces,
cities, anu municipalities shall enueavoi to establish a
goveinment centei wheie offices, agencies, oi bianches of the
National uoveinment, local goveinment units, oi goveinment-
owneu oi -contiolleu coipoiations may, as fai as piacticable, be
locateu."

While Section 12 speaks of the site of goveinment centeis, such
site can veiy well also be the seat of goveinment, "fiom wheie
goveinmental anu coipoiate seivice shall be ueliveieu.
Finally, the oiuinance appenueu to the Constitution meiely
appoitions the seats of the Bouse of Repiesentatives to the
uiffeient legislative uistiicts in the countiy. Nowheie uoes it
pioviue that Netio Nanila shall foievei be composeu of only 17
cities anu municipalities as claimeu by petitionei. Too liteial a
ieauing of the oiuinance in oi appenuix of the Constitution will
only iesult in its eiioneous inteipietation.


0CB(3(.%B %", KC&;C&%3) @%3J&) C8 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 N"(32

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG TRJS
(u) Rights anu obligations existing on the uate of effectivity of
this Coue anu aiising out of contiacts oi any othei souice of
piesentation involving a local goveinment unit shall be goveineu
by the oiiginal teims anu anu conuitions of saiu contiacts oi the
law in foice at the time such iights weie vesteu

8@><=FG 1T4 5+2.(.1&2 &*/ ?+'%+'&(# C&(9'# +, 0+1&2
3+4#'*)#*( L*.(7G Eveiy local goveinment unit cieateu oi
iecognizeu unuei this Coue is a bouy politic anu coipoiate
enuoweu with poweis to be exeiciseu by it in confoimity with
law. As such, it shall exeicise poweis as a political subuivision of
the national goveinment anu as a coipoiate entity iepiesenting
the inhabitants of its teiiitoiy.


):6 The Supieme Couit nevei makes a cleai stanuaiu to
uistinguish between goveinmental anu piopiietaiy functions.
Theie is no haiu anu fast iule to ueteimine the uiffeience
between the goveinment anu piopiietaiy acts of public
coipoiations.






#ASES

!-,$8$) M4 #"*'!'#
">< /TB 1CQE
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie R.A. 479u cieateu the Nunicipality of
Bianaton, Lanao Bel Sui. Bowevei, this law also incluueu baiiios
fiom anothei piovince, Cotabato. Question aiose whethei
Congiess still intenueu Nunicipality of Bianaton to be cieateu,
even if the 12 Cotabato baiiios weie to be excluueu theiefiom.
7@?J6 Couit saiu no. Nunicipal coipoiations peifoim twin
functions. They seive as an instiumentality of the State in
caiiying out the functions of goveinment. They act as an agency
of the community in the auministiation of local affaiis. It is in the
lattei chaiactei that they aie a sepaiate entity acting foi theii
own puiposes anu not a subuivision of the State.

Consequently, seveial factois come to the foie in the
consiueiation of whethei a gioup of baiiios is capable of
maintaining itself as an inuepenuent municipality. Amongst these
aie population, teiiitoiy, anu income. It was appaiently these
same factois which inuuceu the wiiting out of Bouse Bill 1247
cieating the town of Bianaton.

)F<@H6 This is the only case wheie the one subject-one bill
aigument woikeu


+"(-" M4 V")+$)-!!$
">< /2B 1CED
(@N;@H]@;6 Niuas Extiavaganza. Nunicipality oiganizeu the 19S9
Town Fiesta which iesulteu in tiageuy when the stage collapseu,
anu as a iesult, a victoi Fontanilla uieu. Bamages against both the
municipality anu the municipal council weie fileu.
7@?J: The poweis of a municipality aie twofolu in chaiactei
public, goveinmental, oi political on the one hanu, anu coipoiate,
piivate, oi piopiietaiy on the othei. uoveinmental poweis aie
those exeiciseu by the coipoiation in auministeiing the poweis
of the state anu piomoting the public welfaie anu they incluue
the legislative, juuicial, public, anu political, Nunicipal poweis on
the othei hanu aie exeiciseu foi the special benefit anu
auvantage of the community anu incluue those which aie
ministeiial, piivate anu coipoiate.
If the injuiy is causeu in the couise of the peifoimance of a
goveinmental function oi uuty no iecoveiy, as a iule, can be hau
fiom the municipality unless theie is an existing statute on the
mattei, noi fiom its officeis, so long as they peifoimeu theii
uuties honestly anu in goou faith oi that they uiu not act
wantonly anu maliciously.
Theie can be no haiu anu fast iule foi puiposes of ueteimining
the tiue natuie of an unueitaking oi function of a municipality;
the suiiounuing ciicumstances of a paiticulai case aie to be
consiueieu anu will be uecisive. The basic element, howevei
beneficial to the public the unueitaking may be, is that it is
goveinmental in essence, otheiwise. the function becomes
piivate oi piopiietaiy in chaiactei. Easily, no goveinmental oi
public policy of the state is involveu in the celebiation of a town
fiesta.

#-+9 "V *$)-!$ M4 -$#
)FM 1TB 1CDC
(@N;@H]@;6 Cemeteiy case. Sto. Bomingo family hau a Su yeai
lease on a buiial lot, eviuenceu by an official ieceipt. But the City
mistakenly thought that the subject lot was ieauy foi
20
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

exhumation. Consequently, the bones weie lost anu coulu no
longei be founu.
7@?J6 0nuei Philippine laws, the City of Nanila is a political bouy
coipoiate anu as such enuoweu with the faculties of municipal
coipoiations to be exeiciseu by anu thiough its city goveinment
in confoimity with law, anu in its piopei coipoiate name. It may
sue anu be sueu, anu contiact anu be contiacteu with. Its poweis
aie twofolu in chaiactei-public, goveinmental oi political on the
one hanu, anu coipoiate, piivate anu piopiietaiy on the othei.
uoveinmental poweis aie those exeiciseu in auministeiing the
poweis of the state anu piomoting the public welfaie anu they
incluue the legislative, juuicial, public anu political. Nunicipal
poweis on the one hanu aie exeiciseu foi the special benefit anu
auvantage of the community anu incluue those which aie
ministeiial, piivate anu coipoiate.
The Noith Cemeteiy is within the class of piopeity which the City
of Nanila owns in its piopiietaiy oi piivate chaiactei.
Fuitheimoie, the buiial lot was leaseu in favoi of the piivate
iesponuents. Bence, obligations aiising fiom contiacts have the
foice of law between the contiacting paities. Thus, a lease
contiact executeu by the lessoi anu lessee iemains as the law
between them. Theiefoie, a bieach of contiactual piovision
entitles the othei paity to uamages even if no penalty foi such
bieach is piesciibeu in the contiact.

*$#$8-$)" M4 ,-"^)"
$IZ 10B 1CC/
(@N;@H]@;6 Nunicipality passeu Resolution authoiizing closuie of
ioaus foi establishment of flea maikets. They authoiizeu
Paianaque mayoi to entei into contiact with a seivice
coopeiative foi the opeiation of these aieas. PNP Biig ueneial
oiueieu the uestiuction of the stalls along theses ioaus in
Baclaian. 0Su asseits that municipal ioaus aie public anu thus
cannot be subject to piivate appiopiiate by any peison, even the
Nayoi.
7@?J6 Local goveinments have no authoiity whatsoevei to
contiol oi iegulate the use of public piopeities unless specific
authoiity is vesteu upon them by Congiess. 0ne such example of
this authoiity given by Congiess to the local goveinments is the
powei to close ioaus as pioviueu in Section 1u, Chaptei II of the
Local uoveinment Coue. Bowevei, this shoulu be ieau with Civil
Coue piovisions.
Aiticle 424 of the Civil Coue lays uown the basic piinciple that
piopeities of public uominion uevoteu to public use anu maue
available to the public in geneial aie outsiue the commeice of
man anu cannot be uisposeu of oi leaseu by the local goveinment
unit to piivate peisons. Asiue fiom the iequiiement of uue
piocess which shoulu be complieu with befoie closing a ioau,
stieet oi paik, the closuie shoulu be foi the sole puipose of
withuiawing the ioau oi othei public piopeity fiom public use
when ciicumstances show that such piopeity is no longei
intenueu oi necessaiy foi public use oi public seivice.
Those ioaus anu stieets which aie available to the public in
geneial anu oiuinaiily useu foi vehiculai tiaffic aie still
consiueieu public piopeity uevoteu to public use. In such case,
the local goveinment has no powei to use it foi anothei puipose
oi to uispose of oi lease it to piivate peisons. This limitation on
the authoiity of the local goveinment ovei public piopeities has
been uiscusseu anu settleu by this Couit






M)")&%B \)B8%&) KB%J2)

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'

8@><=FG 1Q4 ueneial Welfaie. - Eveiy local goveinment unit shall
exeicise the poweis expiessly gianteu, those necessaiily implieu
theie fiom, as well as poweis necessaiy, appiopiiate, oi
inciuental foi its efficient anu effective goveinance, anu those
which aie essential to the piomotion of the geneial welfaie.
Within theii iespective teiiitoiial juiisuictions, local goveinment
units shall ensuie anu suppoit, among othei things, the
pieseivation anu eniichment of cultuie, piomote health anu
safety, enhance the iight of the people to a balanceu ecology,
encouiage anu suppoit the uevelopment of appiopiiate anu self-
ieliant scientific anu technological capabilities, impiove public
moials, enhance economic piospeiity anu social justice, piomote
full employment among theii iesiuents, maintain peace anu
oiuei, anu pieseive the comfoit anu convenience of theii
inhabitants.

8@><=FG 2C14 Poweis, Buties, anu Functions. - (a) The
Sangguniang Baiangay, as the legislative bouy of the Baiangay,
shall:
(1) Enact oiuinances as may be necessaiy to uischaige the
iesponsibilities confeiieu upon it by law oi oiuinance anu to
piomote the geneial welfaie of the inhabitants theiein;
xxx

8@><=FG UUE4 - Poweis, Buties, Functions anu Compensation. - (a)
The Sangguniang Bayan, as the legislative bouy of the
municipality, shall enact oiuinances, appiove iesolutions anu
appiopiiate funus foi the geneial welfaie of the municipality anu
its inhabitants puisuant to section 16 of this Coue anu in the
piopei exeicise of the coipoiate poweis of the municipality as
pioviueu foi unuei section 22 of this Coue,
xxx

8@><=FG UTD. - Poweis, Buties, Functions anu Compensation. - (a)
The Sangguniang Panlungsou, as the legislative bouy of the city,
shall enact oiuinances, appiove iesolutions anu appiopiiate
funus foi the geneial welfaie of the city anu its inhabitants
puisuant to section 16 of this Coue anu in the piopei exeicise of
the coipoiate poweis of the city as pioviueu foi unuei section 22
of this Coue, anu shall:
xxx

8@><=FG UQD. Poweis, Buties, Functions anu Compensation. - (a)
The Sangguniang Panlalawigan, as the legislative bouy of the
piovince, shall enact oiuinances, appiove iesolutions anu
appiopiiate funus foi the geneial welfaie of the piovince anu its
inhabitants puisuant to Section 16 of this Coue anu in the piopei
exeicise of the coipoiate poweis of the piovince as pioviueu foi
unuei Section 22 of this Coue,
xxx


):6 52#&7# 7## +6* 1+/#7 The piovisions weie too lengthy to
summaiize anu incluue heie veibatim (I tiieu I ieally tiieu).


(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 D2QC R1CCES V$*-!9 #"5(+8
8@><=FG D4 Supeivision of Youth Betention Bomes. - The juuge of
the Family Couit shall have uiiect contiol anu supeivision of the
youth uetention home which the local goveinment unit shall
establish to sepaiate the youth offenueis fiom auult ciiminals:
21
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Pioviueu, howevei, That alteinatives to uetention anu
institutional caie shall be maue available to the accuseu incluuing
counseling, iecognizance, bail, community continuum, oi
uiveisions fiom the justice system: Pioviueu, fuithei, That the
human iights of the accuseu aie fully iespecteu in a mannei
appiopiiate to theii well-being.

8@><=FG 11. Alteinative Social Seivices. - In accoiuance with Sec.
17 of this Act, in aieas wheie no Family Couit has been
establisheu oi no Regional Tiial Couit was uesignateu by the
Supieme Couit uue to the limiteu numbei of cases, the BSWB
shall uesignate anu assign qualifieu, tiaineu, anu BSWB
accieuiteu social woikeis of the local goveinment units to hanule
juvenile anu family cases fileu in the uesignateu Regional Tiial
Couit of the place.

85**$(96 Lu0 shall establish youth uetention homes plus
alteinatives to uetention anu institutional caie (counseling, etc.).
If theie aie no Family Couits oi uesignateu RTCs, BSWB shall
assign accieuiteu social woikeis fiom the Lu0s

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 DU/T R1CCES 8"#-$! ('V"(* $),
3"&'(+9 $!!'&-$+-") $#+

8@><=FG 1/4 The Role of Local uoveinment 0nits (Lu0s). - The
local goveinment units, thiough the local uevelopment councils
of the piovince, city, municipality, oi baiangay shall be
iesponsible foi the foimulation, implementation, monitoiing anu
evaluation of the National Anti-Poveity Action Agenua in theii
iespective juiisuictions. The Lu0s shall:
a) Iuentify the pooi in theii iespective aieas baseu on inuicatois
such as the minimum basic neeus appioach anu the human
uevelopment inuex, theii location, occupation, natuie of
employment, anu theii piimaiy iesouice base anu foimulate a
piovincialcitymunicipality anti-poveity action agenua;
b) Iuentify anu souice funuing foi specific social iefoim anu
poveity alleviation piojects;
c) Cooiuinate, monitoi anu evaluate the effoits of local
goveinment units with the piivate sectoi on planning anu
implementation of the local action piogiam foi social iefoim anu
poveity alleviation; anu
u) Cooiuinate anu submit piogiess iepoits to the National Anti-
Poveity Commission iegaiuing theii local action piogiams.
Nothing in this Act shall be constiueu as uiminishing the poweis
gianteu to the local goveinment units unuei the Local
uoveinment Coue.

8IKKL;[6 Foimulation, Implementation, Nonitoiing anu
Evaluation of Agenua

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 DU2T R1CCESB $%(-#5!+5(' $), V-87'(-'8
*",'()-a$+-") $#+
8@><=FG C04 The Role of Local uoveinment 0nits
The Lu0s shall be iesponsible foi ueliveiing uiiect agiicultuie
anu fisheiies extension seivices. The piovincial goveinments
shall integiate the opeiations foi the agiicultuie extension
seivices anu shall unueitake an annual evaluation of all
municipal extension piogiams.
xxx
8@><=FG CC. Paiticipation of uoveinment Agencies
The ieplication of the piogiam shall be the iesponsibility of the
local goveinment units conceineu in collaboiation with the
appiopiiate goveinment agencies, anu the piivate sectoi.

The local goveinment units shall beai the costs of piomoting anu
monitoiing the basic neeus piogiam foi which theii IRA shall be
incieaseu accoiuingly as iecommenueu by the Secietaiy of the
Bepaitment: 0&C+(,),, That the appiopiiate national goveinment
agencies shall continue to pioviue the necessaiy technical as well
as financial assistance to the Lu0s in the ieplication of the
piogiam.
xxx

8IKKL;[6 Responsibility of Agiicultuie anu Fisheiy Seivice
given to Lu0s subject to collaboiation with nat'l gov't anu piivate
sectoi. Funus souiceu fiom the Lu0 (but IRA may be incieaseu)

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 DTT0 R1CCDSB 37-!-33-)' V-87'(-'8 #",'

8@><=FG 1Q4 }uiisuiction of NunicipalCity uoveinment. - The
municipalcity goveinment shall have juiisuiction ovei municipal
wateis as uefineu in this Coue. The municipalcity goveinment,
in consultation with the FARNC shall be iesponsible foi the
management, conseivation, uevelopment, piotection, utilization,
anu uisposition of all fish anu fisheiyaquatic iesouices within
theii iespective municipal wateis.

The municipalcity goveinment may, in consultation with the
FARNC, enact appiopiiate oiuinances foi this puipose anu in
accoiuance with the National Fisheiies Policy. The oiuinances
enacteu by the municipality anu component city shall be
ievieweu puisuant to Republic Act No. 716u by the sanggunian of
the piovince which has juiisuiction ovei the same.

The Lu0s shall also enfoice all fisheiy laws, iules anu iegulations
as well as valiu fisheiy oiuinances enacteu by the municipalcity
council.

The management of contiguous fisheiy iesouices such as bays
which stiauule seveial municipalities, cities oi piovinces, shall be
uone in an integiateu mannei, anu shall not be baseu on political
subuivisions of municipal wateis in oiuei to facilitate theii
management as single iesouice systems. The Lu0s which shaie
oi boiuei such iesouices may gioup themselves anu cooiuinate
with each othei to achieve the objectives of integiateu fisheiy
iesouice management. The Integiateu Fisheiies anu Aquatic
Resouices Nanagement Councils (FARNCs) establisheu unuei
Section 76 of this Coue shall seive as the venues foi close
collaboiation among Lu0s in the management of contiguous
iesouices.

8@><=FG 1E4 uiant of Fishing Piivileges in Nunicipal Wateis. - The
uuly iegisteieu fisheifolk oiganizationscoopeiatives shall have
piefeience in the giant of fisheiy iights by the NunicipalCity
Council puisuant to Section 149 of the Local uoveinment Coue:
Pioviueu, That in aieas wheie theie aie special agencies oi
offices vesteu with juiisuiction ovei municipal wateis by viitue of
special laws cieating these agencies such as, but not limiteu to,
the Laguna Lake Bevelopment Authoiity anu the Palawan Council
foi Sustainable Bevelopment, saiu offices anu agencies shall
continue to giant peimits foi piopei management anu
implementation of the afoiementioneu stiuctuies.

8@><=FG 1D4 0seis of Nunicipal Wateis. - All fisheiy ielateu
activities in municipal wateis, as uefineu in this Coue, shall be
utilizeu by municipal fisheifolk anu theii
coopeiativesoiganizations who aie listeu as such in the iegistiy
of municipal fisheifolk.
The municipal oi city goveinment, howevei, may, thiough its
local chief executive anu acting puisuant to an appiopiiate
22
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

oiuinance, authoiize oi peimit small anu meuium commeicial
fishing vessels to opeiate within the ten point one (1u.1) to
fifteen (1S) kilometei aiea fiom the shoieline in municipal
wateis as uefineu heiein, pioviueu, that all the following aie met:

(a) no commeicial fishing in municipal wateis with uepth less
than seven (7) fathoms as ceitifieu by the appiopiiate agency;
(b) fishing activities utilizing methous anu geais that aie
ueteimineu to be consistent with national policies set by the
Bepaitment;
(c) piioi consultation, thiough public heaiing, with the
NCFARNC has been conuucteu; anu
(u) the applicant vessel as well as the shipownei, employei,
captain anu ciew have been ceitifieu by the appiopiiate agency
as not having violateu this Coue, enviionmental laws anu ielateu
laws.
In no case shall the authoiization oi peimit mentioneu above be
gianteu foi fishing in bays as ueteimineu by the Bepaitment to
be in an enviionmentally ciitical conuition anu uuiing closeu
season as pioviueu foi in Section 9 of this Coue.

8@><=FG 1C4 Registiy of Nunicipal Fisheifolk. - The Lu0 shall
maintain a iegistiy of municipal fisheifolk, who aie fishing oi
may uesiie to fish in municipal wateis foi the puipose of
ueteimining piioiities among them, of limiting entiy into the
municipal wateis, anu of monitoiing fishing activities anoi othei
ielateu puiposes: Pioviueu, That the FARNC shall submit to the
Lu0 the list of piioiities foi its consiueiation.

Such list oi iegistiy shall be upuateu annually oi as may be
necessaiy, anu shall be posteu in baiangay halls oi othei stiategic
locations wheie it shall be open to public inspection, foi the
puipose of valiuating the coiiectness anu completeness of the
list. The Lu0, in consultation with the FARNCs, shall foimulate
the necessaiy mechanisms foi inclusion oi exclusion pioceuuies
that shall be most beneficial to the iesiuent municipal fisheifolk.
The FARNCs may likewise iecommenu such mechanisms.

The Lu0s shall also maintain a iegistiy of municipal fishing
vessels by type of geai anu othei boat paiticulais with the
assistance of the FARNC.

8@><=FG /04 Fisheifolk 0iganizations anuoi Coopeiatives. -
Fisheifolk oiganizationscoopeiatives whose membeis aie listeu
in the iegistiy of municipal fisheifolk, may be gianteu use of
uemaicateu fisheiy aieas to engage in fish captuie, maiicultuie
anuoi fish faiming: Pioviueu, howevei, That an
oiganizationcoopeiative membei whose householu is alieauy in
possession of a fisheiy iight othei than foi fish captuie cannot
enjoy the fishing iights gianteu to the oiganization oi
coopeiative.

8@><=FG /1. Piioiity of Resiuent Nunicipal Fisheifolk. - Resiuent
municipal fisheifolk of the municipality conceineu anu theii
oiganizationscoopeiatives shall have piioiity to exploit
municipal anu uemaicateu fisheiy aieas of the saiu municipality.

8@><=FG //4 Bemaicateu Fisheiy Right. - The Lu0 conceineu shall
giant uemaicateu fisheiy iights to fisheiy
oiganizationscoopeiatives foi maiicultuie opeiation in specific
aieas iuentifieu by the Bepaitment.

8@><=FG /24 Limiteu Entiy Into 0veifisheu Aieas. - Whenevei it is
ueteimineu by the Lu0s anu the Bepaitment that a municipal
watei is oveifisheu baseu on available uata oi infoimation oi in
uangei of being oveifisheu, anu that theie is a neeu to iegeneiate
the fisheiy iesouices in that watei, the Lu0 shall piohibit oi limit
fisheiy activities in the saiu wateis.

8@><=FG /U. Suppoit to Nunicipal Fisheifolk. - The Bepaitment
anu the Lu0s shall pioviue suppoit to municipal fisheifolk
thiough appiopiiate technology anu ieseaich, cieuit, piouuction
anu maiketing assistance anu othei seivices such as, but not
limiteu to tiaining foi auuitionalsupplementaiy livelihoou.

8@><=FG /T4 Rights anu Piivileges of Fishwoikeis. - The
fishwoikeis shall be entitleu to the piivileges accoiueu to othei
woikeis unuei the Laboi Coue, Social Secuiity System anu othei
benefits unuei othei laws oi social legislation foi woikeis:
Pioviueu, That fishwoikeis on boaiu any fishing vessels engageu
in fishing opeiations aie heieby coveieu by the Philippine Laboi
Coue, as amenueu.

8IKKL;[6 Lu0s powei to enact oiuinances, giant peimits anu
implement existing laws anu oiuinances.

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 DCET R/000SB $#+ +" 'A3',-+' %"&l+
-)V($8+(5#+5(' 3("W'#+8
8@><=FG 2. 0&C5('(3(C" C" 35) -22J%".) C8 <)F;C&%&9 7)23&%("("G
H&,)&2# 0&)B(F("%&9 6%",%3C&9 -"RJ".3(C"2D - No couit, except the
Supieme Couit, shall issue any tempoiaiy iestiaining oiuei,
pieliminaiy injunction oi pieliminaiy manuatoiy injunction
against the goveinment, oi any of its subuivisions, officials oi any
peison oi entity, whethei public oi piivate acting unuei the
goveinment uiiection, to iestiain, piohibit oi compel the
following acts:
(a) Acquisition, cleaiance anu uevelopment of the iight-of-way
anuoi site oi location of any national goveinment pioject;
(b) Biuuing oi awaiuing of contiact pioject of the national
goveinment as uefineu unuei Section 2 heieof;
(c) Commencement piosecution, execution, implementation,
opeiation of any such contiact oi pioject;1awphil.net"
(u) Teimination oi iescission of any such contiactpioject; anu
(e) The unueitaking oi authoiization of any othei lawful activity
necessaiy foi such contiactpioject.

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 C/ET R/00USB #!'$) .$+'( $#+
8'#+-") /0. 7CB) C8 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 N"(32. - Local goveinment
units shall shaie the iesponsibility in the management anu
impiovement of watei quality within theii teiiitoiial
juiisuictions.
Each local goveinment unit shall within six (6) months aftei the
establishment of the watei quality management aiea action plan
piepaie a compliance scheme in, accoiuance theieof, subject to
ieview anu appioval of the goveining boaiu.

Each local goveinment unit shall, thiough its Enviionment anu
Natuial Resouices 0ffice (ENR0) establisheu in Republic Act
No.716u, have the following poweis anu functions:
a) Nonitoiing of watei quality;
b) Emeigency iesponse;
c) Compliance with the fiamewoik of the Watei Quality
Nanagement Action Plan;
u) To take active paiticipation in all effoits conceining watei
quality piotection anu iehabilitation; anu
e) To cooiuinate with othei goveinment agencies anu civil
society anu the conceineu sectois in the implementation of
measuies to pievent anu contiol watei pollution: Pioviueu,
howevei, That in piovincescitiesmunicipalities wheie theie aie
no enviionment anu natuial iesouices officeis, the local
23
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

executive conceineu may, with the appioval of the Secietaiy of
the BENR uesignate any of his official anuoi chief of office
piefeiably the piovincial, city oi municipal agiicultuiist, oi any of
his employee: Pioviueu, finally, That in case an employee is
uesignateu as such, he must have sufficient expeiience in
enviionmental anu natuial iesouices management, conseivation
anu utilization.

(@OIP?=> $>< 101/1B 37-!-33-)' ,-8$8+'( (-8^ (',5#+-")
$), *$)$%'*')+ $#+
8@><=FG 114 H&G%"(I%3(C" %3 35) 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 4)+)BD - The
existing Piovincial, City, anu Nunicipal Bisastei Cooiuinating
Councils shall hencefoith be known as the Piovincial, City, anu
Nunicipal Bisastei Risk Reuuction anu Nanagement Councils.
The Baiangay Bisastei Cooiuinating Councils shall cease to exist
anu its poweis anu functions shall hencefoith be assumeu by the
existing Baiangay Bevelopment Councils (BBCs) which shall
seive as the LBRRNCs in eveiy baiangay.
xxx
(b) The LBRRNCs shall have the following functions:
(1) Appiove, monitoi anu evaluate the implementation of the
LBRRNPs anu iegulaily ieview anu test the plan consistent with
othei national anu local planning piogiams;
(2) Ensuie the integiation of uisastei iisk ieuuction anu climate
change auaptation into local uevelopment plans, piogiams anu
buugets as a stiategy in sustainable uevelopment anu poveity
ieuuction;
(S) Recommenu the implementation of foiceu oi pieemptive
evacuation of local iesiuents, if necessaiy; anu
(4) Convene the local council once eveiy thiee (S) months oi as
necessaiy.

8@><=FG 1/4 4C.%B *(2%23)& 7(2P 7),J.3(C" %", 6%"%G)F)"3 H88(.)
T4*776HUD - (a) Theie shall be establisheu an LBRRN0 in eveiy
piovince, city anu municipality, anu a Baiangay Bisastei Risk
Reuuction anu Nanagement Committee (BBRRNC) in eveiy
baiangay which shall be iesponsible foi setting the uiiection,
uevelopment, implementation anu cooiuination of uisastei iisk
management piogiams within theii teiiitoiial juiisuiction.
(b) The LBRRN0 shall be unuei the office of the goveinoi, city oi
municipal mayoi, anu the punong baiangay in case of the
BBRRNC. The LBRRN0s shall be initially oiganizeu anu
composeu of a BRRN0 to be assisteu by thiee (S) staff
iesponsible foi: (1) auministiation anu tiaining; (2) ieseaich anu
planning; anu (S) opeiations anu waining. The LBRRN0s anu the
BBRRNCs shall oiganize, tiain anu uiiectly supeivise the local
emeigency iesponse teams anu the ACBvs.
(c) The piovincial, city anu municipal BRRN0s oi BBRRNCs shall
peifoim the following functions with impaitiality given the
emeiging challenges biought by uisasteis of oui times:

Xxx



0!7< ]> :!@*^









$!7$-?
0CA)& 3C M)")&%3) 7)+)"J)
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG 1D4 0CA)& 3C M)")&%3) %", !;;B9 7)2CJ&.)2D - Local
goveinment units shall have the powei anu authoiity to establish
an oiganization that shall be iesponsible foi the efficient anu
effective implementation of theii uevelopment plans, piogiam
objectives anu piioiities; to cieate theii own souices of ievenues
anu to levy taxes, fees, anu chaiges which shall acciue exclusively
foi theii use anu uisposition anu which shall be ietaineu by them;
to have a just shaie in national taxes which shall be automatically
anu uiiectly ieleaseu to them without neeu of any fuithei action;
to have an equitable shaie in the pioceeus fiom the utilization
anu uevelopment of the national wealth anu iesouices within
theii iespective teiiitoiial juiisuictions incluuing shaiing the
same with the inhabitants by way of uiiect benefits; to acquiie,
uevelop, lease, encumbei, alienate, oi otheiwise uispose of ieal
oi peisonal piopeity helu by them in theii piopiietaiy capacity
anu to apply theii iesouices anu assets foi piouuctive,
uevelopmental, oi welfaie puiposes, in the exeicise oi
fuitheiance of theii goveinmental oi piopiietaiy poweis anu
functions anu theieby ensuie theii uevelopment into self-ieliant
communities anu active paiticipants in the attainment of national
goals.


?F(")"3 *CF%("
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG 1C4 ?F(")"3 *CF%("D - A local goveinment unit may,
thiough its chief executive anu acting puisuant to an oiuinance,
exeicise the powei of eminent uomain foi public use, oi puipose
oi welfaie foi the benefit of the pooi anu the lanuless, upon
payment of just compensation, puisuant to the piovisions of the
Constitution anu peitinent laws: Pioviueu, howevei, That the
powei of eminent uomain may not be exeiciseu unless a valiu
anu uefinite offei has been pieviously maue to the ownei, anu
such offei was not accepteu: Pioviueu, fuithei, That the local
goveinment unit may immeuiately take possession of the
piopeity upon the filing of the expiopiiation pioceeuings anu
upon making a ueposit with the piopei couit of at least fifteen
peicent (1S%) of the faii maiket value of the piopeity baseu on
the cuiient tax ueclaiation of the piopeity to be expiopiiateu:
Pioviueu, finally, That, the amount to be paiu foi the
expiopiiateu piopeity shall be ueteimineu by the piopei couit,
baseu on the faii maiket value at the time of the taking of the
piopeity.

(5!' QEB 1CCE (5!'8 "V #-&-! 3("#',5(' (summaiizeu)
1. veiifieu Complaint foi expiopiiation
Contents:
a) The iight anu puipose of expiopiiation
b) Besciiption of piopeity (whethei ieal oi peisonal)
c) }oin as uefenuants all peisons owning oi claiming to own,
oi occupying any pait theieof oi any inteiest theiein,
showing as fai as piacticable the sepaiate inteiest of each
u) Cleaily stating (if applicable):
If the title appeais to be in the Republic, although
occupieu by piivate inuiviuuals;
If the title is otheiwise obscuie oi uoubtful so that
plaintiff cannot with accuiacy oi ceitainty specify who
the ieal owneis aie. |Section 1j
2. Entiy of Plaintiff upon piopeity
a) Plaintiff shall have the iight to take oi entei upon the
possession of the ieal piopeity involveu upon:
24
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Filing of complaint foi expiopiiation
Seivice of notice to uefenuant
Beposit an amount equivalent to the assesseu value of the
piopeity foi puiposes of taxation
If involving peisonal piopeity, value shall be
piovisionally asceitaineu anu the amount to be
uepositeu shall be piomptly fixeu by the couit
b) Aftei ueposit, the couit shall oiuei the sheiiff oi othei
piopei couit officei to place the plaintiff in possession of the
piopeity anu piomptly submit a iepoit theieof to the couit
with seivice of copies to the paities |Section 2j

S. Answei
a) if uefenuant has no objectionuefense to the expiopiiation:
file anu seive notice of appeaiance anu manifestation that he
has no objectionuefense, specifically uesignating the
piopeity, within the time stateu in the summons
b) if uefenuant has objectionuefense to the expiopiiation:
seive his ANSWER within the time stateu in the summons

uR: all uefenses oi objections not allegeu in the answei aie
ueemeu waiveu
EXC: the couit, in the inteiest of justice, may allow the answei
to be amenueu not latei than 1u uays fiom filing

C0NTENTS:
Specific uesignation oi iuentification of piopeity in which he
claims to have an inteiest
Natuie anu extent of the inteiest claimeu
All objections oi uefenses to the taking of his piopeity
|Section Sj

4. 0iuei of Expiopiiation
a) ueclaies that the plaintiff has a lawful iight to take the
piopeity sought to be expiopiiateu, upon payment of just
compensation to be ueteimineu as of the uate of the taking of
piopeity oi the filing of complaint, whichevei is eailiei
b) issueu by the couit when:
0bjectionsuefenses have been oveiiuleu, oi
No uefenseobjection maue, oi
No paity appeais to uefenu. |Section 4j

S. }ust Compensation
The full anu faii equivalent of the piopeity taken fiom its
ownei by the expiopiiatoi
uR: maiket value (that sum of money which a peison
uesiious but not compelleu to buy, anu an ownei willing but
not compelleu to sell, woulu agiee on as a piice to be given anu
ieceiveu theiefoi)

6. }uugment
Shall state uefinitely, by an auequate uesciiption, the
paiticulai piopeity oi inteiest theiein expiopiiateu, anu the
natuie of the public use oi puipose
Real estate: ceitifieu copy of juugment iegisteieu in Registiy
of Beeus; plaintiff vesteu with title |Section 1Sj
Plaintiff shall have the iight to entei upon the piopeity
expiopiiateu anu to appiopiiate it foi the public puipose
uefineu in the juugment, oi to ietain it shoulu he have taken
immeuiate possession unuei Sec 2 |Section 1uj
Such iight to entei shall not be uelayeu by an appeal fiom
the juugment |Section 11j


)F<@6 Rule 67 piimaiily goveins expiopiiation by the State
acting thiough the national goveinment. (Regalauo)
Expiopiiation by Lu0s is goveineu by the LuC.


#$8'86

:(%94 8$) ("f5' M4 7'-(8 "V 3$8+"(
/0 WIG@ /000
(@N;@H]@;6 petitionei fileu a Complaint to expiopiiate with the
NTC which the lattei uismisseu on the giounu that the exeicise of
eminent uomain is incapable of pecuniaiy estimation, thus unuei
}B of RTC. RTC also uismisseu on the giounu that, since eminent
uomain involves title to ieal piopeity, the value theieof
ueteimines whethei it is NTC oi RTC that has }B.
7@?J6 BP 129 giants RTC }B ovei all actions incapable of
pecuniaiy estimation. The piimaiy consiueiation in an
expiopiiation suit is W0N gov't has complieu with ieq'ts foi
taking piopeity. Thus, its subject is the gov't's exeicise of
eminent uomain, a mattei incapable of pecuniaiy estimation.

85%5-+$) M4 #-+9 "V *$),$!59")%
1U *L;>] /000
(@N;@H]@;6 Sangguninag Panglungsou issueu RES0L0TI0N
authoiizing mayoi to institute expiopiiation pioceeuings ovei
petitioneis' piopeity. Petitioneis oppose, contenuing that LuC
iequiies an 0RBINANCE. Responuents contenu that IRR of LuC
allows iesolution, as oiuinance is only iequiieu in oiuei to
appiopiiate funus foi the payment of just compensation.
7@?J6 The basis foi the powei of eminent uomain by Lu0s is
Sec.19 LuC, which cleaily iequiies an oiuinance anu not a
iesolution. The couits have the uuty to ueteimine whethei the
saiu powei is being exeiciseu in accoiuance with the saiu law.

REQ0ISITES foi the valiu exeicise of eminent uomain by Lu0s:
1. An oiuinance is enacteu by the local legislative council
authoiizing the local chief executive, in behalf of the
Lu0, to exeicise saiu powei oi puisue expio
pioceeuings ovei a paiticulai piivate piopeity
2. The powei is exeiciseu foi public use, puipose oi
welfaie, oi foi the benefit of the pooi anu the lanuless
S. Theie is payment of just compensation
4. A valiu anu uefinite offei has been pieviously maue to
the ownei of the piopeity, but was not accepteu

#-+9 "V #':5 M4 #$
1T WI?[ 1CCQ
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei fileu a Complaint foi expiopiiation
puisuant to Reso 4u4 anu 0iuinance 1418. Responuent Caiueno
fileu a NTB on the giounu of lack of cause of action since the
allegeu negotiations uo not show compliance with the ieq't of a
pievious valiu anu uefinite offei. RTC anu CA uismisseu
complaint foi lack of cause of action, holuing that cause of action
can only be asceitaineu fiom the allegations in the complaint.
7@?J6 By filing a NTB, iesponuent hypothetically aumitteu the
facts allegeu in the complaint. 0iuinance 1418 was attacheu to
the petitionei's complaint, thus it is incoipoiateu theiein. In its
2
nu
Wheieas Clause, it is stateu that the city has maue a valiu anu
uefinite offei. Thus, theie is no longei ioom foi any uoubt that as
allegeu in the complaint, anu as aumitteu by the iesponuent,
petitionei has complieu with the ieq't of a valiu anu uefinite offei.




25
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

#-+9 "V #':5 M4 ,',$*"
0E *L[ /00/
(@N;@H]@;6 tiial couit ienueieu its uecision fixing the amount of
just compensation on the basis of the appointeu commissioneis'
assessment. Petitionei objecteu to the assessment on the giounu
that just compensation shoulu be ueteimineu as of the uate of
filing of the complaint anu not at the time of actual taking.
7@?J6 The applicable law is Sec. 19 LuC, which states that it shall
be ueteimineu as of the time of actual taking. The tiial couit
followeu Rule 67 R0C, the goveining pioceuuial law, which
pioviues that just compensation shall be ueteimineu at the time
of filing of complaint |Section Sj. But such law cannot pievail
ovei the LuC which is substantive law.

V-!8+('$* -)+'()$+-")$! -)#4 M4 #$
/2 WLGIL;[ 1CCD
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei, ownei of the lanu in issue, was able to
obtain an ejectment oiuei which was nevei effecteu. Buiing the
penuency of the ejectment suit, the City of Nanila issueu an
oiuinance foi the expiopiiation of petitionei's lanu anu hau
initiateu pioceeuings in couit in puisuit of its uiban lanu iefoim
anu housing piogiam. Filstieam wanteu to uemolish the
stiuctuies theiein puisuant to an oiuei of uemolition by the tiial
couit. CA issueu an injunction. Filstieam contenus that the
ejectment oiuei hau become final anu executoiy.
7@?J6 City of Nanila has an unueniable iight to exeicise its powei
of eminent uomain pusuant to Sec 19, LuC. Bowevei, its powei to
so exeicise is constiaineu by constitutional piovisions on uue
piocess anu just compensation. The goveining law that ueals
with expiopiiation foi puiposes of uiban lanu iefoim & housing
is RA 7279, Secs. 9 anu 1uof which set out the limitations with
iespect to the oiuei of piioiity in acquiiing piivate lanus anu in
iesoiting to expiopiiation pioceeuings to acquiie the same. In
the CAB, theie is no showing that the City has complieu with Secs
9 anu 1u. The State has paiamount inteiest in exeicising its
powei foi the geneial goou, howevei, inuiviuual iights affecteu
aie also entitleu to piotection. Compliance with the ieq'ts off uue
piocess is in oiuei.

#-+9 "V *$)-!$ M4 8'(($)"
/0 WIG@ /001
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei sought to expiopiiate iesponuents' lanu
foi its lanu use uevelopment piogiam. Tiial couit issueu wiit of
possession. CA ieveiseu holuing that, puisuant to Filstieam case,
the othei moues of acquisition of lanus enumeiateu in Secs 9&1u
of RA 7279 must fiist be tiieu befoie iesoit to expiopiiation can
be maue. Foi failuie to show that it hau uone so, petitionei is
enjoineu fiom expiopiiating.
7@?J6 Acc to Sec 19, the SC has helu that the issuance of a wiit of
possession becomes ministeiial upon filing of a complaint
sufficient in foim anu substance anu upon ueposit maue in the
amount of the assesseu value of the piopeity. The CA eiioneously
applieu Filstieam iuling because in that case, theie was alieauy a
final anu executoiy ejectment juugment in favoi of Filstieam. In
the CAB, the tiial couit has not yet gone beyonu the issuance of
the wiit. Its issuance was meiely inteilocutoiy. Beaiing is still to
be helu to ueteimine W0N petitionei has complieu with the
ieq'ts of LuC.

#-+9 "V *$),$!59")% M4 $%5-!$(
/C WLGIL;[ /001
(@N;@H]@;6 iesponuents own S aujoining paicels of lanu which
hau been classifieu as an aiea foi piioiity uevelopment. City
sought to expiopiiate foi the constiuction of a meuium-iise
conuominium. Tiial couit uismisseu the Complaint foi
expiopiiation on the giounu that it qualifies as "small piopeity"
anu aie, thus, exempt. Petitionei contenus that since the lanus
aie APB, it is authoiizeu to expiopiiate iegaiuless of the size of
the lanu.
7@?J6 0nuei Sec 9 of RA 7279, the lots aie piivately owneu anu
thus, last in the oiuei of piioiity acquisition. Bowevei, they aie
also ueclaieu APB, which is 4
th
in the oiuei of piioiity. Sec. 9
(piioiities) shoulu be ieau in connection with Sec. 1u which
pioviues foi moues of acquisition. The acquisition of lanu must
be subject to the moues anu conuitions set foith in Sec. 1u. RA
7279 intiouuceu a limitation on the size of lanu sought to be
expiopiiateu foi socializeu housing. It expiessly exempteu "small
piopeity owneis". Since the iesponuents fall unuei the uefinition
of "small piopeity owneis", theii lanu is exempt fiom
expiopiiation.

:$(,-!!") M4 :(%94 *$8-!-
20 $O;=? /002
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuent sought to expiopiiate lanu owneu by
petitionei foi the puipose of constiucting a multi-puipose hall.
Its Complaint befoie the RTC was given uue couise anu a Wiit of
Possession was issueu. Petitionei questions the legality of the
iesponuent's entiy upon the piopeity.
7@?J6 The iequiiements foi the issuance of a wiit of possession
aie expiessly goveineu by Sec. 2, Rule 67 R0C. 0n the pait of
Lu0s, expiopiiation is also goveineu by Sec. 19, LuC.
Accoiuingly, the REQ0ISITES foi authoiizing immeuiate entiy aie
as follows:
1) The filing of a complaint foi expiopiiation sufficient in
foim anu substance
2) The ueposit of the amount equivalent to 1S% of the faii
maiket value of the piopeity to be expiopiiateu baseu
on its cuiient tax ueclaiation
In the CAB, the issuance of the wiit, aftei iesponuent hau fileu the
Complaint anu uepositeu the amount iequiieu, was piopei
because it hau complieu with the ff iequisites. The issue of the
necessity of the expiopiiation is a mattei piopeily auuiesseu to
the RTC in the couise of the pioceeuings.

#-+9 "V -!"-!" M4 !'%$83-
/T )FM@KP@; /00U
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei fileu a Complaint foi the expiopiiation of
iesponuent's lanu anu subsequently uepositeu the amount ieq'u
unuei Sec 19, LuC. It then moveu foi the issuance of a Wiit of
Possession, which the tiial juuge ueciueu to iesolve aftei tiial on
the meiits. Petitioneis contenu that a heaiing is not iequiieu
befoie the wiit is gianteu.
7@?J6 No heaiing is iequiieu foi the issuance of the wiit of
possession. Foi the wiit to issue, only two iequiiements aie
iequiieu: the sufficiency in foim anu substance of the complaint,
anu the iequiieu piovisional ueposit. 0pon compliance with
these iequiiements, the issuance of the wiit becomes ministeiial.

V($)#-$ M4 *5)-#-3$!-+9 "V *'9#$5$9$)
/U *L;>] /00D
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuent sought the expiopiiation of petitionei's
lanu foi the establishment of common public teiminals. RTC
iuleu that the expiopiiation was foi a public puipose anu issueu
a wiit of possession. Petitioneis contenu that theie must be a
piioi ueteimination of public puipose befoie the wiit is issueu.
7@?J6 Sec 19 uoes N0T make the ueteimination of a public
puipose a conuition pieceuent to the issuance of a wiit of
possession. Foi as long as the 2 iequiiements aie met, the wiit
may piopeily be issueu by the couit.

26
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

W-!#8V- M4 *5)-#-3$!-+9 "V 3$8-%
0C $IZIH< /00T
(@N;@H]@;6 iesponuent fileu a complaint foi expiopiiation of
petitionei's lanu, appenuing theiein a photocopy of a lettei,
auuiesseu to one of the co-owneis of the saiu piopeity, signifying
its intent to constiuct an access ioau on the piopeity. RTC issueu
a wiit of possession. Petitioneis contenu that the photocopy
cannot be consiueieu by the CA since it was not aumitteu in
eviuence by the RTC anu even if it uiu, it is not equivalent to an
offei to puichase, but is meiely a ueclaiation of intent to
puichase.
7@?J6 The iesponuent was buiueneu to piove the manuatoiy
iequiiement of a valiu anu uefinite offei to all the iegisteieu
owneis of the piopeity befoie filing its complaint anu the
iejection theieof by the lattei. Failuie to uo so will iesult in the
uismissal of the case. A photocopy of a lettei signifying its intent
to puichase the piopeity foi a iight of way, that is auuiesseu to
only one of the co-owneis, is N0T the valiu anu uefinite offei
contemplateu by law.

$-( +($)83"(+$+-") "VV-#' M4 %"35#"
20 WIG@ /00T
(@N;@H]@;6 Republic of the Phils. acquiieu an absolute title to the
lanu of iesponuents via expiopiiation foi the expansion of Lahug
aiipoit. The owneis weie convinceu to sell theii piopeity
because of an assuiance that they can iepuichase these when
they weie no longei neeueu foi the saiu public puipose. Aftei the
closuie of Lahug aiipoit, iesponuents sought to iecovei theii
piopeity on the giounu that the puipose foi which it was
expiopiiateu hau ceaseu, so the lanu hau ieveiteu to them.
7@?J6 This Couit has helu that when lanu has been acquiieu foi
public use in fee simple, unconuitionally, eithei by the exeicise of
eminent uomain oi by puichase, the foimei ownei ietains no
iights in the lanu, anu the public use may be abanuoneu oi the
lanu may be uevoteu to a uiffeient use, without any impaiiment
of the estate oi title acquiieu, oi any ieveision to the foimei
ownei. In the CAB, the juugment on the piopiiety of the taking
anu the auequacy of the compensation ieceiveu have long
become final. Title in fee simple hau been gianteu to the
Republic. Thus, no iights to the saiu lanu, eithei expiess oi
implieu, have been ietaineu by the iesponuent.

7).B%22(8(.%3(C" C8 4%",2

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG /04 7).B%22(8(.%3(C" C8 4%",2D -
(a) A city oi municipality may, thiough an oiuinance passeu by
the sanggunian aftei conuucting public heaiings foi the puipose,
authoiize the ieclassification of agiicultuial lanus anu pioviue foi
the mannei of theii utilization oi uisposition in the following
cases: (1) when the lanu ceases to be economically feasible anu
sounu foi agiicultuial puiposes as ueteimineu by the
Bepaitment of Agiicultuie oi (2) wheie the lanu shall have
substantially gieatei economic value foi iesiuential, commeicial,
oi inuustiial puiposes, as ueteimineu by the sanggunian
conceineu: Pioviueu, That such ieclassification shall be limiteu to
the following peicentage of the total agiicultuial lanu aiea at the
time of the passage of the oiuinance:

(1) Foi highly uibanizeu anu inuepenuent component cities,
fifteen peicent (1S%);
(2) Foi component cities anu fiist to the thiiu class
municipalities, ten peicent (1u%); anu
(S) Foi fouith to sixth class municipalities, five peicent
(S%): Pioviueu, fuithei, That agiicultuial lanus uistiibuteu
to agiaiian iefoim beneficiaiies puisuant to Republic Act
Numbeieu Sixty-six hunuieu fifty-seven (R.A. No. 66S7).
otheiwise known as "The Compiehensive Agiaiian Refoim
Law", shall not be affecteu by the saiu ieclassification anu
the conveision of such lanus into othei puiposes shall be
goveineu by Section 6S of saiu Act.

(b) The Piesiuent may, when public inteiest so iequiies anu
upon iecommenuation of the National Economic anu
Bevelopment Authoiity, authoiize a city oi municipality to
ieclassify lanus in excess of the limits set in the next pieceuing
paiagiaph.
(c) The local goveinment units shall, in confoimity with existing
laws, continue to piepaie theii iespective compiehensive lanu
use plans enacteu thiough zoning oiuinances which shall be the
piimaiy anu uominant bases foi the futuie use of lanu iesouices:
Pioviueu. That the iequiiements foi foou piouuction, human
settlements, anu inuustiial expansion shall be taken into
consiueiation in the piepaiation of such plans.
(u) Wheie appioval by a national agency is iequiieu foi
ieclassification, such appioval shall not be unieasonably
withhelu. Failuie to act on a piopei anu complete application foi
ieclassification within thiee (S) months fiom ieceipt of the same
shall be ueemeu as appioval theieof.
(e) Nothing in this Section shall be constiueu as iepealing,
amenuing, oi mouifying in any mannei the piovisions of R.A. No.
66S7.

$,*-)-8+($+-&' "(,'( )F4 2Q2 R1CCES
8@><=FG 14
x x x
B. MC+)&"("G 0CB(.()2
1. The following aieas shall not be subject to oi non-negotiable
foi conveision:
a. Piotecteu aieas uesignateu unuei the National Integiateu
Piotecteu Aieas (NIPAS), incluuing wateisheu anu iechaige
aieas of aquifeis, as ueteimineu by the Bepaitment of
Enviionment anu Natuial Resouices (BENR), puisuant to RA
7S86 (1992);
b. All iiiigateu lanus, as uelineateu by the Bepaitment of
Agiicultuie (BA) anuoi the National Iiiigation
Auministiation (NIA) anu appioveu by the Piesiuent, wheie
watei is available to suppoit iice anu othei ciop piouuction,
anu all iiiigateu lanus wheie watei is not available foi iice
anu othei ciop piouuction but aie within aieas piogiammeu
foi iiiigation facility iehabilitation by the BA anu the NIA,
puisuant to Piesiuential Auministiative 0iuei 2u (1992);
anu
c. All iiiigable lanus alieauy coveieu by iiiigation piojects
with fiim funuing commitments, as uelineateu by the BA
anuoi NIA anu appioveu by the Piesiuent.
Foi this puipose, the Netwoik of Piotecteu Aieas foi
Agiicultuie (as of 1991), as ueteimineu by the BA anuoi NIA
shall seive as guiue in ueteimining non-negotiable aieas. The
Netwoik may only be ieviseu upon the appioval of the
Piesiuent, upon favoiable iecommenuation by the Cabinet
27
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Clustei on Agio-Inuustiial Bevelopment.
In all cases, applications foi conveision involving
lanus piotecteu fiom anu non-negotiable foi
conveision shall not be given uue couise by the BAR.
2. The following aieas shall be highly iestiicteu fiom conveision:
a. Lanus classifieu as 'Bighly Restiicteu fiom Conveision' in
the Netwoik of Piotecteu Aieas foi Agiicultuie as uelineateu
by the BA, as follows:
a.1 Iiiigable lanus not coveieu by iiiigation piojects
with fiim funuing commitments;
a.2 Agio-inuustiial cioplanus, oi lanus piesently
planteu to inuustiial ciops that suppoit the economic
viability of existing agiicultuial infiastiuctuie anu agio-
baseu enteipiises; anu
a.S Bighlanus, oi aieas locateu in elevations of Suu
meteis oi above anu have the potential foi giowing semi-
tempeiate anu usually high value ciops.
b. Lanus issueu a Notice of Acquisitionvaluation unuei
the agiaiian iefoim piogiam oi subject of a peifecteu
agieement between the lanuownei anu the beneficiaiies
unuei voluntaiy Lanu Tiansfei (vLT) oi Biiect Payment
Scheme (BPS) unuei CARP, as ueteimineu by the BAR; anu
c. Aieas iuentifieu as enviionmentally ciitical as
ueteimineu by the BENR, puisuant to PB 1S86 (1978) anu
its implementing iules anu iegulations;
Lanus classifieu as highly iestiicteu fiom conveision may
be conveiteu only upon compliance with existing laws,
iules anu iegulations. An auuitional iequiiement of the
social benefit cost analysis appioveu by the BA shall also
be iequiieu befoie these lanus may be appioveu foi
conveision.
Applications foi conveision coveiing aieas unuei 2 (c)
above shall be subject to the Enviionmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) anuoi Enviionmental Compliance
Ceitificate (ECC) of the BENR.
S. Conveision of piioiity aieas unuei Executive 0iuei 124
(199S), as iuentifieu below, falling within the aieas highly
iestiicteu fiom conveision may be alloweu anu the social benefit
cost analysis foi these aieas may be waiveu; PR0vIBEB that the
iequiiement of an EIC oi ECC shall always be iequiieu;
PR0vIBEB F0RTBER that in no case shall conveision be alloweu
if these sites fall unuei those classifieu as non-negotiable aieas:
a. specific sites in iegional agii-inuustiial
centeisiegional inuustiial centeis (RAICsRICs) iuentifieu
by the Bepaitment of Tiaue anu Inuustiy (BTI) anu the
Bepaitment of Agiicultuie (BA), attacheu as Annex A;
b. touiism uevelopment aieas (TBAs) iuentifieu by the
Bepaitment of Touiism (B0T), attacheu as Annex B; anu
c. sites iuentifieu by the local goveinment units (Lu0s) foi
socializeu housing.
4. In all cases, faimeis oi piospective beneficiaiies of the
agiaiian iefoim piogiam affecteu by the conveision shall be
paiu sufficient uistuibance compensation. In auuition, the
owneis anu oi uevelopeis of the lanu shall be encouiageu to
pioviue capital which will enable the affecteu faimeis anu
othei legitimate stakeholueis to shift to anothei livelihoou,
skills tiaining, ielocation sites, anu piioiity in employment
foi them anu theii chiluien. Investment aiiangements which
give affecteu faimeis anu othei legitimate stakeholueis a
stake in the uevelopment of the lanu, such as, but not limiteu
to, joint ventuies anu paitneiships, shall also be encouiageu.
S. No application foi ieclassification by Lu0s shall be
given uue couise by BL0RB without the appioveu
Compiehensive Lanu 0se Plan appioveu by the BL0RB foi
piovinces, highly uibanizeu cities, inuepenuent component
cities anu the cities anu municipalities of Netiopolitan
Nanila, oi the Sangguniang Panlalawigan foi component
cities anu municipalities, aftei 1 }anuaiy 1989. The following
iequiiements oi ceitifications fiom vaiious agencies shall
also be iequiieu:
a. Ceitification fiom the local BL0RB specifying the total
aiea of zoneu agiicultuial lanus in the local goveinment
conceineu baseu on the appioveu Compiehensive Lanu 0se
Plan oi Zoning 0iuinance piioi to the application foi
conveision;
b. Ceitification fiom the NIA that the aiea to be
ieclassifieu is not coveieu unuei Piesiuential A.0. 2u, s.
1992;
c. Ceitification fiom the BAR inuicating that such lanus
aie not uistiibuteu oi coveieu by a Notice of valuation unuei
CARP; anu
u. Ceitification fiom BENR that the aiea applieu foi
ieclassification has been classifieu as alienable anu
uisposable, anu is not neeueu foi foiestiy puiposes in case
the aiea applieu foi falls within public lanus.
6. No application foi conveision shall be given uue
couise by BAR without the following ceitifications fiom
vaiious agencies:
a. Ceitification of the viability oi Non viability of
Agiicultuial Lanu fiom the BA anu that the lanu is not pait of
the aiea iuentifieu as non-negotiable foi conveision oi a
ceitification as to whethei the lanu is classifieu as highly
iestiicteu fiom conveision oi not;
b. Ceitification that the lanu uoes not fall unuei the
NIPAS aiea oi is not classifieu as enviionmentally ciitical
fiom the BENR. Foi applications foi conveision involving
enviionmentally ciitical aieas, the BAR may issue an 0iuei
of Conveision, subject to the issuance of an ECC by the
BENR.
The BENR, in cooiuination with the BAR, shall institute an
28
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Enviionmental uuaiantee Funu to ensuie enviionment
piotection anu to pioviue goveinment the financial
capability to hanule negative impacts of the conveision;
c. Ceitification fiom the NIA stating that the aiea is not
coveieu unuei Piesiuential A.0. 2u, S. 1992; anu
u. Ceitification fiom the BL0RB that the lanu has been
ieclassifieu anu that saiu ieclassification is within oi outsiue
the maximum allowable limits set by law.
7. In all cases, the uecision of the BAR Secietaiy shall be
appealable to the 0ffice of the Piesiuent. The Piesiuent may allow
the conveision of aieas consiueieu non-negotiable foi conveision
only upon the favoiable iecommenuation of the Cabinet Clustei
on Agio-Inuustiial Bevelopment; PR0vIBEB that wheie lanus
affecteu aie iiiigateu, the owneiuevelopei shall be iequiieu to
ieplace the aieas affecteu by an equal aiea of iiiigateu lanus,
whethei within oi outsiue the aiealocality being applieu foi
conveision; anu PR0vIBEB F0RTBER that such conveision shall
not auveisely affect the iiiigation system.


('35:!-# $#+ )F4 DU2T

$) $#+ 3('8#(-:-)% 5(%')+ ('!$+', *'$85('8 +"
*",'()-a' +7' $%(-#5!+5(' $), V-87'(-'8 8'#+"(8 "V
+7' #"5)+(9 -) "(,'( +" ')7$)#' +7'-(
3("V-+$:-!-+9B $), 3('3$(' 8$-, 8'#+"(8 V"( +7'
#7$!!')%'8 "V %!":$!-a$+-") +7("5%7 $) $,'f5$+'B
V"#58', $), ($+-")$! ,'!-&'(9 "V )'#'88$(9
8533"(+ 8'(&-#'8B $33("3(-$+-)%
V5),8 +7'('V"( $), V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8

8'#4 C4 ,@?=G@L<=FG FN 8<;L<@Z=> $Z;=>I?<I;@ LGJ V=H]@;=@H
,@M@?FOK@G< aFG@H4 k The Bepaitment, in consultation with the
Bepaitment of Agiaiian Refoim, the Bepaitment of Tiaue anu
Inuustiy, the Bepaitment of Enviionment anu Natuial Resouices,
Bepaitment of Science anu Technology, the conceineu Lu0s, the
oiganizeu faimeis anu fisheifolk gioups, the piivate sectoi anu
communities shall, without piejuuice to the uevelopment of
iuentifieu economic zones anu fiee poits, establish anu uelineate,
baseu on sounu iesouice accounting, the SAFBZ within on (1)
yeai fiom the effectivity of this Act.

All iiiigateu lanus, iiiigable lanus alieauy coveieu by iiiigation
piojects with fiim funuing commitments, anu lanus with existing
oi having the potential foi giowing high-value ciops so
uelineateu anu incluueu within the SAFBZ shall not be conveiteu
foi a peiiou of five (S) yeais fiom the effectivity of this Act:

Pioviueu, howevei, that not moie than five peicent (S%) of the
saiu lanus locateu within the SAFBZ may be conveiteu upon
compliance with existing laws, iules, iegulations, executive
oiueis anu issuances, anu auministiative oiueis ielating to lanu
use conveision: Pioviueu, fuithei, That theieaftei: 1) a ieview of
the SAFBZ, specifically on the piouuctivity of the aieas,
impiovement of the quality of life of faimeis anu fisheifolk, anu
efficiency anu effectiveness of the suppoit seivices shall be
conuucteu by the Bepaitment anu the Bepaitment of Agiaiian
Refoim, in cooiuination with the Congiessional 0veisight
Committee on Agiicultuial anu Fisheiies Noueinization; 2)
conveision may be alloweu, if at all, on a caseto-case basis subject
to existing laws, iules, iegulations, executive oiueis anu
issuances, anu auministiative oiueis goveining lanu use
conveision; anu, S) in case of conveision, the lanu ownei will pay
the Bepaitment the amount equivalent to the goveinment's
investment cost incluuing inflation.

8'#4 114 3@GL?<[ NF; $Z;=>I?<I;L? -GL><=M=<[ LGJ 3;@KL<I;@
#FGM@;H=FG. - Any peison oi juiiuical entity who knowingly oi
uelibeiately causes any iiiigateu agiicultuial lanus seven (7)
hectaies oi laigei, whethei contiguous oi not, within the
piotecteu aieas foi agiicultuial uevelopment, as specifieu unuei
Section 6 in ielation to Section 9 of this Act, to lie iule anu
unpiouuctive foi a peiiou exceeuing one (1) yeai, unless uue to
foice majeuie, shall be subject to an iule lanu tax of Thiee
Thousanu Pesos (PS,uuu.uu) pei hectaie pei yeai. In auuition,
the violatoi shall be iequiieu to put back such lanus to
piouuctive agiicultuial use. Shoulu the continueu agiicultuial
inactivity, unless uue to foice majeuie, exceeu a peiiou of two (2)
yeais, the lanu shall be subject to escheat pioceeuings.

Any peison founu guilty of piematuie oi illegal conveision shall
be penalizeu with impiisonment of two (2) to six (6) yeais, oi a
fine equivalent to one hunuieu peicent (1uu%) of the
goveinment's investment cost, oi both, at the uiscietion of the
couit, anu an accessoiy penalty of foifeituie of the lanu anu
any impiovement theieon.

In auuition, the BAR may impose the following penalties, aftei
ueteimining, in an auministiative
pioceeuings, that violation of this law has been committeu:
a) Cancellation oi withuiawal of the authoiization foi lanu
use conveision; anu

b) Blacklisting, oi automatic uisappioval of penuing anu
subsequent conveision applications that they may file with
the BAR.


,$( $,*-)4 "(,'( )F4 1CC
$(+-#!' ---. KC"+)&2(C" 0&C.),J&)2
8'#+-") D4 ?'.(#'.& ,+' ?+*4#'7.+*4 The following ciiteiia
shall guiue the iesolution of applications foi conveision:
(a) Conveision may be alloweu if the lanu subject of
application is not among those consiueieu non-negotiable
foi conveision as pioviueu in Section 4 of these Rules;
(b) Conveision may be alloweu, in accoiuance with
Section 6S of RA 66S7, when the lanu has ceaseu to be
economically feasible anu sounu foi agiicultuial puiposes;
oi the locality has become uibanizeu anu the lanu will have
gieatei economic value foi iesiuential, commeicial,
inuustiial oi othei non-agiicultuial puiposes;
(c) Conveision of lanus within SAFBZs, as pioviueu in
Rule 9.S.2 of BA Auministiative 0iuei No. 6, Seiies of 1998,
shall take into account the following factois:
(1) The conveision of lanu use is consistent with the
natuial expansion of the municipality oi locality, as
containeu in the appioveu physical fiamewoik anu lanu
use plan;
(2) The aiea to be conveiteu in use is not the only
29
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

iemaining foou piouuction aiea of the community;
(S) The lanu use conveision shall not hampei the
availability of iiiigation to neaiby faimlanus;
(4) The aieas with low piouuctivity will be accoiueu
piioiity foi use conveision; anu
(S) Sufficient uistuibance compensation shall be
given to the faimeis whose livelihoous aie negatively
affecteu by the lanu use conveision as pioviueu foi by
existing laws anu iegulations.
(u) Conveision may be alloweu when the enviionmental
impact assessment oi initial enviionmental examination, as
may be appiopiiate, shall have ueteimineu that it shall not
auveisely affect aii anu watei quality anu the ecological
stability of the aiea.
8'#+-") C4 M"+ N&A E%%2A ,+' ?+*4#'7.+*. The following
peisons may apply foi conveision:
(a) 0wneis of piivate agiicultuial lanus oi othei
peisons uuly authoiizeu by the lanuownei;
(b) Beneficiaiies of the agiaiian iefoim piogiam aftei
the lapse of five (S) yeais fiom awaiu, ieckoneu fiom the
uate of the issuance of the Ceitificate of Lanu 0wneiship
Awaiu (CL0A), anu who have fully paiu theii obligations
anu aie qualifieu unuei these Rules, oi peisons uuly
authoiizeu by them; oi,
(c) uoveinment agencies, incluuing goveinment-
owneu oi contiolleu coipoiations, anu local goveinment
units, which own agiicultuial lanu as theii patiimonial
piopeity.
8'#+-") 114 8.2.*; +, E%%2.1&(.+*4 The pioceuuies in
applying foi conveision aie as follows:
(a) The applicant secuies application foim eithei fiom
the BAR Regional 0ffice oi the BAR Cential 0ffice.
(b) The applicant accomplishes the application anu
secuiespiepaies the uocuments iequiieu unuei Section
1u heieof.
(c) The applicant files thiee (S) sets of the application
unuei oath (inclusive of oiiginal) togethei with the
iequiieu uocuments befoie the Regional 0ffice oi the
Cential 0ffice.
(u) The ieceiving office shall ieview the completeness of the
application. If founu complete, the applicant shall be auviseu to
pay the filing fee anu post the cash bonu piesciibeu heiein.
Applications with incomplete iequiiements shall not be accepteu.




#$8'6

#(':$B -)# M4 8'#4 "V $%($(-$) ('V"(*
1D WIG@ /010
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuent issueu a seiies of Auministiative 0iueis
pioviuing foi iules anu pioceuuie t foi the conveision of
agiicultuial lanus to non-agiicultuial uses. Petitionei contests
the valiuity of the oiueis contenuing that the LuC uoes not
subject the ieclassification by Lu0 to the conveision pioceuuie
noi uoes it iequiie BAR's appioval in oiuei to effect
ieclassification.
7@?J6 C0NvERSI0N is the act of changing the cuiient use of a
piece of agiicultuial lanu into some othei use as appioveu by the
BAR. RECLASSIFICATI0N is the act of specifying how agiicultuial
lanus shall be utilizeu foi non-agiicultuial uses such as
iesiuential, inuustiial anu commeicial, as embouieu in the lanu
use plan, subject to the iequiiements anu pioceuuies foi lanu use
conveision.
Any ieclassification of agiicultuial lanus by the Lu0s must
unueigo the piocess of conveision, uespite having unueigone
ieclassification, befoie agiicultuial lanus may be useu foi othei
puiposes. The ieq't of secuiing BAR's appiovalcleaiance to
effect ieclassification uoes not violate the autonomy of Lu0s. Sec.
2u LuC shows that the powei of the Lu0s to ieclassify
agiicultuial lanus is not absolute. The authoiity of the BAR to
appiove conveision of agiicultuial lanus coveieu by RA 66S7 to
non-agiicultuial uses has been valiuly iecognizeu in Sec 2u (e).

)F<@6 Lu0s uo not have the powei of conveision. They may only
ieclassify.

KBC2J&) %", H;)"("G C8 7C%,2
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG /14 KBC2J&) %", H;)"("G C8 7C%,2D -
(a) A local goveinment unit may, puisuant to an oiuinance,
peimanently oi tempoiaiily close oi open any local ioau, alley,
paik, oi squaie falling within its juiisuiction: Pioviueu, howevei,
That in case of peimanent closuie, such oiuinance must be
appioveu by at least two-thiius (2S) of all the membeis of the
sanggunian, anu when necessaiy, an auequate substitute foi the
public facility that is subject to closuie is pioviueu.

(b) No such way oi place oi any pait theieof shall be
peimanently closeu without making piovisions foi the
maintenance of public safety theiein. A piopeity thus
peimanently withuiawn fiom public use may be useu oi
conveyeu foi any puipose foi which othei ieal piopeity
belonging to the local goveinment unit conceineu may be
lawfully useu oi conveyeu: Pioviueu, howevei, That no fieeuom
paik shall be closeu peimanently without piovision foi its
tiansfei oi ielocation to a new site.
(c) Any national oi local ioau, alley, paik, oi squaie may be
tempoiaiily closeu uuiing an actual emeigency, oi fiesta
celebiations, public iallies, agiicultuial oi inuustiial faiis, oi an
unueitaking of public woiks anu highways, telecommunications,
anu wateiwoiks piojects, the uuiation of which shall be specifieu
by the local chief executive conceineu in a wiitten oiuei:
Pioviueu, howevei, That no national oi local ioau, alley, paik, oi
squaie shall be tempoiaiily closeu foi athletic, cultuial, oi civic
activities not officially sponsoieu, iecognizeu, oi appioveu by the
local goveinment unit conceineu.
(u) Any city, municipality, oi baiangay may, by a uuly enacteu
oiuinance, tempoiaiily close anu iegulate the use of any local
stieet, ioau, thoioughfaie, oi any othei public place wheie
shopping malls, Sunuay, flea oi night maikets, oi shopping aieas
30
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

may be establisheu anu wheie goous, meichanuise, fooustuffs,
commouities, oi aiticles of commeice may be solu anu uispenseu
to the geneial public.

#$8'86

#$:('($ M4 #$
1D *L;>] 1CC1
(@N;@H]@;6 Piovincial Boaiu of Catanuuanes issueu a iesolution
to close the olu ioau anu give to piopeity owneis tiaveiseu by
the new ioau poitions of the olu ioau in exchange foi theii
piopeity.
7@?J6 the Couit has uphelu the powei of city councils to close city
stieets anu withuiaw them fiom public use. Theie is no ieason
foi not applying that uoctiine to the piovincial boaiu in
connection with the closuie of piovincial ioaus. The piovincial
boaiu has the uuty of maintaining such ioaus foi the confoit anu
convenience of the inhabitants of the piovince. Noieovei, this
authoiity may be infeiieu fiom the giant by the national
legislatuie of the funus to the piovince foi the constiuction of
ioaus.

,$#$)$9 M4 $8-8+-"
0Q *L[ 1CC/
(@N;@H]@;6 Netio Nanila Commission enacteu an 0iuinance
uesignating ceitain stieets, ioaus anu open spaces in Caloocan
City as sites foi flea maikets. City Nayoi openeu up seveial flea
maikets anu issueu licenses to stall holueis.
7@?J6 Saiu licenses aie null anu voiu foi being contiaiy to law.
the uisputeu aieas in the CAB aie unueniably public stieets.
Being outsiue the commeice of man, they may not be the subject
of lease oi othei contiact. The iight of the public to use the
stieets may not be baigaineu away thiough contiact. The geneial
law ieseives the city stieets anu ioaus foi public use.

:<?0W

KC&;C&%3) 0CA)&2

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG //4 KC&;C&%3) 0CA)&2. -
(a) Eveiy local goveinment unit, as a coipoiation, shall have the
following poweis:
(1) To have continuous succession in its coipoiate name;
(2) To sue anu be sueu;
(S) To have anu use a coipoiate seal;
(4) To acquiie anu convey ieal oi peisonal piopeity;
(S) To entei into contiacts; anu
(6) To exeicise such othei poweis as aie gianteu to coipoiations,
subject to the limitations pioviueu in this Coue anu othei laws.

(b) Lu0s may continue using, mouify oi change theii existing
coipoiate seals.
Registei with the BILu:
-new Lu0s cieating coipoiate seals
-existing Lu0s cieating a coipoiate seal
-any change of coipoiate seals

(c) 0nless otheiwise pioviueu in this Coue, no contiact may be
enteieu into by the local chief executive in behalf of the local
goveinment without piioi authoiization by the sanggunian
conceineu.
-Contiact must be posteu at a conspicuous place in the piovincial
capitol oi the city, municipal oi baiangay hall.

(u) Lu0s shall enjoy full autonomy in the exeicise of theii
piopiietaiy functions anu in the management of theii economic
enteipiises
-subject to limitations in the Coue anu othei laws

u0vERNNENTAL P0WERS C0RP0RATE (PR0PRIETARY)
P0WERS
Exeiciseu in auministeiing the
poweis of the state anu
piomoting public welfaie
Exeiciseu foi the special
benefit anu auvantage of the
community
Legislative, juuicial, public anu
political
Ninisteiial, piivate anu
coipoiate
Cannot be sueu without
consent foi injuiies it causeu
Implieuly consents to being
sueu by enteiing into piivate
contiacts
0fficeis oi agents acting within
official uuties aie not liable
unless they acteu willfully anu
maliciously
0fficeis anu agents aie liable
foi negligence toits while
within scope of employment.
7)2;C",)%3 2J;)&(C& uoesn't
apply
7)2;C",)%3 2J;)&(C& applies

#$8'86

#-+9 "V *$)-!$ M4 -$#
)FM@KP@; 1TB 1CDC
(@N;@H]@;6 Action foi uamages against the city foi iemoving
bones of plaintiff's husbanu fiom cemeteiy in bieach of lease
contiact.
7@?J6 An Lu0 can acquiie piopeity in it public oi goveinmental
capacity (wheie it is immune fiom suit) anu in piivate oi
piopiietaiy capacity (wheie it can be sueu). Cemeteiy is owneu
by the city in a piivate oi piopiietaiy capacity anu so city can be
helu liable foi uamages foi bieach of contiact.

3("&-)#' "V a$*:"$)%$ ,'! )"(+' M4 #-+9 "V
a$*:"$)%$
*L;>] /DB 1CDQ
(@N;@H]@;6 Case conceining lots anu builuings of the olu
Piovince of Zamboanga locateu in Zamboanga City, foimei
piovincial capital. Congiess passeu a law giving these piopeities
to Zamboanga City fiee of chaige. Constitutionality of the law is
baseu on ueteimination if the piopeity is owneu by the Lu0 in its
public (then Congiess has absolute contiol ovei it) oi piivate
piopiietaiy (then law amounts to taking without uue piocess anu
just compensation) capacity.
7@?J6 Couit compaieu Civil Coue piovisions anu the law on
Nunicipal Coipoiations. 0nuei the NCC, the piopeities of the
piovince (except the playgiounu) aie patiimonial. Public
piopeities aie those foi public use, which aie foi the fiee anu
inuisciiminate use by anyone while patiimonial piopeities
incluue those foi public seivice. 0nuei the law on Nunicipal
Coips, piopeity is public if it is uevoteu foi govtl puipose like
local auministiation, public health anu euucation etc. The Couit
followeu the law on Nunicipal Coips anu ueclaieu the piopeities
public which Congiess can give to the City foi fiee.
g)"+'6 Banuat is offenueu. Couit favoieu the Law on Nunicipal
Coips without citing a specific piovision. Follow the Civil Coue
uefinition.





31
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

($:5#" M4 &-!!'%$8
V@P;IL;[ /DB 1CEU
(@N;@H]@;6 Congiess passeu a law conveiting communal lanus of
Nanila into uisposable anu alienable lanus to be uiviueu among
pooi tenants anu to be solu to them. City officials want to stiike
uown the law foi uepiiving the City of Nanila of piopeity without
just compensation.
7@?J6 Law is valiu because the lots aie owneu by the city in its
public anu goveinmental capacity. They aie public piopeity ovei
which Congiess has absolute contiol. Congiess has the iight anu
powei to ueal with state piopeity. (If they weie patiimonial, Lu0
coulun't be uepiiveu of it without uue piocess anu without just
compensation)
g)"+'6 When Lu0s aie cieateu, theie is no tiansfei of lanu fiom
the national goveinment to the Lu0

*5)-#-3$! :"$(, M4 #+$
,@>@KP@; /QB 1CTU
(@N;@H]@;6 The city, iepiesenteu by its municipal boaiu,
appealeu to the CTA. It contesteu the uecision of the Boaiu of
Assessment Appeals gianting a school exemption fiom ieal
piopeity tax. This case is on the city's capacity to appeal.
7@?J6 The City of Cebu can appeal fiom the uecision of the City
Boaiu of Appeals. The city is a political bouy coipoiate. It has the
capacity to sue anu be sueu. It is authoiizeu to levy ieal estate
taxes. No one is moie auveisely affecteu by the uecision since the
city will lose income uue to the tax exemption.

!J35C&(39 3C @)GC3(%3) %", :).J&) M&%"32
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG /24 !J35C&(39 3C @)GC3(%3) %", :).J&) M&%"32. - Local
chief executives may, upon authoiity of the sanggunian, negotiate
anu secuie financial giants oi uonations in kinu, in suppoit of the
basic seivices oi facilities enumeiateu unuei Sec 17, fiom local
anu foieign assistance agencies without necessity of secuiing
appioval fiom any uepaitment of any uepaitment of the National
uoveinment oi any highei Lu0
Except: Piojects with national secuiity implications must be
appioveu by the national agency conceineu
-If it fails to act within Su uays fiom ieceipt of iequest foi
appioval, pioject is ueemeu appioveu
Local chief executive must iepoit natuie, amount anu teims of
such assistance to both Bouses of Congiess anu the Piesiuent
within Su uays fiom signing of agieement

4(%'(B(39 8C& *%F%G)2
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG /UD 4(%'(B(39 8C& *%F%G)2D - Local goveinment units anu
theii officials aie not exempt fiom liability foi ueath oi injuiy to
peisons oi uamage to piopeity.

#-&-! #",'
$;<=>?@ 2U. When a membei of a city oi municipal police foice
iefuses oi fails to ienuei aiu oi piotection to any peison in case
of uangei to life oi piopeity, such peace officei shall be piimaiily
liable foi uamages, anu the city oi municipality shall be
subsiuiaiily iesponsible theiefoi. The civil action heiein
iecognizeu shall be inuepenuent of any ciiminal pioceeuings, anu
a pieponueiance of eviuence shall suffice to suppoit such action.

$;<=>?@ /1D04 The obligation imposeu by aiticle 2176 is
uemanuable not only foi one's own acts oi omissions, but also foi
those of peisons foi whom one is iesponsible.
xx
The State is iesponsible in like mannei when it acts thiough a
special agent; but not when the uamage has been causeu by the
official to whom the task uone piopeily peitains, in which case
what is pioviueu in aiticle 2176 shall be applicable.
xx
The iesponsibility tieateu of in this aiticle shall cease when the
peisons heiein mentioneu piove that they obseiveu all the
uiligence of a goou fathei of a family to pievent uamage.

$;<=>?@ /1DC4 Piovinces, cities anu municipalities shall be liable
foi uamages foi the ueath of, oi injuiies suffeieu by, any peison
by ieason of the uefective conuition of ioaus, stieets, biiuges,
public builuings, anu othei public woiks unuei theii contiol oi
supeivision.

($ DEUC 37-!-33-)' #!'$) $-( $#+ "V 1CCC
8@><=FG U24 :J(32 %", :3&%3)G(. 4)G%B !.3(C"2 !G%("23 0J'B(.
0%&3(.(;%3(C" %", 35) ?"8C&.)F)"3 C8 <5(2 !.3D - Wheie a suit is
biought against a peison who fileu an action as pioviueu in Sec.
41 of this Act, oi against any peison, institution oi goveinment
agency that implements this Act, it shall be the uuty of the
investigating piosecutoi oi the couit, as the case may be, to
immeuiately make a ueteimination not exceeuing thiity (Su)
uays whethei saiu legal action has been fileu to haiass, vex, exeit
unuue piessuie oi stifle such legal iecouises of the peison
complaining of oi enfoicing the piovisions of this Act. 0pon
ueteimination theieof, eviuence waiianting the same, the couit
shall uismiss the case anu awaiu attoiney's fees anu uouble
uamages.

#$8'86
*'),"a$ M4 ,' !'")
V@P;IL;[ 11B 1C1Q
(@N;@H]@;6 Action foi uamages against membeis of the
municipal council foi ievoking plaintiff's exclusive feiiy
piivileges. Council gianteu plaintiff's fianchise to anothei peison
in bau faith.
7@?J6 Inuiviuual membeis of municipal council can be helu liable
foi uamages. ueneially, membeis of the municipal council in
auministeiing patiimonial piopeity aie exeicising coipoiate
poweis of the Lu0 anu aie like boaiu of uiiectois of a piivate
coipoiation. Thus, they cannot be helu liable foi eiiois of
juugment. Bowevei, when they act in bau faith, like in this case,
they aie liable.

*5)-#-3$!-+9 "V 8$) V'()$)," M4 V-(*'
$O;=? DB 1CC1
(@N;@H]@;6 Action foi uamages against the municipality anu the
uivei of its uump tiuck foi a thiee-way collision.
7@?J6 Nunicipality is not liable foi toits committeu by its iegulai
EEs uischaiging goveinmental functions. Lu0s can be sueu
because theii chaiteis giant them the competence to sue anu be
sueu. But they aie geneially not liable foi toits committeu by
them in the uischaige of goveinmental functions anu can only be
liable if they aie acting in a piopiietaiy capacity. In this case, the
uiivei of the tiuck was on his way to loau giavel to iepaii
municipal stieets. Constiuction anu maintenance of ioaus aie
goveinmental activities.

V'()$)," M4 #$
*L[ DB 1CC/
(@N;@H]@;6 Action foi uamages against the City of Bavao foi the
ueath seveial men in the septic tank of the public maiket. The
victims, biuueis who uiu not win the contiact to fix the septic
tank, enteieu to clean it without peimission fiom the city.
32
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

7@?J6 City is not liable since it followeu sanitaiy iequiiements in
constiucting the tank. The victims' own negligence was the
pioximate cause of the acciuent as they faileu to exhibit the caie
anu skill of one oiuinaiily skilleu in that woik shoulu uo. The city
uiun't have to supeivise the septic tank since no one has been
awaiueu the biu to fix it yet.

%5!!'(%$) M4 %$)a")
*L[ /TB 1CQQ
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis aie maiket sweepeis of the city maiket
who weie illegally uismisseu. The bone of contention is if the city
can be liable foi back pay oi if it is immune.
7@?J6 Lu0 is liable foi the back salaiies of petitioneis. (1) The
city chaitei pioviues that it may sue anu be sueu. (2) The
opeiation of a maiket is a piopiietaiy function. (S) Lu0s can be
liable foi back pay of EEs illegally sepaiateu fiom seivice, even
those involving piimaiily goveinmental functions like policemen.

3-!$( M4 8$)%%5)-$)% :$9$) "V ,$8"!B 3$)%$8-)$)
*L;>] 1/B 1CDU
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei vice-mayoi was not given his uue salaiy
inciease by the sanggunian (as manuateu by law). When the
sanggunian finally appioveu his salaiy inciease, iesponuent
mayoi vetoeu this.
7@?J6 Nayoi alone shoulu be liable foi uamages against
petitionei as he acteu in bau faith anu he foiceu petitionei to
litigate. Be vetoeu without just cause the sanggunian's iesolution
uespite existence of municipal funus. Be also ignoieu the
uiiectives of the Piovincial Buuget 0fficei anu the Buieau of
Local uoveinment. Bamages shoulu be paiu fiom mayoi's
peisonal funus.

+5a") M4 #$
$IZIH< /1B 1CC/
(@N;@H]@;6 Bue to a sanggunian iesolution, mayoi anu municipal
tieasuiei iefuse to issue a municipal license anu mayoi's peimit
to petitionei unless he agiees to uonate 1% of all the palay he has
thiesheu within the municipality.
7@?J6 Nayoi anu tieasuiei aie not liable foi uamages. Ait 27 NCC
holus a public seivant EE who iefuses oi neglects without just
cause to peifoim official uuty liable foi uamages. It uoesn't apply
in the CAB since theie was no bau faith. Nayoi anu tieasuiei can
only enfoice, anu not iule on the valiuity of the sanggunian
iesolution. Public officeis aie not peisonally foi acts peifoimeu
within the scope of official authoiity anu in line with official uuty.

:$!59"+ M4 #$
WI?[ //B 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Resiuents of KNL fileu a complaint foi specific
peifoimance anu uamages against 0P anu QC goveinment. 0P
executeu a ueeu of uonation in favoi of QC foi the KNL lots.
Petitionei-iesiuents uiu not paiticipate in the contiact but the
ueeu was subject to the conuition that QC will tiansfei the lots in
favoi of theii actual iesiuents aftei S yeais. Bowevei, 0P ievokeu
the uonation (because 0P uiun't uelivei title to QC so QC uiun't
fulfill obligations in ueeu like constiucting ioaus).
7@?J6 Complaint states a cause of action. Even if petitioneis weie
not paities to the ueeu, they weie the intenueu beneficiaiies of
the uonation to Quezon City. It was a stipulation poui atiui (1)
stipulation foi S
iu
peison (2) stipulation just pait of contiact (S)
paities uelibeiately confeiieu favoi to S
iu
peison (4) S
iu
peison
communicateu acceptance (S) neithei of the contiacting paities
iepiesents the S
iu
peison.
*)"+'6 I nevei ieally got why this case is heie. Anyway, what
you can ieally take away is that QC can be sueu because it is
ieceiving a uonation in its piopiietaiy capacity. (caveat: this is
just my inteipietation)

f5'a") #-+9 M4 ,$#$($
WIG@ 1TB /00T
(@N;@H]@;6 Action foi uamages against QC because petitionei's
son iammeu into a pile of stieet uiggings in city stieet being
iepaiieu by the city goveinment. Son suffeieu bouily injuiies.
7@?J6 Quezon City is liable foi uamages. Its negligence was the
pioximate cause of the acciuent foi its failuie to pioviue a
lighting uevice, baiiicaue oi any sign of the constiuction. Ait
2189 NCC capsulizes the iesponsibility of the city goveinment to
maintain ioaus anu biiuges since it exeicises contiol anu
supeivision ovei the same. Failuie to comply with saiu aiticle is
negligence pei se ienueiing the Lu0 liable.

*5)-#-3$!-+9 "V 8$) W5$) M4 #$
$IZIH< CB /00T
(@N;@H]@;6 Action foi uamages against municipality of San }uan,
NWSS anu a piivate contiactoi because plaintiff's cai fell on a
manhole while it was flooueu. NWSS' contiactoi laiu uown pipes
in Santolan but they left no baiiicaue.
7@?J6 Nunicipality is liable even if Santolan is a national ioau.
Accoiuing to Ait 2189, owneiship of the ioau public woik is not
the contiolling factoi. It is sufficient that the Lu0 has contiol oi
supeivision theieof. San }uan has supeivision ovei Santolan
because Sec 149 of the LuC giants Lu0s the powei to "iegulate"
excavation of ioaus to lay uown pipes.
Lu0 can't shiik fiom obligation to maintain safe conuition of the
ioaus meiely because the peimit to excavate was given by a
uiffeient entity Also, it cannot claim that it uiun't know theie's a
manhole as it is enough that it coulu have known thiough the
exeicise of oiuinaiy caie.
g)"+'6 We hau a Chiis Lao scenaiio uiscussion heie. Can he
make the Lu0 liable.

"8*')$ M4 #"$
*L[ 21B /011
(@N;@H]@;6 Nayoi oiueieu extia woik fiom 2 companies
ienovating the city spoits complex foi Pambansang Palaio. Be
executeu contiact without piioi sanggunian authoiization anu
without a supplemental agieement as iequiieu by law. Since the
city coulun't pay, the companies sueu anu won against the city.
C0A wanteu mayoi peisonally liable foi the uamages anu
attoiney's fees.
7@?J6 Nayoi is not peisonally liable foi uamages. A public official
is only peisonally liable if the expenuituie of goveinment funus
was in violation of the law. In the CAB, the expenuituies weie
necessaiy foi the safety of the impenuing Palaio. Also, the city
tacitly appioveu the extia woik oiueis ienueiing a supplemental
agieement oi sanggunian authoiization unnecessaiy.

7!ZZ^
#7$3+'( 24 -)+'(%"&'()*')+$!
('!$+-")8 )$+-")$! $), !"#$!
%"&')(*')+ 5)-+8

?V).J3(+) :J;)&+(2(C"

1CDE #")8+-+5+-")
$;<4 AB m/4 The teiiitoiial anu political subuivisions shall enjoy
local autonomy.
33
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph


$;<4 AB mU4 The Piesiuent of the Philippines shall exeicise geneial
supeivision ovei local goveinments. Piovinces with iespect to
component cities anu municipalities, anu cities anu
municipalities with iespect to component baiangays, H]L??
@GHI;@ <]L< <]@ L><H FN <]@=; >FKOFG@G< IG=<H L;@ b=<]=G <]@
H>FO@ FN <]@=; O;@H>;=P@J OFb@;H LGJ NIG><=FGH4


!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
!%# /T4 National Supeivision ovei Local uoveinment 0nits. -

(a) the Piesiuent shall exeicise geneial supeivision ovei local
goveinments to ensuie that theii acts aie within the scope of
theii poweis anu functions. The Piesiuent shall have uiiect
supeivisoiy authoiity ovei piovinces, highly uibanizeu cities,
anu inuepenuent component cities anu shall act thiough the
piovince with iespect to component cities anu municipalities;
anu thiough the city anu municipality with iespect to baiangays.

(b) National agencies anu offices with pioject implementation
functions shall cooiuinate intei se anu with the Lu0s conceineu
in the uischaige of these functions to ensuie the paiticipation of
local goveinment units both in theii planning anu
implementation.

(c) The Piesiuent may, upon iequest of the local goveinment unit
conceineu, uiiect the appiopiiate national agency to pioviue
financial, technical, oi othei foims of assistance to the local
goveinment unit at no extia cost to the local goveinment unit.


(u) National agencies anu offices incluuing u0CCs with fielu units
oi bianches in a piovince, city, oi municipality shall fuinish the
local chief executive conceineu monthly iepoits incluuing uuly
ceitifieu buugetaiy allocations anu expenuituies.


K%2)2>

7':(") M4 ('9'8
WI?[ /DB 1CTD
(@N;@H]@;6 Case involving the suspension penuing
auministiative investigation of Bebion as mayoi of Caimona by
the 0ffice of the Piesiuent. 0P uesignateu Reyes as acting mayoi
anu since Bebion's teim was about to expiie, he fileu a quo
waiianto petition challenging Reyes' assumption to the post. The
issue is whethei the Piesiuent may suspenu oi iemove a
municipal mayoi, not chaigeu with uisloyalty, iegaiuless of the
pioceuuie in the Reviseu Auministiative Coue.

7@?J6 The piovisions of the RAC peitinent to the uiscipline of
officeis is manuatoiy. The Executive may not uepiive the
uoveinoi oi the piovincial boaiu of the uisciplinaiy poweis
vesteu in them by the Coue. The Piesiuent, as he exeicises only a
supeivisoiy powei ovei the municipal mayois may not uiiectly
suspenu oi iemove such officeis. Be may insteau oiuei
investigations to be conuucteu to asceitain whethei acts have
been committeu waiianting the exeicise of the uisciplinaiy
poweis of the uoveinoi oi the Piovincial Boaiu anu iefei them as
such. Be may also compel the same officeis to conuuct such
investigations.


%$)a") M4 #$
$IZIH< TB 1CC1
(@N;@H]@;6 Case involving Nayoi uanzon of Iloilo City who was
issueu 4 successive 6u-uay suspension oiueis by the Secietaiy of
Inteiioi anu Local uoveinment while unuei investigation foi
chaiges of oppiession, abuse of authoiity anu giave misconuuct.
uanzon questions the powei of the Secietaiy, as the Piesiuent's
altei ego to issue such suspension oiueis contenuing that the
1987 Constitution uivesteu the Piesiuent of such poweis.
7@?J6 The change in the woiuing of Aiticle X, Sec. 4 of the 1987
Constitution, ueleting the phiase "as may be pioviueu by law" uiu
not uivest the piesiuent of his powei to pioviue auministiative
sanctions against local officials. The ueletion meiely emphasizes
the policy of local autonomy by seveiing the uiscipline of local
officials fiom legislative contiol anu inteivention. This howevei
uiu not iemove the powei of the piesiuent to supeivise local
officeis. Also contiaiy to petitionei's claim, such powei of
supeivision necessaiily incluues the powei to investigate anu the
two aie not incompatible. In contiast with the case of Bebion
wheie the powei to suspenu was lougeu with the uoveinoi by
viitue of the RAC, the LuC (BP SS7) vests the Ninistei (now
Secietaiy) of Local uoveinment with the powei to issue
pieventive suspension oiueis against local officials.


,(-!") M4 !-*
$IZIH< UB 1CCU
(@N;@H]@;6 Case involving the constitutionality of Section 187 of
the LuC. }ustice Sec. Biilon ueclaieu Nanila 0iuinance 7794 voiu
foi non-compliance with the pioceuuie of enacting tax
oiuinances anu foi being contiaiy to public policy. The RTC of
Nanila, acting on a petition by the City, ueclaieu Section 187 as
unconstitutional foi vesting in the Secietaiy of }ustice the powei
of contiol ovei Lu0s contiaiy to the constitutional piecept that
such powei of the executive is limiteu to geneial supeivision
only.
7@?J6 The Bigh Couit helu that the saiu section was not
unconstitutional. The saiu section authoiizes the Secietaiy to
ieview the constitutionality oi legality of the tax oiuinance anu, if
waiianteu, to ievoke it on the basis of these giounus. When he
uoes so, he cannot substitute his own juugment foi the juugment
of the Lu0. Biilon set asiue the 0iuinance, but uiu not ieplace it
with his own veision. This is in accoiu with the supeivisoiy
poweis gianteu to the executive bianch in that such an officei
meiely sees to it that the acts uone by the suboiuinate aie in
accoiu with the limitations of his powei anu functions. Be cannot,
in the exeicise of supeivision, ieplace the suboiuinate's acts with
his own which is the hallmaik of the powei of contiol which the
executive uoes not have.


KC"2JB3%3(C"2

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'

8'#+-") /4 Beclaiation of Policy.* -
(c) All national agencies anu offices aie iequiieu to conuuct
peiiouic consultations with conceineu Lu0s, Nu0s anu people's
oiganizations, anu othei sectois of the community befoie any
pioject is implementeu in theii juiisuiction.

8'#+-")/Q4 Buty of National uoveinment Agencies in the
Naintenance of Ecological Balance. -
Requiies all national agencies oi u0CCs authoiizing oi planning
any pioject which (1) may cause pollution, (2) climatic change,
34
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

(S) uepletion of non-ienewable iesouices, (4) loss of ciop lanu
iangelanu oi foiest covei, (S) eiauicate ceitain plant oi animal
species, oi (6) call foi the eviction of ceitain gioups of people
iesiuing in the locality, to consult with Lu0s, Nu0s anu othei
conceineu sectois to explain the goals, impact, anu mitigation
measuies of the pioject.


8'#+-") /E. Piioi Consultations Requiieu.-
No pioject shall be implementeu without consultations as
iequiieu in Secs. 2 anu 26 anu piioi appioval of the sanggunian
conceineu. 0ccupants of such pioject aieas shall not be evicteu
unless appiopiiate ielocation sites have been pioviueu.


*'*"($),5* #-(#5!$( )"4 T/ H4 1CC2, Penultimate
Paiagiaph:

Enjoins stiict compliance with the iequiiements of piioi
consultation anu appioval set out in Secs. 2, 26, anu 27 of the
Local uoveinment Coue.

('35:!-# $#+ DCET mE. Issuance of Peimits.

Issuance of peimit to extiact sanu, giavel anu quaiiy iesouices
neeueu in goveinment piojects shall only be upon payment of
fees levieu unuei the LuC to the goveinoi oi mayoi as the case
may be. The issuance of saiu peimit shall consiuei enviionmental
laws, lanu use oiuinances anu piovisions of the LuC ielating to
enviionment.

O):6 ,=Z@H<@J O;FM=H=FGH


#ASES6

:$)%58 V(9 V-87'(V"!^ M4 !$)a$)$8
WI?[ 10B /002

(@N;@H]@;6 Case conceining the constiuction of a mooiing whaif
foi NAP0C0R's 14.4NW powei baige in Ninolo Cove, Pueito
ualeia, 0iiental Ninuoio. Petitioneis claim, among othei
giounus, that NPC faileu to piove that it hau complieu with the
iequiiements of the LuC of piioi consultation anu appioval of the
sanggunian conceineu befoie the pioject unueiwent
implementation.

7@?J6 The iequiiements of Aits. 26 anu 27 of piioi consultation
with the community anu the appioval of the sanggunian
conceineu uoes not apply to the mooiing whaif to be constiucteu
by NPC. Sections 26 anu 27 must be ieau togethei to limit the
iequiiement of piioi consultation anu appioval to those piojects
which may cause any of the (6) enumeiateu effects. The mooiing
whaif constiuction uoes not belong to any of the enumeiateu
ciicumstances anu thus is not enviionmentally ciitical, though
the same cannot be saiu of the opeiation of the powei baige
itself, but such is not the issue in this case.


3("&-)#' "V (-a$! M4 'A'#5+-&' 8'#('+$(9
,@>@KP@; 12B /00T
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis in this case sought to enjoin the opeiation
of the San Nateo Lanufill in the Piovince of Rizal. The petitioneis
iely on seveial giounus incluuing but not limiteu to a spuiious
enviionmental compliance ceitificate, encioachment of the
lanufill in a piotecteu wateisheu aiea, anu the NNBA's uisiegaiu
foi the cleai anu unanimous sentiment of the iesiuents of the
aiea as well as the lack of appioval by the sanggunian conceineu.
7@?J6 As helu in pievious cases, the LuC iequiies consultations
with appiopiiate Lu0s piioi to the implementation of national
goveinment piojects affecting the ecological balance of a
paiticulai community. Fuithei the coue iequiies the appioval of
the conceineu Lu0 thiough its sanggunian piioi to the
implementation of the pioject. These two iequisites must concui,
anu without one oi both, the implementation of the pioject is
illegal. The piotests stageu by membeis of the community as well
as the suppoit of all the mayois conceineu foi such piotests aie
inuicative of the lack of concuiience not just of the sanggunians
conceineu but also of the communities affecteu as a whole to the
implementation of the pioject. This, togethei with othei giounus
leaus to the conclusion that the implementation of the pioject is
illegal.

$!&$('a M4 3-#"3
,@>@KP@; 2B /00C
(@N;@H]@;6 Case of PIC0P filing a petition foi manuamus to
compel the Secietaiy of Enviionment to conveit PIC0P's timbei
license agieement (TLA) into an IFNA baseu on a 1969
uocument signeu by Naicos to conveit such TLA into an IFNA.
BENR Secietaiy opposeu on seveial giounus incluuing the
allegation that PIC0P faileu to conuuct piioi consultations anu
seek appioval fiom the sanggunian conceineu as iequiieu by the
LuC.
7@?J6 The contention of PIC0P that it is not a goveinment agency
anu is thus not iequiieu to conuuct consultations anu seek
appioval is coiiect. The BENR is the national agency oi office that
is iequiieu to conuuct the consultations anu seek the appioval
that is iequiieu unuei Secs. 26 anu 27 of the LuC. Thus without
such consultations anu appioval, the BENR cannot issue the
IFNA, anu if it uoes so, the same shall be voiu.


:"($#$9 V"5),$+-") M4 +7' 3("&-)#' "V $^!$)
WIG@ /QB /01/
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis assail the implementation of the Caticlan
}etty poit expansion pioject baseu on the failuie of the Piovince
to comply with the pioceuuie foi the issuance of an
enviionmental compliance ceitificate incluuing, among otheis,
the lack of piioi consultation with the community conceineu anu
the lack of an enuoisementappioval of the snagguniangs
conceineu.

7@?J6 The pioject can be classifieu as a national pioject that
affects the enviionmental anu ecological balance in the
community anu thus comes into the puiview of Aits. 26 anu 27 of
the LuC. Thus, piioi consultations aie iequiieu anu the appioval
of the sannggunians conceineu weie necessaiy to give valiuity
to the pioject implementation. Note that in this case, since the
pioject involves ieclamation, the implementing agency is the
Philippine Reclamation Authoiity oi PRA. But since the piovince
authoiizeu the ieclamation by the PRA, the piovince is still
obligateu by the LuC to conuuct consultations anu seek appioval
of the sanggunians conceineu. Thus the implementation of the
pioject must be stayeu until such a iequiiement, among otheis,
aie complieu with,



35
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

-"3)&4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 7)B%3(C"2

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'

8'#+-")24 0peiative Piinciples of Becentialization.-
(e) Piovinces with iespect to component cities anu
municipalities, anu cities anu municipalities with iespect to
component baiangays, to ensuie acts of components within
scope of poweis.

8'#+-") 29. Piovincial Relations with Component Cities anu
Nunicipalities.-
The goveinoi, shall ensuie component cities anu municipalities
within its juiisuiction act within its poweis anu functions. Bighly
uibanizeu cities anu inuepenuent component cities shall be
inuepenuent of the piovince.

8'#+-") 20. Review of Executive 0iueis. -
(a) The goveinoi shall ieview all executive oiueis by the
component city oi municipal mayoi within his juiisuiction. The
city oi municipal mayoi shall ieview all executive oiueis by the
;J"C"G '%&%"G%9 within his juiisuiction. Copies of oiueis shall be
foiwaiueu to the goveinoi oi the city oi municipal mayoi, as the
case may be, within thiee (S) uays fiom theii issuance.

(b) Shoulu the goveinoi oi city mayoi fail to act within thiity
(Su) uays aftei submission, such oiueis shall be ueemeu valiu
anu consistent with law.


8'#+-") S1. Submission of Nunicipal Questions to the Piovincial
Legal 0fficei oi Piosecutoi. -
The municipal legal officei may pioviue legal opinions to the
municipality. In the absence of a legal officei, the piovincial legal
officei anu in his absence the piovincial piosecutoi may ienuei
such opinion.


8'#+-") S2. City anu Nunicipal Supeivision ovei Theii
Respective Baiangays. - The city oi municipality, thiough the
mayoi conceineu, shall exeicise geneial supeivision ovei
component baiangays.

8'#+-") SS. Coopeiative 0nueitakings Among Local
uoveinment 0nits. -
Local goveinment units may, thiough appiopiiate oiuinances,
gioup themselves, consoliuate, oi cooiuinate theii effoits,
seivices, anu iesouices foi puiposes commonly beneficial to
them. In suppoit of such unueitakings, the local goveinment
units involveu may, upon appioval by the sanggunian conceineu
aftei a public heaiing conuucteu foi the puipose, contiibute
funus, ieal estate, equipment, anu othei kinus of piopeity anu
appoint oi assign peisonnel unuei such teims anu conuitions as
may be agieeu upon by the paiticipating local units thiough
Nemoianua of Agieement.

8'#+-") S4. Role of People's anu Non-goveinmental
0iganizations. - Local goveinment units shall piomote the
establishment anu opeiation of people's anu non-goveinmental
oiganizations to become active paitneis in the puisuit of local
autonomy.

8'#+-")SS. Linkages with People's anu Non-goveinmental
0iganizations. - Local goveinment units may entei into joint
ventuies anu such othei coopeiative aiiangements with people's
anu non-goveinmental oiganizations to engage in the ueliveiy of
ceitain basic seivices, capability-builuing anu livelihoou piojects.

8'#+-")S6. Assistance to People's anu Non-goveinmental
0iganizations. - A local goveinment unit may, thiough its local
chief executive anu with the concuiience of the sanggunian
conceineu, pioviue assistance, financial oi otheiwise, to such
people's anu non-goveinmental oiganizations foi economic,
socially-oiienteu, enviionmental, oi cultuial piojects.

4C.%B 0&)_J%B(8(.%3(C"2# $(,2 %", !A%&,2 KCFF(33))

8'#+-")S7. Local Piequalification, Bius anu Awaius Committee
(Local PBAC). -

(a) Theie is heieby cieateu a local piequalification, bius anu
awaius committee in eveiy piovince, city, anu municipality, foi
the conuuct of piequalification of contiactois, biuuing, evaluation
of bius, anu the iecommenuation of awaius foi local
infiastiuctuie piojects. The goveinoi oi the city oi municipal
mayoi shall act as the chaiiman with the following as membeis:

(1) The chaiiman of the appiopiiations committee of the
sanggunian;

(2) A iepiesentative of the minoiity paity in the sanggunian, if
any, oi if theie be none, one (1) chosen by the sanggunian fiom
among its membeis;

(S) The local tieasuiei;

(4) Two (2) iepiesentatives of Nu0s that aie iepiesenteu in the
local uevelopment council conceineu, to be chosen by the
oiganizations themselves; anu

(S) Any piacticing CPA fiom the piivate sectoi, to be uesignateu
by the local chaptei of the Philippine Institute of Ceitifieu Public
Accountants, if any.
The CoA shall obseive the pioceeuings of such committee anu
shall ceitify that the iules have been complieu with.

(b) The agenua shall be uelibeiateu upon by the committee at
least one (1) week befoie the meeting.

(c) All meetings of the committee shall be helu in the piovincial
capitol oi the city oi municipal hall. Ninutes anu uecisions of
such meetings shall be iecoiueu, posteu at a piominent place in
the piovincial capitol oi the city oi municipal hall, anu ueliveieu
by the most expeuient means to elective local officials conceineu.

!"#$%&'S8. Local Technical Committee. -

(a) Theie is heieby cieateu a local technical committee in eveiy
piovince, city anu municipality to pioviue technical assistance to
the local PBAC composeu of the piovincial, city oi municipal
engineei, the local planning anu uevelopment cooiuinatoi, anu
such othei officials uesignateu by the local piequalification, bius
anu awaius committee.

(b) The chaiiman of the local technical committee shall be
uesignateu by the PBAC anu shall attenu its meeting in oiuei to
piesent the iepoits anu iecommenuations of the local technical
committee.
36
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph





_J%B(8(.%3(C"2 %", ?B).3(C"2



5+7.(.+*
fIL?=N=>L
<=FGH
uoveinoi
vice-
uoveinoi
Nayoi
vice
Nayoi of
B0C
Nayoi
vice
Nayoi of
ICCCC
Nembei
of
Sangguni
ang
Panlalaw
igan
Nembei
of
Sangguni
ang
Panglung
sou of
B0C
Nembei
of
Sangguni
ang
Panglung
sou of
ICCCC
Pambaya
n
Punong
Baiangay
oi
Nembei
of
Sangguni
ang
Baiangay
Canuiuates foi SK
Filipino Citizenship
Age on
election
uay
At least
21 yeais
At least
21 yeais
At least
21 yeais
At least
21 yeais
At least
21 yeais
At least
18 yeais
At least
18yeais
At least 1S yeais but
not moie than 21
Resiuent
of
Piovince City City Bistiict Bistiict Bistiict Baiangay Baiangay
Resiuenc
y peiiou
At least one (1) yeai immeuiately pieceuing the elections
Able to Reau anu wiite Filipino oi any othei local language
Bisqualifications:
a) Those sentenceu by final juugment foi an offense involving moial tuipituue oi foi an offense punishable by one (1) yeai
oi moie of impiisonment, within two (2) yeais aftei seiving sentence;

(b) Those iemoveu fiom office as a iesult of an auministiative case;

(c) Those convicteu by final juugment foi violating the oath of allegiance to the Republic;

(u) Those with uual citizenship;

(e) Fugitives fiom justice in ciiminal oi non-political cases heie oi abioau;

(f) Peimanent iesiuents in a foieign countiy oi those who have acquiieu the iight to iesiue abioau anu continue to avail of
the same iight aftei the effectivity of this Coue;

(g) The insane oi feeble-minueu.
Nannei
of
election
Electeu at laige within iespective
constituencies
Electeu by uistiict Electeu
at laige
within
iespectiv
e
constitue
ncies
Electeu by the
membeis of the
Katipunan ng
Kabataan
*the Piesiuents of the leagues sanggunian membeis of CC anu municipalities shall seive as ex officio membei
of the Sanggunaing Panlalawigan

*plus one sectoial iepiesentative fiom women, on fiom woikeis, anu one fiom any of the ff: uiban poo,
ICCIP, uisableu peisons oi any othei sectoi the Sanggunian conceineu may pioviue 9u uays piioi to the
elections subject to C0NELEC iules on sectoial iepiesentatives
Teim of
0ffice
(a) thiee (S) yeais, staiting fiom noon of }une Su, 1992 oi such uate as may be pioviueu foi by law, except
that of elective baiangay officials
(b) No local elective official shall seive foi moie than thiee (S) consecutive teims in the same position anu
voluntaiy ienunciation shall not be consiueieu as an inteiiuption in the continuity of seivice.
(c) The teim of office of baiangay officials anu membeis of the sangguniang kabataan shall be foi thiee (S)
yeais, which shall begin aftei the iegulai election of baiangay officials on the seconu Nonuay of Nay 1994


37
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

6)F')&2 C8 35) :%"GJ"(%"



































































































K%2)
7'(('($ M4 #"*'!'#
)FM@KP@; 1EB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 SP iequesteu C0NELEC to paitition Piovince
of uuimaias into 2 piovincial uistiicts upon the cieation
of two new municipalities. Issue aiose as to how the
uistiicts aie to be allocateu eithei accoiuing to numbei of
inhabitants oi accoiuing to numbei of iegisteieu voteis.
7@?J6 Sec. S (b) of RA 7166 pioviues that i piovinces
with only one (1) legislative uistiict, the C0NELEC shall
uiviue them into two (2) uistiicts,
a) as neaily as piacticable
b) accoiuing to the numbei of inhabitants,
c) each uistiict compiising a compact, contiguous anu
aujacent teiiitoiy, anu
u)the numbei of seats of theii iespective sanggunians
shall be equitably appoitioneu
Bence, it is cleai fiom the law that the basis shall be the
numbei of inhabitants anu not the numbei of iegisteieu
voteis.


($ QQ2Q B 8@>H4 /U
#=<[e *IG=>=OL?=<[ #FIG>=?F;H
Nanila, Quezon City,
Caloocan
6 pei uistiict

Pasay, Nakati,
Paianaque, Pasig,
Naiikina, valenuela
12 electeu at laige

Pateios 8 electeu at laige
All othei municipalities in
NN
1u
Cebu, Bavao , Any othei
city w moie than 1
iepiesentative uistiict
8 pei uistiict
Cagayan ue 0io,
Zamboanga, Bacolou,
Iloilo
12 electeu at laige
All othei cities 1u electeu at laige
1
st
2
nu
class
municipalities
1u electeu at laige
S
iu
4
th
class
municipalities
8 electeu at laige
S
th
6
th
class
municipalities
6 electeu at laige


($ E1QQ 8@>26 '?@><=FG FN *@KP@;H FN <]@
8LGZZIG=LGZ 3LG?L?Lb=ZLGB 8LGZZIG=LG 3LG?IGZHFJ
LGJ 8LGZZIG=LGZ :L[LG4 The elective membeis of the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan, Sangguniang Panlungsou anu
Sangguniang Bayan shall be electeu as follows:

(a) Foi piovinces with two (2) oi moie legislative
uistiicts, the elective membeis of the Sangguniang
Panlalawigan shall be electeu by legislative uistiicts. Foi
this puipose, the numbei of seats shall be appoitioneu
equitably: Pioviueu, That, if equal uivision is not possible,
the iemaining membei oi membeis shall be electeu in the
uistiict oi uistiicts with the gieatei numbei of population
oi, if they be the same, with the gieatei numbei of voteis:
Pioviueu fuithei, That, if a legislative uistiict incluues a
city that uoes not vote in the election of piovincial
officials, the Commission on Elections, heieinaftei
iefeiieu to as the Commission, shall allocate the numbei
of seats among the uistiicts in piopoition to the
population of the constituencies voting foi the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan;

(b) Foi piovinces with only one (1) legislative uistiict, the
Commission shall uiviue them into two (2) uistiicts foi
puiposes of electing the membeis of the Sangguniang
Panlalawigan, as neaily as piacticable accoiuing to the
numbei of inhabitants, each uistiict compiising a
compact, contiguous anu aujacent teiiitoiy, anu the
numbei of seats of elective membeis of theii iespective
sanggunian shall be equitably appoitioneu between the
uistiicts in accoiuance with the immeuiately pieceuing
paiagiaph;
(c)
#=<[e *IG=>=OL?=<[ #FIG>=?F;H
Netio Nanila Aiea, Cebu,
Bavao, any city with 2 oi
moie uistiicts
6 pei uistiict

Pasay, Nakati,
Paianaque, Pasig,
Naiikina, valenuela
12 councilois, to be
electeu in two uistiicts

Pateios 1u
Nalabon, Navotas, San
}uan, Nanualuyong,
Nuntinlupa, Las Pinas,
Taguig
12


(u) Foi puiposes of the iegulai elections on Nay 11, 1992,
elective membeis of the Sangguniang Panlungsou anu
Sangguniang Bayan shall be electeu a laige in accoiuance
with existing laws. Bowevei, beginning with the iegulai
elections in 199S, they shall be electeu by uistiict.

($ EDDE 8@> 14 Incieaseu the numbei of councilois in
cities with 0NE legislative uistiict anu all municipalities in
Netio Nanila to 12 electeu by two uistiicts of 6 each.

($ DTT2 8@>4 1B LK@GJ=GZ 8@>4 U1 RPS FN <]@ !%#
1
st
2
nu
class piovinces 1u electeu at laige
S
iu
4
th
class piovinces 8 electeu at laige
S
th
6
th
class piovinces 6 electeu at laige
In piovinces with moie
than (S) legislative
uistiicts
2 SP membeis pei
uistiict
38
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

*!L-*

_J%B(8(.%3(C"2
(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 E1Q06 !"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
+-+!' --
'!'#+-&' "VV-#-$!8

#7$3+'( -
fIL?=N=>L<=FGH LGJ '?@><=FG

8@><=FG 2C4 fIL?=N=>L<=FGH4 -

(a) An elective local official must be a >=<=\@G of the Philippines; a
;@Z=H<@;@J MF<@; in the baiangay, municipality, city, oi piovince
oi, in the case of a membei of the sangguniang panlalawigan,
sangguniang panlungsou, oi sangguniang bayan, the uistiict
wheie he intenus to be electeu; a ;@H=J@G< <]@;@=G NF; L< ?@LH<
FG@ R1S [@L; =KK@J=L<@?[ O;@>@J=GZ <]@ JL[ FN <]@ @?@><=FG;
anu LP?@ <F ;@LJ LGJ b;=<@ V=?=O=GF F; LG[ F<]@; ?F>L?
?LGZILZ@ F; J=L?@><4

(b) Canuiuates foi the position of goveinoi, vice-goveinoi, oi
membei of the sangguniang panlalawigan, oi mayoi, vice-mayoi
oi membei of the sangguniang panlungsou of highly uibanizeu
cities must be L< ?@LH< <b@G<[FG@ R/1S [@L;H FN LZ@ FG
@?@><=FG JL[4

(c) Canuiuates foi the position of mayoi oi vice-mayoi of
inuepenuent component cities, component cities, oi
municipalities KIH< P@ L< ?@LH< <b@G<[FG@ R/1S [@L;H FN LZ@
FG @?@><=FG JL[4

(u) Canuiuates foi the position of membei of the sangguniang
panlungsou oi sangguniang bayan must be L< ?@LH< @=Z]<@@G
R1DS [@L;H FN LZ@ FG @?@><=FG JL[4

(e) Canuiuates foi the position of punong baiangay oi membei of
the sangguniang baiangay must P@ L< ?@LH< @=Z]<@@G R1DS [@L;H
FN LZ@ FG @?@><=FG JL[4

(f) Canuiuates foi the sangguniang kabataan must be at least
8(83))" T=`U 9)%&2 C8 %G) 'J3 "C3 FC&) 35%" 3A)"39C") Ta=U 9)%&2
C8 %G) C" )B).3(C" ,%9. (KC"3&('J3C&O2 @C3)> 35(2 (2 %B&)%,9
2J;)&2),), 2)) 7!b=c]U


('35:!-# $#+ )"4 C1QU
$) $#+ 3("&-,-)% V"( 89)#7(")-a', :$($)%$9 $),
8$)%%5)-$)% ^$:$+$$) '!'#+-")8B $*'),-)%
('35:!-# $#+ )"4 E1Q0B $8 $*'),',B "+7'(.-8' ^)".)
$8 +7' Y!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",' "V 1CC1YB $), V"(
"+7'( 35(3"8'8

8@>4 Q4 Section 424 of Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise known as
the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, is heieby amenueu to ieau
as follows:

"8@>4 U/U4 ^L<=OIGLG GZ ^LPL<LLG. - The katipunan ng
kabataan shall be composeu of Filipino citizens actually iesiuing
in the baiangay foi at least six (6) months, who aie N=N<@@G R1TS
PI< ?@HH <]LG @=Z]<@@G R1DS [@L;H FN LZ@ FG <]@ JL[ FN <]@
@?@><=FG, anu who aie uuly iegisteieu in the list of the
sangguniang kabataan oi in the official baiangay list in the
custouy of the baiangay secietaiy.

8@>4 E4 Section 428 of Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise known as
the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, is heieby amenueu to ieau
as follows:
"8@>4 U/D4 fIL?=N=>L<=FGH. - An elective official of the
sangguniang kabataan must be a Filipino citizen, L cIL?=N=@J
MF<@; FN <]@ _L<=OIGLG GZ _LPL<LLG, a iesiuent of the baiangay
foi at least one (1) yeai immeuiately piioi to electionB L< ?@LH<
N=N<@@G R1TS [@L;H PI< ?@HH <]LG @=Z]<@@G R1DS [@L;H FN LZ@ FG
<]@ JL[ FN <]@ @?@><=FG, able to ieau anu wiite Filipino, English,
oi the local uialect, anu must not have been convicteu of any
ciime involving moial tuipituue."

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 D1E1
$G $>< 3;FM=J=GZ VF; +]@ (@OL<;=L<=FG "N V=?=O=GFH .]F 7LM@
!FH< +]@=; 3]=?=OO=G@ #=<=\@GH]=O :[ *L;;=LZ@ <F $?=@GH $GJ
"N )L<I;L?:F;G V=?=O=GFH

8@><=FG 14 Filipino women who have lost theii Philippine
citizenship by maiiiage to aliens anu natuial-boin Filipinos who
have lost theii Philippine citizenship, incluuing theii minoi
chiluien, on account of political oi economic necessity, may
ieacquiie Philippine citizenship thiough iepatiiation in the
mannei pioviueu in Section 4 of Commonwealth Act No. 6S, as
amenueu: Pioviueu, That the applicant is not a:

(1) Peison opposeu to oiganizeu goveinment oi affiliateu with
any association oi gioup of peisons who upholu anu teach
uoctiines opposing oiganizeu goveinment;

(2) Peison uefenuing oi teaching the necessity oi piopiiety of
violence, peisonal assault, oi association foi the pieuominance of
theii iueas;

(S) Peison convicteu of ciimes involving moial tuipituue; oi

(4) Peison suffeiing fiom mental alienation oi incuiable
contagious uiseases.

8@>4 /4 Repatiiation shall be effecteu by <L_=GZ <]@ G@>@HHL;[
FL<] FN L??@Z=LG>@ <F <]@ (@OIP?=> FN <]@ 3]=?=OO=G@H anu
;@Z=H<;L<=FG =G <]@ O;FO@; >=M=? ;@Z=H<;[ LGJ =G <]@ :I;@LI FN
-KK=Z;L<=FG. The Buieau of Immigiation shall theieupon cancel
the peitinent alien ceitificate of iegistiation anu issue the
ceitificate of iuentification as Filipino citizen to the iepatiiateu
citizen.

8@>4 24 All laws, ueciees, oiueis, iules anu iegulations, oi paits
theieof inconsistent with this Act aie heieby iepealeu oi
amenueu accoiuingly.

8@>4 U4 This Act shall take effect thiity (Su) uays aftei its
publication in a newspapei of geneial ciiculation.

Lapseu into law on }uly S, 199S without the Piesiuent's signatuie,
puisuant to Sec. 27(1), Aiticle vI of the Constitution.

K&)%3(C"

#$8'86
8$!#'," -- M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 August 16, 1999
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei fileu with the Comelec a petition|Sj
seeking the cancellation of piivate iesponuent's ceitificate of
canuiuacy on the giounu that she hau maue a false
iepiesentation theiein by stating that hei suiname was
39
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

"Salceuo." Petitionei contenueu that piivate iesponuent hau no
iight to use saiu suiname because she was not legally maiiieu to
Neptali Salceuo.

7@?J6 In oiuei to justify the cancellation of the ceitificate of
canuiuacy unuei section 78, it is essential that the false
iepiesentation mentioneu theiein peitain to a mateiial mattei
foi the sanction imposeu by this piovision woulu affect the
substantive iights of a canuiuate - the iight to iun foi the elective
post foi which he fileu the ceitificate of canuiuacy. It may be
concluueu that the mateiial misiepiesentation contemplateu by
section 78 of the Coue iefei to qualifications foi elective office.
Asiue fiom his contention that she maue a misiepiesentation in
the use of the suiname "Salceuo," petitionei uoes not claim that
piivate iesponuent lacks the iequisite iesiuency, age, citizenship
oi any othei legal qualification necessaiy to iun foi a local
elective office as pioviueu foi in the Local uoveinment Coue (i.e.
Sec. S9). Asiue fiom the iequiiement of mateiiality, a false
iepiesentation unuei section 78 must consist of a "uelibeiate
attempt to misleau, misinfoim, oi hiue a fact which woulu
otheiwise ienuei a canuiuate ineligible."

#-3(-$)" M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 August 1u, 2uu4
(@N;@H]@;6 Cipiiano fileu hei CoC as chaiiman of SK. the
C0NELEC issueu auopteu the iecommenuation of the
Commission's Law Bepaitment to ueny uue couise to oi cancel
the ceitificates of canuiuacy of seveial canuiuates foi the SK
elections, incluuing petitioneis. The iuling was baseu on the
finuings of the Law Bepaitment that petitionei was not
iegisteieu voteis in the baiangay wheie they intenueu to iun.
Petitionei is alleging that the C0NELEC cannot, by itself, ueny
uue couise to oi cancel one's ceitificate of canuiuacy. She aigueu
that a ceitificate of canuiuacy may only be uenieu uue couise oi
cancelleu via an appiopiiate petition fileu by any iegisteieu
canuiuate foi the same position.

7@?J6 The Commission may not, by itself, without the piopei
pioceeuings, ueny uue couise to oi cancel a ceitificate of
canuiuacy fileu in uue foim. When a canuiuate files his ceitificate
of canuiuacy, the C0NELEC has a ministeiial uuty to ieceive anu
acknowleuge its ieceipt. This is pioviueu in Sec. 76 of the
0mnibus Election Coue. The Commission has no uiscietion to
give oi not to give uue couise to petitionei's ceitificate of
canuiuacy.|14j The uuty of the C0NELEC to give uue couise to
ceitificates of canuiuacy fileu in uue foim is ministeiial in
chaiactei. While the Commission may look into patent uefects in
the ceitificates, it may not go into matteis not appeaiing on theii
face. The question of eligibility oi ineligibility of a canuiuate is
thus beyonu the usual anu piopei cognizance of saiu bouy.

:$5+-8+$ M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 0ctobei 2S, 2uuS
(@N;@H]@;6 Bautista fileu his ceitificate of canuiuacy foi Punong
Baiangay. Election 0fficei iefuseu to accept Bautista's ceitificate
of canuiuacy because he was not a iegisteieu votei.

7@?J6 0nuei the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991,|S8j which took
effect on 1 }anuaiy 1992, an elective local official, incluuing a
Punong Baiangay, must not only be a "qualifieu electoi" oi a
"qualifieu votei," he must also be a "iegisteieu votei. Accoiuing
to Bautista's affiuavit, he was piactically out of the countiy fiom
199S until 2uu1. Thus, Bautista shoulu have iegisteieu anew in
the office of the Election 0fficei when he came back to the
Philippines in 2uu1 anu leaineu that his name was no longei
incluueu in the iostei of iegisteieu voteis. Bautista was awaie
when he fileu his ceitificate of canuiuacy foi the office of Punong
Baiangay that he lackeu one of the qualifications - that of being a
iegisteieu votei in the baiangay wheie he ian foi office. Be
theiefoie maue a misiepiesentation of a mateiial fact when he
maue a false statement in his ceitificate of canuiuacy that he was
a iegisteieu votei in Baiangay Lumbangan. A canuiuate guilty of
misiepiesentation may be (1) pieventeu fiom iunning, oi (2) if
electeu, fiom seiving, oi (S) piosecuteu foi violation of the
election laws.

7)> ;&C.B%F%3(C" C8 a
",
;B%.)&D When the electoiate voteu foi
Bautista as Punong Baiangay on 1S }uly 2uu2, it was unuei the
belief that he was qualifieu. Theie is no piesumption that the
electoiate agieeu to the invaliuation of theii votes as stiay votes
in case of Bautista's uisqualification.|S1j The Couit cannot
auheie to the theoiy of iesponuent Alcoieza that the votes cast in
favoi of Bautista aie stiay votes.|S2j A subsequent finuing by the
C0NELEC en banc that Bautista is ineligible cannot ietioact to
the uate of elections so as to invaliuate the votes cast foi him

*$+5%$8 M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 }anuaiy Su, 2uu4
(@N;@H]@;6 Natugas fileu a petition to uisqualify iesponuent on
the giounu that he is not a citizen.

7@?J6 Basic in the law of eviuence is that one who alleges a fact
has the buiuen of pioving it. In auministiative cases, the
quantum of pioof iequiieu is substantial eviuence. Petitionei uiu
not oveicome his buiuen. The uocumentaiy eviuence he
submitteu fails to establish that piivate iesponuent is not a
Filipino citizen. The giant of 0niteu States citizenship by
natuialization is an official act of the 0niteu States. The
uocument containing the iecoiu of this act is, theiefoie, a public
uocument anu, following the iule citeu above, this uocument can
only be eviuenceu by its official publication oi a copy uuly
attesteu by the officei having legal custouy theieof.

W$3a") M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 }anuaiy 19, 2uu9
(@N;@H]@;6 }apzon fileu a petition to uisqualify anuoi cancel
Ty's CoC on the giounu of mateiial misiepiesentation. }apzon
aigues that when Ty became a natuializeu Ameiican citizen, he
lost his uomicile of oiigin. Ty uiu not establish his iesiuence in
the Nunicipality of ueneial Nacaithui, Eastein Samai,
Philippines, just because he ieacquiieu his Philippine citizenship.

7@?J6 Republic Act No. 922S goveins the mannei in which a
natuial-boin Filipino may ieacquiie oi ietain his Philippine
citizenship uespite acquiiing a foieign citizenship, anu pioviues
foi his iights anu liabilities unuei such ciicumstances. A close
sciutiny of saiu statute woulu ieveal that it uoes not at all touch
on the mattei of iesiuence of the natuial-boin Filipino taking
auvantage of its piovisions. Resiuency in the Philippines only
becomes ielevant when the natuial-boin Filipino with uual
citizenship ueciues to iun foi public office. Foi a natuial boin
Filipino, who ieacquiieu oi ietaineu his Philippine citizenship
unuei Republic Act No. 922S, to iun foi public office, he must: (1)
meet the qualifications foi holuing such public office as iequiieu
by the Constitution anu existing laws; anu (2) make a peisonal
anu swoin ienunciation of any anu all foieign citizenships befoie
any public officei authoiizeu to auministei an oath. That Ty
complieu with the seconu iequiiement is beyonu question.

40
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Sec. S9 of the LuC iequiies a one-yeai iesiuency iequiiement in
the municipality wheie he seeks office. The teim "iesiuence" is to
be unueistoou not in its common acceptation as iefeiiing to
"uwelling" oi "habitation," but iathei to "uomicile" oi legal
iesiuence, that is, "the place wheie a paity actually oi
constiuctively has his peimanent home, wheie he, no mattei
wheie he may be founu at any given time, eventually intenus to
ietuin anu iemain (animus manenui)." it is the fact of iesiuence
that is the uecisive factoi in ueteimining whethei oi not an
inuiviuual has satisfieu the iesiuency qualification iequiiement.
C0NELEC founu that Ty was a iesiuent of the municipality. This
finuing is binuing with the couit. Couit also consiueieu the fact
that he applieu foi Philippine passpoit anu was paying
community tax in the municipality.

#"(","($ M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 Febiuaiy 19, 2uu9
(@N;@H]@;6 Coiuoia fileu a complaint asseiting that Tambunting
maue false asseitions in his CoC. Be allegeu that Tambunting is
not eligible because he lackeu the iequiieu citizenship anu
iesiuency iequiiement. Tambunting claims that because of his
paients' uiffeiing citizenships, he is both Filipino anu Ameiican
by biith. Coiuoia, on the othei hanu, insists that Tambunting is a
natuializeu Ameiican citizen.

7@?J6 Tambunting possesses uual citizenship. Because of the
ciicumstances of his biith, it was no longei necessaiy foi
Tambunting to unueigo the natuialization piocess to acquiie
Ameiican citizenship. The fact that Tambunting hau uual
citizenship uiu not uisqualify him fiom iunning foi public office.
Reiteiateu the iuling in Neicauo v. Nanzano: the phiase "uual
citizenship" in R.A. No. 716u, 4u(u) anu in R.A. No. 78S4, 2u
must be unueistoou as iefeiiing to "uual allegiance."
Consequently, peisons with meie uual citizenship uo not fall
unuei this uisqualification. 0nlike those with uual allegiance, who
must, theiefoie, be subject to stiict piocess with iespect to the
teimination of theii status, foi canuiuates with uual citizenship, it
shoulu suffice if, upon the filing of theii ceitificates of canuiuacy,
they elect Philippine citizenship to teiminate theii status as
peisons with uual citizenship consiueiing that theii conuition is
the unavoiuable consequence of conflicting laws of uiffeient
states. Thus, like any othei natuial-boin Filipino, it is enough foi
a peison with uual citizenship who seeks public office to file his
ceitificate of canuiuacy anu sweai to the oath of allegiance
containeu theiein. Bual allegiance, on the othei hanu, is biought
about by the inuiviuual's active paiticipation in the natuialization
piocess. The act of taking an oath of allegiance is an implicit
ienunciation of a natuializeu citizen's foieign citizenship.

The twin iequiiements of sweaiing to an 0ath of Allegiance anu
executing a Renunciation of Foieign Citizenship, unuei RA 922S,
seiveu as the bases foi oui iecent iulings all of which involve
natuial-boin Filipinos who latei became natuializeu citizens of
anothei countiy anu theieaftei ian foi elective office in the
Philippines. In the piesent case, Tambunting, a natuial-boin
Filipino, uiu not subsequently become a natuializeu citizen of
anothei countiy. Bence, the twin iequiiements in R.A. No. 922S
uo not apply to him.

*$(57"* M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 }uly 27, 2uu9
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei was uisqualifieu fiom being a mayoialty
canuiuate foi having been founu to have hau two subsisting
votei's iegistiations.

7@?J6 Naiuhom's eailiei iegistiation in Naiawi is ueemeu valiu,
while hei subsequent iegistiation in Naiantao is voiu ab initio.
Accoiuingly, Naiuhom cannot be consiueieu a iegisteieu votei in
Naiantao anu, thus, she maue a false iepiesentation in hei C0C
when she claimeu to be one. Naiuhom's votei iegistiation
constitutes a mateiial fact because it affects hei eligibility to be
electeu as municipal mayoi of Naiantao. Section S9(a) of
Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise known as the Local
uoveinment Coue of 1991, iequiies that an elective local official
must be, among othei things, a iegisteieu votei in the baiangay,
municipality, city oi piovince wheie he intenus to be electeu.
Seveial ciicumstances show that Naiuhom was awaie that she
hau a subsisting iegistiation in Naiawi anu uelibeiately
attempteu to conceal saiu fact, which woulu have ienueieu hei
ineligible to iun as mayoialty canuiuate in Naiantao. Inueeu,
Naiuhom maue false mateiial iepiesentations in hei C0C that
she was a iegisteieu votei in Naiantao anu that she was eligible
to be a mayoialty canuiuate in saiu municipality.

!$:" M4 #"*'!'# $), "(+'%$
,$+'6 }uly S, 1992
(@N;@H]@;6 0itega fileu a uisqualification case against Labo on
the giounu that Labo maue a false iepiesentation when he stateu
theiein that he is a natuial boin citizen of the Philippines. 0itega
piesenteu a uecision of the SC ueclaiing Labo not a citizen of the
Philippines.

7@?J6 Labo's status has not changeu in the piesent case. Be was
uisqualifieu foi being an alien anu his election uoes not
automatically iestoie his Philippine citizenship, the possession of
which is an inuispensable iequiiement foi holuing public office.
Labo cites his application fileu befoie the 0Su. To uate, howevei,
anu uespite favoiable iecommenuation by the Su, the Special
Committee on Natuialization hau yet acteu upon saiu application
foi iepatiiation. In the absence of any pioof of official action, a
meie application cannot amount to an automatic ieacquisition of
citizenship.

7)> ;&C.B%F%3(C" C8 35) a
",
;B%.)& %2 35) A("")&D While 0itega may
have gaineieu the seconu highest numbei of votes, the fact
iemains that he was not the choice of the soveieign will. The iule
is: the ineligibility of a canuiuate ieceiving majoiity votes uoes
not entitle the eligible canuiuate ieceiving the next highest
numbei of votes to be ueclaieu electeu. A minoiity oi uefeateu
canuiuate cannot be ueemeu electeu to the office. The iule woulu
have been uiffeient if the electoiate fully awaie in fact anu in law
of a canuiuate's uisqualification so as to biing such awaieness
within the iealm of notoiiety, woulu nonetheless cast theii votes.
In such case, the electoiate may be saiu to have waiveu the
valiuity anu efficacy of theii votes by notoiiously misapplying
theii fianchise, in which case, the eligible canuiuate obtaining the
next highei numbei of votes may be ueemeu electeu.

W$!"8W"8 M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 0ctobei 9, 2u12
(@N;@H]@;6 Caiuino fileu a petition cancel the CoC of }alosjos on
the giounu of false mateiial iepiesentation. Be allegeu that
}alosjos was convicteu by final juugment foi iobbeiy. Bis
piobation was subsequently ievokeu. So, he still has not seiveu
his sentence.

7@?J6 The peipetual special uisqualification against }alosjos
aiising fiom his ciiminal conviction by final juugment is a
mateiial; fact involving eligibility which is a piopei giounu unuei
Section 78 of the 0EC. Sec. 78 iequiies the canuiuate to state
41
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

unuei oath in his C0C that he is eligible foi saiu office. If a
canuiuate is not actually eligible because he is baiieu by final
juugment in a ciiminal case fiom iunning foi public office anu he
still states unuei oath that he is eligible to iun, then the canuiuate
cleaily makes a false mateiial iepiesentation which is a giounu
foi a petition unuei Sec. 78. In the case of }alosjos, he became
ineligible peipetually to holu oi to iun foi public office fiom the
time his juugment of conviction became final (7).%BB# (" 35(2 .%2)#
/%BC2RC2O ;)"%B39 A%2 ;&(2(C" F%9C& %", %33%.5), 3C 2%(, ;)"%B39
%&) 3)F;C&%&9 %'2CBJ3) ,(2QJ%B(8(.%3(C" %", ;)&;)3J%B 2;).(%B
,(2QJ%B(8(.%3(C"). Robbeiy is not one of the offenses unuei Sec. 68
of the 0EC. Section 68 iefeis only to election offenses unuei the
0EC.

7)>;&C.B%F%3(C" C8 35) a
",
;B%.)&%2 35) A("")&D }alosjos ceitificate
of canuiuacy was voiu fiom, the stait since he was not eligible to
iun foi any public office at the time he fileu his ceitificate of
canuiuacy. }alosjos was nevei a canuiuate at any time, anu all
votes foi }alosjos weie stiay votes. As a iesult of his C0C being
voiu ab initio, Caiuino as the only qualifieu canuiuate, actually
gaineieu the highest numbei of votes foi the position of Nayoi.

V(-&$!," M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 }une 28, 1996
(@N;@H]@;6 0n Naich 2u, 199S, piivate iesponuent }uan u.
Fiivaluo fileu his Ceitificate of Canuiuacy foi the office of
uoveinoi. Lee, anothei canuiuate, fileu a petition with the
Comelec piaying that Fiivaluo's Ceitificate of Canuiuacy be
cancelleu. Penuing iesolution of the uisqualification case,
Fiivaluo was electeu as goveinoi. Bowevei, C0NELEC en banc
affiimeu the uisqualification of Fiivaluo. Lee pioclaimeu as
winnei of the gubeinatoiial iace. Fiivaluo seeks the annulment of
the pioclamation of Lee. Be allegeu that on }une Su, 199S, at 2:uu
in the afteinoon, he took his oath of allegiance as a citizen of the
Philippines aftei "his petition foi iepatiiation unuei P.B. 72S
which he fileu with the Special Committee on Natuialization in
Septembei 1994 hau been gianteu.

7@?J6 It will be noteu that the law uoes not specify any paiticulai
uate oi time when the canuiuate must possess citizenship, unlike
that foi iesiuence (which must consist of at least one yeai's
iesiuency immeuiately pieceuing the uay of election) anu age (at
least twenty thiee yeais of age on election uay). The puipose of
the citizenship qualification is none othei than to ensuie that no
alien, i.e., no peison owing allegiance to anothei nation, shall
govein oui people anu oui countiy oi a unit of teiiitoiy theieof.
Now, an official begins to govein oi to uischaige his functions
only upon his pioclamation anu on the uay the law manuates his
teim of office to begin. Since Fiivaluo ie-assumeu his citizenship
on }une Su, 199Sthe veiy uayS2 the teim of office of goveinoi
(anu othei elective officials) beganhe was theiefoie alieauy
qualifieu to be pioclaimeu. So too, even fiom a liteial (as
uistinguisheu fiom libeial) constiuction, it shoulu be noteu that
Section S9 of the Local uoveinment Coue speaks of
"Qualifications" of "ELECTIvE 0FFICIALS," not of canuiuates.
Liteially, such qualifications unless otheiwise expiessly
conuitioneu, as in the case of age anu iesiuence shoulu thus be
possesseu when the "elective |oi electeuj official" begins to
govein, i.e., at the time he is pioclaimeu anu at the stait of his
teim in this case, on }une Su, 199S.

We fuithei holu P.B. No. 72S to be in full foice anu effect up to
the piesent, not having been suspenueu oi iepealeu expiessly
noi implieuly at any time, anu Fiivaluo's iepatiiation by viitue
theieof to have been piopeily gianteu anu thus valiu anu
effective. Noieovei, by ieason of the iemeuial oi cuiative natuie
of the law gianting him a new iight to iesume his political status
anu the legislative intent behinu it, as well as his unique situation
of having been foiceu to give up his citizenship anu political
aspiiation as his means of escaping a iegime he abhoiieu, his
iepatiiation is to be given ietioactive effect as of the uate of his
application theiefoi, uuiing the penuency of which he was
stateless, he having given ' up his 0. S. nationality. Thus, in
contemplation of law, he possesseu the vital iequiiement of
Filipino citizenship as of the stait of the teim of office of
goveinoi, anu shoulu have been pioclaimeu insteau of Lee.
Fuitheimoie, since his ieacquisition of citizenship ietioacteu to
August 17, 1994, his iegistiation as a votei of Soisogon is
ueemeu to have been valiuateu as of saiu uate as well. The
foiegoing, of couise, aie piecisely consistent with oui holuing
that lack of the citizenship iequiiement is not a continuing
uisability oi uisqualification to iun foi anu holu public office.

$!+$('W"8 M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 Novembei 1u, 2uu4
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuents seek to uisqualify the petitionei on the
giounu that he is not a Filipino citizen anu that he maue a false
iepiesentation that he was not a peimanent iesiuent oi
immigiant to a foieign countiy. Although iesponuent hau
petitioneu foi his iepatiiation as a Filipino citizen unuei Republic
Act No. 8171 on 17 Becembei 1997, this uiu not iestoie to
iesponuent his Filipino citizenship, because Section 2 of the
afoieciteu Republic Act No. 8171 specifically pioviues that
"iepatiiation shall be effecteu by taking the necessaiy oath of
allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines anu iegistiation in
the piopei civil iegistiy anu in the Buieau of Immigiation."
Responuent uiu not iegistei his supposeu Ceitificate of
Repatiiation with the Buieau of Immigiation.

7@?J6 The law is cleai that iepatiiation is effecteu "by taking the
oath of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines anu
iegistiation in the piopei civil iegistiy anu in the Buieau of
Immigiation." Bence, in auuition to taking the 0ath of Allegiance
to the Republic of the Philippines, the iegistiation of the
Ceitificate of Repatiiation in the piopei civil iegistiy anu the
Buieau of Immigiation is a pieiequisite in effecting the
iepatiiation of a citizen. In this case, petitionei took his 0ath of
Allegiance on Becembei 17, 1997, but his Ceitificate of
Repatiiation was iegisteieu with the Civil Registiy of Nakati City
only aftei six yeais oi on Febiuaiy 18, 2uu4, anu with the Buieau
of Immigiation on Naich 1, 2uu4. Petitionei, theiefoie,
completeu all the iequiiements of iepatiiation only aftei he fileu
his ceitificate of canuiuacy foi a mayoialty position, but befoie
the elections.

Bowevei, the SC consiueieu the iuling in Fiivaluo v. C0NELEC
iepatiiation ietioacts to the uate of filing of one's application foi
iepatiiation subsists foi the same ieasons quoteu above.
Accoiuingly, petitionei's iepatiiation ietioacteu to the uate he
fileu his application in 1997. Petitionei was, theiefoie, qualifieu
to iun foi a mayoialty position in the goveinment in the Nay 1u,
2uu4 elections. Appaiently, the C0NELEC was cognizant of this
fact since it uiu not implement the assaileu Resolutions
uisqualifying petitionei to iun as mayoi of San }acinto, Nasbate.





42
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

-) +7' *$++'( "V +7' 3'+-+-") V"( ,-8f5$!-V-#$+-")
"V +'88 ,5*3-+*-#7'!')$
,$+'6 Novembei 17, 2uuS
(@N;@H]@;6 Boauo sought the cancellation of the CoC of
Nichelena on the giounu of mateiial misiepiesentation. Be
alleges that Nichelena uiu not meet the iesiuence iequiiement.

7@?J6 Bumpit-Nichelena faileu to piove that she has complieu
with the iesiuency iequiiement. Bumpit-Nichelena piesenteu a
Beeu of Sale uateu 19 Apiil 2uuS showing hei acquisition of a
paicel of lanu in San }ulian West wheie she eventually built a
house. Bowevei, piopeity owneiship is not inuicia of the iight to
vote oi to be voteu foi an office. Fuithei, uomicile of oiigin is not
easily lost. To successfully effect a change of uomicile, theie must
be concuiience of the following iequiiements: (1) an actual
iemoval oi an actual change of uomicile; (2) a bona fiue
intention of abanuoning the foimei place of iesiuence anu
establishing a new one; anu (S) acts which coiiesponu with the
puipose. Without cleai anu positive pioof of the concuiience of
these thiee iequiiements, the uomicile of oiigin continues.|2uj
To effect change, theie must be animus manenui coupleu with
animus non ieveitenui. The Couit agiees with the C0NELEC
Seconu Bivision that Bumpit-Nichelena faileu to establish that
she has abanuoneu hei foimei uomicile.

+"($9)" &4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 August 9, 2uuu
(@N;@H]@;6 This case involves a petition foi uisqualification fileu
against the iesponuent on the giounu that he was not able to
fulfill the iequiiement of iesiuency of 1-yi in Cagayan ue 0io City
when he ian foi mayoi. Responuent pieviously seiveu as
goveinoi of Nisamis 0iiental foi S consecutive teims befoie he
iegisteieu as a votei in Cagayan ue 0io City anu subsequently ian
foi mayoi. The main aigument of the petitionei is that piivate
iesponuent coulu not have changeu his iesiuence to Cagayan ue
0io City while he was still goveinoi of Nisamis 0iiental.
7@?J6 ueneially, in iequiiing canuiuates to have a minimum
peiiou of iesiuence in the aiea in which they seek to be electeu,
the Constitution oi the law intenus to pievent the possibility of a
"stiangei oi newcomei unacquainteu with the conuitions anu
neeus of a community anu not iuentifieu with the lattei fiom
|seekingj an elective office to seive that community." Such
piovision is aimeu at excluuing outsiueis "fiom taking auvantage
of favoiable ciicumstances existing in that community foi
electoial gain." Establishing iesiuence in a community meiely to
meet an election law iequiiement uefeats the puipose of
iepiesentation: to elect thiough the assent of voteis those most
cognizant anu sensitive to the neeus of the community. In the
case at bai, the Comelec founu that piivate iesponuent anu his
family hau actually been iesiuing in Capistiano Subuivision, uusa,
Cagayan ue 0io City, in a house he hau bought in 197S.
Fuitheimoie, uuiing the thiee teims (1988-1998) that he was
goveinoi of Nisamis 0iiental, he physically liveu in that city,
wheie the seat of the piovincial goveinment was locateu. In }une
1997, he also iegisteieu as votei of the same city.

#"f5-!!$ M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'
(@N;@H]@;6 Coquilla was boin of Filipino paients in 0ias, Eastein
Samai, wheie he giew up anu iesiueu. Be joineu the 0S Navy anu
subsequently natuializeu as a 0S citizen. Theieaftei, petitionei
came to the Philippines anu took out a iesiuence ceitificate, albeit
continueu making seveial tiips to the 0S. Be took his oath as a
citizen of the Philippines subsequently aftei his application foi
iepatiiation was appioveu. Be fileu his C0C stating theiein that
he has been a iesiuent of 0ias, Eastein Samai foi 2 yeais.
Responuent sought the cancellation of petitionei's C0C on the
giounu that the lattei hau iesiueu in 0ias foi only about 6
months since when he took his oath as a citizen of the
Philippines.

7@?J6 In the case at bai, petitionei lost his uomicile of oiigin in
0ias by becoming a 0.S. citizen aftei enlisting in the 0.S. Navy in
196S. Fiom then on anu until Novembei 1u, 2uuu, when he
ieacquiieu Philippine citizenship, petitionei was an alien without
any iight to iesiue in the Philippines save as oui immigiation
laws may have alloweu him to stay as a visitoi oi as a iesiuent
alien.

it is not tiue that he ieestablisheu iesiuence in this countiy in
1998 when he came back to piepaie foi the mayoialty elections
of 0ias by secuiing a Community Tax Ceitificate in that yeai anu
by "constantly ueclaiing" to his townmates of his intention to
seek iepatiiation anu iun foi mayoi in the Nay 14, 2uu1
elections. As an alien, an inuiviuual may obtain an immigiant visa
anu an Immigiant Ceitificate of Resiuence anu thus waive his
status as a non-iesiuent. 0n the othei hanu, he may acquiie
Philippine citizenship by natuialization unuei C.A. No. 47S, as
amenueu, oi, if he is a foimei Philippine national, he may
ieacquiie Philippine citizenship by iepatiiation oi by an act of
Congiess, in which case he waives not only his status as an alien
but also his status as a non-iesiuent alien. In the case at bai, the
only eviuence of petitionei's status when he enteieu the countiy
1998 is the statement "Philippine Immigiation |-j Balikbayan" in
his 1998-2uu8 0.S. passpoit. the teim balikbayan incluues a
foimei Filipino citizen who hau been natuializeu in a foieign
countiy anu comes oi ietuins to the Philippines anu, if so, he is
entitleu, among otheis, to a "visa-fiee entiy to the Philippines foi
a peiiou of one (1) yeai" (S(c)). It woulu appeai then that when
petitionei enteieu the countiy on the uates in question, he uiu so
as a visa-fiee balikbayan visitoi whose stay as such was valiu foi
one yeai only. Bence, petitionei can only be helu to have waiveu
his status as an alien anu as a non-iesiuent only on Novembei 1u,
2uuu upon taking his oath as a citizen of the Philippines unuei
R.A. No. 8171. Be lackeu the iequisite iesiuency to qualify him foi
the mayoiship of 0ias, Eastein, Samai. The question in Fiivaluo
was whethei petitionei complieu with the citizenship
iequiiement unuei S9(a). But in the case of iesiuency, as
alieauy noteu, S9(a) of the Local uoveinment Coue iequiies that
the canuiuate must have been a iesiuent of the municipality "foi
at least one (1) yeai immeuiately pieceuing the uay of the
election."

W$!"8W"8 M4 #"*'!'#
,$+'6 Apiil 24, 2u12
(@N;@H]@;6 }alosjos migiateu to Austialia anu acquiieu
Austialian citizenship. In 2uu8, he ietuineu to the Philippines
anu took an oath of allegiance anu ienounceu his Austialian
citizenship. }alosjos fileu his Coc foi goveinoi. The iesponuent
fileu a petition to cancel contenuing that }alosjos faileu to meet
the one yeai iesiuency iequiiement. Responuent aigues that
}alosjos faileu to piove his intention to settle in Ipil consiueiing
that he has meiely been staying with his biothei.
7@?J6 When he came to the Philippines in Novembei 2uu8 to live
with his biothei in Zamboanga Sibugay, it is eviuent that }alosjos
uiu so with intent to change his uomicile foi goou. Be left
Austialia, gave up his Austialian citizenship, anu ienounceu his
allegiance to that countiy. In auuition, he ieacquiieu his olu
citizenship by taking an oath of allegiance to the Republic of the
Philippines. By his acts, }alosjos foifeiteu his legal iight to live in
43
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Austialia, cleaily pioving that he gave up his uomicile theie. Anu
he has since liveu nowheie else except in Ipil, Zamboanga
Sibugay. A canuiuate is not iequiieu to have a house in a
community to establish his iesiuence oi uomicile in a paiticulai
place. It is sufficient that he shoulu live theie even if it be in a
ienteu house oi in the house of a fiienu oi ielative.|1Sj To insist
that the canuiuate own the house wheie he lives woulu make
piopeity a qualification foi public office. What matteis is that
}alosjos has pioveu two things: actual physical piesence in Ipil
anu an intention of making it his uomicile.

!@@
*(2QJ%B(8(.%3(C"
('35:!-# $#+ D/CT
$) $#+ 3("&-,-)% V"( +7' 3("#!$*$+-") "V $ !")'
#$),-,$+' V"( $)9 '!'#+-&' "VV-#' -) $ 83'#-$!
'!'#+-")B $), V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8
8@><=FG U4 $.7P9&2.,.1&(.+*4 - In auuition to the uisqualifications
mentioneu in Secs. 12 anu 68 of the HF"('J2 ?B).3(C" KC,) anu
Sec. 4u of Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise known as the 4C.%B
MC+)&"F)"3 KC,), whenevei the eviuence of guilt is stiong, the
following peisons aie uisqualifieu to iun in a special election
calleu to fill the vacancy in an elective office, to wit:
a) Any elective official who has iesigneu fiom his office
by accepting an appointive office oi foi whatevei
ieason which he pieviously occupieu but has causeu to
become vacant uue to his iesignation; anu
b) Any peison who, uiiectly oi inuiiectly, coeices,
biibes, thieatens, haiasses, intimiuates oi actually
causes, inflicts oi piouuces any violence, injuiy,
punishment, toituie, uamage, loss oi uisauvantage to
any peison oi peisons aspiiing to become a canuiuate
oi that of the immeuiate membei of his family, his
honoi oi piopeity that is meant to eliminate all othei
potential canuiuate.
8@><=FG T4 5'+".D.(#/ &1(7> #2#1(.+* +,,#*7#7 &*/ %#*&2(.#74 -
Any act of coeicion, biibeiy, thieat, haiassment, intimiuation,
teiioiism, oi actually causing, inflicting oi piouucing violence,
injuiy, punishment, toituie, uamage, loss oi uisauvantage to
uiscouiage any othei peison oi peisons fiom filing a ceitificate of
canuiuacy in oiuei to eliminate all othei potential canuiuate fiom
iunning in a special election shall constitute as an election
offense. violations of this piovision shall be piosecuteu anu
penalizeu in accoiuance with the piovision of Sec. 264 of the
0mnibus Election Coue.
('35:!-# $#+ C1QT
#"*3('7')8-&' ,$)%'("58 ,(5%8 $#+ "V /00/
8'#4 11B 1TB /E/DB 2Q R%S
8@><=FG /E4 K&(F("%B 4(%'(B(39 C8 % 0J'B(. H88(.)& C& ?F;BC9)) 8C&
6(2%;;&C;&(%3(C"# 6(2%;;B(.%3(C" C& Z%(BJ&) 3C !..CJ"3 8C& 35)
KC"8(2.%3),# :)(I), %",[C& :J&&)",)&), *%"G)&CJ2 *&JG2# 0B%"3
:CJ&.)2 C8 *%"G)&CJ2 *&JG2# KC"3&CBB), 0&).J&2C&2 %", ?22)"3(%B
K5)F(.%B2# -"23&JF)"32[0%&%;5)&"%B(% %",[C& 4%'C&%3C&9
?QJ(;F)"3 -".BJ,("G 35) 0&C.)),2 C& 0&C;)&3()2 H'3%("), 8&CF 35)
N"B%A8JB !.3 KCFF(33),D E The penalty of life impiisonment to
ueath anu a fine ianging fiom Five hunuieu thousanu pesos
(PSuu,uuu.uu) to Ten million pesos (P1u,uuu,uuu.uu), in auuition
to absolute peipetual uisqualification fiom any public office, shall
be imposeu upon any public officei oi employee who
misappiopiiates, misapplies oi fails to account foi confiscateu,
seizeu oi suiienueieu uangeious uiugs, plant souices of
uangeious uiugs, contiolleu piecuisois anu essential chemicals,
instiumentspaiapheinalia anuoi laboiatoiy equipment
incluuing the pioceeus oi piopeities obtaineu fiom the unlawful
acts as pioviueu foi in this Act.
Any elective local oi national official founu to have benefiteu
fiom the pioceeus of the tiafficking of uangeious uiugs as
piesciibeu in this Act, oi have ieceiveu any financial oi mateiial
contiibutions oi uonations fiom natuial oi juiiuical peisons
founu guilty of tiafficking uangeious uiugs as piesciibeu in this
Act, shall be iemoveu fiom office anu peipetually uisqualifieu
fiom holuing any elective oi appointive positions in the
goveinment, its uivisions, subuivisions, anu inteimeuiaiies,
incluuing goveinment-owneu oi -contiolleu coipoiations.
8@><=FG /D4 K&(F("%B 4(%'(B(39 C8 MC+)&"F)"3 H88(.(%B2 %",
?F;BC9))2. - The maximum penalties of the unlawful acts
pioviueu foi in this Act shall be imposeu, in auuition to absolute
peipetual uisqualification fiom any public office, if those founu
guilty of such unlawful acts aie goveinment officials anu
employees.
8@><=FG 2Q4 !J35C&(I), *&JG <)23("G. - Authoiizeu uiug testing
shall be uone by any goveinment foiensic laboiatoiies oi by any
of the uiug testing laboiatoiies accieuiteu anu monitoieu by the
B0B to safeguaiu the quality of test iesults. The B0B shall take
steps in setting the piice of the uiug test with B0B accieuiteu
uiug testing centeis to fuithei ieuuce the cost of such uiug test.
The uiug testing shall employ, among otheis, two (2) testing
methous, the scieening test which will ueteimine the positive
iesult as well as the type of the uiug useu anu the confiimatoiy
test which will confiim a positive scieening test. Biug test
ceitificates issueu by accieuiteu uiug testing centeis shall be
valiu foi a one-yeai peiiou fiom the uate of issue which may be
useu foi othei puiposes. The following shall be subjecteu to
unueigo uiug testing:
xxx
(g) All canuiuates foi public office whethei appointeu
oi electeu both in the national oi local goveinment shall
unueigo a manuatoiy uiug test.
In auuition to the above stateu penalties in this Section, those
founu to be positive foi uangeious uiugs use shall be subject to
the piovisions of Section 1S of this Act.
('35:!-# $#+ C//T
8@><=FG 14 @"+'( !.(2# E this act shall be known as the
"#=<=\@GH]=O (@<@G<=FG LGJ (@L>cI=H=<=FG $>< FN /002."
8@><=FG /4 $#12&'&(.+* +, 5+2.1A It is heieby ueclaieu the policy
of the State that all Philippine citizens of anothei countiy shall be
ueemeu not to have lost theii Philippine citizenship unuei the
conuitions of this Act.
8@><=FG 24 B#(#*(.+* +, 5".2.%%.*# ?.(.<#*7".% Any piovision of
law to the contiaiy notwithstanuing, natuial-boin citizenship by
ieason of theii natuialization as citizens of a foieign countiy aie
44
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

heieby ueemeu to have ie-acquiieu Philippine citizenship upon
taking the following oath of allegiance to the Republic:
"I _____________________, solemny sweai (oi affiim) that I
will suppoit anu uefenu the Constitution of the Republic
of the Philippines anu obey the laws anu legal oiueis
piomulgateu by the uuly constituteu authoiities of the
Philippines; anu I heieby ueclaie that I iecognize anu
accept the supieme authoiity of the Philippines anu will
maintain tiue faith anu allegiance theieto; anu that I
imposeu this obligation upon myself voluntaiily
without mental ieseivation oi puipose of evasion."
Natuial boin citizens of the Philippines who, aftei the effectivity
of this Act, become citizens of a foieign countiy shall ietain theii
Philippine citizenship upon taking the afoiesaiu oath.
8@><=FG U4 $#'.4&(.4# ?.(.<#*7".% The unmaiiieu chilu,
whethei legitimate, illegitimate oi auopteu, below eighteen (18)
yeais of age, of those who ie-acquiie Philippine citizenship upon
effectivity of this Act shall be ueemeu citizenship of the
Philippines.
8@><=FG T4 ?.4.2 &*/ 5+2.(.1&2 B.;"(7 &*/ 0.&D.2.(.#7 Those who
ietain oi ie-acquiie Philippine citizenship unuei this Act shall
enjoy full civil anu political iights anu be subject to all attenuant
liabilities anu iesponsibilities unuei existing laws of the
Philippines anu the following conuitions:
(1) Those intenuing to exeicise theii iight of suiffiage
must Neet the iequiiements unuei Section 1, Aiticle v
of the Constitution, Republic Act No. 9189, otheiwise
known as "The 0veiseas Absentee voting Act of 2uuS"
anu othei existing laws;
R/S +]FH@ H@@_=GZ @?@><=M@ OIP?=> =G <]@ 3]=?=OO=G@H
H]L?? K@@< <]@ cIL?=N=>L<=FG NF; ]F?J=GZ HI>] OIP?=>
FNN=>@ LH ;@cI=;@J P[ <]@ #FGH<=<I<=FG LGJ @`=H<=GZ
?LbH LGJB L< <]@ <=K@ FN <]@ N=?=GZ FN <]@ >@;<=N=>L<@ FN
>LGJ=JL>[B KL_@ L O@;HFGL? LGJ HbF;G ;@GIG>=L<=FG
FN LG[ LGJ L?? NF;@=ZG >=<=\@GH]=O P@NF;@ LG[ OIP?=>
FNN=>@; LI<]F;=\@J <F LJK=G=H<@; LG FL<]X
(S) Those appointeu to any public office shall subsciibe
anu sweai to an oath of allegiance to the Republic of the
Philippines anu its uuly constituteu authoiities piioi to
theii assumption of office: 0&C+(,),, That they ienounce
theii oath of allegiance to the countiy wheie they took
that oath;
(4) Those intenuing to piactice theii piofession in the
Philippines shall apply with the piopei authoiity foi a
license oi peimit to engage in such piactice; anu
(S) That iight to vote oi be electeu oi appointeu to any
public office in the Philippines cannot be exeiciseu by,
oi extenueu to, those who:
(a) aie canuiuates foi oi aie occupying any
public office in the countiy of which they aie
natuializeu citizens; anuoi
(b) aie in active seivice as commissioneu oi
non-commissioneu officeis in the aimeu
foices of the countiy which they aie
natuializeu citizens.
8@><=FG Q4 @#%&'&D.2.(A ?2&97# If any section oi piovision of
this Act is helu unconstitutional oi invaliu, any othei section oi
piovision not affecteu theieby shall iemain valiu anu effective.
8@><=FG E4 B#%#&2.*; ?2&97# All laws, ueciees, oiueis, iules anu
iegulations inconsistent with the piovisions of this Act aie
heieby iepealeu oi mouifieu accoiuingly.

#$8'86
*"(')" M4 #"*'!'#
$IZIH< 10B /00Q
(@N;@H]@;6 Nejes fileu a petition to uisqualify Noieno fiom
iunning as Punong Baiangay on the giounu that Noieno was
convicteu by final juugment of the ciime of aibitiaiy uetention
anu was sentenceu to 4 mos. To 2 yis. 4 mos. of impiisonment by
final juugment in 1998. Noieno aigueu that he is unuei
piobation anu so the LuC uisqualification uoes not apply to him,
as it only iefeiieu to those who seiveu sentence.
7@?J6 Yes, Noieno can iun. Sec. 16 of the Piobation Law pioviues
that "|tjhe final uischaige of the piobationei shall opeiate to
iestoie to him all civil iights lost oi suspenueu as a iesult of his
conviction anu to fully uischaige his liability foi any fine imposeu
as to the offense foi which piobation was gianteu." Thus, when
Noieno was finally uischaigeu upon the couit's finuing that he
has fulfilleu the teims anu conuitions of his piobation, his case
was ueemeu teiminateu anu all civil iights lost oi suspenueu as a
iesult of his conviction weie iestoieu to him, incluuing the iight
to iun foi public office. It is impoitant to note that the
uisqualification unuei Sec. 4u(a) of the Local uoveinment Coue
coveis offenses punishable by one (1) yeai oi moie of
impiisonment, a penalty which also coveis piobationable
offenses. In spite of this, the piovision uoes not specifically
uisqualify piobationeis fiom iunning foi a local elective
office. Piobation Law shoulu be constiueu as an exception to the
Local uoveinment Coue. While the Local uoveinment Coue is a
latei law which sets foith the qualifications anu uisqualifications
of local elective officials, the Piobation Law is a special legislation
which applies only to piobationeis.

Notes: Sii commenteu, why aie we allowing exceptions when the
point is to keep bau guys fiom iunning.

*$%)" &4 #"*'!'#
"><FP@; UB /00/
(@N;@H]@;6 199S, convicteu of uiiect biibeiy anu was uischaigeu
on piobation in Naich 1998. In Nay 2uu1, he Nagno ian foi
mayoi. When Loienzo, his opponent, petitioneu foi his
uisqualification, he allegeu he alieauy seiveu his sentence anu his
uisqualification was lifteu in Naich 2uuu, theiefoie he was
qualifieu to iun in the Nay 2uu1 elections.
7@?J6 Noial tuipituue can be infeiieu fiom the thiiu element of
uiiect biibeiy. The fact that the offenuei agiees to accept a
piomise oi gift anu uelibeiately commits an unjust act oi iefiains
fiom peifoiming an official uuty in exchange foi some favois,
uenotes a malicious intent on the pait of the offenuei to ienege
on the uuties which he owes his fellowmen anu society in
geneial. Bowevei, the uisqualification that attacheu to him was
45
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

only 2 yeais aftei seivice of sentence (oi in this case, aftei he was
uischaigeu fiom piobation), not S yeais as pioviueu in the
0mnibus Election Coue. The LuC pioviuing foi the 2 yeai
uisqualification, being the lattei law, amenueu the 0mnibus
Election Coue pioviuing the S yeais uisqualification to iun foi
office aftei seivice of sentence.

^$(' &4 #"*'!'#
*L[ /EB /00U
(@N;@H]@;6 Noll anu Ceiiola weie canuiuates foi mayoi when
Ceiiola fileu a petition foi uisqualification against Noll on the
giounu that Noll was pieviously sentenceu by final juugment to
suffei 6mos. to 1 yi. anu 9 mos. foi usuipation of authoiity oi
official functions. Noll won on the 2uu1 election but on Naich
2uuS, Comelec issueu a iesolution uisqualifying him anu
ueclaiing Ceiiola the mayoi. vice-Nayoi Kaie aigueu she shoulu
be the iightful successoi to the position of mayoi.
7@?J6 Kaie shoulu be mayoi. Comelec was wiong in pioclaiming
Ceiiola because the iesolution uisqualifying Noll took effect aftei
the election. Comelec aigueu that unuei 0EC Sec. 24, " any vote
cast in favoi oi a canuiuate who has been uisqualifieu by final
juugment shall be consiueieu as stiay anu shall not be counteu
but it shall not invaliuate the ballot." Noll, accoiuing to Comelec,
was uisqualifieu when he was convicteu by final juugment long
befoie the election anu so Ceiiola is the lone canuiuate in the
election. The SC uisagiees. It is cleai that it was only on Naich 19,
2uuS, that the Comelec en banc issueu Resolution to uisqualify
Noll fiom iunning as a mayoial canuiuate. Thus, on Nay 14,
2uu1, when the electoiate voteu foi him as mayoi, they weie
unuei the belief that he was qualifieu. Theie is no piesumption
that they agieeu to the subsequent invaliuation of theii votes as
stiay votes, in case of his uisqualification. To allow the uefeateu
anu iepuuiateu canuiuate to take ovei the mayoialty uespite his
iejection by the electoiate is to uisenfianchise them thiough no
fault on theii pait, anu to unueimine the impoitance anu the
meaning of uemociacy anu the iight of the people to elect
officials of theii choice. As such, in case of peimanent vacancy,
the electeu vice mayoi shoulu be pioclaimeu as the mayoi.

Notes: Sii saiu Kaie still maue the most sense. If uecision to
uisqualify canuiuate came aftei election uay, apply succession.

*$!-)$" &4 ('9'8
*L;>] /CB 1CCQ
(@N;@H]@;6 Nalinao fileu auministiative case against Nayoi Reu
foi abuse of authoiity in iemoving hei position as BR Nanagei III
without uue piocess. In one session, membeis of the Sanggunian
allegeuly voteu S-S, finuing Reu guilty, but the iesolution (allegeu
fiist uecision) was signeu only by the piesiuing chaiiman. In
anothei session a month latei, the Sanggunian voteu 7-2
acquitting Reu of the auministiative chaige, which vote was
embouieu in a uecision signeu by all the membeis of the
Sanggunian. Nalinao aigueu the fiist uecision became final foi
failuie of Reu to appeal the same.
7@?J6 The seconu uecision of acquittal is valiu. To ienuei a
uecision in an auministiative case involving elective local
officials, the uecision of the Sanggunian must be in wiiting anu
cleaily stating the facts anu ieasons foi such uecision. What the
Sanggunian uiu in the fiist instance was not to ienuei a uecision,
but meiely taking of a vote. The so-calleu fiist uecision cannot be
iegaiueu as the Sanggunian's uecision foi lack of the signatuies
of the iequiieu majoiity. Consequently, the uiaft uecision
piepaieu anu signeu by the piesiuing chaiiman nevei became a
uecision. In any case, the issue is moot anu acauemic as a iesult of
the expiiation of Reu's teim uuiing which the act complaineu of
was allegeuly committeu, anu fuithei pioceeuings aie baiieu by
his ieelection, following Sec. 66 (b) of the LuC.

('9'8 &4 #"*'!'#
*$(#7 EB 1CCQ
(@N;@H]@;6 An auministiative case was fileu against Nayoi (foi
pocketing public funus, etc.) anu the Sangguniang Panlalawigan
founu Reyes guilty anu oiueieu his iemoval fiom office. The SP
sought to seive the uecision on him but he iefuseu. In the next
election, he fileu his C0C foi the same office, but Bongabong
sought his uisqualification on the giounu stateu in Sec. 4u (b) of
the LuC, which was iemoval fiom office as a iesult of an
auministiative case. Reyes won that election. Comelec issueu a
iesolution aftei election uay holuing Reyes uisqualifieu anu
cancelling his C0C, but the canvasseis not knowing of the
iesolution pioclaimeu him the uuly-electeu mayoi. Issue is
whethei Reyes' ieelection ienueieu chaiges against him moot
anu whethei the 2
nu
placei in the election shoulu assume the
position of mayoi.
7@?J6 Reyes is uisqualifieu fiom iunning again, following Sec. 4u
(b) of the LuC. The uecision in the auministiative case came
uuiing his piioi teim. If he was not iemoveu befoie the
expiiation of his teim, he can no longei be iemoveu if he is
theieaftei ieelecteu foi anothei teim, following Aguinaluo. The
CAB is uiffeient fiom Aguinaluo.
2
NB
placei cannot assume the position of mayoi. To simplistically
assume that the 2nu placei woulu have ieceiveu the othei votes
woulu be to substitute the couit's juugment foi the minu of the
votei. votes cast foi Reyes aie piesumeu to have been cast in the
belief that he was qualifieu anu foi that ieason cannot be tieateu
as stiay, voiu oi meaningless. The subsequent finuing that he is
uisqualifieu cannot ietioact to the uate of the elections so as to
invaliuate the votes cast foi him.

!-)%$+-)% &4 #"*'!'#
)FM@KP@; 12B /00/
(@N;@H]@;6 Sulong ian foi mayoi. Lingating fileu petition foi
uisqualification saying Sulong was iemoveu fiom office anu so
puisuant to Sec. 4u (b) of the LuC, was uisqualifieu to iun foi
local office. Sulong aigueu that he was not iemoveu fiom office as
he fileu an NR foi the uecision of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan
to iemove him anu the same bouy uiu not ienuei anothei
uecision (Appaiently, the election took place befoie they coulu
ienuei anothei uecision anu SP ueciueu that the case was mooteu
by Sulong's ieelection). Lingating is insisting on Sulong's
uisqualification anu foi his pioclamation as winnei foi the
position of mayoi, him being the 2
nu
placei in the election.
7@?J6 The uecision in Reyes cannot be applieu to this case
because the uecision of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan nevei
became final. While RA 716u on uisciplinaiy actions against local
elective officials is silent on the filing of an NR, the same cannot
be inteipieteu as a piohibition against the filing of an NR.

,LG %L<jH GF<@H6
Section 4u (b) LuC is a PERPET0AL uisqualification.
B0T, the cause of iemoval may be petty-- nagnakaw ng ballpen,
iepeateu absences, etc.
0n the othei hanu, Section 4u (a) on moial tuipituue
is N0T a peipetual uisqualification!
Appaient iatio:
Sec 4u (b) -> goes into the competency of caiiying out functions.
46
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Sec 4u (a) -> you can be a competent, albeit immoial,
Leauei.
1


%('%" &4 #"*'!'#
WIG@ 1CB 1CCE
(@N;@H]@;6 Basco was iemoveu fiom his position as Beputy
Sheiiff by the SC upon a finuing of seiious misconuuct in an
auministiative complaint lougeu by a ceitain Nena Toiuesillas
(New LuC N0T yet in effect then). Subsequently, Basco ian as a
canuiuate foi counciloi anu won (New LuC alieauy in effect).
Aftei his teim, Basco sought ieelection twice anu won on both
ieelections. Petition foi uisqualification was fileu against Basco,
with the giounu being Sec. 4u (b) of the LuC, but it was
uismisseu.
7@?J6 The petition foi uisqualification was coiiectly uismisseu.
Sec. 4u (b) uoes not apply ietioactively to those iemoveu fiom
office befoie the LuC took effect. It was not even an issue of
conuonation because of ieelection to office as a city councilloi
because theie was nothing to conuone in the fiist place. Basco
was not subject to any uisqualification at all unuei Sec. 4u (b) of
the LuC, which applieu only to those iemoveu fiom office on oi
aftei }an 1, 1992.

*'(#$," &4 *$)a$)"
*L[ /QB 1CCC
(not goou law; RA 922S now iequiies ienunciation of alien
citizenship foi one to be a canuiuate foi local elections. FYI: this
case helu Nanzano was not a uual citizen because by just filing
his ceitificate of canuiuacy, he is ueemeu to have ienounceu his
Ameiican citizenship as all C0Cs contain an oath of allegiance.)

Ban uat's Notes:
We shoulu be veiy unhappy with this Nanzano case.
Fiist, is Section 4u (u) vague. veiy cleai naman.
B0AL CITIZENSBIP
Seconu, assuming the law is vague, is the inteipietation of the SC
still coiiect. N0.
- SC citeu ConCoN pioceeuings, not the uelibeiations foi
the LuC
- Section 4u ( C) is the one iefeiiing to uual allegiance
(anu f is foi gieen caiu holueis.)
This SC uecision maue Section 4u (u) inexistent - this
uisqualification will nevei exist because once a canuiuate files foi
canuiuacy he is ueemeu to have ienounceu his foieign
citizenship.
2


,' %5a*$) &4 #"*'!'#
WIG@ 1CB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Be uuzman anu uela Ciuz ian foi vice-mayoi. Bela
Ciuz fileu a petition to uisqualify Be uuzman on the giounu that
he's an Ameiican citizen. Be uuzman aigueu that unuei RA 922S,
he has ieacquiieu his Filipino citizenship anu so he was qualifieu
to iun foi public office.
7@?J6 Philippine citizenship is an inuispensable iequiiement foi
holuing an elective office. RA 922S was enacteu to allow
ieacquisition of Philippine citizenship unuei ceitain conuitions.
No question, Be uuzman has ieacquiieu his Filipino citizenship.
Bowevei, it must be noteu that RA 922S imposes an auuitional
iequiiement foi those who seek elective public office, as ieflecteu
in Sec. S(2). Contiaiy to ue uuzman's claims, the filing of the C0C

!
Fiom Amusingly Scaiy Reviewei.
"
Fiom Amusingly Scaiy Reviewei.
uoes not ipso facto amounteu to a ienunciation of his foieign
citizenship unuei RA 922S. Thus in the case of }apzon, Couit helu
that RA 922S pioviues the twin iequiiement of sweaiing an 0ath
of Allegiance to the Philippines ANB executing a ienunciation of
foieign citizenship. Also in the case of }acot, the Couit iuleu that a
canuiuate's oath of allegiance anu C0C uiu not substantially
comply with the iequiiement of a peisonal anu swoin
ienunciation of foieign citizenship in Sec. S(2) of RA 922S.
|}ust filing the C0C is not enough. Theie shoulu be a swoin
ienunciation in oiuei to iun foi public office. j

(",(-%5'a &4 #"*'!'#
WI?[ /UB 1CCQ
(@N;@H]@;6 Rouiiguez was chaigeu with gianu theft anu
insuiance claims fiauu befoie the tiial couit of LA, Califoinia,
0SA. But befoie theie weie foimal chaiges fileu against him, he
left the 0S foi the Philippines. When he ian foi goveinoi anu
won, his opponent fileu a quo waiianto case against him alleging
he's a fugitive fiom justice.
7@?J6 Be's not a fugitive fiom justice because theie weie no
chaiges yet when he left the 0niteu States. Intent to evaue
piosecution oi punishment is necessaiy to become a fugitive anu
he coulu not have known oi have hau an intent to evaue because
he left the 0S befoie chaiges weie fileu against him. As uefineu in
the case of Naiquez, a fugitive fiom justice "incluues not only
those who flee aftei conviction to avoiu punishment but likewise
those who, aftei being chaigeu, flee to avoiu piosecution."

WIH<=>@ &=<IZB J=HH@G<6 Rouiiguez is a fugitive fiom justice.
Animus fugeie may be significant but it is not essential anu what
matteis is not why he leaves but the fact that he leaves, foi it
shoulu not be unieasonable to assume that he was not unawaie
of his own piioi ueeus oi misueeus.

W$!"8W"8B W(4 &4 #"*'!'#
"><FP@; CB /01/
(supia)

6!?

<)&F C8 H88(.)

!%# 8@>4 U2
+@;K FN "NN=>@4

(a) The teim of office of all local elective officials electeu aftei the
effectivity of this Coue shall be thiee (S) yeais, staiting fiom
noon of }une Su, 1992 oi such uate as may be pioviueu foi by
law, except that of elective baiangay officials: Pioviueu, That all
local officials fiist electeu uuiing the local elections immeuiately
following the iatification of the 1987 Constitution shall seive
until noon of }une Su, 1992.

(b) No local elective official shall seive foi moie than thiee (S)
consecutive teims in the same position. voluntaiy ienunciation
of the office foi any length of time shall not be consiueieu as an
inteiiuption in the continuity of seivice foi the full teim foi
whichthe elective official conceineu was electeu.

(c) The teim of office of baiangay officials anu membeis of the
sangguniang kabataan shall be foi thiee (S) yeais, which shall
begin aftei the iegulai election of baiangay officials on the
seconu Nonuay of Nay 1994.


47
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

1CDE #")8+-+5+-")
$(+-#!' A
8@><=FG D4
The teim of office of elective local officials, except baiangay
officials, which shall be ueteimineu by law, shall be thiee yeais
anu no such official shall seive foi moie than thiee consecutive
teims. voluntaiy ienunciation of the office foi any length of time
shall not be consiueieu as an inteiiuption in the continuity of his
seivice foi the full teim foi which he was electeu.



(@OIP?=> $>< QQEC
|incluueu impoitant piovisions onlyj

8@><=FG 14 The elections of baiangay officials set on the seconu
Nonuay of Novembei 1988 by Republic Act No. 66SS aie heieby
postponeu anu ieset to Naich 28, 1989. They shall seive a teim
which shall begin on the fiist uay of Nay 1989 anu enuing on the
thiity-fiist uay of Nay 1994.

Theie shall be helu a iegulai election of baiangay officials on the
seconu Nonuay of Nay 1994 anu on the same uay eveiy five (S)
yeais theieaftei. Theii teim shall be foi five (S) yeais which shall
begin on the fiist uay of }une following the election anu until theii
successois shall have been electeu anu qualifieu: pioviueu, that
no baiangay official shall seive foi moie than thiee (S)
successive teims.

The baiangay elections shall be nonpaitisan anu shall be
conuucteu in an expeuitious anu inexpensive mannei.

8@><=FG U4 All incumbent baiangay officials, whethei electeu,
appointeu oi uesignateu, shall iemain in office unless soonei
iemoveu oi suspenueu foi cause anu with uue piocess by oiuei
of the city oi municipal mayoi conceineu until theii successois
shall have been electeu anu qualifieu. Any baiangay official who
has been iemoveu fiom office fiom }anuaiy 1, 1988 to the uate of
the appioval of this Act may, within fifteen (1S) uays aftei the
effectivity of this Act, file a petition foi ieview with the 0ffice of
the Piesiuent which shall be ueciueu within fifteen (1S) uays
fiom ieceipt theieof: pioviueu, that upon effectivity of this Act,
the powei of iemoval oi suspension foi cause of baiangay
officials anu filling up of vacancies in the vaiious elective offices
of the baiangay shall be exeiciseu by the city oi municipal mayoi
conceineu, subject to appeal to the Piesiuent: pioviueu, fuithei,
that penuing appeal the oiuei of iemoval oi suspension shall not
be executoiy.

(@OIP?=> $>< D/TUgg
$) $#+ #7$)%-)% +7' +'(* "V "VV-#' "V :$($)%$9
"VV-#-$!8 $), *'*:'(8 "V +7' 8$)%%5)-$)%
^$:$+$$) V("* +7('' R2S 9'$(8 +" V-&' RTS 9'$(8B
$*'),-)% V"( +7' 35(3"8' 8'#+-") U2 "V ('35:!-#
$#+ )5*:'(', 8'&') +7"58$), ")' 75),(', 8-A+9B
"+7'(.-8' ^)".) $8 +7' !"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",' "V
1CC1B $), V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8
$) (3 )"%.3), '9 35) :)"%3) %", WCJ2) C8 7);&)2)"3%3(+)2 C8 35)
05(B(;;(")2 (" KC"G&)22 %22)F'B),>:
Section 1. RA 716u, otheiwise known as the Local uoveinment
Coue of 1991, is heieby amenueu to ieau as follows:
Y8@>4 U24 !#') +, +,,.1#D - (a) The teim of office of all elective
officials electeu aftei the effectivity of this Coue shall be thiee (S)
yeais, staiting fiom noon of }une Su, 1992 oi such uate as may be
pioviueu foi by law, except that of elective baiangay officials anu
membeis of the sangguniang kabataan: 0&C+(,),, That all local
officials fiist electeu uuiing the local elections immeuiately
following the iatification of the 1987 Constitution shall seive
until noon of }une Su, 1992.
"(b) No local elective official shall seive foi moie than thiee (S)
consecutive teims in the same position. voluntaiy ienunciation
of the office foi any length of time shall not be consiueieu as an
inteiiuption in the continuity of seivice foi the full teim foi
which the elective official conceineu was electeu.
"(c) The teim of baiangay officials anu membeis of the
sangguniang kabataan shall be foi five (S) yeais, which shall
begin aftei the iegulai election of baiangay officials on the
seconu Nonuay of Nay 1997: 0&C+(,),, That the sangguniang
kabataan membeis who weie electeu in the Nay 1996 elections
shall seive until the next iegulai election of baiangay officials."

|Refei to RA 9164 foi the pievailing iulej

($ C00Q
8'# 1U

7);)%B("G KB%J2)D - Section 67 anu 8S of the 0mnibus Election
Coue (Batas Pambansa Blug. 881) anu Sections 1u anu 11 of
Republic Act No. 6646 aie heieby iepealeu. As a consequence, the
fiist pioviso in the thiiu paiagiaph of Section 11 of Republic Act
No. 84S6 is ienueieu ineffective. All laws, piesiuential ueciees,
executive oiueis, iules anu iegulations, oi any pait theieof
inconsistent with the piovisions of this Act aie heieby iepealeu
oi mouifieu oi amenueu accoiuingly.


(@OIP?=> $>< C1QU
<)&F C8 H88(.)D -

The teim of office of all baiangay anu sangguniang kabataan
officials aftei the effectivity of this Act shall be thiee (S) yeais.

No baiangay elective official shall seive foi moie than thiee (S)
consecutive teims in the same position: Pioviueu, howevei, That
the teim of office shall be ieckoneu fiom the 1994 baiangay
elections. voluntaiy ienunciation of office foi any length of time
shall not be consiueieu as an inteiiuption in the continuity of
seivice foi the full teim foi which the elective official was electeu.


#$8'86

:"(W$ &4 #"*'!'#
8@O<@KP@; 2B 1CCD
(@N;@H]@;6 The electeu vice-mayoi (Capco) became the mayoi
by opeiation of law upon the ueath of the incumbent. Capco ian
anu was electeu as mayoi foi 2 teims theieaftei. The case befoie
the Couit ielates to Capco's thiiu attempt to iun foi mayoi when
Boija sought his uisqualification aiguing that Capco alieauy
seiveu as mayoi foi thiee consecutive teims.
7@?J6 The constitutional piovision on teim of office seeks to
enfoice the policy of pieventing the establishment of political
uynasties anu the policy of enhancing the fieeuom of choice of
the people.
48
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph


Capco can still iun foi thiiu teim as Nayoi because his
assumption of mayoiship by viitue of succession is moie of a
mattei of chance than his own uesign.
"To iecapitulate, the teim limit foi elective officials must be taken
to iefei to the iight to be electeu as well as the iight to seive in
the same elective position. Consequently, it is not enough that an
inuiviuual has seiveu thiee consecutive teims in an elective local
office, he must also have been electeu to the same position foi the
same numbei of times befoie the uisqualification can apply"

INP0RTANT:
/ #"),-+-")8 NF; <]@ LOO?=>L<=FG FN <]@ J=HcIL?=N=>L<=FG k
R1S '?@><@J NF; <];@@ >FGH@>I<=M@ <=K@H
R/S VI??[ H@;M@J <];@@ >FGH@>I<=M@ <@;KH

):6 In class, Sii uiscusseu this case ciiticizing the sample
situations given by the Couit in the uecision saying that the
examples given seem to encouiage misconuuct because an
official who is suspenueu is not consiueieu to have "fully seiveu"
the teim.

!$+$8$ M4 #"*'!'#
/002
(@N;@H]@;6 Latasa was electeu Nayoi of FJ"(.(;%B(39 of Bigos. 0n
his thiiu teim, Bigos became a .CF;C")"3 .(39D Be was Nayoi of
the city unuei a holu-ovei capacity. Latasa fileu his C0C alleging
that it is the fiist time he is iunning as Nayoi of the CITY (he
alieauy seiveu S teims when Bigos was still a municipality)
7@?J6 The new city of Bigos acquiieu a new coipoiate existence,
Bowevei, the office of municipal mayoi cannot be constiueu as a
uiffeient local goveinment post fiom the office of the city mayoi.
Inuications : teiiitoiial juiisuiction (metes anu bounus) is the
same, inhabitants aie the same gioup of voteis who electeu
Latasa, same inhabitants whom he helu authoiity anu powei ovei
as theii chief executive. Theiefoie, Latasa cannot anymoie iun
foi anothei teim aftei seiving thiee teims as the mayoi of the
municipality.

"Wheie a peison has been electeu foi S consecutive teims as a
municipal mayoi anu piioi to the enu of the teimination of such
thiee-yeai teim the municipality has been conveiteu by law into
a city, without the city chaitei inteiiupting his teim until the enu
of the thiee-yeai teim, the piohibition applies to pievent him
fiom iunning foi the fouith time as city mayoi theieof, theie
being no bieak in the continuity of the teims."

!$#',$ &4 #"*'!'#
)FM@KP@; /TB /00D
(@N;@H]@;6 Laceua was electeu Punong Bigy foi S teims. 0n his
S
iu
teim, Nunicipality of Soisogon was NERuEB with
Nunicipality of Bacon to foim the City of Soisogon. Laceua aigues
that his thiiu teim shoulu be constiueu as his fiist in the new
political unit.
7@?J6 Couit uphelu the iatio in Latasa. Laceua is now uisqualifieu
since the meigei anu conveision uiu not ienuei the office of
Punong Baiangay a uiffeient local goveinment post.

$($+'$ M4 #"*'!'#
"><FP@; CB /01/
(@N;@H]@;6 Lonzaniua was electeu Nayoi, Aiatea as vice Nayoi.
Bowevei, Lonzaniua was uisqualifieu because of a ciiminal
conviction anu having seiveu as Nayoi foi moie than S
consecutive teims. Aiatea petitions the Couit to ueclaie him (not
Antipolo who got the 2
nu
highest numbei of votes) as the Nayoi
by viitue of Lonzaniua's uisqualification.
7@?J 6 Lonzaniua's C0C was cancelleu cause of an ineligibility to
iun foi Nayoi. Antipolo, the "seconu placei" shoulu be
pioclaimeu Nayoi because Lonzaniua's ceitificate of canuiuacy
was consiueieu voiu ab initio; he was nevei a canuiuate at all; all
votes weie stiay votes. 0nly Antipolo was the qualifieu
canuiuate.

INP0RTANT : This uecision outlines the piovisions that may be
useu as basis foi uisqualification -

1) SECTI0N 68 (0EC) iefei to election offenses, not violations
of penal coue ; violation of the S-teim limit iule is not a giounu
unuei this piovision.
2) SECTI0N 78 (0EC) C0C may be cancelleu when theie is
false mateiial iepiesentation ; the accessoiy penalty of peipetual
uisqualification by viitue of a final juugment is an ineligibility anu
a peison commits a false mateiial iepiesentation if he states in
the C0C that he is eligible to iun foi office.
allows the filing of a Petition to Beny Bue Couise oi Cancel a
C0C
S) SECTI0N 2SS (0EC) Petition foi Quo waiianto


+$!$%$ M4 #"*'!'#
"><FP@; CB /01/
(@N;@H]@;6 Ramon Talaga was uisqualifieu to iun foi Nayoi,
Baibaia Ruby substituteu him although on the uay of elections,
Ramon's name iemaineu on the ballots. votes foi Ramon weie
counteu in favoi of Ruby anu the lattei got the highest numbei of
votes. The valiuity of the substitution anu the question of who
shoulu be Nayoi aie the issues befoie the couit.
7@?J6 Theie was no valiu substitution. A cancelleu C0C cannot
give iise to a valiu canuiuacy, thus, theie can be no valiu
substituion of the canuiuate (Sec. 77 0EC). A peison without a
valiu C0C is not consiueieu a canuiutate. Likewise, a canuiuate
who has not withuiawn C0C cannot be substituteu.
Ramon was valiuly ueclaieu uisqualifieu because he has seiveu
thiee consecutive teims alieauy, thus, C0C was invaliu anu voiu
ab initio.
The electeu vice Nayoi shoulu succeeu anu assume the position
as Nayoi. The uisqualification came aftei the elections, to the
electoiate, Ruby became a valiu contenuei notwithstanuing hei
subsequent uisqualification.

INP0RTANT: The only time when a seconu placei is alloweu to
take place of the uisqualifieu winning canuiuate :
(1) The canuiuate who obtaineu the highest numbei of votes is
uisqualifieu
(2) Electoiate was fully awaie of the canuiuate's uisqualification
to such awaieness within the iealm of notoiiety.

,$&-, M4 #"*'!'#
1CCE
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case assailing the constitutionality of the
shoitening of the bigy official's teim fiom S yeais to S yeais in
the LuC.
7@?J6 LuC goveins the teim of office of baiangay officials ;
Constitutional
1. As between RA 716u anu RA 6679, LuC pievails. LuC is the
latei enactment; both laws aie cleaily inconsistent anu
iepugnant since they both peitain to the same officials = RA 6679
iepealeu
49
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

2. The latest elections (Nay 1994) alloweu voteis to uiiectly vote
foi the punong baiangay = alieauy goveineu by the LuC
S. Piovision limiting the teim to thiee yeais not unconstitutional.
The Constitution uiu not expiessly piohibit the Congiess fiom
fixing the teim of office but meiely left the ueteimination to the
full uiscietion of the Legislatuie.
4. Petitioneis aie estoppeu fiom asking foi a teim othei than
which they ian anu weie electeu to unuei the law goveining theii
veiy claim to the office, namely, the LuC.


#"*'!'# M4 #(5a
)FM@KP@; /CB /00C
(@N;@H]@;6 Case assailing the constitutionality of SEC 2 RA 9164
paiticulaily the piovision that sets the shoiteneu S-yeai teim of
office fiom the 1994 baiangay elections.
7@?J6 Constitutional. The Congiess has plenaiy authoiity to
ueteimine by legislation not only the uuiation of the teim of
baiangay officials but also the application of such teim limit.
Theie is no ietioactive application of the thiee-teim limit
because such piovision has been theie all along as eaily as the
2
nu
baiangay law aftei the 1987 Constitution took effect.
Couit pioviueu an inteipietation foi SEC 4S (a) (b) anu (c) :
SEC 4S (a) plainly iefeis to local elective officials, except
baiangay officials ; iefeis to teim of office
SEC 4S (b) iefeis to all local elective officials without exclusions
oi exceptions ; iefeis to thiee-teim limit
SEC 4S (c) pioviueu foi a categoiical S-yeai teim foi baiangay
officials; this shoulu be unueistoou N0T in the sense that it
intenueu to pioviue the complete iule foi the election of bigy
officials, so that in the absence of any teim limitation pioviso no
teim limit applies to bigy officials.

*")("9 M4 #$
1CQE
(@N;@H]@;6 Nonioy was the incumbent Nayoi who fileu his C0C
as iepiesentative. Be latei withuiew his C0C aftei the vice Nayoi
took his oath of office. Nonioy wanteu to assume office as the
Nayoi.
7@?J6
1) The C0NELEC hau no juiisuiction ovei the contioveisy. This
was a puiely legal uispute anu hau no beaiing oi effect on the
conuuct of elections.
2) Withuiawal of C0C uiu not iestoie Nonioy to his foimei
position as Nayoi. Filing of C0C makes foifeituie automatic anu
peimanently effective. 0nly the moment anu act of filing aie
consiueieu. 0nce C0C is fileu, the seat is foifeiteu foievei anu
nothing save a new election oi appointment can iestoie the
ousteu official.

$%5-)$!," M4 #"*'!'#
WIG@ /1B 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Case questioning the constitutionality of SEC 67 0EC
(pioviuing foi an ipso facto iesignation fiom office upon filing of
C0C). uiounus : violative of equal piotection, ieelectionist is
given unuue auvantage, effectively shoitens teims of office of
electeu officials.
7@?J6 Constitutional.
1) Piovision actually seeks to ensuie that officials seive out theii
entiie teim of office by uiscouiaging them fiom iunning foi
anothei public office anu thieby cutting shoit theii tenuie by
making it cleai that shoulu they fail in theii canuiuacy, they
cannot go back to theii foimei position.
2) Public seivice is a public tiust - the manuate is to seive foi a
ceitain numbei of yeais, filing of a C0C foi anothei position
shows that the official has no intention to seive the manuate of
the people placeu upon him, thus he shoulu be consiueieu
iesigneu.
S) Not violative of the constitution because the situation that
iesults to the application of SEC 67 is coveieu by the teim
"voluntaiy ienunciation"

*")('$! M4 #"*'!'#
,@>@KP@; /1B /00C
(@N;@H]@;6 Bisqualification case against Nonieal is sought to be
suspenueu penuing the ueteimination of the constitutionality of
SEC 2 RA 9164 (piovision on the S-teim limit foi baiangay
officials)
7@?J6 Constitutionality of RA 9164 not a piejuuicial question.
Laws aie piesumptively constitutional until they aie founu
otheiwise in an appiopiiate case. To suspenu the uisqualification
suit woulu be to contiavene this uoctiine. The case has not yet
attaineu finality, theie is no oiuei of execution penuing appeal,
theiefoie the law iemains in full foice.

L%.%".()2 %", :J..)22(C"

8'# UU
Peimanent vacancies in the 0ffices of the uoveinoi, vice-
uoveinoi, Nayoi, anu vice-Nayoi. -
(a) If a peimanent vacancy occuis in the office of the goveinoi
oi mayoi, the vice-goveinoi oi vice-mayoi conceineu shall
become the goveinoi oi mayoi. If a peimanent vacancy
occuis in the offices of the goveinoi, vice- goveinoi, mayoi,
oi vice-mayoi, the highest ianking sanggunian membei oi,
in case of his peimanent inability, the seconu highest
ianking sanggunian membei, shall become the goveinoi,
vice- goveinoi, mayoi oi vice-mayoi, as the case may be.
Subsequent vacancies in the saiu office shall be filleu
automatically by the othei sanggunian membeis accoiuing
to theii ianking as uefineu heiein.
(b) If a peimanent vacancy occuis in the office of the punong
baiangay, the highest ianking sanggunian baiangay membei
oi, in case of his peimanent inability, the seconu highest
ianking sanggunian membei, shall become the punong
baiangay.
(c) A tie between oi among the highest ianking sanggunian
membeis shall be iesolveu by the uiawing of lots.
(u) The successois as uefineu heiein shall seive only the
unexpiieu teims of theii pieuecessois.
Foi puiposes of this Chaptei, a peimanent vacancy aiises when
an elective local official fills a highei vacant office, iefuses to
assume office, fails to qualify, uies, is iemoveu fiom office,
voluntaiily iesigns, oi is otheiwise peimanently incapacitateu to
uischaige the functions of his office.
Foi puiposes of succession as pioviueu in the Chaptei, ianking in
the sanggunian shall be ueteimineu on the basis of the
piopoition of votes obtaineu by each winning canuiuate to the
total numbei of iegisteieu voteis in each uistiict in the
immeuiately pieceuing local election.

8'# UT
3@;KLG@G< &L>LG>=@H =G <]@ 8LGZZIG=LG4
(a) Peimanent vacancies in the sanggunian wheie automatic
succession pioviueu above uo not apply shall be filleu by
appointment in the following mannei:
50
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

(1) The Piesiuent, thiough the Executive Secietaiy, in the
case of the sangguniang panlalawigan anu the
sangguniang panlungsou of highly uibanizeu cities anu
inuepenuent component cities;
(2) The goveinoi, in the case of the sangguniang
panlungsou of component cities anu the sangguniang
bayan;
(S) The city oi municipal mayoi, in the case of sangguniang
baiangay, upon iecommenuation of the sangguniang
baiangay conceineu.

(b) Except foi the sangguniang baiangay, only the nominee of the
political paity unuei which the sanggunian membei conceineu
hau been electeu anu whose elevation to the position next highei
in iank cieateu the last vacancy in the sanggunian shall be
appointeu in the mannei heieinabove pioviueu. The appointee
shall come fiom the same political paity as that of the sanggunian
membei who causeu the vacancy anu shall seive the unexpiieu
teim of the vacant office. In the appointment heiein mentioneu, a
nomination anu a ceitificate of membeiship of the appointee
fiom the highest official of the political paity conceineu aie
conuitions sine qua non, anu any appointment without such
nomination anu ceitification shall be null anu voiu ab initio anu
shall be a giounu foi auministiative action against the official
iesponsible theiefoie.

(c) In case oi peimanent vacancy is causeu by a sanggunian
membei who uoes not belong to any political paity, the local
chief executive shall, upon iecommenuation of the sanggunian
conceineu, appoint a qualifieu peison to fill the vacancy.

(u) In case of vacancy in the iepiesentation of the youth anu the
baiangay in the sanggunian, saiu vacancy shall be filleu
automatically by the official next in iank of the oiganization
conceineu.

8'# UQ
+@KOF;L;[ &L>LG>[ =G <]@ "NN=>@ FN <]@ !F>L? #]=@N '`@>I<=M@4
(a) When the goveinoi, city oi municipal mayoi, oi punong
baiangay is tempoiaiily incapacitateu to peifoim his
uuties foi physical oi legal ieasons such as, but not
limiteu to, leave of absence, tiavel abioau, anu
suspension fiom office, the vice- goveinoi, city oi
municipal vice-mayoi, oi the highest ianking
sangguniang baiangay membei shall automatically
exeicise the poweis anu peifoim the uuties anu
functions of the local chief executive conceineu, except
the powei to appoint, suspenu, oi uismiss employees
which can only be exeiciseu if the peiiou of tempoiaiy
incapacity exceeus thiity (Su) woiking uays.
(b) Saiu tempoiaiy incapacity shall teiminate upon
submission to the appiopiiate sanggunian of a wiitten
ueclaiation by the local chief executive conceineu that
he has iepoiteu back to office. In cases wheie the
tempoiaiy incapacity is uue to legal causes, the local
chief executive conceineu shall also submit necessaiy
uocuments showing that saiu legal causes no longei
exist.
(c) When the incumbent local chief executive is tiaveling
within the countiy but outsiue his teiiitoiial
juiisuiction foi a peiiou not exceeuing thiee (S)
consecutive uays, he may uesignate in wiiting the
officei-in-chaige of the saiu office. Such authoiization
shall specify the poweis anu functions that the local
official conceineu shall exeicise in the absence of the
local chief executive except the powei to appoint,
suspenu, oi uismiss employees.
(u) In the event, howevei, that the local chief executive
conceineu fails oi iefuses to issue such authoiization,
the vice-goveinoi, the city oi municipal vice-mayoi, oi
the highest ianking sangguniang baiangay membei, as
the case may be, shall have the iight to assume the
poweis, uuties, anu functions of the saiu office on the
fouith (4th) uay of absence of the saiu local chief
executive, subject to the limitations pioviueu in
subsection (c) heieof.
(e) Except as pioviueu above, the local chief executive shall
in no case authoiize any local official to assume the
poweis, uuties, anu functions of the office, othei than
the vice-goveinoi, the city oi municipal vice-mayoi, oi
the highest ianking sangguniang baiangay membei, as
the case may be.
8'# UE
$OO;FML? FN !@LM@H FN $PH@G>@4
(a) Leaves of absence of local elective officials shall be appioveu
as follows:
(1) Leaves of absence of the goveinoi anu the mayoi of a
highly uibanizeu city oi an inuepenuent component city
shall be appioveu by the Piesiuent oi his uuly
authoiizeu iepiesentative;
(2) Leaves of absence of vice-goveinoi oi a city oi
municipal vice- mayoi shall be appioveu by the local
chief executive conceineu: Pioviueu, That the leaves of
absence of the membeis of the sanggunian anu its
employees shall be appioveu by the vice- goveinoi oi
city oi municipal vice-mayoi conceineu;
(S) Leaves of absence of the component city oi municipal
mayoi shall be appioveu by the goveinoi; anu
(4) Leaves of absence of a punong baiangay shall be
appioveu by the city oi municipal mayoi: Pioviueu,
That leaves of absence of sangguniang baiangay
membeis shall be appioveu by the punong baiangay.
(b) Whenevei the application foi leave of absence heieinabove
specifieu is not acteu upon within five (S) woiking uays aftei
ieceipt theieof, the application foi leave of absence shall be
ueemeu appioveu4

%$*:"$ M4 $%5-(('
1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Electeu vice uoveinoi was uesignateu as Acting
uoveinoi foi the uuiation of the uoveinoi's tiip abioau.
Sanggunian questioneu the authoiity of the vice uov. to piesiue
in view of his tempoiaiy uesignation as Acting uov. The issue
befoie the Couit is whethei the vice uov tempoiaiily
ielinquishes his iesponsibilities as such incluuing the powei to
piesiue ovei the sessions of SP while acting as the uoveinoi.
7@?J6 The cieation of a tempoiaiy vacancy in the office of the
uoveinoi cieates a coiiesponuing tempoiaiy vacancy in the
office of the vice uoveinoi whenevei the lattei acts as uoveinoi
by viitue of such tempoiaiy vacancy. This event constitutes an
inability on the pait of the piesiuing officei (vice uov) to piesiue
uuiing the SP sessions; which thus calls foi the opeiation of the
iemeuy set in ART 49 (b) of the LuC on the election of a
tempoiaiy piesiuing officei.
51
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

The continuity of the Acting uoveinoi's poweis as piesiuing
officei of the SP is suspenueu as long as he in such capacity. In the
event of the inability of the iegulai piesiuing officei to piesiue
the SP session, the membeis piesent aie constituting a quoium
shall elect among themselves a tempoiaiy piesiuing officei.

,"#')$ M4 8$)%%5)-$)% 3$)!$!$.-%$) "V '$8+'()
8$*$(
WIG@ /TB 1CC1
(@N;@H]@;6 Bocena was appointeu by the Sec. of BILu to succeeu
a ueceaseu membei of the SP. Alai was also appointeu to the
same position because of unknown ieasons. SP iecognizeu Alai
insteau of Bocena as theii new membei. Sec of BILu iecalleu the
appointment of Alai but the SP ieiteiateu its pievious
iecognition of Alai. The issue is who between Bocena anu Alai is
the iightful appointee to the position.
7@?J6 Bocena's appointment was intenueu to be peimanent. It
was to be valiu foi the unexpiieu poition of the teim of the
ueceaseu membei anu foi all intents anu puiposes, Bocena's
appointment hau alieauy become compelete anu enfoiceable at
the time it was supposeu to have been "supeiseueu" by the
subsequent appointment of Alai.
Theie was absolutely no ieason given foi the iecall of Bocena's
appointment. Powei of the Sec of BILu shoulu not be exeiciseu in
a whimsical, capiicious mannei.


V$(-)$8 M4 :$(:$
$O;=? 1CB 1CCQ
(@N;@H]@;6 Position of Sangguniang Bayan membei is contesteu
in this case. Palafox was iecommenueu by the Nayoi to the
uoveinoi but the SP uisappioveu this iecommenuation. 0n the
othei hanu, Nacino was iecommenueu by the SP anu theieaftei
was appointeu by the uoveinoi. Palafox was also appointeu to
the same position by the Nayoi.
7@?J6 The vacancy in this case was cieateu by a Sangguniang
Bayan membei who uiu not belong to any political paity,
theiefoie, the applicable law is SEC 4S (c).
The "sanggunian conceineu" iefeis to to the Sanggunian in which
the vacancy is cieateu.
This case laiu uown the iules on appointment in case of vacancy
in the Sanggunian. (please iefei to sepaiate uiagiam)

&-#+"(-$ M4 #"*'!'#
WLGIL;[ 10B 1CCU
(@N;@H]@;6 uoveinoi was suspenueu piompting the vice uov to
the assume post as uoveinoi. The issue in this case is on how to
ueteimine who is the highest ianking Sanggunian Nembei to
take the place of the vice uov - Whethei the ianking shoulu be
baseu on the numbei of votes obtaineu in ielation to the T0TAL
N0NBER 0F REuISTEREB v0TERS oi on the N0NBER 0F
v0TERS IN TBE BISTRICT WB0 ACT0ALLY v0TEB.
7@?J6 The law is cleai that the ianking in the Sanggunian shall be
ueteimineu on the basis of the piopoition of the votes obtaineu
by each winning canuiuate to the T0TAL N0NBER 0F
REuISTEREB v0TERS IN EACB BISTRICT. It uoes not mention
anything about factoiing the numbei fo voteis who actually
voteu.

)$&$((" M4 #$
*L;>] /DB /001
(@N;@H]@;6 Nayoi uieu, vice Nayoi succeeueu as Nayoi, highest
ianking SB membei elevateu to vice Nayoi. The question on
what post was left vacant, whethei the vice Nayoi oi the Bighest
ianking SB membei, is essential in ueteimining the political paity
who shoulu iecommenu a new SB membei.
7@?J6
1) The iationale behinu the iequiiement of nomination fiom the
political paity conceineu is to maintain the paity iepiesentation
as willeu by the people in the election.
2) The vacancy occuiieu when the highest ianking SB membei
was elevateu to vice Nayoi. Theiefoie, the vacancy shoulu be
filleu up by someone who shoulu belong to the same political
paity as the highest ianking SB membei.

*-($),$ M4 #$(('")
/002
(@N;@H]@;6 vice Nayoi Navaiio, as Acting Nayoi appointeu
iesponuents to vaiious positions, appioveu by the CSC. When the
Nayoi assumeu office, he teiminateu the iesponuent's seivices
unuei the guise of pooi peifoimance. CSC ueclaieu the
teimination illegal anu oiueieu ieinstatement. This oiuei of the
CSC is the subject of the suit fileu by Niianua. A supeivening
event occuiieu when the mayoi (}ose Niianua) was uisqualifieu
by the C0NELEC anu was substituteu by his son (Petitionei) who
was also subsequently uisqualifieu. Navaiio now assumeu the
post as the Nayoi anu fileu a Notion to withuiaw the case fileu in
ielation to the piioi CSC oiuei. Petitionei asseits his iight as a
taxpayei in puisuing the case against the CSC.
7@?J6 Niianua has no legal capacity. When he ceaseu to be
mayoi, the action may be continueu anu maintaineu by his
successoi if the lattei finus that theie is a substantial neeu to uo
so. Bowevei, his successoi, Navaiio, founu no substantial neeu to
maintain the action in light of the CSC ueclaiation that theie was
illegal teimination. Navaiio also ieinstateu all the iesponuents to
theii iespective positions as well as appioveu the payment of
salaiies. The taxpayei's suit will not piospei.

,$*$8') M4 +5*$*$"
V@P;IL;[ 1EB /010
(@N;@H]@;6 vice Nayoi uieu anu the highest ianking SB membei
(Alonzo, membei of LBP) took his position. vacant position in the
SB is contesteu between Bamasen anu Tumamao.
Tumamao - iecommenueu by Nayoi to uov. Pauaca ; membei of
LBP ; took his oath anu attenueu iegulai sessions
Bamasen - secuieu nomination fiom LBP Piovincial Chaiiman ;
Appointeu by uov. Pauaca ; not uuly iecognizeu by the SB
7@?J6 INP0RTANT: Conuitions foi the iule of succession to
apply:
(1) Appointee shall come fiom the same political paity as that
Sangguniang membei who causeu the vacancy
(2) The appointee must have a Nomination anu a Ceitificate of
Nembeiship fiom the highest official of the political paity.

Couit founu that Bamasen is not a bona fiue membei of LBP by
viitue of a lettei categoiically stating such fact anu that his
membeiship was still penuing appioval by the LBP National
Council. Bamasen faileu to comply with the iequiiements of the
law. Tumamao, on the othei hanu, complieu with the
iequiiements upon showing that he obtaineu the iequisite
nomination fiom Senatoi Angaia, the Paity Chaiiman of LBP.








52
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph



85**$(9 FN (5!'8 FG &$#$)#9 LGJ 85##'88-") 6

=D MC+)&"C&# L(.)MC+)&"C&# 6%9C&# L(.)6%9C&
#$58' &$#$)+ 3"8-+-") 85##'88"(
Peimanent vacancy

uoveinoi oi Nayoi vice uoveinoi ; vice Nayoi
uoveinoi, vice-uov, Nayoi, vice-
Nayoi
Bighest-ianking Sangguinang
membei

Peimanent inability Bighest-ianking Sangguniang
Nembei (as the successoi of the
uov, vice-uov, Nayoi, vice-N)
Seconu highest-ianking
Sangguniang Nembei
(subsequent vacancies filleu
accoiuing to theii iank)

Peimanent vacancy Punong Baiangay Bighest-ianking Sangguniang
Baiangay Nembei

Tie between highest ianking
Sangguninan Nembei uiaw
lots


aD 0)&F%")"3 L%.%".9 :%"GGJ"(%" 6)F')& T%2 )V;B%("), (" Z%&("%2 +D $%&'%U
3"8-+-") $33"-)+-)%
$5+7"(-+9
('f5-8-+' k )F< L K@KP@;
FN LG[ OF?=<=>L? OL;<[
('f5-8-+' k *@KP@; FN L
OF?=<=>L? OL;<[
Sangguniang Panlalawigan



Sangguniang Panlungsou
(of highly uibanizeu anu
inuepenuent component
cities)

Piesiuent thiough
the Executive
Secietaiy
Recommenuation of the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan


Recommenuation of the
Sangguniang Panlungsou

Nomination anu
Ceitification of the political
paity of the membei who
causeu the vacancy
- issueu by the
highest official of
the political paity

:?K<-H@ ]` T'U

Sangguniang Panlungsou
(of component cities)


Sangguniang Bayan

uoveinoi
Recommenuation of
Sangguniang Panglungsou


Recommenuation of
Sangguniang Bayan
Nomination anu
Ceitification of the political
paity of the membei who
causeu the vacancy
- issueu by the
highest official of
the political paity

:?K<-H@ ]` T'U

Sangguniang Baiangay

City oi Nunicipal
Nayoi
Recommenuation of
Sangguniang Baiangay




















53
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

-K?
4C.%B 4)G(2B%3(C"
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
@#1(.+*G QR S 0+1&2 0#;.72&(.4# 5+6#'
Local legislative powei shall be exeiciseu by the sangguinang
panlalawigan foi the piovince; the sangguniang panlungsou foi
the city; the sangguniang bayan foi the municipality; anu the
sangguniang baiangay foi the baiangay.

@#1(.+* QT 5'#7./.*; :,,.1#'
The vice-uoveinoi City vice-Nayoi Nunicipal vice-Nayoi
Punong Baiangay shall be the piesiuing officei of theii iespective
sanggunians. They shall only vote to bieak a tie.

@#1(.+*G UI 8922 $.712+79'# +, 8.*&*1.&2 &*/ V97.*#77
-*(#'#7(7 +, @&*;;9*.&* N#)D#'7
M"#*W 0pon assumption of office, befoie paiticipation in the
uelibeiations on an oiuinance oi iesolution, anu when taking a
position oi piivilege speech that may affect his inteiests;

=+6W In wiiting anu submitteu to the Secietaiy of the sanggunian
oi the secietaiy of the committee of which he is a membei;

What: Any business, financial, oi piofessional ielationship oi
ielation by affinityconsanguinity up to the 4
th
uegiee affecteu by
any oiuinance oi sanggunian which may iesult in a conflict of
inteiest.
"Conflict of Inteiest" iefeis in geneial to one wheie it ma y be
ieasonably ueuuceu that a membei of the sanggunian may not act
in the public inteiest uue to some piivate, pecuniaiy, oi othei
peisonal consiueiations that may tenu to affect his juugment.

@#1(.+*G UX S @#77.+*7
Fiist session following the election, the Sanggunian
shall fix the uay, time, anu place of its iegulai sessions;
0pen to the public, unless a closeu-uooi session oiueieu
by majoiity of the membeis piesent;

N.*.)9) @#77.+*7W 0nce a week foi the Sang. Panlalawigan,
Panlungsou, anu Bayan; Twice a month foi the Sangguinang
Baiangay;

@%#1.&2 @#77.+*7W
Nay be calleu the local chief executive oi by majoiity of
the Sanggunian;
Wiitten notice to all the membeis peisonally at least 24
houis befoie the special session is helu;
If matteis not in the notice aie to be uiscusseu uuiing
the special session, a 2S vote of those piesent is
iequiieu;

@#1(.+*G UY S Z9+'9)
A majoiity of all the membeis of the Sangguinan who
have been electeu anu qualifieu;
Quoium iequiieu to tiansact official business; if none,
the piesiuing officei may call a iecess until a quoium is
constituteu;
o may compel immeuiate attenuance by
uesignating a sanggunian membei to be
assisteu by the local police foice;
o if still no quoium, no business shall be
tiansacteu anu the meeting shall be aujouineu
foi lack of quoium;

[EN:BE 47 ?EVE00\B:
XKKQ
(@N;@H]@;6 Sanggunian issueu iesolutions ueclaiing a state of
calamity. Responuent claiming that one membei hau fileu a
"leave of absence" to go the 0S, hence the basis foi quoium
shoulu be 1S total membeis, not 14.
7@?J6 Sec. SS of LuC states that quoium is baseu on the "majoiity
of all membeis xxx electeu anu qualifieu". This shows the intent
of the legislatuie to allow the Sanggunian to function even
without a pioclamation of the membeis, only qualification is
mateiial. The couit helu that the filing of a leave of absence uoes
not affect the membei's qualification oi election, hence quoium
shall be baseu on the total numbei of membeis without iegaiu to
the filing of a leave of absence.

#$8-n" MH #$
1CC1
(@N;@H]@;6 Zoning oiuinance stateu that a vote of the
Sanggunian is iequiieu to amenu such oiuinance; ieclassification
of aiea wheie a cockpit is locateu to a iesiuential aiea;
7@?J6 It is legally peimissible, as exceptions to the geneial
piovisions coveieu by the city chaiteis anu the LuC, that the vote
iequiiement be specifically pioviueu foi insteau of the usual
majoiity vote.

8@><=FG4 TUTT k $OO;FML?e&@<F FN ";J=GLG>@H
R1S The Sangguinang PanlalawiganPanlunsouBayan shall
piesent the oiuinance to the Piovincial uoveinoiCity
NayoiNunicipal Nayoi;
R/S The local chief executive, if he appioves, shall affix his
signatuie theieto;
If vetoeu, shall ietuin the same to the Sanggunian with
his objections;
Nay also veto paiticulai items in an appiopiiations
oiuinances anu shall not affect items not vetoeu;
Nay only exeicise such powei once;
Nust be communicateu to the sanggunian within 1S1u
uays fiom veto foi piovincescity anu municipality;
Failuie to communicate the veto shall iesult in the
appioval of the oiuinance as if signeu;
R2S Sanggunian may oveiiiue the veto by a 2Sius vote of all its
membeis;

)F<@6 Foi oiuinances by the Sangguinang Baiangay, once
appioveu by majoiity of the membeis of the Sanggunian, shall be
signeu by the Punong Baiangay. No powei of veto is extenueu to
him by the LuC. |Compaie to Belos Reyes vs Sanuiganbayanj

,'!"8 ('9'8 MH 8$),-%$):$9$)
1CCE
The signatuie of the local chief executive in the appioval of an
oiuinance oi iesolution is not a meie ministeiial act, as it
iequiies the exeicise of analysis anu juugment. This is a pait of
the legislative piocess.







54
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

8@><=FG4 TQ k (@M=@b FN (@HF?I<=FGHe";J=GLG>@H FN
#FKOFG@G< #=<=@He*IG=>=OL?=<=@H
(@HF?I<=FGH
LGJ
";J=GLG>@H
FN
#FKOFG@G< #=<=@H
LGJ *IG=>=OL?=<=@H
8LGZZI=GLGZ
:L;LGZL[
:[ .]FK Sangguinang
Panlalawigan
Sangguinang
PanlungsouBayan
.]@G Within S uays fiom
appioval, foiwaiueu
by Secietaiy of Sang;
Within 1u uays fiom
appioval, foiwaiueu
by Sanggunian;
.]L< 0iuinancesRes. on
local uevelopment
plans anu public
investment piogiams
All baiangay
oiuinances;
7Fb
;@M=@b@J
Sang. Panlalawigan
shall examine anu
tiansmit to the Piov.
Atty. foi comments
anu
iecommenuations
The sanggunian
conceineu shall
ieview such;
(@LHFGH NF;
(@d@><=FG
If beyonu the powei
confeiieu upon the
Sanggunian
conceineu
Whethei consistent
with law anu the city
anu municipal
oiuinances;
3@;=FJ <F
;@M=@b
Su uays; if no action
aftei Su uays, ueemeu
consistent with law
anu valiu
Su uays; if no action
aftei Su uays, ueemeu
appioveu


*",$9 MH #$
1CCT
(@N;@H]@;6 Sanggunian Panglalawigan uenieu a iesolution
passeu by the Sanggunian Bayan because the foimei founu that
the expiopiiation set by the lattei was unnecessaiy. SC founu SP
acteu beyonu its authoiity.
7@?J6 The only giounu upon which a piovincial boaiu may
ueclaie a municipal iesolutionoiueioiuinance invaliu is when
such is beyonu the poweis confeiieu upon the Sanggunian oi
piesiuent making the same. Absolutely no othei giounu is
iecognizeu by the law. If a piovincial boaiu passes these limits, it
usuips the legislative function of the municipal council oi
piesiuent.

#-+9 "V *$)-!$ MH !$%5-"
/00T
(@N;@H]@;6 0iuinance in Eimita-Nalate aiea piohibiting
businesses of massage pailois, kaiaoke bais, clubs, motels, anu
inns. SC ueclaieu such oiuinance unconstitutional.
7@?J6 The test of valiu oiuinance is the fulfillment of both the
pioceuuial anu substantive iequiiements set by law. The
pioceuuial iequiiements aie set foith within the LuC piovisions
of publication anu heaiing.
The substantive iequiiements aie:
1. Nust not contiavene the Constitution oi any statute;
2. Nust not be unfaii oi oppiessive;
S. Nust not be paitial oi uisciiminatoiy;
4. Nust not piohibit, but may valiuly iegulate tiaue;
S. Nust be geneial, anu consistent with public policy;
6. Nust not be unieasonable;

.7-+' !-%7+ MH #-+9 "V *$)-!$
/00C
(@N;@H]@;6 City of Nanila enacteu oiuinances piohibiting shoit-
time anu wash-up iates foi hotels, motels, inns, etc;
7@?J6 Two stanuaius of juuicial ieview aie followeu in the
Philippines: stiict sciutiny foi laws uealing with fieeuom of the
minu oi iestiicting the political piocess, anu the iational basis
stanuaiu of ieview foi economic legislation.

0sing the iational basis examination, laws oi oiuinances aie
uphelu if they iationally fuithei a legitimate goveinmental
inteiest.

8@><=FG4 TCX !%# -(( $;<4 112B 11UB /EQ k 'NN@><=M=<[ FN
";J=GLG>@H LGJ (@HF?I<=FGH

Publication Effectivity
%@G@;L? (I?@ posteu in a bulletin boaiu
at the entiance of the
piovincial capitol oi city,
municipal, oi baiangay
hall, as the case may be,
anu in at least 2 othei
conspicuous places
1u uays aftei
posting;
7=Z]?[
I;PLG=\@J
LGJ
=GJ@O@GJ@G<
>FKOFG@G<
>=<=@HX
Nain featuies of the
oiuinances, in auuition to
posting, shall be
publisheu once in a
newspapei of local
ciiculation; if none, in a
newspapei of geneial
ciiculation;
ueneial iule;
";J=GLG>@ F;
(@HF?I<=FG
FG !F>L?
,@M@?FOK@G<
3?LG LGJ
3IP?=>
-GM@H<K@G<
3;FZ;LKH
Follow geneial iule; Follow that stateu
in the oiuinance oi
iesolution; if none,
follow geneial
iule;
$??
";J=GLG>@H
b=<] 3@GL?
8LG><=FGH
posteu at conspicuous
places in the piovincial
capitol, oi city, municipal
oi baiangay hall foi a
minimum peiiou of S
consecutive weeks;
$),
publication in a
newspapei of geneial
ciiculation, except in the
case of baiangay
oiuinances.
$),
gist of such tax oiuinance
shall be publisheu in a
newspapei of geneial
ciiculation within the
piovince; if none, posting
0nless otheiwise
pioviueu theiein,
shall take effect on
the uay following
its publication, oi
at the enu of the
peiiou of posting,
whichevei occuis
latei;
55
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

in all municipalities anu
cities of the piovince
+L`
";J=GLG>@H
Within 1u uays aftei theii
appioval, publisheu in
full foi S consecutive
uays in a newspapei of
local ciiculation; if none.
the same may be posteu
in at least 2 conspicuous
anu publicly accessible
places
Beginning of the
quaitei, if
otheiwise, the
same shall be
consiueieu as
falling at the
beginning of the
next ensuing
quaitei


7$%")"9 *$(^'+ &'),"(8 $884 MH4 *5)-#-3$!-+9 "V
7$%")"9
/00/
7@?J6 Public heaiings aie meiely to heai out the inteiesteu anu
affecteu paities, but aie not binuing upon the legislative bouy noi
aie they compelleu to auopt the same.

$JK=G=H<;L<=M@ ";J@; /2 LH LK@GJ@J P[ $4"4 1TC
)"+'6 +]@H@ O;FM=H=FGH LOO?[ <F <]@ O;F>@JI;@ IGJ@; <]@
,-!%e"NN=>@ FN <]@ 3;@H=J@G<

8>FO@ FN $"6 Elective local officials of piovinces, highly
uibanizeu cities, inuepenuent component cities, component
cities, anu cities anu municipalities of Netio Nanila.

,=H>O?=GL;[ $I<]F;=<[6 The Piesiuent; all auministiative
complaints against elective local officials listeu above shall be
acteu upon by him.

-GM@H<=ZL<=GZ $I<]F;=<[6 Secietaiy of the Inteiioi anu Local
uoveinment . Be may constitute an Investigating Committee in
the Bepaitment of the Inteiioi anu Local uoveinment foi the
puipose; similaily, the Bisciplinaiy Authoiity may uo the same in
the inteiest of seivice.

'NN@>< LGJ V=GL?=<[ FN ,@>=H=FGH R(I?@ 10S
.]@G ;@GJ@;@J6 Within thiity (Su) uays aftei ieceipt of the
iepoit of the Investigating Authoiity anu the tiansmittal of
iecoius, the Bisciplining Authoiity shall ienuei a uecision in
wiiting stating cleaily anu uistinctly the facts anu ieasons foi
such uecision.

.]@G N=GL?6 final anu executoiy aftei the lapse of thiity (Su) uays
fiom ieceipt of a copy; only one motion foi ieconsiueiation by
any one paity shall be alloweu, which shall suspenu the iunning
of the Su-uay ieglementaiy peiiou.

'NN@>< FN $OO@L?6 Shall not pievent a uecision fiom being final
anu executoiy. Responuent is consiueieu to have been placeu
unuei pieventive suspension uuiing the penuency of the appeal
in the event he wins, anu shall be paiu his salaiy that acciueu
uuiing the penuency of the appeal. h8LK@ LH !%#i

3@GL?<[ FN (@KFML? R(I?@ 11B 8@> 2S
An elective local official may be iemoveu fiom office on the
giounus enumeiateu in Rule 2 heieof by oiuei of the piopei
couit oi the Bisciplining Authoiity whichevei fiist acquiies
juiisuiction to the exclusion of the othei. |Compaie to:
Sangguniang Bayan ng Bon Naiiano Naicos vs Naitinezj


,-8#-3!-)$(9 $#+-")8 5),'( +7' !%#
8@><=FG4 Q0 k %;FIGJH FN ,=H>O?=GL;[ $><=FGH
%;FIGJH6
RLS Bisloyalty to the Republic of the Philippines;
RPS Culpable violation of the Constitution;
R>S Bishonesty, oppiession, misconuuct in office, gioss
negligence, oi ueieliction of uuty;
RJS Commission of any offense involving moial tuipituue oi an
offense punishable by at least piision mayoi;
R@S Abuse of authoiity;
RNS 0nauthoiizeu absence foi fifteen (1S) consecutive woiking
uays, except in the case of membeis of the sangguniang
panlalawigan, sangguniang panlungsou, sangguniang bayan, anu
sangguniang baiangay;
RZS Application foi, oi acquisition of, foieign citizenship oi
iesiuence oi the status of an immigiant of anothei countiy; anu
R]S Such othei giounus as may be pioviueu in this Coue anu
othei laws.
IGJ@; 8@><=FG4 TD Any attempt to enfoice anu
uisappioveu oiuinanceiesolution on local
uevelopment plans oi public investment piogiams,
shall be sufficient giounu foi the suspension oi
uismissal of the officeiemployee conceineu.

-N O@GL?<[ =H ;@KFML?6 Nust be by oiuei of the piopei couit. |See
Sangguniang Bayan ng Bon Naiiano Naicos vs Naitinezj

8@><=FG4 Q1 k VF;K LGJ V=?=GZ FN $JK=G=H<;L<=M@ #FKO?L=G<H
:[ .]FK6 By means of a veiifieu complaint; by any piivate
inuiviuual oi goveinment official oi employee, oi motu piopiio
by the 0ffice of the Piesiuent oi the goveinment agency uuly
authoiizeu by law; (A0 2S, as amenueu)

.]@;@ N=?@J6
'?@><=M@ !F>L? "NN=>=L? FN #FKO?L=G< N=?@J L<
Piovince, highly uibanizeu
city, inuepenuent component
city, oi component city
0ffice of the Piesiuent |See
A.0. 2S, as amenueu foi
pioceuuiej
Nunicipality Sangguniang Panglalawigan,
Baiangay Sangguniang Panglungsou oi
Bayan, uecision is final anu
executoiy (See Bon vs. Lacsa)

8@><=FG4 Q/ k )F<=>@ FN 7@L;=GZ
.]@G6 Within 7 uays fiom filing of complaint, 0PSanggunian
shall iequiie the iesponuent to answei within 1S uays fiom
ieciept; heaiing to be within 1u uays fiom ieciept of answei;

'`>@O<=FG <F .]@G6 No investigations 9u uays piioi to a local
election, not shall any pieventive suspensions be issueu within
same peiiou.

.]@;@6 If in piovincehighly uibanizeu city, heaiing in place
wheie iesponuent holus office; foi all othei local officials, venue
wheie sanggunian is locateu.

8@><=FG4 Q2 k 3;@M@G<=M@ 8IHO@GH=FG
:[ b]FK =KOFH@J6 5OFG LG @?@><=M@ ?F>L?
56
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

FNN=>=L? FN6
The Piesiuent piovince, highly uibanizeu
city, oi inuepenuent
component city;
The goveinoi Component city, oi
municipality
The Nayoi Baiangay;

.]@G -KOFH@J6 Any time the issues aie joineu, when the
eviuence of the guilt is stiong anu that theie is gieat piobability
that the continuance in office of the iesponuent coulu influence
the witnesses oi thieathen the safetyintegiity of the iecoius oi
eviuence;

8@><=FG4 Q/Q2 (I?@H FG !@GZ<] FN 3;@M@G<=M@ 8IHO@GH=FG
Not longei than 6u uays;
Cannot be imposeu 9u befoie an election; if imposeu
befoie saiu peiiou but extenus to such, automatically
lifteu upon stait of the 9u uay peiiou;
Cannot be suspenueu foi moie than 9u uays within a
single yeai on the same giounus existing anu known at
the time of the fiist suspension;
0nce lifteu, official ueemeu ieinstateu without piejuuice
to the continuance of the pioceeuings against him;

8@><=FG4 QUQT 'NN@><e(=Z]<H FN O@GJ=GZ O;@M@G<=M@
HIHO@GH=FG
No salaiy paiu uuiing peiiou of suspension, but if
subsequently exoneiateu anu ieinstateu, he shall be
paiu full salaiy that acciueu uuiing such suspension;
Accoiueu full oppoitunity to appeai anu uefenu himself,
to confiont witnesses, anu iequiie attenuance of
witnesses anu piouuction of eviuence;

*$^'(j8 )"+'6 #FKOL;@ 3;@M@G<=M@ 8IHO@GH=FG 5),'( !%#
LGJ <]L< P[ "KPIJHKLG LGJ P[ <]@ 8LGJ=ZLGPL[LG
6u-uay limit unuei the LuC, 6-month limit unuei the
0mbuusman, manuatoiy imposition subject to
LuCAumin Coue unuei the Sanuiganbayan.
Look at the cases foi moie uistictions!


'83-(-+5 MH *'!%$(
1CC/
(@N;@H]@;6 RTC enjoineu the goveinoi fiom implementing an
oiuei of pieventive suspension against the municipal mayoi;
7@?J6The iemeuy of an elective official questioning a pieventive
suspension is to file a case with the Sec. of the BILu. Biiect
iecouse to the couits aie alloweu only upon exhaustion of
auministiative iemeuies.

%$)a") MH #$
1CC1 RP@NF;@ !%#B PI< <]@ >LH@ H<=?? LOO?=@H P[ M=;<I@ FN $4"4
/2B LH LK@GJ@JS
7@?J6 The piesiuent has the authoiity to issue pieventive
suspensions, as unuei Sec, 4, Ait. 1u of the 1987 Constitution, the
Piesiuent is gianteu the powei of "supeivision", which is not
incompatible with the exeicise of uisciplinaiy authoiity.

8@><=FG4 Q2 LGJ QQ (I?@H FG 3;F>@@J=GZH LGJ 3@GL?<=@H
Pioceeuings to last only foi 12u uays fiom the time he is
fiist foimally notifieu;
Investigation shall be teiminateu within 9u uays fiom
the stait theieof, anu a uecision shall be ienueieu by the
0ffice of the Piesiuent oi the Sanggunian within Su uays
fiom the enu of the investigation;
If penalty is suspension, such shall not exceeu the
unexpiieu teim of the iesponuent, oi a peiiou of 6
months foi eveiy auministiative offense, noi shall it bai
the canuiuacy of such official;
If penalty is iemoval fiom office, such shall be
consiueieu to be a bai to the canuiuacy of such official
foi any elective position;

8$)%%5)-$)% :$($)%$9 "V ,") *$(-$)" *$(#"8 MH
*$(+-)'a
/00D
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei was iemoveu fiom office by the
Sangguniang Bayan; petitionei claming Sanggunian hau no powei
to iemove iesponuent fiom office; SC helu Sanggunian hau no
such powei;

7@?J6 The Sanggunians cannot oiuei the ;@KFML? of an eiiing
elective official fiom office, as the couits aie exclusively vesteu
with this powei unuei Sec. 6u of the LuC.

If the acts allegeuly committeu by the official aie of a giave
natuie anu, if founu guilty, woulu meiit the penalty of iemoval
fiom office, the case shoulu be fileu with the iegional tiial couit.
If it is founu that the penalty will be lowei than iemoval, the
couit still ietains its juiisuiction.

*$^'(j8 )"+'6 0nuei the LuC, iemoval must be by the piopei
couit by viitue of the uecision of Sangguniang Bayan ng Bon
Naiiano Naicos vs Naitinez.

Bowevei, unuei A.0. 2S, as amenueu, elective local officials of
piovinces, highly uibanizeu cities, inuepenuent component cities,
component cities, anu cities anu municipalities of Netio Nanila
may be iemoveu by the 0ffice of the Piesiuent, even without
couit oiuei.

8@><=FG4 QEQD (I?@H FG $OO@L?H
3@;=FJ NF; $OO@L?6 Su uays fiom ieciept of the uecision;

+F .]FK $OO@L?LP?@6
,@>=H=FG N;FK $OO@L? <F
Sangguniang Panglungsou of
component cities, anu
Sangguniang Bayan
Sangguniang Panlalawigan
Sangguniang Panlalawigan
anu Sangguniang Panglungsou
of highly uibanizeu
citiesinuepeuent component
cities
0ffice of the Piesiuent
0ffice of the Piesiuent Final anu executoiy; |See Bon
vs. Lacsaj

57
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

'NN@>< FN $OO@L?6 Shall not pievent a uecision fiom being final
anu executoiy. Responuent is consiueieu to have been placeu
unuei pieventive suspension uuiing the penuency of the appeal
in the event he wins, anu shall be paiu his salaiy that acciueu
uuiing the penuency of the appeal.

,") MH !$#8$
$IZIH< EB /00E
7@?J6 "uecision is final anu executoiy" means that the
Sanggunian uecision is immeuiately executoiy, but still subject to
appeal to the 0ffice of the Piesiuent oi the Sangguniang
Panlalawigan iespectively.

#$!-)%-) MH #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
/00U
(@N;@H]@;6 0ffice of the Piesiuent suspenueu petitionei-
goveinoi foi 9u uays, petitionei appealeu to CA but uenieu,
stating LuC pioviues uecisions of the 0P aie final anu executoiy.

7@?J6 "uecision is final anu executoiy" means that the 0ffice of
the Piesiuent uecision is immeuiately executoiy, but still subject
to appeal to the iegulai couits.

:'(#'8 MH %5-)%")$
1CCT
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuent sought a stay of execution of
auministiative uecisions of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan fiom
the 0ffice of the Piesiuent; was gianteu accoiuing to A.0. 18
(enacteu befoie the LuC) which allows the 0P to stay the
execution of uecisions penuing appeal;

7@?J6 Section 68 meiely pioviues that an "appeal shall not
pievent a uecision fiom becoming final oi executoiy." As woiueu,
theie is ioom to constiue saiu piovision as giving uiscietion to
the ieviewing officials to stay the execution of the appealeu
uecision. The ieviewing officials still possess the authoiity to
oiuei a stay of the appealeu oiuei.

,LG%L< HL[H6 Still goou law, but is a bau uecision. LuC is cleai.

,-8#-3!-)$(9 $#+-")8 5),'( +7' "*:5,8*$)
($ QEE0 $) $#+ 3("&-,-)% V"( +7' V5)#+-")$! $),
8+(5#+5($! "(%$)-a$+-") "V +7' "VV-#' "V +7'
"*:5,8*$)B $), V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8

WI;=HJ=><=FG
Piimaiy }uiisuiction (Sec. 1S,
RA 677u)
acts oi omissions of a public
officei oi employee in cases
cognizable by
the Sanuiganbayan (Salaiy
giaue of 27 oi highei)
Concuiient }uiisuiction (Sec.
61, LuC)
Cases cognizable by iegulai
couits anu othei investigative
agencies of the goveinment;


"VV-#' "V +7' "*:5,8*$) MH (",(-%5'a
/010
(@N;@H]@;6 Complaint fileu in the 0mbuusman, iesponuent
claims that the Sangguniang Baiangay has juiisuiction insteau;
7@?J6 The 0mbuusman exeicises >FG>I;;@G< dI;=HJ=><=FG ovei
auministiative cases against elective officials occupying positions
below salaiy giaue 27.
Even if fileu in the 0mbuusman anu the sanggunian conceineu,
iuentical complaints will not violate the iule against foium
shopping because the complaints aie in the natuie of an
auministiative case.
In auministiative cases involving the concuiient juiisuiction of
two oi moie uisciplining authoiities, the bouy in which the
complaint is fileu fiist, anu which opts to take cognizance of the
case, acquiies juiisuiction to the exclusion of othei tiibunals
exeicising concuiient juiisuiction.

%$(#-$ MH *-("
/002
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei was electeu to a new teim as mayoi. The
0mbuusman foi the visayas helu him auministiatively liable on
the afoiesaiu contiact anu oiueieu him pieventively suspenueu
foi six months. Petition quesitoning valiuity of complaint against
him, as the 0mbuusman acteu on a meie fact-finuing iepoit by
the CoA.
7@?J6 Foi puiposes of initiating a pieliminaiy investigation
befoie the 0ffice of the 0mbuusman, a complaint "in any foim oi
mannei" is sufficient. Section 12, Aiticle XI of the Constitution
states that the 0mbuusman anu his Beputies, shall act piomptly
on "complaints fileu in any foim oi mannei against public
officials oi employees of uoveinment."

'8f5-&'! MH "*:5,8*$) RFG "KPIJHKLG =HHI@S
/00/
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis weie chaigeu foi physical injuiies anu
giave thieats; 0mbusuman fileu a complaint with the
Sanuiganbayan; petitioneis questioning the authoiity of the
0mbuusman to uo so;
7@?J6 The 0mbuusman is empoweieu to ueteimine the
exisitence of piobable cause anu to file the infoimation in the
appiopiiate couits. The couits will not inteifeie with the
0mbuusman exeicise of investigatoiy anu piosecutoiy poweis,
following a policy of non-inteifeience.

8@><=FG /UB ($ QEE0 3;@M@G<=M@ 8IHO@GH=FG P[ <]@
"KPIJHKLG

%;FIGJH NF; 3;@M@G<=M@ 8IHO@GH=FG6
The 0mbuusman oi his Beputy may pieventively suspenu any
officei oi employee unuei his authoiity penuing an investigation,
R1S if in his juugment the eviuence of guilt is stiong, anu
R/S any of the following aie piesent:
RLS the chaige against such officei oi employee involves
uishonesty, oppiession oi giave misconuuct oi neglect in the
peifoimance of uuty;
RPS the chaiges woulu waiiant iemoval fiom the seivice; oi
R>S the iesponuent's continueu stay in office may piejuuice the
case fileu against him.

!@GZ<] FN 3;@M@G<=M@ 8IHO@GH=FG6 until the case is teiminateu
by the 0ffice of the 0mbuusman but not moie than six (6)
months,
without pay,
when the uelay in the uisposition of the case by the
0mbuusman is uue to the fault, negligence oi petition of
the iesponuent, the peiiou of such uelay shall not be
counteu in computing the peiiou of suspension heiein
pioviueu.
58
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph


7$%$, MH %"a",$,"!'
1CC2
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei chaigeu with falsification unuei the
0mbuusman who iecommenueu pieventive suspension; RTC
enjoineu on giounu that the powei to uiscipline elective officials
of highly uibanizeu cities is with the 0ffice of the Piesiuent. SC
ieveiseu.
7@?J6 The LuC uiu not iepeal RA 677u, anu the 0mbuusman
ietains his powei to issue pieventive suspensions.

%$(#-$ MH *"W-#$
1CCC
7@?J6 The 0mbususman may issue pieventive suspensions up to
6-months in length. The 0mbuusman is enuoweu with unique
safeguaius to ensuie immunity fiom political piessuie.
Noieovei, theie aie stiictei safeguaius foi imposition of
pieventive suspension by the 0mbuusman. |iepeateu in People
vs Toleuano anu Niianua vs Sanuiganbayanj

*-($),$ MH 8$),-%$):$9$)
/00T
(@N;@H]@;6 0mbuusman placeu petitionei-mayoi unuei
pieventive suspension foi 6 months, foi violaton of the Coue of
Conuuct of Elective 0fficials; petitionei iesumeu office aftei 6u
uays, claiming that the LuC limits such suspension to 6u uays.
7@?J6 The suspension issueu by the 0mbuusman is not limiteu by
the LuC. 0nlike the Sanuiganbayan anu the 0ffice of the
PiesiuentSanggunians, the 0mbuusman is enuoweu with unique
safeguaius to ensuie immunity fiom political piessuie.

#$8+-!!" MH :$(:'(8
1CCD
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei-goveinoi chaigeu with falsification anu
malveisation befoie the 0mbuusman, issueu a 6-month
pieventive suspension;
7@?J6 The issuance of pieventive suspension is not a penalty, but
is a pieliminaiy step of investigation. Bence, such may be heaiu
even befoie the ciiminalauministiative chaiges against the
accuseu aie heaiu.
Fuitheimoie, it is the 0mbusuman who has the uiscietion in the
ueteimination of whethei "the eviuence of guilt is stiong" foi the
issuance of a pieventive suspension.

8@><=FG /EB ($ QEE0 'NN@><=M=<[ LGJ V=GL?=<[ FN ,@>=H=FGH4

3;FM=H=FGL;[ ";J@;H6 immeuiately effective anu executoiy.

*F<=FGH NF; (@>FGH=J@;L<=FG6 must be fileu within five (S) uays
aftei ieceipt of wiitten notice;

V=GJ=GZH FN VL><6 conclusive when suppoiteu by substantial
eviuence;

";J@;H LGJ ,@>=H=FGH6 h8@@ !LO=J MH #FI;< $OO@L?Hi


#"**-88-") ") $5,-+ MH 7-)$*3$8
/00E
(@N;@H]@;6 CA ueclaieu 0mbuusman uecision to suspenu piivate
iesponuent foi 1 yeai to be meiely iecommenuatoiy;
7@?J6 The uecisions of the 0mbuusman aie not iecommenuatoiy,
as theie is no iestiiction on the powei of the 0mbuusman unuei
RA 677u anu the Constitution; both give the 0mbuusman the
powei to uiiectly iemove fiom goveinment seivice eiiing public
officials.

!$3-, MH #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
/000
(@N;@H]@;6 Petition chaigeu with giave misconuuct befoie the
0mbuusman, founu guilty anu suspenueu foi 1 yeai; petitioneis
seeking to have enfoicement of the uecision penuing appeal
stayeu;

7@?J6 0nuei the Rules of Pioceuuie of the 0mbuusman:
Final anu executoiy
immeuiately
Becision has the effect of:
1) absolving chaiges
2) penalty of public censuie oi
iepiimanu;
S) suspension of not moie than
1 month, oi a fine of not less
than 1 month salaiy
Final anu enfoicable; unless NR
within S uays fiom ieciept; oi
appeal to SC within 1u uays
fiom ieciept oi uenial of NR;
By viitue of inclusion unius est
exclusio alteiius; all othei cases
ueciueu by the 0mbuusman;

:!@*-M!@$!^!@ K!:?:

&$!')#-$ MH 8$),-%$):$9$)
/00U
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis chaigeu with violation of Anti-giaft anu
Coiiuption act in the Sanuiganbayan; also hau auministiative
case penuing, but was uismisseu; Petitioneis claiming
Sanuiganbayan shoulu also uismiss.
7@?J6 The basis of liability unuei the Sanuiganbayan is ciiminal,
which ielates to the punishment of a ciime, anu not
auministiative, which is foi the piotection of public seivice.

'8f5-&'! MH "*:5,8*$) RFG 8LGJ=ZLGPL[LG =HHI@S
/00/
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis weie chaigeu foi physical injuiies anu
giave thieats; 0mbusuman fileu a complaint with the
Sanuiganbayan; petitioneis questioning Sanuiganbayan's
juiisuiction ovei petitionei Baiangay captain, who is below
Salaiy uiaue 27.
7@?J6 It is only in cases wheie "GFG@ of the accuseu aie
occupying positions coiiesponuing to salaiy giaue '27' oi highei"
that "exclusive oiiginal juiisuiction shall be vesteu in the piopei
iegional tiial couit, metiopolitan tiial couit, municipal tiial couit,
anu municipal ciicuit couit, as the case may be .

!!"(')+' MH 8$),-%$):$9$)
/000
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei-mayoi was chaigeu befoie the
Sanuiganbayan foi violation of RA Su19; Petitionei allegeu the
Sanuiganbayan hau no juiisuiction; Petitionei's aveis hat the
salaiy ieceiveu by a public official uictates his salaiy giaue.
7@?J6 -t is the official's giaue that ueteimines his oi hei salaiy,
not the othei way aiounu. To ueteimine whethei the official is
within the exclusive juiisuiction of the Sanuiganbayan, iefeience
shoulu be maue to Republic Act No. 67S8 anu the Inuex of
0ccupational Seivices, Position Titles anu Salaiy uiaues. An
official's giaue is not a mattei of pioof, but a mattei of law which
the couit must take juuicial notice.

59
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

.]F =H HL?L;[ Z;LJ@ /E LGJ LPFM@o RO@;<=G@G< O;FM=H=FGH =G
8@>4 UU2UDQB !%#S
*IG=>=OL?=<=@H Nunipical Nayoi
#=<=@H City Nayoi, vice-Nayoi, anu
Sanggunian Panglungsou
membeis of highly-uibanizeu
cities
3;FM=G>@H uoveinoi, vice-uoveinoi, anu
Sanggunian Panlalawigan
membeis.

-),-)% MH 8$),-%$):$9$)
/00T
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei chaigeu befoie Sanuiganbayan foi
violation of RA Su19, claims as a Sanggunian Panglungsou
membei with a salaiy giaue of 2S , the Sanuiganbayan has no
juiisuiction;
7@?J6 RA 797S states that the juiisuiction of the Sanuiganbayan
coveis officials of the executive bianch with a salaiy giaue of 27
oi highei, ANB specifically mentioning:

(a) Piovincial goveinois, vice-goveinois, membeis of the
sangguniang panlalawigan anu piovincial tieasuieis, assessois,
engineeis anu othei piovincial uepaitment heaus;

(b) City mayois, vice-mayois, membeis of the sangguniang
panlungsou, city tieasuieis, assessois engineeis anu othei city
uepaitment heaus;

The intent of the law was to incluue such officials iegaiuless of
salaiy giaue.


:!@*-M!@$!^!@ K!:?: H@ 07?L?@<-L? :N:0?@:-H@

:5)9' MH '8#$('$!
1CC2
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis weie ciiminally chaigeu befoie the
Sanuiganbayan, imposeu a suspension penuete lite; Petitioneis
questioning the suspension.
7@?J6 The suspension imposeu by the Sanuiganbayan is
manuatoiy unuei RA Su19 upon the filing of a valiu infoimation
against the eiiing official. The puipose of such suspension is not
only to pievent the accuseu fiom hampeiing oi influencing the
investigation, but also to allow the piosecution oppoitunity to
gathei eviuence unuei conuitions which woulu ensuie non-
inteivention anu non-inteifeience.

(-"8 MH 8$),-%$):$9$)
1CCE
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei-mayoi chaigeu with a violation of RA
Su19, suspenueu by the 0mbuusman foi 9u uays;
7@?J6 While the suspension by the Sanuiganbayan is manuatoiy,
such is limiteu to a 6u uay suspension foi elective local officials
unuei Sec. 6S of the LuC.







8'%"&-$ MH 8$),-%$):$9$)
1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei is an official of the NPC, chaigeu with
violation of RA Su19, suspenueu by the Sanuiganbayan foi 9u
uays;

7@?J6 The suspension is not automatic, but iequiies the
ueteimination of the piesence of a valiu infoimation. 0pon
ueteimination of valiuity, it is the couit's ministeiial uuty to issue
an oiuei of pieventive suspension.
The length of the suspension cannot be infinite noi unieasonable,
such is limiteu by the applicable law goveining the accuseu. Foi
elective local officials, the LuC pioviues a limit of 6u uays; foi
public officeis unuei the Civil Seivice Coue, the limit is 9u uays.

W5$) MH 3'"3!'
/000
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei chaigeu befoie the RTC foi violation of the
0mnibus Election Coue foi using ceitain goveinment equipment
foi his own election campaign; RTC suspenueu petitionei foi 6u
uays.
7@?J6 0nuei Section 1S of RA Su19, the suspension of a public
officei is manuatoiy aftei the ueteimination of the valiuity of the
infoimation. In the case at bai, while theie was no pie-
suspension heaiing helu to ueteimine the valiuity of the
Infoimations that hau been fileu against petitioneis, we believe
that the numeious pleauings fileu foi anu against them have
achieveu the goal of this pioceuuie.

,LG%L< HL[H6 Questionable uecision, RA Su19 cleaily pioviues
that the ueteimination of the valiuity of the complaint is the basis
foi the couit's issuance of a suspension.

(",(-%5'a MH 8$),-%$):$9$)
/00U
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei-mayoi chaigeu with violation of PB 1829
anu PB 7uS by oiueiing police officeis to take possession of
lumbei subject of investigation foi illegal logging; chaigeu befoie
the Sanuigyanbayan; Petitionei claims his acts weie not in
ielation to his office, hence beyonu the juiisuiction of the
Sanuiganbayan;
7@?J6 The Sanuiganbayan has juiisuiction ovei acts "committeu
by the public official oi employee in ielation to theii office".
These aie acts intimately connecteu with the office, such that the
accuseu woulu have not committeu such acts hau he not helu
such office.

K!:?: H@ 7??4?K<-H@ !@* KH@*H@!<-H@

$%5-)$!," MH 8$)+"8
1CC/
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuent was ie-electeu to the positionof
uoveinoi aftei the 1989 coup u'etat, BILu iemoveu him fiom
office foi uisloyalty to the goveinment. SC helu iemoval invaliu,
iesponuent valiuly ie-electeu.

7@?J6 A public official can not be iemoveu foi auministiative
misconuuct committeu uuiing a piioi teim, since his ie-election
to office opeiates as a conuonation of the officei's pievious
misconuuct to the extent of cutting off the iight to iemove him
theiefoi. The foiegoing iule, howevei, finus no application
to ciiminal cases, as these aie violations against the state itself.



60
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

0!7< =Sd=]> *!@!

7)FC+%B

$%5-)$!," M4 8$)+"8 R1CC/S
A public official cannot be iemoveu foi auministiative
misconuuct committeu uuiing a piioi teim, since his ie-
election to office opeiates as a conuonation of the officei's
pievious misconuuct to the extent of cutting off the iight to
iemove theiefoi.
But, the foiegoing iule finus no application to ciiminal cases
penuing foi acts committeu uuiing the pievious teim.

3$:!-#" M4 &-!!$3$)," R/00/S

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@>4 Q04 M&CJ",2 8C& *(2.(;B("%&9 !.3(C"2D E An elective local
official may be uisciplineu, suspenueu, oi iemoveu fiom office on
any of the following giounus:
VVV
An elective local official may be iemoveu fiom office on the
giounus enumeiateu above by oiuei of the piopei couit.
Local legislative bouies (Sangguniang Panlalawigan) anuoi
the 0ffice of the Piesiuent is without any powei to iemove
electeu officials, since such powei is exclusively vesteu in
piopei couits as expiessly pioviueu foi in the last paiagiaph
of the afoiequoteu Section 6u.

-(( !"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
$;<=>?@ 1/U
RPS An elective local official may be iemoveu fiom office on the
giounus enumeiateu in paiagiaph (a) of this Aiticle by oiuei of
the piopei couit oi the uisciplining authoiity whichevei fiist
acquiies juiisuiction to the exclusion of the othei.
As helu in Salalima v. uuingona, the giant to the "uisciplining
authoiity" of the powei to iemove local officials is cleaily
beyonu the authoiity of the 0veisight Committee that
piepaieu the Rules. No iule oi iegulation may altei, amenu,
oi contiavene a piovision of law, such as the Local
uoveinment Coue.
Wheie the uisciplining authoiity is given only the powei to
suspenu anu not the powei to iemove, it shoulu not be
peimitteu to manipulate the law by usuiping the powei to
iemove.

7).%BB

@#1(.+* JTHU ]@## A+9' +6* 1+/#7^
B#%9D2.1 E1( C+G TXQQ ]&)#*/#/ @#1G HK +, ("# 03?^

uiounu foi
iecall:
Loss of confiuence
Right given to: Registeieu voteis of a Lu0 to which the local
elective official subject to iecall belongs
Commencement
of iecall
piocess:
By a Petition of a iegisteieu votei suppoiteu
by

2S% of iegisteieu voteis if Lu0 has
population not moie than 2u,uuu

2u% of iegisteieu voteis if Lu0 has voting
population of 2u,uuu to 7S,uuu. In no case
shall petitioneis be less than S,uuu.

1S% of iegisteieu voteis if Lu0 has voting
population of 7S,uuu to Suu,uuu. In no case
shall petitioneis be less than 1S,uuu.

1u% of iegisteieu voteis if Lu0 has voting
population of moie than Suu,uuu. In no case
shall petitioneis be less than 4S,uuu.


Election on
iecall
Baiangay, city, oi municipal officials: not
latei than Su uays

Piovincial officials: not latei than 4S uays

fiom the completion of pioceuuie outlineu
in Section 7ub of the LuC.
Effects to
official sought
to be iecalleu
Not alloweu to iesign while iecall piocess is
in piogiess

Automatically consiueieu as canuiuate anu is
entitleu to be voteu upon.
Effectivity of
iecall
0pon election anu pioclamation of a
successoi. If the official sought to be iecalleu
ieceive the highest numbei of votes,
confiuence in him is affiimeu anu he shall
continue in office.

Limitations on
Recall
Local elective official may be subject of a
iecall election only once uuiing his teim of
office foi loss of confiuence.

No iecall shall take place within one yeai
fiom the uate of the official's assumption to
office oi one eai immeuiately pieceuing a
iegulai local election.

'&$(,")' M4 #"*'!'# R1CC1S
Backgiounu: Buiing the peiiou mateiial to the case, the
Local uoveinment Coue was not yet effective so petitionei
was aiguing that that C0NELEC Resolution embouying the
iules anu iegulations on iecall anu iecall pioceeuings
against petitionei was piematuie.
Penuing the enactment of the amenuatoiy law, the existing
Local uoveinment Coue iemaineu opeiative. Chaptei S of BP
Blg. SS7 oi the olu Local uoveinment Coue pioviues foi the
mechanism foi iecall of local elective officials. Section S9
expiessly authoiizes C0NELEC to conuuct anu supeivise the
piocess of election on iecall anu in the exeicise of such
poweis, piomulgate the necessaiy iules anu iegulations.
The signing piocess was unueitaken in gou faith anu without
knowleuge of the TR0 issueu by the Supieme Couit. As helu
in 0%&),)2 +D ?V).J3(+) :).&)3%&9# theie is no tuining back the
clock. The constituents have maue a juugment anu theii will
to iecall the incumbent mayoi has alieauy been asceitaineu
au must be affoiueu the highest iespect.

3$($8 M4 #"*'!'# R1CCQS
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG EU4 4(F(3%3(C"2 C" 7).%BBD -
xxx
(b) No iecall shall take place within one (1) yeai fiom the uate of
the official's assumption to office oi one (1) yeai immeuiately
pieceuing a iegulai local election

61
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph


"Regulai local election" iefeis to an election wheie the office
helu by the local elective official sought to be iecalleu will be
contesteu anu be filleu by the electoiate.
.
$)%":5)% M4 #"*'!'# R1CCES
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
Section 69 (u): the iecall of any elective municipal official may
also be valiuly initiateu upon petition of at least 2S% of the total
numbei of iegisteieu voteis in the local goveinment unit
conceineu... (Now Sec. 7u(a)(1))

The law states "upon petition of at least 2S% of iegisteieu
voteis" anu not "signeu by 2S% of the iegisteieu voteis."
The petition must be fileu not by one peison but at least by
2S% of the total numbei of iegisteieu voteis.
The pioceuuie of filing the iecall petition by just one peison
subject to the fuithei signing of the saiu petition by the iest
of the iegisteieu voteis to meet the 2S% iequiiement cannot
be sanctioneu.
While the initiatoiy iecall petition may not yet contain the
signatuies of at least 2S% of the total numbei of iegisteieu
voteis, the petition must contain the names of at least 2S%
of the total numbei of iegisteieu voteis in whose behalf only
one peison may sign the petition in the meantime.

#!$5,-" M4 #"*'!'# LGJ 3('3$($+"(9 ('#$!! $88'*:!9
R/000S
Recall is a piocess which begins with the convening of the
piepaiatoiy iecall assembly oi the gatheiing of the
signatuies of at least 2S% of the iegisteieu voteis of the
local goveinment unit, anu then pioceeus to the filing of a
iecall iesolution oi petition with the C0NELEC, the
veiification of such iesolution oi petition, the fixing of the
uate of the iecall election anu the holuing of the election on
the scheuuleu uate. Bowevei, "iecall" as useu in Section
74(b) iefeis to the "election itself" by means of which voteis
ueciue whethei they shoulu ietain theii local official oi elect
his ieplacement anu not the pieliminaiy pioceeuings to
initiate iecall -
1. Because Sec. 74 speaks of limitations on "iecall" which,
accoiuing to Sec. 69 is a powei which shall be exeiciseu
by the iegisteieu voteis of a local goveinment unit.
Since the voteis uo not exeicise such iight except in an
election, it is cleai that the initiation of iecall
pioceeuings is not piohibiteu within the one-yeai
peiiou pioviueu in paiagiaph (b);
2. Because the puipose of the fiist limitation in paiagiaph
(b) is to pioviue voteis a sufficient basis foi juuging an
elective local official, anu final juuging is not uone until
the uay of the election; anu
S. Because to constiue the limitation in paiagiaph (b) as
incluuing the initiation of iecall pioceeuings woulu
unuuly cuitail fieeuom of speech anu of assembly
guaianteeu in the Constitution.
The phiase "immeuiately pieceuing a iegulai local election"
in Sec. 74(b) iefeis to the uay of iegulai election not the
election peiiou which is noimally at least 4S uays
immeuiately pieceuing the uay of the election.
3IGF RJ=HH@G<S: The inteipietation maue by the majoiity
which will countenance iecall initiatives iight on Bay 0ne
aftei an official staits his teim of office is baseu on a wiong
piemise that the iole of the people in iecall is limiteu to
being the juuge of election uay. In tiuth, the people
paiticipate in the initiation of the iecall piocess. Theie aie
two kinus of iecall:
1. Recall initiateu uiiectly by the people
2. Recall initiateu by the people thiu the Piepaiatoiy
Recall Assembly (PRA)
Note: Theie's no moie Piepaiatoiy Recall Assembly in the Local
uoveinment Coue

$V-$," M4 #"*'!'# R/000S
An elective official who became City Nayoi by legal
succession cannot be the subject of a iecall election by viitue
of a Piepaiatoiy Recall Assembly which was passeu oi
auopteu when the saiu elective official was still the vice-
Nayoi.

WJF%" 7)2CJ&.)2 *)+)BC;F)"3

@#1(.+*7 HJTH &*/ QJTQTK +, ("# 03?G B#%9D2.1 E1( C+G JHIY
(Please see youi own coues anu special laws)

*$#$!-)#$% M4 #7$)% R1CC/S
The 0ffice of the Nunicipal Tieasuiei is unuei the
Bepaitment of Finance as pioviueu foi in Sec. S PB 477.
Bence, the Secietaiy of Finance (anu not the Piesiuent) is
the piopei uisciplining authoiity to issue the pieventive
suspension oiuei. Even assuming that the powei to appoint
incluues the powei to uiscipline, the acting Secietaiy is an
altei ego of the Piesiuent anu theiefoie, it is within his
authoiity as an altei ego to pieventively suspenu the
Nunicipal Tieasuiei.

,':5!%$," M4 #-&-! 8'(&-#' #"**-88-") R1CCUS
The piohibition in Sec. S9 of E0 292 against nepotic
appointments applies to oiiginal anu piomotional
appointments. The piohibition applies quite without iegaiu
to the actual meiits of the pioposeu appointee anu to the
goou intention of the appointing oi iecommenuing
authoiity.
The puipose of Sec. S9 is to take out of the uiscietion of the
appointing anu iecommenuing authoiity the mattei of
appointing oi iecommenuing foi appointment a ielative.

#-&-! 8'(&-#' #"**-88-") M4 +-)$9$ R/00TS
(Case meie illustiation, no significant iatio):
Recoius show that befoie iesponuent maiiieu the uaughtei
of then Nayoi, the lattei appointeu him municipal assessoi.
The appointment was peimanent but CSC appioveu it
meiely as tempoiaiy. 0n Bec. 1, 1994, Acting Nayoi Lumban
extenueu to iesponuent a peimanent appointment aftei his
oiiginal tempoiaiy appointment expiieu. This new
appointment was initially uisappioveu by petitionei, but
iesponuent's mothei-in-law appealeu to the CSC. Being then
the incumbent mayoi, she was the chief of iesponuent anu
ueemeu to have iecommenueu him to vice-Nayoi Lumban
to be appointeu as municipal assessoi. veiily such
appointment is in violation of Sec. S9, Chaptei 8 of the Civil
Seivice Law:
>4 TCB @);C3(2FD E (1) All appointments in the
national, piovincial, city, anu municipal
goveinments oi in any bianch oi instiumentality
theieof, incluuing goveinment-owneu oi contiolleu
coipoiations, maue in favoui of a ielative of the
appointing oi iecommenuing authoiity, oi of the
chief of the buieau oi office, oi of the peisons
exeicising immeuiate supeivision ovei him, aie
62
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

heieby piohibiteu.
useu in this Section, the woiu "ielative" anu
membeis of the family iefeiieu to ie those ielateu
within the thiiu uegiee eithei of consanguinity oi
of affinity.


,-*$$),$! M4 #"$ R1CCDS
Backgiounu: Bimaanual was a Supply 0fficei III when he
was uesignateu as an Acting Asst. Piovincial Tieasuiei foi
Auministiation by the uoveinoi. Be claims the uiffeience in
the salaiies anu allowances between his iegulai position
anu the highei position to which he was uesignateu.
The powei to appoint oi uesignate one tempoiaiily in cases
of tempoiaiy absence oi uisability oi a vacancy in a
piovincial office iesiues in the Piesiuent of the Philippines,
not the Piovincial uoveinoi.

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
!%#4 8@>4 UE14 !22(23%"3 <&)%2J&)&2D E(a) An assistant tieasuiei
may be appointeu by the Secietaiy of Finance fiom a list of at
least thiee (S) ianking eligible iecommenuees of the goveinoi oi
mayoi, subject to civil seivice law, iules, oi iegulations.
xxx


(@M=H@J $JK=G=H<;L<=M@ #FJ@
8@>4 /0EE4 KCF;)"2%3(C" 8C& ;)&2C" %;;C("3), 3C 3)F;C&%&9
2)&+(.).
xxx
In case of the tempoiaiy absence oi uisability of a piovincial
officei oi in case of a vacancy in a piovincial office, the Piesiuent
of the Philippines oi officei having the powei to fill such position
may in his uiscietion, oiuei the payment of compensation, oi
auuitional compensation, to any uoveinment officei oi employee
uesignateu oi appointeu tempoiaiily to fill the place, but the total
compensation paiu shall not exceeu the salaiy authoiizeu by law
foi the position filleu.

Besignation vs. Appointment:
The legal basis of an employee's iight to claim the salaiy
anu allowances attacheu to position is a uuly issueu anu
appioveu appointment to the position.
Appointment: selection by the piopei authoiity of an
inuiviuual who is to exeicise the poweis anu functions of a
given office.
Besignation: meiely connotes an imposition of auuitional
uuties, usually by law, upon a peison alieauy in the public
seivice by viitue of an eailiei appointment.
In the CAB, Bimaanual was meiely uesignateu. The natuie
of his uesignation anu the absence of authoiity of the
uoveinoi to authoiize the payment of the auuitional salaiy
anu RATA confeiieu no iight on the pait of the petitionei to
claim the uiffeience in the salaiies anu allowances attacheu
to the position occupieu by him.

V!"('8 M4 ,(-!") R1CC2S
What was in question was the valiuity of Sec. 1S (u) RA
7227
(u) K5%(&F%"[ !,F("(23&%3C& - The Piesiuent shall appoint a
piofessional managei as auministiatoi of the Subic
Authoiity with a compensation to be ueteimineu by the
Boaiu subject to the appioval of the Secietaiy of Buuget,
who shall be the ex officio chaiiman of the Boaiu anu who
shall seive as the chief executive officei of the Subic
Authoiity: Pioviueu, howevei, that foi the fiist yeai of its
opeiations fiom the effectivity of this Act, the mayoi of the
City of 0longapo shall be appointeu a the chaiiman anu
chief executive officei of the Subic Authoiity"

The piovision was invaliu:
1. It violates the constitutional piosciiption against
appointment oi uesignation of elective officials to othei
goveinment posts. As incumbent Nayoi, uoiuon is
ineligible foi appointment to the position of Chaiiman
of the Boaiu anu Executive 0fficei of the SBNA.

#FGH<=<I<=FG4
$;< -A:4 8@>4E4 No elective official shall be eligible foi
appointment oi uesignation in any capacity to any public office oi
position uuiing his tenuie.

0nless otheiwise alloweu by law oi the piimaiy functions of his
position, no appointive official shall holu any othei office oi
employment in the uoveinment oi any subuivision, agency, oi
instiumentality theieof, incluuing goveinment-owneu oi
contiolleu coipoiations oi theii subsiuiaiies.

The SBNA post was not meiely an ex-officio to the position
of Nayoi of 0longapo City. The phiase "shall be appointeu"
shows intent to make the SBNA post appointive anu not
meiely aujunct to the post of Nayoi of 0longapo City.

2. Also, theie was a legislative encioachment on the
appointing authoiity of the Piesiuent because the
pioviso limiteu the appointing authoiity to only one
eligible - the incumbent Nayoi of 0longapo City. When
the qualifications piesciibeu by Congiess can only be
met by one inuiviuual, such enactment effectively
eliminates the uiscietion of the appointing authoiity to
choose anu constitutes an iiiegulai iestiiction on the
powei of appointment.

"<]@; ;L<=F6
Sec 7 Aiticle IX-B has two paits:
V=;H< OL;6 iefeis to an elective official. It uoes not pioviue any
exception to the iule against appointment oi uesignation
except as aie paiticulaily iecognizeu in the Constitution
itself (ex: Piesiuent as heau of economic anu planning
agency, vP as Nembei of Cabinet, Nembei of Congiess as
ex-officio }BC Nembei)
8@>FGJ OL;6 iefeis to an appointive official. It authoiizes the
holuing of multiple offices by an appointive official when
alloweu by law oi by the piimaiy functions of his position.
Wheie an incumbent elective official was, notwithstanuing
his ineligibility, appointeu to othei goveinment posts, he
uoes not automatically foifeit his elective office noi iemove
his ineligibility imposeu by the Constitution. 0n the
contiaiy, since an incumbent elective official is not eligible
to the appointive position, his appointment oi uesignation
theieto cannot be valiu in view of his uisqualification oi
lack oi eligibility.
Contia with Ait. vI Sec. 6 of the Constitution:

pNo Senatoi oi Nembei of the Bouse of Repiesentatives
may holu any othei office oi employment in the
uoveinment xxx uuiing his teim without foifeiting his
seat xxx"

63
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Incumbent GL<=FGL? ?@Z=H?L<F;H lose theii elective posts only
aftei they have been appointeu to anothei goveinment office,
while othei =G>IKP@G< @?@><=M@ FNN=>=L? must fiist iesign theii
posts befoie they can be appointeu, thus iunning the iisk of
losing the elective post as well as not being appointeu to the
othei post.

)F<@H6 ,=H<=GZI=H] <]=H N;FK ,=KLLGJL? ;@ J@ NL><F FNN=>@;H4
In Bimaanual, Bimaanual iemaineu as Supply 0fficei III anu
not Acting Asst. Piovincial Tieasuiei because the uoveinoi
is not the piopei authoiity to appoint him to the position.
In Floies, uoiuon iemaineu Nayoi anu not Chaiiman of the
Boaiu anu Executive 0fficei of the SBNA. Bowevei, the
Couit categoiically stateu that his acts as an SBNA official
aie not necessaiily null anu voiu; he may be consiueieu as a
ue facto officei.
Foi Sii: To be consiueieu a ue facto officei, the
appointment must on its face be valiu. In Bimaanual, the
lack of authoiity of the uoveinoi to appoint was appaient.
In the case of Floies, the appointment was seemingly valiu
in view of the law which uesignateu uoiuon as the SBNA
heau. (Sii was not convinceu though, he thinks politics
playeu a factoi in the Floies case.)

8$)%%5)-$)% :$9$) "V 8$) $),('8 #$+$),5$)'8 M4
#"5(+ "V $33'$!8 R1CCDS
Although a iesignation is not complete without an
acceptance theieof by the piopei authoiity, an office may
still be ueemeu ielinquisheu thiough voluntaiy
abanuonment which neeus no acceptance.
"G (@H=ZGL<=FG6 0nuei establisheu juiispiuuence,
iesignations, in the absence of statutoiy piovisions as to
whom they shoulu be submitteu, shoulu be tenueieu to the
appointing peison oi bouy. (In the CAB, BP SS7 uiu not
pioviue to whom Sangguniang Bayan membeis shoulu
submit theii iesignation letteis). Piivate iesponuent,
theiefoi, shoulu have submitteu his lettei of iesignation to
the Piesiuent oi to his altei ego, the BILu Secietaiy.
"G $PLGJFGK@G<6 Abanuonment is "voluntaiy
ielinquishment of an office by the holuei, with the intention
of teiminating his possession anu contiol theieof." It is a
species of iesignation. Two elements must concui:
1. Intention to abanuon
2. 0veit oi exteinal act by which the intention is caiiieu
into effect

*$+7$9 M4 #-&-! 8'(&-#' #"**-88-") R1CCCS
0nuei Sec. 12 (11) Book v of the Auministiative Coue, the
CSC has the powei to "heai anu ueciue auministiative cases
instituteu befoie it uiiectly oi on appeal, incluuing
contesteu appointments, anu ieview uecisions anu actions
of agencies anu of the agencies attacheu to it."
Auministiative Coue 0mnibus Rules Book v:
Notwithstanuing the initial appioval of an appointment, the
same may be iecalleu foi "violation of othei existing Civil
Seivice laws, iules, anu iegulations."
As helu in Bebulgauo v CSC, "the CSC is empoweieu to take
appiopiiate action on all appointments anu othei
peisonnel actions anu that such powei incluues the
authoiity to iecall an appointment initially appioveu in
uisiegaiu of applicable piovisions of Civil Seivice law anu
iegulations."



Note:
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@>4 ED4 K(+(B :)&+(.) 4%A# 7JB)2 %", 7)GJB%3(C"2# %", C35)&
7)B%3), -22J%".)2D E All matteis peitinent to human iesouices anu
uevelopment in local goveinment units shall be goveineu by the
civil seivice law au such iules anu iegulations anu othei
issuances piomulgateu puisuant theieto, unless otheiwise
specifieu in this Coue.

*$+7$9 M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8 R1CCCS
Backgiounu: Section S of the uisputeu oiuinance uiiecteu
the absoiption of the peisonnel of the uefunct CS0 anu not
the positions.
A City Council oi Sanggunian cannot uictate who shall
occupy the positions. The powei of the city council oi the
sanggunian is limiteu to cieating, consoliuating, anu
ieoiganizing city officeis anu positions suppoiteu by local
funus. Accoiuing to BP SS7, the powei to appoint iests
exclusively with the local chief executive.
By oiueiing the City Nayoi to ieinstate the piivate
iesponuents puisuant to Section S, the CSC substituteu its
own juugment foi that of the appointing powei. This cannot
be uone. The Civil Seivice Commission's powei is limiteu to
appioving oi uisappioving an appointment. It uoes not
have the authoiity to uiiect that an appointment of a
specific inuiviuual be maue.

,' ($*$ M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8 R/001S
The constitutional piosciiption against miunight
appointments applies only to Piesiuents anu Acting
Piesiuents anu not to local chief executives. In tiuth anu in
fact, theie is no law that piohibits local elective officials
fiom making appointments uuiing the last uays of his
tenuie.
*@GJF\L RJ=HH@G<HS6 Niunight appointments - whethei
maue by the Piesiuent oi the Nayoi - aie bau because they
aie maue huiiieuly, without uue uelibeiation anu caieful
consiueiation of the neeus of the office anu the
qualifications of the appointees anu by an appointing
authoiity on the eve of his uepaituie fiom office. They
cannot be less bau because they aie maue at the local level.

!$*'9($ M4 3$)%-!-)$) R/000S
#=M=? 8@;M=>@ *@KF;LGJIK #=;>I?L; )F4 1/ 8@;=@H FN 1CCU
pioviues as follows:
2.1 Absence without appioveu leave:
An officei oi employee who is continuously absent without
appioveu leave (AW0L) foi at least thiity (Su) calenuai uays
shall be sepaiateu fiom the seivice oi uioppeu fiom the iolls
without piioi notice. Be shall, howevei, be infoimeu of his
sepaiation fiom the seivice not latei than five (S) uays fiom its
effectivity which shall be sent to the auuiess appeaiing in his 2u1
files.

#-+9 "&'()*')+ "V *$^$+- #-+9 M4 #-&-! 8(&-#'
#"**-88-") R/00/S
A goveinment employee was has been oiueieu aiiesteu
anu uetaineu foi a non-bailable offense anu foi which he
was suspenueu foi his inability to iepoit foi woik J"3(B 35)
3)&F("%3(C" C8 5(2 .%2), IS N0T iequiieu to file a foimal
application foi leave of absence to ensuie his ieinstatement
upon his acquittal anu thus piotect his secuiity of tenuie.



64
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

(I?@H -KO?@K@G<=GZ $JK=G=H<;L<=M@ #FJ@4 :FF_ &4

8@>4 T/4 !;;&C+%B C8 +%.%3(C" B)%+). Leave of absence foi any
ieason othei than illness of an official oi employee oi of any
membei of his immeuiate family must be contingent upon the
neeus of the seivice. Bence, the giant of vacation leave shall be at
the uiscietion of the heau of uepaitment agency.

8@>4 Q24 ?88).3 C8 %'2)".)2 A(35CJ3 %;;&C+), B)%+)D E An official oi
an employee who is continuously absent without appioveu leave
foi at least Su woiking uays shall be consiueieu on absence
without official leave (AW0L) anu shall be sepaiateu fiom the
seivice oi uioppeu fiom the iolls without piioi notice. Be shall,
howevei, be infoimeu, at his auuiess appeaiing on his 2u1 files
oi at his last known wiitten auuiess, of his sepaiation fiom the
seivice, not latei than five (S) uas fiom its effectivity.
Xxx

As a geneial iule, Sections S2 anu 6S iequiie an appioveu
leave of absence to avoiu being on AW0L. Bowevei, these
piovisions cannot be inteipieteu as exclusive anu iefeiiing
only to one moue of secuiing the appioval of a leave of
absence which woulu iequiie an employee to apply foi it,
foimalities anu all.
CSC iecognizeu the iule of %J3CF%3(. B)%+) C8 %'2)".) as
anothei means of gianting an appioveu leave of absence.
Situations of illness aie not the only instances of foice
majeuie; othei events beyonu the contiol of the employee
may also foice him to be absent fiom woik (such as when
the employee himself is kiunappeu oi aiiesteu anu
uetaineu foi allegeu ciimes). It is in the lattei cases, that the
CSC sought to auuiess in inteipieting the CSC iules on leave
of absence as incluuing oi contemplating an automatic
leave of absence. In these items of foice majeuie, the
employee is excuseu fiom filing an application foi leave of
absence pioviueu that he infoims the employei of the
unfoitunate event unueilying his absence.
CSC was only inteipieting its own iules on leave of absence
anu not a statutoiy piovision in coming up with the iule.
Rejecting the CSC iuling on an %J3CF%3(. B)%+) C8 %'2)".)
solely foi want of piovision expiessly anu specifically
allowing such leave woulu eiioneously iepuuiate the
uiffeience between the agency's own unueistanuing of its
iules anu its inteipietation of a statute.
The CSC has the powei to allow exemptions fiom piioi
filing of leave applications. This powei logically flow fiom
the task of the CSC to iegulate civil seivice in the countiy as
oiuaineu in the Constitution anu manuateu in the
Auministiative Coue of 1987.
3LGZLG=PLG RJ=HH@G<HS6
1. The cuiient CSC laws anu iules uo not contain any
piovision on %J3CF%3(. leave of absence. Cleaily, the
appioval of a leave foi any ieason othei than the
illness of an officei oi employee, oi any membei of
that employee's immeuiate family, cannot be
piesumeu. Theie being no specific oi cleai-cut
piovision allowing automatic leave of absence, Sec. S2
foiecloses the possibility of such leave, even on the
giounu of incaiceiation.
2. The ponencia contenus that the CSC is gianteu
sufficient iesiuual authoiity via its powei of
"inteipieting" its own iules to allow "automatic" leaves
of absence. CSC has no powei to inteipiet an inexistent
iule.
()F<@6 Sii agiees with the majoiity opinion)
3$8+"( M4 #-+9 "V 3$8-% R/00/S

$JK=G=H<;L<=M@ #FJ@4 :FF_ &4 +=<?@ -4 8IP<=<?@ $
8@>4 /Q RES4 7)%22(G"F)"3D An employee may be ieassigneu fiom
one oiganizational unit to anothei in the same agency: Pioviueu,
that such ieassignment shall not involve a ieuuction in iank,
status, oi salaiy.

It has been helu that a ieassignment that is inuefinite anu
iesults in a ieuuction in iank, status, anu salaiy is in effect a
constiuctive iemoval fiom the seivice. In this case,
petitionei's ieassignment to uiffeient offices in the local
goveinment in Pasig is inuefinite. She has been on viitual
floating assignments.

%$(#-$ M4 3$W$(" R/00/S
The City Tieasuiei anu not the Nayoi has the piopei
uisciplining authoiity ovei petitionei, a senioi ievenue
uistiict collectoi. Be is the one who coulu investigate anu
can issue a pieventive suspension oiuei.

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG UPP RP1`S FN <]@ 1CC1 !%# "the city mayoi may
cause to be instituteu auministiative oi juuicial pioceeuings
against any official oi employee of the city."

This iule is not incongiuent with the piovisions of the
:FF_ & FN <]@ 1CDE $JK=G=H<;L<=M@ #FJ@ which
authoiizes the heaus of agencies to uiscipline suboiuinate
employees. The olu LuC uiu not vest in city mayois the 2CB)
powei to uiscipline anu to institute ciiminal oi
auministiative actions against any officeis oi employees
unuei theii iespective juiisuictions.
In fact, theie is no piovision unuei the piesent LuC
expiessly iescinuing the authoiity of the Bepaitment of
Finance to exeicise uisciplinaiy authoiity ovei its
employees. By the same token, theie is nothing that
piohibits the city tieasuiei fiom filing a complaint against
petitionei. Anu as helu in W%G%, +D MCIC *%,CB)# the powei
to uiscipline eviuently incluues the powei to investigate.

0&C5('(3), -"3)&)23

8@><=FG4 DC4 0&C5('(3), $J2(")22 %", 0).J"(%&9 -"3)&)23D
(a) It shall be unlawful foi any local goveinment official oi
employee, uiiectly oi inuiiectly, to:
1. Engage in any business tiansaction with the local
goveinment unit in which he is an official oi employee
oi ovei which he has the powei of supeivision, oi with
ay of its authoiizeu boaius, officials, agents, oi
attoineys, wheieby money is to be paiu, oi piopeity oi
any othei thing of value is to be tiansfeiieu, uiiectly oi
inuiiectly, out of the iesouices of the local goveinment
unit to such peison oi fiim;
2. Bolu such inteiests in any cockpit oi othei games
licenseu by a local goveinment unit;
S. Puichase any ieal estate oi othei piopeity foifeiteu in
favoi of such local goveinment unit foi unpaiu taxes oi
assessment, oi by viitue of a legal piocess at the
instance of the saiu local goveinment unit;
4. Be a suiety foi any peison contiacting oi uoing
business with the local goveinment unit foi which a
suiety is iequiieu; anu
S. Possess oi use any public piopeity of the local
65
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

goveinment unit foi piivate puiposes.
All othei piohibitions goveining the conuuct of national public
officeis ielating to piohibiteu business anu pecuniaiy inteiest so
pioviueu foi unuei RA 671S otheiwise known as the "Coue of
Conuuct au Ethical Stanuaius foi Public 0fficials anu Employees"
anu othei laws shall also be applicable to local goveinment
officials anu employees,

+'&'8 M4 8$),-%$):$9$) R/00US
The question is unuei what law Teves shoulu be punisheu.
Section S(h) of the Anti-uiaft Law is a geneial piovision, it
being applicable to all piohibiteu inteiests while Section
89(2) of the LuC is a special piovision as it specifically tieats
of inteiest in a cockpit. Notably the two statutes pioviue foi
uiffeient penalties.
The 1991 LuC, which specifically piohibits local officials
fiom possessing pecuniaiy inteiest in a cockpit license by
the local goveinment unit anu which, in itself, piesciibes the
punishment foi violation theieof, is paiamount to the Anti-
uiaft Law, which penalizes possession of piohibiteu inteiest
in a geneial mannei. Noieovei, the lattei took effect on
August 27, 196u while the foimei became effective on
}anuaiy 1, 1991. Being the eailiei law, the Anti-uiaft Law
has to yielu to the 1991 LuC which is the latei expiession of
the legislative will.
Note: Teves was chaigeu unuei the Anti-uiaft Law but was
penalizeu unuei the LuC. Bangat thinks this is weiiu.

0&%.3(.) H8 0&C8)22(C"
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@>4 2C4 :J'F(22(C" C8 6J"(.(;%B _J)23(C"2 3C 35) 0&C+(".(%B 4)G%B
H88(.)& C8 0&C2).J3C&D - In the absence of a municipal legal officei,
the municipal goveinment may secuie the opinion of the
piovincial legal officei, anu in the absence of the lattei that of the
piovincial piosecutoi on any legal question affecting the
municipality.

8@>4 C04 0&%.3(.) C8 0&C8)22(C"D
(a) All goveinois, city anu municipal mayois aie piohibiteu
fiom piacticing theii piofession oi engaging in any
occupation othei than the exeicise of theii functions as local
chief executives.
(b) Sanggunian membeis may piactice theii piofessions, engage
in any occupation, oi teach in schools except uuiing session
houis: Pioviueu, That sanggunian membeis who aie also
membeis of the Bai shall not:
1. Appeai as counsel befoie any couit in any civil case
wheiein a local goveinment unit oi any office, agency oi
instiumentality of the goveinment is the auveise paity;
2. Appeai as counsel in any ciiminal case wheiein an
officei oi employee of the national oi local goveinment
is accuseu of an offense committeu in ielation to his
office;
S. Collect any fee foi theii appeaiance in auministiative
pioceeuings involving the local goveinment unit of
which he is an official; anu
4. 0se piopeity anu peisonnel of the uoveinment except
when the sanggunian membei conceineu is uefenuing
the inteiest of the uoveinment.
Boctois of meuicine may piactice theii piofession even uuiing
official houis of woik only on occasions of emeigency. 0&C+(,),#
that the officials conceineu uo not ueiive monetaiy
compensation theiefiom.


W$&'!!$)$ M4 ,-!% R1CC/S
Petitionei's contention that Section 9u of the LuC anu BLu
Nemoianuum Ciiculai aie unconstitutional because the
Supieme Couit has the sole anu exclusive authoiity to
iegulate the piactice of law (Aiticle vIII Section S) is
completely off-tangent. Neithei the statute noi the ciiculai
tienches upon the Supieme Couit's powei anu authoiity to
piesciibe iules on the piactice of law. The afoiementioneu
laws simply piesciibe iules of conuuct foi public officials to
avoiu conflict of inteiest between the uischaige of theii
public uuties anu the piivate piactice of theii piofession, in
those instances wheie the law allows it.
Section 9u of the LuC uoes not uisciiminate against lawyeis
anu uoctois. It applies to all piovincial anu municipal
officials in the piofessions oi engageu in any occupation.
Section 9u explicitly pioviues that sanggunian membeis
"may piactice theii piofessions, engage in any occupation, oi
teach in schools except uuiing session houis." If theie aie
some piohibitions that apply paiticulaily to lawyeis, it is
because of all the piofessions, the piactice of law is moie
likely than otheis to ielate to, oi affect the aiea of public
seivice.

8"#-$! W58+-#' 8"#-'+9 M4 !-)$ R/00DS
The appeaiance of incumbent city oi municipal mayoi anu
piovincial goveinois, who aie actois, in movies anu
television piogiams enhances theii income but ieuuces
consiueiably the time that they shoulu uevote to theii
constituents. This is in violation of Section 9u of the LuC anu
Section 7 of RA 671S (Coue of Conuuct anu Ethical Stanuaius
foi Public 0fficials anu Employees). Theii appeaiance
fuithei gives them unuue auvantage in futuie elections ovei
theii opponents who aie not actois.
Note: SC uismisseu the case because ueclaiatoiy ielief was
not the piopei iemeuy to enfoice compliance with Section
9u LuC anu to pievent Santos-Recto, Lapiu, anu Naiquez
fiom taking ioles in movies anu television shows.
Bangat: Is being an "aitista" a piofession. =))

#$+5 M4 ('!!"8$ R/00DS
Section 9u goveins the piactice of piofession of elective local
goveinment officials. 0nuei this law, goveinois, city anu
municipal mayois aie piohibiteu fiom piacticing theii
piofession oi engaging in any occupation othei than the
exeicise of theii functions as local chief executives. This is
because they aie iequiieu to ienuei full time seivice.
0n the othei hanu, membeis of the 2%"GGJ"(%"G
;%"B%B%A(G%"# 2%"GGJ"(%" ;%"BJ"G2C,# C& 2%"GGJ"(%" '%9%"
may piactice theii piofessions, engage in any occupation, oi
teach in schools except uuiing session houis. Accoiuingly, as
;J"C"G '%&%"G%9, iesponuent is not foibiuuen to piactice
his piofession. Bowevei, he shoulu have piocuieu piioi
peimission oi authoiization fiom the heau of his
Bepaitment as iequiieu by civil seivice iegulations. Be
shoulu have obtaineu the piioi wiitten peimission of the
Secietaiy of Inteiioi anu Local uoveinment.

(I?@ A&--- FN <]@ (@M=H@J #=M=? 8@;M=>@ (I?@H6
8@>4 1/4 No officei oi employee shall engage uiiectly in any
piivate business, vocation, oi piofession oi be connecteu with
any commeicial, cieuit, agiicultuial, oi inuustiial unueitaking
without a wiitten peimission fiom the heau of the Bepaitment...



66
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

('35:!-# M4 ($*:59")% R/010S
NPC is an instiumentality of the goveinment such that Atty.
Rambuyong, a 2%"GGJ"(%" F)F')& is not alloweu to appeai
as counsel against it.
Bow the Couit concluueu that NPC is an instiumentality.
1. $JK=G=H<;L<=M@ #FJ@ 8@>4 / R10S6
Instiumentality iefeis to any agency of the National
uoveinment, not integiateu within the uepaitment
fiamewoik, vesteu with special functions oi juiisuiction
by law, enuoweu with some if not all coipoiate poweis,
auministeiing special funus, anu enjoying opeiational
autonomy, usually thiough a chaitei. This teim incluues
iegulatoiy agencies, chaiteieu institutions anu
goveinment- owneu oi contiolleu coipoiations.
2. *L>@JL M4 *L>L;L=Z6 "NPC is a goveinment
instiumentality with the eiioneous task of unueitaking
uevelopment of hyuioelectiic geneiation of powei anu
piouuction of electiicity fiom othei souices..."

<5) 4C.%B $C%&,2

0+1&2 @1"++2 V+&'/7
@#1(.+* TRIKI +, ("# 03? ]@## A+9' +6* 1+/#7^

- A local school boaiu is establisheu in eveiy piovince,
city, oi municipality
- VIG><=FGH FN !F>L? 8>]FF? :FL;JH6
1. Beteimine the annual supplementaiy buuget neeus foi
the opeiation anu maintenance of public schools anu
the supplementaiy local cost of meeting such neeus.
2. Authoiize the piovincial, city, oi municipal tieasuiei to
uisbuise funus fiom the Special Euucation Funu.
S. Seive as an auvisoiy committee to the sanggunian
conceineu on euucational matteis.
4. Recommenu changes in the names of public schools
within the teiiitoiial juiisuiction of the local
goveinment unit foi enactment by the Sanggunian
conceineu.
- The Bepaitment of Euucation, Cultuie, anu Spoits shall
consult the local school boaiu on the appointment of
uivision supeiintenuents, uistiict supeivisois, school
piincipals anu othei school officials.

#"$ "V +7' 3("&-)#' "V #':5 M4 3("&-)#' "V #':5
R/001S
Payment of salaiies anu peisonnel-ielateu benefits of the
teacheis appointeu by the piovincial school boaiu fall within
the ambit of "establishment anu maintenance of extension
classes" anu "opeiation anu maintenance of public schools."
Theiefoie, the payment is among the piojects foi which the
pioceeus of the SEF may be appiopiiateu. Bowevei, with
iespect to college scholaiship giant, the "gianting of
goveinment scholaiship to pooi but ueseiving stuuents was
omitteu in Section 1uu(c) anu 272 of the LuC. The uoctiine
of necessaiy implication cannot be applieu inasmuch as the
giant of scholaiship is neithei a necessaiy noi inuispensable
to the opeiations anu maintenance of public schools. Such
scholaiship giants may be chaigeu to the ueneial Funus of
the piovince.

"8'$ M4 *$!$9$ R/00/S
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@>4 CC4 ZJ".3(C"2 C8 35) 4C.%B :.5CCB $C%&,2D E The piovincial,
city, oi municipal school boaiu shall:
xxx xxx xxx
The Bepaitment of Euucation, Cultuie anu Spoits shall consult
the local school boaius on the appointment of uivision
supeiintenuents, uistiict supeivisois, school piincipal, anu othei
school officials
The iequiiement in Section 99 of piioi consultation with the
local school boaiu uoes not apply wheie the uesignation
paitook of the natuie of a ieassignment anu not an
appointment. The iequiiement only applies to appointments
maue by the Bepaitment of Euucation, Cultuie, anu Spoits.
Appointment v. Reassignment:
Appointment: selection, by the authoiity vesteu the powei, of an
in inuiviuual who is to exeicise the functions of a given
office.
Reassignment: meiely a movement of an employee fiom one
oiganizational unit to anothei in the same uepaitment oi
agency which uoes not involve a ieuuction in iank, status, oi
salaiy anu uoes not iequiie the issuance of an appointment.

0+1&2 =#&2(" V+&'/7
@#1(.+* IKXIKU +, ("# 03? ]@## A+9' +6* 1+/#7^
- A local health boaiu is establisheu in eveiy piovince,
city, oi municipality.
- VIG><=FGH FN <]@ ?F>L? ]@L?<] PFL;J6
1. Piopose to the sanggunian conceineu the annual
buugetaiy allocations foi the opeiations anu
maintenance of health facilities anu seivices.
2. Seive as an auvisoiy committee to the sanggunian
conceineu on health matteis
S. Cieate committees which shall auvise local health
agencies on matteis such as, but not limiteu to,
peisonnel selection anu piomotion, bius anu awaius,
giievances anu complaints, peisonnel uiscipline, buuget
ieview opeiations ieview anu similai functions.
- In cases of epiuemics, pestilence, anu othei wiuespieau
public health uangeis, the Secietaiy of Bealth may,
upon the uiiection of the Piesiuent anu in consultation
with the local goveinment unit conceineu, tempoiaiily
assume uiiect supeivision anu contiol ovei health
opeiations in any Lu0 foi the uuiation of the
emeigency, but in no case exceeuing a cumulative
peiiou of six (6) months. With the concuiience of the
Lu0 conceineu, the peiiou foi such uiiect national
contiol anu supeivision may fuithei be extenueu.

!F>L? ,@M@?FOK@G< #FIG>=?H
@#1(.+* IKJIIU +, ("# 03? ]@## A+9' +6* 1+/#7^
- Each local goveinment unit shall have a compiehensive
multi-sectoial uevelopment plan to be initiateu by its
uevelopment council anu appioveu by the sanggunian.
- VIG><=FGH FN O;FM=G>=L?B >=<[B LGJ KIG=>=OL?
J@M@?FOK@G< >FIG>=?H6
1. Foimulate long-teim, meuium-teim, anu annual socio-
economic uevelopment plans anu policies.
2. Foimulate the meuium-teim anu annual public
investment piogiams.
S. Appiaise anu piioiitize socio-economic uevelopment
piogiams anu piojects.
4. Foimulate local investment incentives to piomote the
inflow anu uiiection of piivate investment capital.
S. Cooiuinate, monitoi, anu evaluate the implementation
oi uevelopment piogiams anu pioject.
6. Peifoim othei functions as may be pioviueu by law oi
component authoiity.
- VIG><=FGH FN <]@ PL;LGZL[ J@M@?FOK@G< >FIG>=?6
67
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

1. Nobilize people's paiticipation in local uevelopment
effoits.
2. Piepaie baiangay uevelopment plans baseu on local
iequiiements.
S. Nonitoi anu evaluate the implementation of national oi
local piogiams anu piojects.
4. Peifoim such othei functions as may be pioviueu by
law oi component authoiity

BE HYJRG @#1GJG ?V).J3(+) KCFF(33)) C8 4C.%B *)+)BC;F)"3
KCJ".(B %2 35) 4C.%B KCJ"3&9A(,) -",J23&(%B(I%3(C" $C%&,D k The
Executive Committee of the municipal, city, anu piovincial
uevelopment councils shall seive as the Local Countiywiue
Inuustiialization Boaiu (LCIB) which shall be uiiecteu towaius
the uevelopment of technology anu skills, assist all enteipiises in
the utilization of inuigenous iaw mateiials foi livelihoou
piogiams anu in the ueliveiy of cieuit oiganizations anu
maiketing seivices.


!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
0+1&2 5#&1# &*/ :'/#' ?+9*1.2
@#1(.+* IIJ Theie is heieby establisheu in eveiy piovince, city,
oi municipality a local peace anu oiuei council puisuant to E.0.
No. Su9, as amenueu, Seiies of 1988. The local peace anu oiuei
councils shall have the same composition anu functions as those
piesciibeu by saiu Executive 0iuei.



!J3C"CFCJ2 :;).(%B ?.C"CF(. eC")2

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
@#1G IIHG ?23%'B(25F)"3 C8 !J3C"CFCJ2 :;).(%B ?.C"CF(. eC")D E
The establishment by law of autonomous special economic zones
in selecteu aieas of the countiy shall be subject to concuiience by
the local goveinment units incluueu theiein.

BE HTIJ @#1G QQG 7)B%3(C"25(; A(35 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 N"(32D
Except as heiein pioviueu, the local goveinment units compiising
the EC0Z0NE shall ietain theii basic autonomy anu iuentity. The
cities shall be goveineu by theii iespective chaiteis anu
municipalities shall opeiate anu function in accoiuance with RA
716u

BE HTKY !" !.3 K&)%3("G % :;).(%B ?.C"CF(. eC") %", Z&));C&3
eC") (" 35) K(39 C8 e%F'C%"G% K&)%3("G 8C& 35(2 0J&;C2)
e%F'C%"G% K(39 :;).(%B ?.C"CF(. eC") Te!6$H?KHeH@?U



















H35)& 0&C+(2(C"2 !;;B(.%'B) <C 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 N"(32

:)33B)F)"3 H8 $CJ",%&9 *(2;J3)2

!%#4 8@>4 11D6 /J&(2,(.3(C"%B 7)2;C"2('(B(39 8C& :)33B)F)"3 C8
$CJ",%&9 *(2;J3)D Bounuaiy uisputes between anu among local
goveinment units shall, as much as possible, be settleu amicably.
To this enu:

:FIGJL;[ J=HOI<@
P@<b@@G6
.]@;@6 8@<<?@J P[6
2 oi moie baiangays Same city
municipality
S. Panlungsou
S. Bayan
2 oi moie
municipalities
Same
piovince
S. Panlalawigan
Nunicipalities oi
component cities
Biffeient
piovince
}ointly iefeiieu to
sanggunians of the
piovinces conceineu)
Component city oi
Nunicipality MH4
Bighly uibanizeu
city

0i
Between 2 oi moie
highly uibanizeu
cities

}ointly iefeiieu to
iespective Sanggunians
of the paities

In the event the Sanggunian fails to effect an amicable settlement
within 6u uays fiom the uate the uispute was iefeiieu theieto, it
shall issue a ceitification to that effect. Theieaftei, the uispute
shall be foimally tiieu by the sanggunian conceineu which shall
ueciue the issue within 6u uays fiom the uate of the ceitification
iefeiieu to above.

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@>4 11C4 !;;)%B Within the time anu mannei piesciibeu by the
Rules of Couit, any paity may elevate the uecision of the
sanggunian conceineu to the piopei Regional Tiial Couit having
juiisuiction ovei the aiea in uispute. The Regional Tiial Couit
shall ueciue the appeal within one (1) yeai fiom the filing theieof.
Penuing final iesolution of the uisputeu aiea piioi to the uispute
shall be maintaineu anu continueu foi all legal puiposes.


-((4 (5!' ---4 8@<<?@K@G< FN :FIGJL;[ ,=HOI<@H

$(+-#!' 1T4 *)8("(3(C" %", 0CB(.9D Theie is a bounuaiy
uispute when a poition oi the whole of the teiiitoiial aiea of an
Lu0 is claimeu by two oi moie Lu0s. Bounuaiy uisputes between
oi among Lu0s shall, as much as possible, be settleu amicably.

$(+-#!' 1Q4 /J&(2,(.3(C"%B 7)2;C"2('(B(39D Bounuaiy uisputes
shall be iefeiieu foi settlement to the following:
(a) Sangguniang panlungsou oi sangguniang bayan foi uisputes
involving two (2) oi moie baiangays in the same city oi
municipality, as the case may be;
(b) Sangguniang panlalawigan, foi those involving two (2) oi
moie municipalities within the same piovince;
(c) }ointly, to the sanggunians of piovinces conceineu, foi those
68
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

involving component cities oi municipalities of uiffeient
piovinces; oi
(u) }ointly, to the iespective sanggunians, foi those involving a
component city oi municipality anu a highly-uibanizeu city; oi
two (2) oi moie highly-uibanizeu cities.

$(+-#!' 1E4 0&C.),J&)2 8C& :)33B("G $CJ",%&9 *(2;J3)2D The
following pioceuuies shall govein the settlement of bounuaiy
uisputes:

(a) Filing of petition The sanggunian conceineu may initiate
action by filing a petition, in the foim of a iesolution, with the
sanggunian having juiisuiction ovei the uispute.

(b) Contents of petition The petition shall state the giounus,
ieasons oi justifications theiefoi.

(c) Bocuments attacheu to petition The petition shall be
accompanieu by:
(1) Buly authenticateu copy of the law oi statute cieating the
Lu0 oi any othei uocument showing pioof of cieation of the
Lu0;
(2) Piovincial, city, municipal, oi baiangay map, as the case
may be, uuly ceitifieu by the LNB;
(S) Technical uesciiption of the bounuaiies of the Lu0s
conceineu;
(4) Wiitten ceitification of the piovincial, city, oi municipal
assessoi, as the case may be, as to teiiitoiial juiisuiction
ovei the uisputeu aiea accoiuing to iecoius in custouy;
(S) Wiitten ueclaiations oi swoin statements of the people
iesiuing in the uisputeu aiea; anu
(6) Such othei uocuments oi infoimation as may be iequiieu
by the sanggunian heaiing the uispute.

(u) Answei of auveise paity 0pon ieceipt by the sanggunian
conceineu of the petition togethei with the iequiieu uocuments,
the Lu0 oi Lu0s complaineu against shall be fuinisheu copies
theieof anu shall be given fifteen (1S) woiking uays within which
to file theii answeis.

(e) Beaiing Within five (S) woiking uays aftei ieceipt of the
answei of the auveise paity, the sanggunian shall heai the case
anu allow the paities conceineu to piesent theii iespective
eviuences.

(f) }oint heaiing When two oi moie sanggunians jointly heai a
case, they may sit en banc oi uesignate theii iespective
iepiesentatives. Wheie iepiesentatives aie uesignateu, theie
shall be an equal numbei of iepiesentatives fiom each
sanggunian. They shall elect fiom among themselves a piesiuing
officei anu a secietaiy. In case of uisagieement, selection shall be
by uiawing lot.

(g) Failuie to settle In the event the sanggunian fails to
amicably settle the uispute within sixty (6u) uays fiom the uate
such uispute was iefeiieu theieto, it shall issue a ceitification to
that effect anu copies theieof shall be fuinisheu the paities
conceineu.

(h) Becision Within sixty (6u) uays fiom the uate the
ceitification was issueu, the uispute shall be foimally tiieu anu
ueciueu by the sanggunian conceineu. Copies of the uecision
shall, within fifteen (1S) uays fiom the piomulgation theieof, be
fuinisheu the paities conceineu, BILu, local assessoi, C0NELEC,
NS0, anu othei NuAs conceineu.
(i)Appeal Within the time anu mannei piesciibeu by the Rules
of Couit, any paity may elevate the uecision of the sanggunian
conceineu to the piopei Regional Tiial Couit having juiisuiction
ovei the uispute by filing theiewith the appiopiiate pleauing,
stating among otheis, the natuie of the uispute, the uecision of
the sanggunian conceineu anu the ieasons foi appealing
theiefiom. The Regional Tiial Couit shall ueciue the case within
one (1) yeai fiom the filing theieof. Becisions on bounuaiy
uisputes piomulgateu jointly by two (2) oi moie sangguniang
panlalawigans shall be heaiu by the Regional Tiial Couit of the
piovince which fiist took cognizance of the uispute.

$(+-#!' 1D4 6%("3)"%".) C8 :3%3J2 _JCD Penuing final
iesolution of the uispute, the status of the affecteu aiea piioi to
the uispute shall be maintaineu anu continueu foi all puiposes.

$(+-#!' 1C4 H88(.(%B KJ23C,(%"D The BILu shall be the official
custouian of copies of all uocuments on bounuaiy uisputes of
Lu0s.


3$8-% M4 #"*'!'# R1CCCS
A iequisite foi the cieation of a baiangay is foi its teiiitoiial
juiisuiction to be piopeily iuentifieu by metes anu bounus
oi by moie oi less peimanent natuial bounuaiies. The fact
that a plebiscite has been helu in case of a pioposeu
baiangay uoes ienuei moot anu acauemic a petition foi a
settlement of a bounuaiy uispute.

3("&-)#' "V #$*$(-)'8 )"(+' M4 3("&-)#' "V f5'a")
A peison who iemoves oi causes the iemoval of a
monument maikei eiecteu on a uisputeu bounuaiy line can
be citeu foi contempt of couit.

*5)-#-3$!-+9 "V ^$)$)$ M4 *$,(")$ R/002S
Sec. 118 of the LuC only applies to a situation in which a
component city oi a municipality seeks to settle a bounuaiy
uispute with a highly uibanizeu city anu not with an
inuepenuent component city.
Inasmuch as Sec. 118 finus no application, BP 129 Sec. 19 is
applicable " Regional Tiial Couits shall exeicise exclusive
oiiginal juiisuiction (6) in all cases not within the exclusive
juiisuiction of any couit, tiibunal, peison, oi bouy exeicising
juuicial oi quasi-juuicial functions."
RTC exeicises oiiginal juiisuiction ovei the settlement of a
bounuaiy uispute between a municipality anu an
inuepenuent component city.

*5)-#-3$!-+9 "V 3$+'("8 M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8 R/00CS
0nly upon failuie of the inteimeuiaiy steps in Section 118
will iesoit to RTC follow as specifically pioviueu in Sec. 119
of the LuC.

4C.%B -"(3(%3(+) !", 7)8)&)",JF

@#1(.+* IXKIXH +, ("# 03? ]@## A+9' +6* 1+/#7^
0+1&2 .*.(.&(.4#
Befineu: Legal piocess wheieby the iegisteieu voteis of
a Lu0 may uiiectly piopose, enact, oi amenu an
oiuinance.
Exeiciseu
by:
All iegisteieu voteis of the piovinces, cities,
municipalities, anu baiangays.
Pioceuuie: Petition pioposing the auoption, enactment,
69
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

iepeal, oi amenument of an oiuinance fileu
with the sanggunian conceineu by not less than

1,uuu - in case of piovinces anu cities
1uu- in case of municipalities
Su- in case of baiangays
Effectivity: 1S uays aftei the Ceitification by the C0NELEC
that the pioposition is appioveu by a majoiity
of the votes cast
Limitations: (1) The powei of local initiative shall not be
exeiciseu moie than once a yeai.
(2) Initiative shall extenu only to subjects oi
matteis which aie within the legal poweis of
the sanggunians to enact.
(S) If at any time befoie the initiative is helu,
the sanggunian conceineu auopts in toto the
pioposition piesenteu anu the local chief
executive appioves the same, the initiative shall
be cancelleu. Bowevei, those against such
action may, if they so uesiie, apply foi initiative.

Limitations
upon
Sanggunians:
Any pioposition oi oiuinance appioveu
thiough the system of initiative anu iefeienuum
shall not be iepealeu, mouifieu, oi amenueu by
the sanggunian conceineu within six (6)
months fiom the uate of the appioval theieof
anu may be amenueu, mouifieu, oi iepealeu by
the sanggunian within thiee (S) yeais
theieaftei by a vote of thiee-fouiths (S4) of all
its membeis. Pioviueu that in case of
baiangays, the peiiou shall be eighteen months.

0+1&2 B#,#'#*/9)
Befineu: Legal piocess wheieby the iegisteieu voteis of
the local goveinment unit may appiove, amenu,
oi ieject any oiuinance enacteu by the
Sanggunian.


@## BE JHYU

%$(#-$ M4 #"*'!'# R1CCUS
The issue to be iesolveu is whethei Pambayang Kapasyahan
Blg. 1u is a piopei subject of an initiative. YES. The
Constitution cleaily incluues not only oiuinances but also
iesolutions as appiopiiate subjects of a local initiative.
The constitutional commanu to incluue acts (i.e.,
iesolutions) as appiopiiate subjects of initiative was
implementeu by Congiess when it enacteu RA 67SS.
The subsequent enactment of the LuC which also uealt with
local initiative uiu not change the scope of its coveiage.

1CDE #FGH<=<I<=FG4 $;<4 &-4 8@>4 /24 The Congiess shall, as eaily
as possible, pioviue foi a system of initiative anu iefeienuum,
anu the exceptions theiefiom, wheieby the people can uiiectly
piopose anu enact laws oi appiove oi ieject any act oi law oi
pait theieof passeu by Congiess, oi local legislative bouy x x x"

($ QE/T4 *)8("(3(C" C8 3)&F2
(a) "Initiative" is the powei of the people to piopose
amenuments to the Constitution oi to piopose anu enact
legislations thiough an election calleu foi the puipose.
Theie aie thiee (S) systems of initiative, namely:
a.1 Initiative on the Constitution which iefeis to a petition
pioposing amenuments to the Constitution.
a.2 Initiative on statutes which iefeis to a petition pioposing to
enact a national legislation; anu
a.S Initiative on local legislation which iefeis to a petition
pioposing to enact a iegional, piovincial, city, municipal, oi
baiangay law, iesolution, oi oiuinance.

!%#4 8@>4 1/U4 4(F(3%3(C"2 C" 4C.%B -"(3(%3(+)2D
(a) The powei of local initiative shall not be exeiciseu
than once a yeai.
Initiative shall extenu only to subjects oi matteis which aie
within the legal poweis of the Sanggunians to enact.


Resolution v. 0iuinance:
Resolution: useu whenevei the legislatuie wishes to expiess an
opinion which is to have only a tempoiaiy effect.
0iuinance: intenueu to peimanently uiiect anu contiol matteis
applying to peisons oi things in geneial.


8:*$ M4 #"*'!'# R1CCQS

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@>4 1/04 4C.%B -"(3(%3(+) *)8("),D Local initiative is the legal
piocess wheieby the iegisteieu voteis of a local goveinment
unit may uiiectly piopose, enact, oi amenu any oiuinance.

8@>4 1/Q4 4C.%B 7)8)&)",JF *)8("),D - Local iefeienuum is the
legal piocess wheieby the iegisteieu voteis of the local
goveinment unit may appiove, amenu, oi ieject any oiuinance
enacteu by the Sanggunian.

The local iefeienuum shall be helu unuei the contiol anu
uiiection of the C0NELEC within 6u uays in case of piovinces
anu cities, foity-five (4S) uays in case of municipalities anu
thiity (Su) uays in case of baiangays.

The C0NELEC shall ceitify anu pioclaim the iesults of the saiu
iefeienuum.

Piescinuing fiom these uefinitions:
-G=<=L<=M@ is iesoiteu to (oi initiateu) by the people uiiectly
eithei because the law-making bouy fails oi iefuses to enact
the law oiuinance, iesolution, oi act that they uesiie oi
because they want to amenu oi mouify one alieauy existing.
In a ?F>L? ;@N@;@GJIK, the law-making bouy submits to the
iegisteieu voteis of its teiiitoiial juiisuiction, foi appioval
oi iejection, any oiuinance oi iesolution which is uuly
enacteu oi appioveu by such lawmaking authoiity. Saiu
iefeienuum shall be conuucteu unuei the contiol anu
uiiection of the C0NELEC.
In othei woius, while initiative is entiiely the woik of the
electoiate, iefeienuum is begun anu consenteu to by the
law-making bouy. Initiative is a piocess of law-making by
the people themselves without the paiticipation anu against
the wishes of theii electeu iepiesentatives, while
iefeienuum consists meiely of the electoiate appioving oi
iejecting what has been uiawn up oi enacteu by a legislative
bouy.





70
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph


1?:<?7
:FF_ --6 !F>L? +L`L<=FG LGJ V=H>L? *L<<@;H
!F>L? %FM@;GK@G< +L`L<=FG
1CDE #FGH<=<I<=FG
$;<=>?@ A
8@><=FG 24 The Congiess shall enact a local goveinment coue
which shall pioviue foi a moie iesponsive anu accountable local
goveinment stiuctuie instituteu thiough a system of
uecentialization with effective mechanisms of iecall, initiative,
anu iefeienuum, allocate among the uiffeient local goveinment
units theii poweis, iesponsibilities, anu iesouices, anu pioviue
foi the qualifications, election, appointment anu iemoval, teim,
salaiies, poweis anu functions anu uuties of local officials, anu all
othei matteis ielating to the oiganization anu opeiation of the
local units.
8@><=FG T4 Each local goveinment unit shall have the powei to
cieate its own souices of ievenues anu to levy taxes, fees anu
chaiges subject to such guiuelines anu limitations as the
Congiess may pioviue, consistent with the basic policy of local
autonomy. Such taxes, fees, anu chaiges shall acciue exclusively
to the local goveinments.
8@><=FG Q4 Local goveinment units shall have a just shaie, as
ueteimineu by law, in the national taxes which shall be
automatically ieleaseu to them.
8@><=FG E4 Local goveinments shall be entitleu to an equitable
shaie in the pioceeus of the utilization anu uevelopment of the
national wealth within theii iespective aieas, in the mannei
pioviueu by law, incluuing shaiing the same with the inhabitants
by way of uiiect benefits.

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 EQU2
,@>@KP@; /DB 1CC/
$) $#+ +" '*3".'( +7' #"**-88-")'( "V -)+'()$!
('&')5' +" ('f5-(' +7' 3$9*')+ "V +7' &$!5'$,,',
+$A '&'(9 *")+7 $), +" $!!". !"#$! %"&'()*')+
5)-+8 +" 87$(' -) &$+ ('&')5'B $*'),-)% V"( +7-8
35(3"8' #'(+$-) 8'#+-")8 "V +7' )$+-")$! -)+'()$!
('&')5' #",'
8@><=FG /4 Sec. 282 of the National Inteinal Revenue Coue, as
amenueu, is heieby fuithei amenueu to ieau as follows:
"Sec. 282. *(2;C2(3(C" C8 "%3(C"%B ("3)&"%B &)+)"J). - National
inteinal ievenue collecteu anu not applieu as heieinabove
pioviueu oi otheiwise specially uisposeu of by law shall acciue to
the National Tieasuiy anu shall be available foi the geneial
puiposes of the uoveinment, with the exception of the amounts
set apait by way of allotment as pioviueu foi unuei Republic Act
No. 716u, otheiwise known as the Local uoveinment Coue of
1991.
"In auuition to the inteinal ievenue allotment as pioviueu foi in
the pieceuing paiagiaph, fifty peicent (Su%) of the national
taxes collecteu unuei Sections 1uu, 1u2, 112, 11S, anu 114 of this
Coue in excess of the inciease in collections foi the immeuiately
pieceuing yeai shall be uistiibuteu as follows: (a) Twenty
peicent (2u%) shall acciue to the city oi municipality wheie such
taxes aie collecteu anu shall be allocateu in accoiuance with
Section 1Su of Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise known as the
Local uoveinment Coue of 1991; anu (b) Eighty peicent (8u%)
shall acciue to the National uoveinment."



($ EE1Q R'J=<@JS
}uly 26, 199S
"AN ACT RESTR0CTINu TBE vAL0E ABBEB TAX (vAT)
SYSTEN"

8'#411. Section 11S of the National Inteinal ievenue Coue, as
amenueu, is heieby fuithei amenueu fuithei to ieau as follows:
"SEC.11S. 0)&.)"3%G) 3%V C" .%&&()&2 %", P));)&2 C8 G%&%G)2. "The
gioss ieceipts of common caiiieis ueiiveu fiom theii incoming
anu outgoing fieight shall not be subjecteu to the local taxes
imposeu unuei Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise known as the
Local uoveinment Coue of 1991.

8'#4 1E. Effectivity of the Imposition of vAT on Ceitain uoous,
Piopeities anu Seivices. - The value-auueu tax shall be levieu,
assesseu anu collecteu on the following two (2) yeais aftei the
effectivity of this Act:

(a) Seivices peifoimeu in the exeicise of piofession oi calling
subject to the piofessional tax unuei the Local uoveinment Coue
oi Republic Act No. 716u, anu piofessional seivices peifoimeu by
iegisteieu geneial piofessional paitneiship; actois, actiesses,
talents, singeis anu emcees; iauio anu television bioaucasteis,
choieogiapheis; musical, iauio, movie, television anu stage
uiiectois; anu piofessional athletes;

Piioi to theii inclusion in the coveiage of the value-auueu tax, the
above seivices shall continue to pay the applicable tax piesciibeu
unuei the piesent piovision of the national Inteinal Revenue
Coue, as amenueu.

Bowevei, when public inteiest so iequiies, the Piesiuent, taking
into account the impact on the piices of goous anu seivices, may,
upon the iecommenuation of the Secietaiy of Finance, excluue
any of the above seivices fiom the coveiage of the value-auueu
tax: Pioviueu, howevei, That in the event of the exclusion of any
of the above seivices the existing applicable tax unuei the
piovisions of the National Inteinal ievenue Coue, as amenueu,
shall continue to be paiu on the seivice so excluueu.

('35:!-# $#+ C/U1 k )"+ -*3"(+$)+B W58+ ('-+'($+', ($ EE1Q4


)-(# H@> 11EB /D2B LGJ /DE RH@@ FbG >FJ@S

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 D/UT
,@>@KP@; 20B 1CCQ
$) $#+ $33("3(-$+-)% +7' 85* "V V"5(+'') :-!!-")
V"5( 75),(', V-V+9V-&' *-!!-") 3'8"8
R31UBUTTB000B000S V"( +7' -)#('$8', 87$(' -) 1CCE "V
!"#$! %"&'()*')+ 5)-+8 -) +7' )$+-")$! -)+'()$!
('&')5' +$A'8 $), V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8
8@><=FG 14 E%%'+%'.&(.+*> E22+()#*( &*/ B#2#&7# +, 89*/74 -
The amount of Fouiteen billion foui hunuieu fifty-five million
pesos (14,4SS,uuu,uuu) is heieby appiopiiateu foi the incieaseu
shaie in 1997 of local goveinment units in the inteinal ievenue
taxes puisuant to Section 284 of Republic Act No. 716u, the Local
uoveinment Coue of 1991, anu shall be appoitioneu among the
local goveinment units in accoiuance with the foimula
piesciibeu in Section 28S theieof, aftei ueuucting the actual cost
of uevolution anu the cost of city-funueu hospitals as of
Becembei S1, 1992. Saiu inteinal ievenue allotment shall be
ieleaseu uiiectly by the Bepaitment of Buuget anu Nanagement
71
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

to the local goveinment units conceineu.
8@><=FG /4 L7# +, 89*/74 - The use of funus heiein appiopiiateu
shall be in accoiuance with the piovisions of the Local
uoveinment Coue of 1991, Republic Act No. 716u.
8@><=FG 24 \,,#1(.4.(A4 - This Act shall take effect on }anuaiy 1,
1997.
($ ECU/
*L;>] 2B 1CCT
$) $#+ -)8+-+5+-)% $ )'. 898+'* "V *-)'($!
('8"5(#'8 'A3!"($+-")B ,'&'!"3*')+B 5+-!-a$+-")B
$), #")8'(&$+-")
8@><=FG D/
$??F>L<=FG FN %FM@;GK@G< 8]L;@
The uoveinment shaie as iefeiieu to in the pieceuing sections
shall be shaieu anu allocateu in accoiuance with Sections 29u
anu 292 of Republic Act No. 716u otheiwise known as the Local
uoveinment Coue of 1991. In case the uevelopment anu
utilization of mineial iesouices is unueitaken by a goveinment-
owneu oi -contiolleu coipoiation, the shaiing anu allocation
shall be in accoiuance with Sections 291 anu 292 of the saiu
Coue.
($ EC1Q
}uly 2S, 1994
$) $#+ 3("&-,-)% V"( +7' !'%$! V($*'."(^ $),
*'#7$)-8*8 V"( +7' #('$+-")B "3'($+")B
$,*-)-8+($+-")B $), #""(,-)$+-") "V 83'#-$!
'#")"*-# a")'8 -) +7' 37-!-33-)'8B #('$+-)% V"( +7-8
35(3"8'B +7' 37-!-33-)' '#")"*-# a")' $5+7"(-+9
R3'a$SB $), V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'84
8'#4 /U4 Exemption fiom National anu Local Taxes.- Except foi
ieal piopeity taxes on lanu owneu by uevelopeis, no taxes, local
anu national, shall be imposeu on business establishments
opeiating within the EC0Z0NE. In lieu theieof, five peicent (S%)
of the gioss income eaineu by all business enteipiises within the
EC0Z0NE shall be paiu anu iemitteu as follows:
a. Thiee peicent (S%) to the National uoveinment;

b. Two peicent (2%) which shall be uiiectly iemitteu by the
business establishments to the tieasuiei's office of the
municipality oi city wheie the enteipiise is locateu.
('35:!-# $#+ )"4 DCET
)FM@KP@; EB /000
$) $#+ +" ')85(' +7' 'A3',-+-"58 -*3!'*')+$+-")
$), #"*3!'+-") "V %"&'()*')+ -)V($8+(5#+5('
3("W'#+8 :9 3("7-:-+-)% !".'( #"5(+8 V("* -885-)%
+'*3"($(9 ('8+($)-)% "(,'(84 3('!-*-)$(9
-)W5)#+-")8 "( 3('!-*-)$(9 *$),$+"(9 -)W5)#+-")8B
3("&-,-)% 3')$!+-'8 V"( &-"!$+-")8 +7'('"VB $),
V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8
8@><=FG E4 -22J%".) C8 0)&F(32D - 0pon payment in cash of the
necessaiy fees levieu unuei Republic Act No. 716u, as amenueu,
otheiwise known as the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, the
goveinoi of the piovince oi mayoi of a highly-uibanizeu city
shall immeuiately issue the necessaiy peimit to extiact sanu,
giavel anu othei quaiiy iesouices neeueu in goveinment
piojects. The issuance of saiu peimit shall consiuei
enviionmental laws, lanu use oiuinances anu the peitinent
piovisions of the Local uoveinment Coue ielating to
enviionment.
('35:!-# $#+ )"4 C1QT
WIG@ EB /00/
$) $#+ -)8+-+5+-)% +7' #"*3('7')8-&' ,$)%'("58
,(5%8 $#+ "V /00/B ('3'$!-)% ('35:!-# $#+ )"4 QU/TB
"+7'(.-8' ^)".) $8 +7' ,$)%'("58 ,(5%8 $#+ "V
1CE/B $8 $*'),',B 3("&-,-)% V5),8 +7'('V"(B $),
V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8
8@><=FG T14 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 N"(32f !22(23%".). - Local
goveinment units shall appiopiiate a substantial poition of theii
iespective annual buugets to assist in oi enhance the
enfoicement of this Act giving piioiity to pieventive oi
euucational piogiams anu the iehabilitation oi tieatment of uiug
uepenuents.


:$8#" &8 3$%#"( R8IO;LS
Nanila as a meie municipal coipoiation has no inheient powei to
impose taxes. PAuC0R as an instiumentality of the uoveinment
cannot be taxeu by a meie cieatuie of the State. (No longei goou
law)

'8+$)-8!$" &8 #"8+$!'8
1CC1
(@N;@H]@;: Zamboanga City imposeu a 1 centavo tax pei litei of
softuiinks piouuceu, manufactuieu, anuoi bottleu within the
juiisuiction of Zamboanga City.
7@?J6 0iuinance is invaliu foi being ultia viies. The Local Tax
Coue only allows cities to impose a peicentage tax on gioss sales,
howevei in this case, Zamboanga City is imposing not a
peicentage tax but iathei an output tax. Note, output tax is baseu
on output iegaiuless of whethei oi not it is solu while peicentage
tax on gioss sales will only tax those items that aie actually solu,
thus output tax has a wiuei tax base.

V!"(" #'*')+ &8 %"("83'
1CC1
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case wheie Floio Cement was being taxeu
by a municipality in Negios foi manufactuieis tax on its cement
piouuction. Floio claims that it is exempt fiom the tax because
PB 46S pioviues that Lu0's have no powei to levy taxes on
mineial piouuction anu that piouuction of cement fell unuei the
teim "mineial piouuct".
7@?J6 Any claim foi taxation shoulu be stiictly constiueu against
the taxpayei, it cannot be alloweu upon a meie implication oi
infeience anu this applies to the powei to tax of Lu0's. Cement is
not a mineial piouuct because it is not the item that is being
mines, it is just so happens to be composeu of mineial piouucts.

V-%5'(('8 &8 #$
1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Figueiies was assesseu ueficiency taxes by the
municipal tieasuiei baseu on seveial municipal oiuinances.
Figueiies then immeuiately fileu a case in the Couit of Appeals
foi piohibition on the giounu that the oiuinances weie invaliu
foi 1. Not having been appioveu by the Secietaiy of Finance anu
2. foi having been auopteu without public heaiing oi piioi
publication oi posting.
7@?J6 1. 0nuei the 1991 LuC, appioval of the S0F is no longei
iequiieu since the LuC is explicit that it is not the municipal
council that has the powei to appiove tax oiuinances.
2. The action of Figueiies is piematuie uue to failuie to exhaust
auministiative iemeuies. Figueiies shoulu have fiist gone to the
Secietaiy of }ustice foi issues on constitutionality oi the LBAA
anu CBAA foi issues iegaiuing the accuiacy of assessment.

#-+9 "V "!")%$3" &8 8+$!!7"!,'(8 "V +7' '$8+ :$W$#
k :$W$# 35:!-# *$(^'+ "V "!")%$3" #-+9
/000
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuent stall venuois question the valiuity of an
oiuinance fixing the iate of monthly stall ientals in the public
72
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

maiket. The case was fiist submitteu to the Secietaiy of }ustice
who iuleu in favoi of the iesponuents but upon NR, iefuseu to
assume juiisuiction uue to a penuing case in the SC iegaiuing its
juiisuiction ovei legality of oiuinances. Petitionei City now
claims that the RTC is acting on a ieview of the S0}'s uecision anu
thus is limiteu to the facts submitteu to the S0}. Befenuants on
the othei hanu claim that it is an oiiginal action anu that the RTC
can take cognizance of new eviuence.
7@?J6 It is an oiiginal action anu RTC can take cognizance of new
eviuence anu not simply ieview the eviuence submitteu befoie
the S0}. The S0} abuicateu his juiisuiction ovei the appeal by
viitue of its memoianuum anu accompanying lettei auvising
petitioneis to file the appeal in a piopei couit of juiisuiction.
Accoiuingly, the action befoie the RTC cannot be ueemeu to be
anything but an oiiginal action, anu the function of the tiial couit
cannot be limiteu to ieviewing the eviuence auuuceu befoie the
Secietaiy of }ustice.
:'(,-) &8 *$8#$(-$)$8
/00E
(@N;@H]@;6: Petitioneis aie the Piesiuent, vice Piesiuent, anu
Auvisei, iespectively, of the Tubigon Naiket venuois Association
(Association), an association of venuois uoing business in
Tubigon, Bohol. Responuents on the othei hanu aie the Nunicipal
Nayoi, Tieasuiei, anu the INP Station Commanuei, iespectively,
of Tubigon, Bohol. 0n 14 Becembei 1988, the :%"GGJ"(%"G $%9%"
of Tubigon enacteu Tax 0iuinance incieasing the taxes anu fees
of the municipality. Petitioneis now claim that this is invaliu foi
failuie to publish
7@?J: Lack of publication uoes not ienuei a tax oiuinance null
anu voiu howevei, saiu iequiiement must still be complieu with
in oiuei "to obviate abuses in the exeicise of the taxing poweis
anu piecluue piotests fiom the people auveisely affecteu."
Publication is thus a conuition pieceuent to the effectivity anu
enfoiceability of an oiuinance to infoim the public of its contents
befoie iights aie affecteu by the same. (Note, not suie if this is
still goou law because it was ueciueu on the basis of the Local Tax
Coue of 1974.)

"!-&$('8 &8 *$(f5'a
/00U
(@N;@H]@;6 This case involves a petition foi piohibition by
0livaies questioning the assessment anu levy by the City of
Paianaque. 0livaies seeks the annulment of his tax assessment.
Nayoi Naiquez on the othei hanu assails 0livaies's failuie to
exhaust aumin iemeuies, specifically failuie to pay unuei piotest.
7@?J6 0livaies fileu a case iegaiuing the coiiectness of
assessment thus he isiequiieu to pay unuei piotest fiist in oiuei
to exhaust all aumin iemeuies. This must be uiffeientiateu fiom
the case of Ty vs Tiampe wheie Ty was assailing not the
coiiectness of the assessment but iathei the veiy authoiity of the
Lu0 to issue such assessment. Note: in Ty, no neeu to pay unuei
piotest.
#FKKFG !=K=<L<=FGH FG <]@ +L`=GZ 3Fb@;H FN !F>L?
%FM@;GK@G< 5G=<H

:5!$#$) &8 #$
1CCD
(@N;@H]@;6: The Piovince of Bulacan enacteu an oiuinance
imposing a tax on stones, giavel, anu sanu extiacteu fiom public
lanus. Piovincial assessoi assesses piivate iesponuent, Public
Cement Coipoiation, tax foi mateiials extiacteu fiom piivate
lanus.
7@?J6 Piovince has no authoiity to impose taxes on mateiials
extiacteu fiom piivate lanus. Sec 1S8 anu 1SS of the LuC piohibit
such taxes by Lu0's. Note that the NIRC alieauy taxes extiactions
fiom piivate lanus, thus the expiess giant of authoiity foi Lu0's
to tax extiactions fiom public lanus shoulu be stiictly constiueu
anu guaiueu.

V-(8+ 37-!-33-)' -),58+(-$! #"(3 &8 #$
1CCD
(@N;@H]@;6: FPIC is a giantee of a pipeline concession. The City of
Batangas assesseu taxes against FPIC foi the yeai 199S puisuant
to sec 14S of the LuC which giants Lu0 the powei to impose
taxes on contiactois anu inuepenuent contiactois. FPIC uenies
the tax liability claiming that it is a common caiiiei anu is thus
exempt.
7@?J: FPIC is a common caiiiei anu is thus exempt puisuant to
sec 1SS of the LuC. It is engageu in the business of tianspoiting
oi caiiying petioleum piouucts foi hiie. It unueitakes to caiiy
foi all peisons inuiffeiently anu tianspoits the goous foi
compensation. Common caiiieis aie alieauy taxeu by the NIRC,
the legislative intent behinu the piohibition foi Lu0's to tax
common caiiieis is to pievent uouble taxation.

3$!*$ ,'&'!"3*')+ #"(3 &8 *5)-#-3$!-+9 "V
*$!$)%$8
/002
(@N;@H]@;6: This is the case wheie the Nunicipality of Nalangas
imposeu a "whaifage" tax of Pu.Su pei sack of coin that will pass
thiough its ioaus on the way to the piei. The municipality claims
that such taxes will be useu foi police suiveillance. (Basically, it
imposeu a tax baseu on the goous being tianspoiteu anu not a fee
on the vehicle.)
7@?J6 The oiuinance is invaliu. The LuC unuei sec 1SS anu 1SS
expiessly pioviue that seivice fees imposeu on vehicles using
municipal ioaus is valiu. 0n the othei hanu, sec 1SS (e) of LCu
expiessly piohibits Lu0's fiom imposing a tax on goous being
ueliveieu thiough theii teiiitoiy. Thus the oiuinance is invaliu
because it essentially imposes a tax on the goous as a basis
insteau of the vehicle. The fact that it is to be useu foi police
suiveillance is immateiial.

:$+$)%$8 3".'( #"(3 &8 :$+$)%$8 #-+9
/00U
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the electiic powei case wheie uue to the
eneigy ciisis in the 199u's, NPC enteieu into a "Builu 0peiate
Tiansfei" agieement with Enion foi the constiuction of a powei
plant. The B0T Agieement pioviueu that NPC shall be
iesponsible foi the payment of all taxes imposeu on the powei
station except income & peimit fees. Enion subsequently
assigneu its iights to Batangas Powei Coip. Batangas City now
comes in anu uemanus payment foi business taxes, Batangas
Powei claims that the claim shoulu be uiiecteu to NPC. The NPC
inteiveneu that while it aumitteu assumption of the BPC's tax
obligations unuei the B0T Agieement, it iefuseu to pay BPC's
business tax as it allegeuly constituteu an inuiiect tax on NPC
which is a tax-exempt coipoiation unuei its Chaitei. Issue is
Whethei NPC's tax exemption piivileges unuei its Chaitei weie
withuiawn by Sec.19S of the LuC
7@?J6 In the case of NPC vs. City of Cabanatuan, the iemoval of
the blanket exclusion of goveinment instiumentalities fiom local
taxation is iecognizeu as one of the most significant piovisions of
the 1991 LuC. Sec. 19S of the LuC withuiew the sweeping tax
piivileges pieviously enjoineu by the NPC unuei its Chaitei. The
Couit also helu that Basco vs Pagcoi is no longei goou law as it
was ueciueu piioi to the LuC.
73
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph



!'3$)+" &8 $*:$)!"#
/010
(@N;@H]@;6 Lepanto Consoliuateu Nining hau a mining lease
contiact foi a mining claim in Benguet. They useu the sanu anu
giavel mineu to constiuct anu maintain conciete stiuctuies
neeueu in its mining opeiations such as a tailings uam, access
ioaus, anu offices. The piovincial tieasuiei of Benguet then askeu
Lepanto Consoliuateu Nining to pay sanu anu giavel tax foi the
quaiiy mateiials extiacteu fiom the mining site. The
counteiaigument was that the saiu tax applieu only to
commeicial extiactions anu since Lepanto uiu not supply othei
useis foi some piofit, the tax shoulu not apply.
7@?J6 Lepanto is liable. The CTA eiieu in applying the piovision
of the Local uoveinment Coue (Section 1S8) since the basis of
Benguet piovince emanates fiom the Reviseu Benguet Revenue
Coue itself. This notwithstanuing, the piovincial ievenue measuie
still uiu not uistinguish between commeicial anu non-commeicial
extiactions.
In auuition, the Petitionei's aigument that when a company is
taxeu on its main business it can no longei be taxable foi
engaging in an activity that is but pait of, inciuental to, anu
necessaiy to such main business, was helu to be inapplicable. The
Couit saiu that the cases wheie the above piinciple has been
applieu involveu business taxes anu thus the inciuental activities
coulu not be tieateu as sepaiate anu uistinct fiom the main
business. Beie the tax being imposeu was an excise tax levieu on
the piivilege of extiacting giavel anu sanu.

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
V;LG>]=H@ +L`@H
Section 1S7. Z&%".5(2) <%VD - Notwithstanuing any exemption
gianteu by any law oi othei special law, the piovince may impose
a tax on businesses enjoying a fianchise, at the iate not exceeuing
fifty peicent (Su%) of one peicent (1%) of the gioss annual
ieceipts foi the pieceuing calenuai yeai baseu on the incoming
ieceipt, oi iealizeu, within its teiiitoiial juiisuiction.
In the case of a newly staiteu business, the tax shall not exceeu
one-twentieth (12u) of one peicent (1%) of the capital
investment. In the succeeuing calenuai yeai, iegaiuless of when
the business staiteu to opeiate, the tax shall be baseu on the
gioss ieceipts foi the pieceuing calenuai yeai, oi any fiaction
theieon, as pioviueu heiein.
Section 19S. \(35,&%A%B C8 <%V ?V)F;3(C" 0&(+(B)G)2D - 0nless
otheiwise pioviueu in this Coue, tax exemptions oi incentives
gianteu to, oi piesently enjoyeu by all peisons, whethei natuial
oi juiiuical, incluuing goveinment-owneu oi contiolleu
coipoiations, except local watei uistiicts, coopeiatives uuly
iegisteieu unuei R.A. No. 69S8, non-stock anu non-piofit
hospitals anu euucational institutions, aie heieby withuiawn
upon the effectivity of this Coue.
Section SS4 (Repealing Clause, see own Coue)

*'($!#" &8 3("&-)#' "V !$%5)$
1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Neialco by viitue of its chaitei anu othei laws was
tiauitionally exempt fiom payment of all taxes in lieu of its
fianchise tax, howevei, with the piomulgation of the LuC, the
piovince of Laguna enacteu anu imposeu a new fianchise tax on
Neialco foi its opeiations within the piovince. Neialco paiu
unuei piotest but now claims foi iefunu on the giounu that the
fianchise tax it hau paiu anu continueu to pay to the National
uoveinment puisuant to P.B. SS1 alieauy incluueu the fianchise
tax imposeu by the Piovincial Tax 0iuinance.
7@?J6 Neialco is not exempt anymoie. The 1991 Coue explicitly
authoiizes piovincial goveinments, notwithstanuing "any
exemption gianteu by any law oi othei special law, to impose a
tax on businesses enjoying a fianchise." Inuicative of the
legislative intent to caiiy out the Constitutional manuate of
vesting bioau tax poweis to local goveinment units, the Local
uoveinment Coue has effectively withuiawn unuei Section 19S
theieof, tax exemptions oi incentives theietofoie enjoyeu by
ceitain entities. The Coue, in auuition, contains a geneial
iepealing clause in its Section SS4 which states that "All geneial
anu special laws, acts, city chaiteis, ueciees, executive oiueis,
pioclamations anu auministiative iegulations, oi pait oi paits
theieof which aie inconsistent with any of the piovisions of this
Coue aie heieby iepealeu oi mouifieu accoiuingly." The teim "in
lieu of all taxis" must give way to the language useu in the LuC
specifically pioviuing foi the withuiawal of tax exemptions.

3!,+ &8 #-+9 "V ,$&$"
/001
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case wheie PLBT claims that it is exempt
fiom paying local fianchise taxes because ulobe anu Smait weie
exempt. PLBT claims that puisuant to R.A. 792S (0J'B(.
<)B).CFFJ"(.%3(C"2 0CB(.9 !.3 C8 35) 05(B(;;(")2) sec 2S (Equality
of tieatment in the telecom inuustiy), whatevei exemptions
ulobe anu Smait have is automatically gianteu to all telecom
companies as well, anu since Smait anu ulobe aie expiessly
exempt fiom paying local fianchise taxes, so shoulu PLBT.
Belu: PLBT is liable to pay local fianchise tax. To begin with, tax
exemptions aie highly uisfavoieu. The iule is that tax exemptions
shoulu be gianteu only by cleai anu unequivocal piovision of law
expiesseu in a language too plain to be mistaken. Assuming that
the woiu )V)F;3(C" in Section 2S iefeis to 3%V )V)F;3(C" anu
assuming fuithei that ulobe anu Smait aie exempt unuei theii
iespective chaiteis, then this iunabout way of gianting tax
exemption to PLBT is not uiiect, cleai anu unequivocal way of
communicating legislative intent.
The woiu )V)F;3(C" in Section 2S uoes not mean 3%V )V)F;3(C".
The SC iuleu that the woiu "exemption" in Section 2S of R.A. No.
792S coulu contemplate exemption fiom ceitain iegulatoiy oi
iepoiting iequiiements.

)3# &8 #-+9 "V #$:$)$+5$)
/002
(@N;@H]@;6: NPC is a u0CC cieateu unuei CA 12u. NPC was
assesseu by the city of Cabanatuan foi fianchise taxes aiising
fiom its oiuinances. NPC iefuseu to pay on the giounu that Lu0's
have no powei to tax gov't instiumentalities anu that it is a non
piofit oiganization.
7@?J6 NPC is still liable to pay a fianchise tax. A fianchise tax is
imposeu baseu not on the owneiship but on the exeicise by the
coipoiation of a piivilege to uo business. The taxable entity is the
coipoiation which exeicises the fianchise, anu not the inuiviuual
stockholueis. By viitue of its chaitei, petitionei was cieateu as a
sepaiate anu uistinct entity fiom the National uoveinment. It can
sue anu be sueu unuei its own name, anu can exeicise all the
poweis of a coipoiation unuei the Coipoiation Coue.
Fuitheimoie, NAP0C0R's ta exemptions fiom all foims of taxes
have been iepealeu by the LuC. Although as a geneial iule, Lu0s
cannot impose taxes, fees, oi chaiges of any kinu on the National
uoveinment, its agencies anu instiumentalities, this iule now
aumits an exception (sec 1SS of LuC), i.e. when specific
74
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

piovisions of the LuC authoiize the Lu0s to impose taxes, fees, oi
chaiges on the afoiementioneu entities.

,-%-+'! &8 3("&-)#' "V 3$)%$8-)$)
/00E
(@N;@H]@;: Bigitel is being assesseu piopeity anu fianchise tax
by the piovince. Bigitel claims exemption fiom the fianchise tax
on the basis of sec 2S of RA 792S because othei telco's aie
exempt fiom fianchise tax. 0n the othei hanu, it claims
exemption fiom ieal piopeity tax puisuant to an expiess
piovision on ieal piopeity tax exemption founu in its chaitei.
Belu: Bigitel is not exempt with iegaius to the local fianchise tax
but exempt fiom ieal piopeity tax. Regaiuing the local fianchise
tax, the SC helu that it hau alieauy iuleu on the same issue in
PLBT vs Bavao anu the same applies in this case. (see PLBT vs
Bavao uigest just 2 cases up) With iegaius to ieal piopeity tax,
Bigitel is exempt puisuant to sec S of its chaitei which
specifically anu unequivocally pioviues foi its exemption fiom
ieal piopeity tax. Bowevei, the piopeity must be actually,
uiiectly anu exclusively useu by its fianchise.

8*$(+ &8 #-+9 "V ,$&$"
/00D
(@N;@H]@;6 Smait is being assesseu local fianchise tax foi its tele-
centei in Bavao. Smait claims that it is exempt puisuant to the "in
lieu of all taxes" piovision founu in its chaitei. (Basically Smait
claims that all it neeus to pay is the national fianchise tax)
7@?J6 Smait is still liable foi local fianchise tax. The "in lieu of all
taxes" clause in a legislative fianchise shoulu expiessly anu
categoiically state that the exemption applies to both local anu
national taxes; otheiwise, the exemption claimeu shoulu be
stiictly constiueu against the taxpayei anu libeially in favoi of
the taxing authoiity.

#-+9 "V -(-%$ &8 #$*$(-)'8 85( --- '!'#+(-#
#""3'($+-&'
/01/
(@N;@H]@;6 City of Iiiga assesseu CAS0REC0 ueficiency fianchise
tax anu Real Piopeity Tax coveiing the peiious 1998 to 2uuS anu
199S to 2uuS, iespectively. CAS0REC0 iefuseu to pay anu aigueu
that as an electiic coopeiative piovisionally iegisteieu with the
Coopeiative Bevelopment Authoiity (CBA, RA 69S8), it is exempt
fiom the payment of local taxes. It also alleges that assuming it is
liable, the tax shoulu be baseu not fiom the gioss ieceipts but
only fiom ieceipts aiising fiom Iiiga City.
Belu: (1) CAS0REC0 is liable foi fianchise tax. Although it is tiue
that the LuC uoes giant exemption to coopeiative iegisteieu with
the CBA, the piovisional iegistiation of CAS0REC0 with the CBA,
which gianteu it exemption fiom payment of local taxes, was only
until Nay 4, 1992. Theieaftei, CAS0REC0 was no longei exempt
fiom the payment of local taxes, incluuing the fianchise tax.
(2) CAS0REC0 is liable foi total gioss ieceipts anu not just those
coming fiom Iiiga City. It shoulu be stiesseu that what the
petitionei seeks to collect fiom CAS0REC0 III is a fianchise tax,
which as uefineu, is a tax on the exeicise of a piivilege. It is not
levieu simply foi existing as a coipoiation upon its piopeity oi
on its income, but on its exeicise of the iights oi piivileges
gianteu to it by the goveinment

$KIH@K@G< +L`@H
(@O4 $>< )F4 E1Q0 R1CC1S
8@><=FG 1U04 !FJ2)F)"3 <%VD -
(a) The piovince may levy an amusement tax to be collecteu fiom
the piopiietois, lessees, oi opeiatois of theateis, cinemas,
conceit halls, ciicuses, boxing stauia, anu othei places of
amusement at a iate of not moie than thiity peicent (Su%) of the
gioss ieceipts fiom aumission fees.
(b) In the case of theateis oi cinemas, the tax shall fiist be
ueuucteu anu withhelu by theii piopiietois, lessees, oi opeiatois
anu paiu to the piovincial tieasuiei befoie the gioss ieceipts aie
uiviueu between saiu piopiietois, lessees, oi opeiatois anu the
uistiibutois of the cinematogiaphic films.
(c) The holuing of opeias, conceits, uiamas, iecitals, painting anu
ait exhibitions, flowei shows, musical piogiams, liteiaiy anu
oiatoiical piesentations, except pop, iock, oi similai conceits
shall be exempt fiom the payment of the tax heieon imposeu.
(u) The sangguniang panlalawigan may piesciibe the time,
mannei, teims anu conuitions foi the payment of tax. In case of
fiauu oi failuie to pay the tax, the sangguniang panlalawigan may
impose such suichaiges, inteiest anu penalties as it may ueem
appiopiiate.
(e) The pioceeus fiom the amusement tax shall be shaieu equally
by the piovince anu the municipality wheie such amusement
places aie locateu.
8@><=FG 1U14 !""J%B Z(V), <%V ZC& ?+)&9 *)B(+)&9 <&J.P C& L%" C8
6%"J8%.3J&)&2 C& 0&C,J.)&2# \5CB)2%B)&2 C8# *)%B)&2# C& 7)3%(B)&2
("# K)&3%(" 0&C,J.32D -
(a) The piovince may levy an annual fixeu tax foi eveiy tiuck, van
oi any vehicle useu by manufactuieis, piouuceis, wholesaleis,
uealeis oi ietaileis in the ueliveiy oi uistiibution of uistilleu
spiiits, feimenteu liquois, soft uiinks, cigais anu cigaiettes, anu
othei piouucts as may be ueteimineu by the sangguniang
panlalawigan, to sales outlets, oi consumeis, whethei uiiectly oi
inuiiectly, within the piovince in an amount not exceeuing Five
hunuieu pesos (PSuu.uu).
(b) The manufactuieis, piouuceis, wholesaleis, uealeis anu
ietaileis iefeiieu to in the immeuiately foiegoing paiagiaph shall
be exempt fiom the tax on peuuleis piesciibeu elsewheie in this
Coue.
8@><=FG 1T04 :(3J2 C8 35) <%VD -
(a) Foi puiposes of collection of the taxes unuei Section 14S of
this Coue, manufactuieis, assembleis, iepackeis, bieweis,
uistilleis, iectifieis anu compounueis of liquoi, uistilleu spiiits
anu wines, milleis, piouuceis, expoiteis, wholesaleis,
uistiibutois, uealeis, contiactois, banks anu othei financial
institutions, anu othei businesses, maintaining oi opeiating
bianch oi sales outlet elsewheie shall iecoiu the sale in the
bianch oi sales outlet making the sale oi tiansaction, anu the tax
theieon shall acciue anu shall be paiu to the municipality wheie
such bianch oi sales outlet is locateu. In cases wheie theie is no
75
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

such bianch oi sales outlet in the city oi municipality wheie the
sale oi tiansaction is maue, the sale shall be uuly iecoiueu in the
piincipal office anu the taxes uue shall acciue anu shall be paiu to
such city oi municipality.
(b) The following sales allocation shall apply to manufactuieis,
assembleis, contiactois, piouuceis, anu expoiteis with factoiies,
pioject offices, plants, anu plantations in the puisuit of theii
business:
(1) Thiity peicent (Su%) of all sales iecoiueu in the
piincipal office shall be taxable by the city oi
municipality wheie the piincipal office is locateu; anu
(2) Seventy peicent (7u%) of all sales iecoiueu in the
piincipal office shall be taxable by the city oi
municipality wheie the factoiy, pioject office, plant, oi
plantation is locateu.
(c) In case of a plantation locateu at a place othei than the place
wheie the factoiy is locateu, saiu seventy peicent (7u%)
mentioneu in subpaiagiaph (b) of subsection (2) above shall be
uiviueu as follows:
(1) Sixty peicent (6u%) to the city oi municipality
wheie the factoiy is locateu; anu
(2) Foity peicent (4u%) to the city oi municipality
wheie the plantation is locateu.
(u) In cases wheie a manufactuiei, assemblei, piouucei, expoitei
oi contiactoi has two (2) oi moie factoiies, pioject offices,
plants, oi plantations locateu in uiffeient localities, the seventy
peicent (7u%) sales allocation mentioneu in subpaiagiaph (b) of
subsection (2) above shall be pioiateu among the localities
wheie the factoiies, pioject offices, plants, anu plantations aie
locateu in piopoition to theii iespective volumes of piouuction
uuiing the peiiou foi which the tax is uue.
(e) The foiegoing sales allocation shall be applieu iiiespective of
whethei oi not sales aie maue in the locality wheie the factoiy,
pioject office, plant, oi plantation is locateu.
(@O4 $>< )F4 C1QE R/00/S
$G $>< #;@L<=GZ <]@ V=?K ,@M@?FOK@G< #FIG>=?
8@><=FG 124 5'.4.2#;#7 +, 3'&/#/ 8.2)7. - Films which have
obtaineu an "A" oi "B" giauing fiom the Council puisuant to
Sections 11 anu 12 of this Act shall be entitleu to the following
piivileges:
a. Amusement tax iewaiu. - A giaue "A" oi "B" film shall
entitle its piouucei to an incentive equivalent to the
amusement tax imposeu anu collecteu on the giaueu
films by cities anu municipalities in Netio Nanila anu
othei highly uibanizeu anu inuepenuent component
cities in the Philippines puisuant to Sections 14u anu
1S1 of Republic Act No. 716u at the following iates:
1. Foi giaue "A" films - 1uu% of the
amusement tax collecteu on such films; anu
2. Foi giaue "B" films. - 6S% of the amusement
tax collecteu on such films. The iemaining
thiity-five (SS%) shall acciue to the funus of
the Council.
8@><=FG 1U4 E)97#)#*( !&_ $#/91(.+* &*/ B#).((&*1#7G - All
ievenue fiom the amusement tax on the giaueu film which may
otheiwise acciue to the cities anu municipalities in Netiopolitan
Nanila anu highly uibanizeu anu inuepenuent component cities
in the Philippines puisuant to Section 14u of Republic Act. No.
716u uuiing the peiiou the giaueu film is exhibiteu, shall be
ueuucteu anu withhelu by the piopiietois, opeiatois oi lessees of
theateis oi cinemas anu iemitteu within thiity (Su) uays fiom
the teimination of the exhibition to the Council which shall
iewaiu the coiiesponuing amusement tax to the piouuceis of the
giaueu film within fifteen (1S) uays fiom ieceipt theieof.
Piopiietois, opeiatois anu lessees of theateis oi cinemas who fail
to iemit the amusement tax pioceeus within the piesciibeu
peiiou shall be liable to a suichaige equivalent to five peicent
(S%) of the amount uue foi each month of uelinquency which
shall be paiu to the Council.
8@><=FG 1T4 \*,+'1#)#*(. - Foi puiposes of implementing the
pievious Section, the Council may:
1. Impose auministiative fines anu penalties of not
moie than 0ne hunuieu thousanu pesos (P1uu,uuu.uu)
foi the violation of any piovision of this Act anuoi its
implementing iules anu iegulations issueu by the
Council;
2. Cause oi initiate the ciiminal oi auministiative
piosecution of violatois of this Act anu its implementing
iules anu iegulations. Foi this puipose, the Council is
heieby given the powei to issue 2J';C)"% ,J.)2
3).JF anu enlist the assistance oi seivices of the
Bepaitment of }ustice oi the 0ffice of the Solicitoi
ueneial;
S. Cause the closuie of any theatei oi cinema that fails
oi unieasonably iefuses to iemit the tax collecteu on a
giaueu film foi a peiiou not exceeuing fifteen (1S) uays
aftei which such peiiou shall be automatically lifteu
without piejuuice to the iight of the Council to cause oi
initiate ciiminal oi auministiative piosecution against
the eiiing theatei oi cinema owneis puisuant to
paiagiaph 2 of this section;
4. Call upon iepiesentative of the uiffeient goveinment
agencies anu othei vaiious associations in the movie
inuustiy to help ensuie compliance with the piovisions
of this Act anu its implementing iules anu iegulations.
Foi this puipose, the Council may continue Local
Regulatoiy Council oi Councils in the cities anu
municipalities thioughout the countiy composeu of
iepiesentatives fiom the goveinment anu fiom the
piivate sectoi as may be appiopiiate to implement the
puiposes anu objectives of this Act anu its
implementing iules anu iegulations anu they shall seive
without compensation anu only foi such peiiou of time
as the Chaiipeison shall ueteimine;
S. To ueputize any law enfoicement agency anu
instiumentality of the goveinment foi assistance in the
implementation anu enfoicement of its functions anu
oiueis.

37-!-33-)' :$8^'+:$!! $88"#-$+-") &8 #$
(@N;@H]@;6 PBA ieceiveu a tax assessment fiom the BIR foi
ueficiency on amusement taxes. PBA iefuses to pay, claiming that
the powei to tax PBS is with the local goveinment anu not the
national goveinment puisuant to sec 1S of the Local Tax Coue of
197S.
7@?J6 Sec 1S of the Local Tax Coue inuicates that the piovince can
only impose a tax on aumission fiom the piopiietois, lessees, oi
76
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

opeiatois of 35)%3)&2# .(")F%3CG&%;52# .C".)&3 5%BB2# .(&.J2)2 anu
othei places of amusement. The authoiity to tax piofessional
basketball games is not theiein incluueu. Section 14u of the Local
uoveinment Coue of 1992 (Republic Act 716u), meanwhile,
ietaineu the aieas (theateis, cinematogiaphs, conceit halls,
ciicuses anu othei places of amusement) wheie the piovince may
levy an amusement tax without incluuing theiein piofessional
basketball games. 0n the othei hanu, sec 12S of the NIRC
pioviues foi taxation on basketball games. Thus, it is the national
goveinment that has the powei to tax PBA.

(@L? 3;FO@;<[ +L`L<=FG

8'#+-") 1CE/D2 RH@@ FbG >FJ@S

!"3'a &8 #-+9 "V *$)-!$
1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Nanila enacteu an oiuinance that taxeu the lanu of
Lopez to an incieaseu S8u% value anu 2Su% as to the
impiovements. Lopez files this action to annul the oiuinance.
Latei, new oiuinance was passeu ieuucing the inciease in the
pievious oiuinance by Su% anu pioviueu that it hau ietioactive
effect.

Belu: Lopez faileu to exhaust all aumin iemeuies. Be must fiist
pay the amount uue, in accoiuance with Section 2S2 of R.A. 716u.
Then, he must iequest the annotation of the phiase 'paiu unuei
piotest' anu accoiuingly appeal to the Boaiu of Assessment
Appeals by filing a petition unuei oath togethei with copies of the
tax ueclaiation anu affiuavits oi uocuments to suppoit his appeal.
(note: look at sec 187, 226, anu 2S2 of LuC foi iemeuies of
taxpayei)

9$*$)' &8 :$ !'3$)+"
/00T
(@N;@H]@i: This is the conuominium association case wheie
Nakati assesseu BA Lepanto, a conuominium management
coipoiation, foi business taxes claiming that well manageu
conuo's inciease in piice value which benefits the owneis. Two
main issues heie, (1) Whethei the RTC, in ueciuing an appeal
taken fiom a uenial of a piotest by a local tieasuiei unuei Section
19S of the Local uoveinment Coue, exeicises "oiiginal
juiisuiction" oi "appellate juiisuiction." Anu (2) Whethei oi not
the City of Nakati may collect business taxes on conuominium
coipoiations.
7@?J6 (1) It is an oiiginal action. Labelling the saiu ieview as an
exeicise of appellate juiisuiction is inappiopiiate, since the uenial
of the piotest is not the juugment oi oiuei of a lowei couit, but of
a local goveinment official.
(2) No it may not because it uoes not fall unuei the uefinition of
"business". Local tax on businesses is authoiizeu unuei Section
14S of the Local uoveinment Coue. The woiu "business" itself is
uefineu unuei Section 1S1(u) of the Coue as "tiaue oi commeicial
activity iegulaily engageu in as a means of livelihoou oi with a
view to piofit." A conuominium coipoiation uoes not peifoim
business, it is only existing to holu common aieas anu manage the
opeiations of the conuomium.

#$!!$)+$ &8 "VV-#' "V +7' "*:5,8*$)
1CCD
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case wheie membeis of the office of the
city assessoi (Callanta) ieassesseu the values of piopeities aftei
notice of assessment was sent to piopeity owneis. The
ieassessment was maue without the authoiity of the LBAA. The
ieassessment leu to ieuuction of assesseu values.
Belu: Callanta uiu not have the powei to ieassess the subject
piopeities. 0nce the notice of assessment is sent to piopeity
owneis, the City Assessoi's office is uone anu whatevei
complaints owneis have with the assessment must be maue to the
LBAA puisuant to the LuC.

V'!8 ')'(%9 &$ 3("&-)#' "V :$+$)%$8
/00E
(@N;@H]@;6 Powei eneigy leaseu its powei baige to NPC foi a
peiiou of S yeais. In the agieement, NPC was maue to shouluei
any tax expenses ielateu to the powei baige then Polai assigneu
its iights to FELS. Batangas assesseu the piopeity anu FELS
iefeiieu the mattei to NPC puisuant to the Agieement. NPC
sought ieconsiueiation to the Piovincial Assessoi but was uenieu.
LBAA affiimeu piovincial assessoi while CBAA founu the powei
baiges exempt fiom ieal piopeity tax, consequently ieveiseu its
own iuling. Issue is whethei oi not local assessoi has the
juiisuiction to enteitain any iequest foi a ieview oi ieaujustment.
7@?J: The appiopiiate foium wheie the aggiieveu paity may
biing his appeal is the LBAA as pioviueu by law. It follows that
the 6u-uay peiiou foi making the appeal to LBAA iuns without
inteiiuption.
If the taxpayei fails to appeal in uue couise, the iight of the local
goveinment to collect the taxes uue with iespect to the
taxpayei's piopeity becomes absolute upon the expiiation of the
peiiou to appeal. Also, failuie of taxpayei to question the
assessment in the LBAA ienueis the assessment of the local
assessoi final, executoiy anu uemanuable, thus piecluuing the
taxpayei fiom questioning the coiiectness of the assessment, oi
fiom invoking any uefense that woulu ie open the question of its
liability on the meiit.

+9 &8 +($*3'
1CCT
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case wheie municipal assessoi of Pasig
sent a notice of assessment iegaiuing ceitain piopeities of
petitioneis. Petitioneis fileu this case claiming that the
assessments weie voiu foi failing to take into consiueiation the
piocess laiu uown in sec 9 of PB 921 (Piepaiation of Scheuule of
values foi Real Piopeity within Netio Nanila).
7@?J6 PB 921 is still goou law anu they aie not iiieconcilable
with the LuC. Reauing them togethei, the steps to be taken in
piepaiing the scheuule of maiket values aie:
1. The assessoi in each municipality oi city in the Netiopolitan
Nanila aiea shall piepaie hishei pioposeu scheuule of values, in
accoiuance with Sec. 212, R.A. 716u.
2. Then, the Local Tieasuiy anu Assessment Bistiict shall meet. In
this meeting, the uiffeient assessois shall compaie theii
inuiviuual assessments, uiscuss anu theieaftei jointly agiee anu
piouuce a scheuule of values foi theii uistiict, taking into account
the pieamble of saiu P.B. that they shoulu evolve "a piogiessive
ievenue iaising piogiam that will not unuuly buiuen the
taxpayeis".
S. The scheuule jointly agieeu upon by the assessois shall then be
publisheu in a newspapei of geneial ciiculation anu submitteu to
the sanggunian conceineu foi enactment by oiuinance, pei Sec.
212, R.A. 716u.

77
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

)$3"#"( &8 3("&-)#' "V f5'a")
/00C
R8F;;[ <]=H =H ?FGZ PI< - <]=G_ <]@ =HHI@H L;@ =KOF;<LG< LGJ
<]=H =H L M@;[ G@b >LH@ HF =< =H >FG<;F??=GZS
Refieshei: NPC enteieu into an Eneigy Conveision Agieement
(ECA) unuei a builu-opeiate-tiansfei (B0T) aiiangement with
Niiant Pagbilao Coip. 0nuei the agieement, Niiant will builu anu
finance a theimal powei plant in Quezon, anu opeiate anu
maintain the same foi 2S yeais, aftei which, Niiant will tiansfei
the powei plant to the Responuent without compensation. NPC
also unueitook to pay all taxes that the goveinment may impose
on Niiant. Quezon then assesseu Niiant ieal piopeity taxes on
the powei plant anu its machineiies.
ISS0ES:
(1) Can Petitionei file the piotest against the ieal piopeity tax
assessment.
(2) Can Petitionei claim exemption fiom the RPT given the B0T
aiiangement with Niiant.
(S) Is payment unuei piotest iequiieu befoie an appeal to the
LBAA is maue.
Belu:
(1) N0. The two entities vesteu with peisonality to contest an
assessment aie (a) the ownei oi (b) the peison with legal
inteiest in the piopeity. NPC is neithei the ownei noi the
possessoiusei of the subject machineiies even if it will acquiie
owneiship of the plant at the enu of 2S yeais. The Couit saiu that
legal inteiest shoulu be an inteiest that is actual anu mateiial,
uiiect anu immeuiate, not simply contingent oi expectant. While
the Petitionei uoes inueeu assume iesponsibility foi the taxes
uue on the powei plant anu its machineiies, the tax liability
iefeiieu to is the liability aiising fiom law that the local
goveinment unit can iightfully anu successfully enfoice, not the
contiactual liability that is enfoiceable between the paities to a
contiact. The local goveinment units can neithei be compelleu to
iecognize the piotest of a tax assessment fiom the Petitionei, an
entity against whom it cannot enfoice the tax liability.
(2) N0. To successfully claim exemption unuei Section 2S4 (c) of
the LuC, the claimant must piove two elements: a) the
machineiies anu equipment aie actually, uiiectly, anu exclusively
useu by local watei uistiicts anu goveinment-owneu oi
contiolleu coipoiations; anu b) the local watei uistiicts anu
goveinment-owneu anu contiolleu coipoiations claiming
exemption must be engageu in the supply anu uistiibution of
watei anuoi the geneiation anu tiansmission of electiic powei.
Since neithei the Petitionei noi Niiant satisfies both
iequiiements, the claim foi exemption must fall.

(S) YES. If a taxpayei uisputes the ieasonableness of an inciease
in a ieal piopeity tax assessment, he is iequiieu to "fiist pay the
tax" unuei piotest. The case of Ty uoes not apply as it involveu a
situation wheie the taxpayei was questioning the veiy authoiity
anu powei of the assessoi, acting solely anu inuepenuently, to
impose the assessment anu of the tieasuiei to collect the tax. A
claim foi tax exemption, whethei full oi paitial, uoes not question
the authoiity of local assessois to assess ieal piopeity tax.
(@O4 $>< )F4 101UCB m 2RKSB RGSB RFS q ROS
}uly 26, 2u1u
$) $#+ +" 3("*"+' V-)$)#-$! &-$:-!-+9 $), V-8#$!
,-8#-3!-)' -) %"&'()*')+".)', "( #")+("!!',
#"(3"($+-")8 $), +" 8+(')%+7') +7' ("!' "V +7'
8+$+' -) -+8 %"&'()$)#' $), *$)$%'*')+ +" *$^'
+7'* *"(' ('83")8-&' +" +7' )'',8 "V 35:!-#
-)+'('8+ $), V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8
SEC. S. *)8("(3(C" C8 <)&F2D
(m) MC+)&"F)"3 Z("%".(%B -"23(3J3(C"2 TMZ-2U iefei to financial
institutions oi coipoiations in which the goveinment uiiectly oi
inuiiectly owns majoiity of the capital stock anu. which aie
eithei: (1) iegisteieu with oi uiiectly supeiviseu by the Bangko
Sential ng Pilipinas; oi (2) collecting oi tiansacting funus oi
contiibutions fiom the public anu places them in financial
instiuments C& assets such as ueposits, loans, bonus anu equity
incluuing, but not limiteu to, the uoveinment Seivice Insuiance
System anu the Social Secuiity System.

(n) MC+)&"F)"3 -"23&JF)"3%B(3()2 A(35 KC&;C&%3) 0CA)&2
TM-K0U[MC+)&"F)"3 KC&;C&%3) ?"3(3()2 TMK?U iefei to
instiumentalities oi agencies of the goveinment, which aie
neithei coipoiations noi agencies integiateu within the
uepaitmental fiamewoik, but vesteu by law with special
functions oi juiisuiction, enuoweu with some if not all coipoiate
poweis, auministeiing special funus, anu enjoying opeiational
autonomy usually thiough a chaitei incluuing, but not limiteu to,
the following: the Nanila Inteinational Aiipoit Authoiity (NIAA),
the Philippine Poits Authoiity (PPA), the Philippine Beposit
Insuiance Coipoiation (PBIC), the Netiopolitan Wateiwoiks anu
Seweiage System (NWSS), the Laguna Lake Bevelopment
Authoiity (LLBA), the Philippine Fisheiies Bevelopment
Authoiity (PFBA), the Bases Conveision anu Bevelopment
Authoiity (BCBA), the Cebu Poit Authoiity (CPA), the Cagayan ue
0ib Poit Authoiity, the San Feinanuo Poit Authoiity, the Local
Watei 0tilities Auministiation (LW0A) anu the Asian
Piouuctivity 0iganization (AP0).

(o) MC+)&"F)"3HA"), C& KC"3&CBB), KC&;C&%3(C" TMHKKU iefeis
to any agency oiganizeu as a stock oi nonstock coipoiation,
vesteu with functions ielating to public neeus whethei
goveinmental oi piopiietaiy in natuie, anu owneu by the
uoveinment of the Republic of the Philippines uiiectly oi thiough
its instiumentahties eithei wholly oi, wheie applicable as in the
78
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

case of stock coipoiations, to the extent of at least a majoiity of
its outstanuing capital stock: 0&C+(,),# 5CA)+)&# That foi
puiposes of this Act, the teim "u0CC"- shall incluue uICPuCE
anu uFI as uefineu heiein.

(p) @C".5%&3)&), MHKK iefeis to a u0CC oiganizeu anu opeiating
unuei Batas Pambansa Bilang 68, oi "The Coipoiation Coue of
the Philippines".


*#-$$ &8 *$(#"8
1CCQ
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case wheie the City of Cebu levieu the
piopeities of Nactan Cebu Inteinational Aiipoit foi failuie to pay
iealty taxes uemanueu by the city. NCIAA: Invokes Section 1SS of
the LuC which puts limitations on the taxing poweis of Lu0s on
an instiumentality of the gov't peifoiming goveinmental
functions.
7@?J6 The last paiagiaph of Section 2S4 unequivocally withuiew,
upon the effectivity of the LuC, exemptions fiom ieal piopeity
taxes gianteu to natuial oi juiiuical peisons, incluuing
goveinment-owneu oi contiolleu coipoiations.

As to the contention that it is an instiumentality exempt unuei
sec 1SS(o), NCIAA fails to iecognize the fact that section 2S4(a)
uses only the teim "Republic of the Philippines oi any of its
political subuivision." Sec 2S4 is bioauei anu it is cleai that
Congiess uiu not wish to expanu the scope of exemption in sec
2S4 as to incluue the ieal piopeity owneu by othei
instiumentalities oi agencies of the goveinment incluuing gocc's.
The paicels of lanu in this case uo not belong to the Republic
whose beneficial use is being gianteu to NCIAA. Theie was an
asolute conveyance of owneiship to NCIAA, thus NCIAA is the
ownei of the lanu anu the exception unuei sec 2S4(c) of the LuC
is inapplicable.

*-$$ &8 #-+9 "V 3$8$9
/00C
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case wheie the city of Pasay assesseu ieal
piopeity tax on Nanila Inteinational Aiipoit. (Basically same
facts as NCIAA but uiffeient iuling)
7@?J6 NIAA is a goveinment "instiumentality" that uoes not
qualify as a "goveinment-owneu oi contiolleu coipoiation.
0nuei Section 1SS(o) of the Local uoveinment Coue, local
goveinment units have no powei to tax instiumentalities of the
national goveinment. Theiefoie, NIAA is exempt fiom any kinu
of tax fiom the local goveinments
A goveinment-owneu oi contiolleu coipoiation must be
"oiganizeu as a stock oi non-stock coipoiation." NIAA is not
oiganizeu as a stock oi non-stock coipoiation. It is not a stock
coipoiation because it has no capital stock uiviueu into shaies. It
is also not a non-stock coipoiation because it has no membeis.
Fuitheimoie, The aiipoit lanus anu builuings of NIAA aie
piopeities of public uominion intenueu foi public use, anu as
such aie exempt fiom ieal piopeity tax unuei Section 2S4(a) of
the Local uoveinment Coue.



)$3"#"( &8 !$)$" ,'! 85(
1CCQ
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case iegaiuing the exemption of NPC
which has been withuiawn anu subsequently ie-gianteu seveial
times thiough FIRB iesolutions. NPC was assesseu ieal estate
taxes on its piopeities in Lanao uel Sui. It fileu a piotest alleging
that it is exempt fiom tax puisuant to Commonwealth Act 12u,
Sec 2 of RA SS8 anu RA 6S9S.
7@?J6 Section 4u(a) of the Real Piopeity Tax Coue, PB 464, as
amenueu, expiessly exempts them fiom such tax. The piopeities
in question compiise the site of the entiie Agus II Byuioelectiic
Powei Plant Complex, which geneiates anu supplies ielatively
cheap electiicity to the islanu of Ninuanao. These aie
goveinment piopeities, wholly owneu by petitionei anu uevoteu
uiiectly anu solely foi public seivice anu utilizeu in the
implementation of the state policy of biinging about the total
electiification of the countiy at the least cost to the public,
thiough the uevelopment of powei fiom all souices to meet the
neeus of inuustiial uevelopment anu iuial electiification.

!(+$ MH #:$$
/000
(@N;@H]@;6 City of Nanila assesseu ieal piopeity taxes on LRTA
foi its caiiiageways anu passengei teiminal stations. LRTA
claims that these aie not taxable because these aie
impiovements, not of its piopeities, but of the goveinment-
owneu national ioaus to which they aie immovably
attacheu. They aie thus not taxable as impiovements unuei the
Real Piopeity Tax Coue. In essence, it contenus that to impose a
tax on the caiiiageways anu teiminal stations woulu be to
impose taxes on public ioaus.
7@?J6 They aie still taxable. Although the cieation of LRTA was
impelleu by public seivice, its opeiation still unueitakes that of a
business. Eveiyone still has to pay to iiue the tiains. With iegaius
to the aigument that the stations aie impiovements on national
ioau, the Couit helu that these stiuctuies ,C "C3 foim pait of
such ioaus, since the foimei have been constiucteu C+)& the
lattei in such a way that the flow of vehiculai tiaffic woulu not be
impeueu. These caiiiageways anu teiminal stations seive a
function uiffeient fiom that of the public ioaus. The foimei aie
pait anu paicel of the light iail tiansit (LRT) system which, unlike
the lattei, aie not open to use by the geneial public. The
caiiiageways aie accessible only to the LRT tiains, while the
teiminal stations have been built foi the convenience of LRTA
itself anu its customeis who pay the iequiieu faie.

37-!('#$ MH 8'#('+$(9
/002
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case wheie PBILRECA (Philippine Ruial
Electiic Coopeiative Association) assails that Sections 19S anu
2S4 of the Local uoveinment Coue uisciiminate against them in
violation of equal piotection clause, theie being a uistinction
between coopeiatives iegisteieu unuei P.B. No. 269 anu those
iegisteieu unuei R.A. No. 69S8 oi the Coopeiative Coue of
the Philippines.
7@?J6 Theie is no violation of the equal piotection clause because
theie is ieasonable classification unuei the Local uoveinment
Coue to justify the uiffeient tax tieatment between electiic
coopeiatives coveieu by P.B. No. 269, as amenueu, anu electiic
coopeiatives unuei R.A. No. 69S8 with iespect the capital
contiibution of its membeis anu extent of goveinmental contiol
ovei coopeiatives. Electiic coopeiatives unuei R.A. No. 69S8
have theii membeis make equitable contiibutions to the capital
iequiieu anu maintain autonomy fiom the State. 0n the othei
hanu, electiic coopeiatives unuei P.B. No. 269 uo not iequiie
79
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

equitable contiibutions to capital anu giants the National
Electiification Auministiation the powei to contiol anu take ovei
the management anu opeiation of coopeiatives iegisteieu unuei
it upon the happening of ceitain events.
Seconuly, the classification of tax-exempt entities in the Local
uoveinment Coue is geimane to the puipose of the law. Section
19S of the Local uoveinment Coue is inuicative of the legislative
intent to vest bioau taxing poweis upon local goveinment units
anu to limit exemptions fiom local taxation to entities specifically
pioviueu theiein.

3("&-)#-$! $88'88"( "V *$(-),5f5' MH #$
/00D
(@N;@H]@;: This is the case conceining the "Siltation Bam anu
Becant System" of Naicoppei Nining Coipoiation. Naicoppei
was assesseu local ieal piopeity ta by the piovince, Naicoppei
paiu unuei piotest claiming that the siltation uam anu uecant
system weie exempt fiom ieal piopeity taxes by viitue of sec
2S4 (e) of the LuC which states that Nachineiy anu equipment
useu foi pollution contiol anu enviionmental piotection aie
exempt fiom taxes.
7@?J6 No, not exempt. To be exempt, theie must be uiiect,
immeuiate, anu actual use of the piopeity itself to the exempting
puipose.. In this case, theie Siltation Bam anu Bcant system
weie out of oiuei anu coulu not be useu, thus cannot be
exempteu. Fuitheimoie, exemption unuei the LuC only applies to
machineiy anu equipment. The Siltation uam is not a machineiy
oi equipment but iathei an infiastiuctuie which is not coveieu
by the exemption.

!5)% #')+'( "V +7' 37-!-33-)'8 &8 f5'a") #-+9
/00U
(@N;@H]@;6 This is the case wheie Lung centei was assesseu by
the city foi local piopeity taxes on both its piopeity anu
builuings. Lung Centei paiu unuei piotest claiming that it is
exempt fiom local piopeity taxes because it is an chaiitable
institution.
7@?J6 The Lung Centei of the Philippines is a chaiitable
institution. To ueteimine whethei an enteipiise is a chaiitable
institution oi not, the elements which shoulu be consiueieu
incluue the statute cieating the enteipiise, its coipoiate
puiposes, its constitution anu by-laws, the methous of
auministiation, the natuie of the actual woik peifoimeu, that
chaiactei of the seivices ienueieu, the inuefiniteness of the
beneficiaiies anu the use anu occupation of the piopeities.
Bowevei, unuei the Constitution, in oiuei to be entitleu to
exemption fiom ieal piopeity tax, theie must be cleai anu
unequivocal pioof that (1) it is a chaiitable institution anu (2)its
ieal piopeities aie ACT0ALLY, BIRECTLY anu EXCL0SIvELY
useu foi chaiitable puiposes. While poitions of the hospital aie
useu foi tieatment of patients anu the uispensation of meuical
seivices to them, whethei paying oi non-paying, othei poitions
theieof aie being leaseu topiivate inuiviuuals anu enteipiises.


37-!-33-)' V-87'(-'8 ,'&'!"3*')+ $5+7"(-+9 MH #$
/00E
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei owneu the Iloilo Fishing Poit Complex
which was on ieclaimeu lanu anu consisteu of a bieakwatei,
lanuing quay, watei anu fuel oil supply system, iefiigeiation
builuing, maiket hall anu a municipal sheu. Petitionei then leaseu
poitions of the IFPC to piivate fiims engageu in the fishing
business. Iloilo city then assesseu the entiie IFPC foi Real
Piopeity Tax.
7@?J6 N0. The Real Piopeity Tax liability of the IFPC is only on
poitions leaseu out to piivate entities. PFBA is not a u0CC but is
actually an instiumentality of the national goveinment exempt
fiom Real Piopeity Tax. uiven this, it will only be subject to Real
Piopeity Tax on the poitions of the IFPC which is leaseu to
piivate entities. It is not a u0CC since a u0CC must satisfy two
iequiiements: (i) capital stock uiviueu into shaies anu (ii)
authoiizeu to uistiibute uiviuenuspiofits. PFBA uoes have
capital stock but the same is not uiviueu into shaies anu neithei
is it a non-stock coipoiation because it uoes not have membeis.

#-+9 "V ,$&$" &8 (+
/00T
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie uSIS was assesseu local ieal piopeity tax
by Bavao. uSIS claims exemption unuei sec SS of PB 1146 which
piesciibeu two conuitions in oiuei that the tax exemption
pioviueu theiein coulu be withuiawn by futuie enactments,
namely: (1) that Section SS be expiessly anu categoiically
iepealeu by law; anu (2) that a piovision be enacteu to substitute
the ueclaieu policy of exemption to ensuie the suivivability of
the uSIS funu.
7@?J6 Theie is a funuamental flaw in sec SS of PB 1146. The
paiagiaph effectively imposes a iestiiction on the competency of
the Congiess to enact futuie legislation on the taxability of uSIS..
This places an unuue iestiaint on the plenaiy powei of the
legislatuie to amenu oi iepeal laws. 0nly the constitution may
opeiate to piecluue oi place iestiictions on the amenument oi
iepeal of laws.

)7$ MH #-+9 "V -!"-!"
/00D
(@N;@H]@;6 In this case, the National Bousing Authoiity fileu a
complaint foi annulment of auction sale conuucteu by the city of
Iloilo foi NBA's allegeu failuie to pay iealty taxes. The city claims
howevei that the RTC uiu not acquiie juiisuiction foi NBA's
failuie to comply with the ueposit iequiiement unuei sec 267 of
the LuC.
7@?J6 The ueposit iequiiement unuei the LCu is not a tax
measuie. Sec S67 itself expiesses that the amount uepositeu shall
be paiu to the puichasei of the auction sale if the fee is ueclaieu
invaliu otheiwise ietuineu to uepositoi, The ueposit, equivalent
to the value foi which iealty piopeity was solu plus inteiest , is
essentially meant to ieimbuise the puichasei of the amount he
hau paiu at the auction sale. It's main goal is to guaiantee
satisfaction of the tax uelinquency. The ueposit iequiiement is
not applicable to the goveinment howevei, since the national
gov't is piesumeu.


/0

-"3)&"%B 7)+)"J) !BBC3F)"3

!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",'
8@><=FG /DU4 !BBC3F)"3 C8 -"3)&"%B 7)+)"J) <%V)2D - Local
goveinment units shall have a shaie in the national inteinal
ievenue taxes baseu on the collection of the thiiu fiscal yeai
pieceuing the cuiient fiscal yeai as follows:
(a) 0n the fiist yeai of the effectivity of this Coue, thiity
peicent (Su%);
(b) 0n the seconu yeai, thiity-five peicent (SS%); anu
(c) 0n the thiiu yeai anu theieaftei, foity peicent
(4u%).
80
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Pioviueu, That in the event that the national goveinment incuis
an unmanageable public sectoi ueficit, the Piesiuent of the
Philippines is heieby authoiizeu, upon the iecommenuation of
Secietaiy of Finance, Secietaiy of Inteiioi anu Local uoveinment
anu Secietaiy of Buuget anu Nanagement, anu subject to
consultation with the piesiuing officeis of both Bouses of
Congiess anu the piesiuents of the "liga", to make the necessaiy
aujustments in the inteinal ievenue allotment of local
goveinment units but in no case shall the allotment be less than
thiity peicent (Su%) of the collection of national inteinal
ievenue taxes of the thiiu fiscal yeai pieceuing the cuiient fiscal
yeai: Pioviueu, fuithei, That in the fiist yeai of the effectivity of
this Coue, the local goveinment units shall, in auuition to the
thiity peicent (Su%) inteinal ievenue allotment which shall
incluue the cost of uevolveu functions foi essential public
seivices, be entitleu to ieceive the amount equivalent to the cost
of uevolveu peisonal seivices.
8@><=FG /DT4 !BBC.%3(C" 3C 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 N"(32D - The shaie of
local goveinment units in the inteinal ievenue allotment shall be
collecteu in the following mannei:
(a) Piovinces - Twenty-thiee peicent (2S%);
(b) Cities - Twenty-thiee peicent (2S%);
(c) Nunicipalities - Thiity-foui peicent (S4%); anu
(u) Baiangays - Twenty peicent (2u%)

Pioviueu, howevei, That the shaie of each piovince, city, anu
municipality shall be ueteimineu on the basis of the following
foimula:
(a) Population - Fifty peicent (Su%);
(b) Lanu Aiea - Twenty-five peicent (2S%); anu
(c) Equal shaiing - Twenty-five peicent (2S%)

Pioviueu, fuithei, That the shaie of each baiangay with a
population of not less than one hunuieu (1uu) inhabitants shall
not be less than Eighty thousanu (P8u,uuu.uu) pei annum
chaigeable against the twenty peicent (2u%) shaie of the
baiangay fiom the inteinal ievenue allotment, anu the balance to
be allocateu on the basis of the following foimula:
(a) 0n the fiist yeai of the effectivity of this Coue:
(1) Population - Foity peicent (4u%); anu
(2) Equal shaiing - Sixty peicent (6u%)
(b) 0n the seconu yeai:
(1) Population - Fifty peicent (Su%); anu
(2) Equal shaiing - Fifty peicent (Su%)
(c) 0n the thiiu yeai anu theieaftei:
(1) Population - Sixty peicent (6u%); anu
(2) Equal shaiing - Foity peicent (4u%).
Pioviueu, finally, That the financial iequiiements of baiangays
cieateu by local goveinment units aftei the effectivity of this
Coue shall be the iesponsibility of the local goveinment unit
conceineu.
8@><=FG /DQ4 !J3CF%3(. 7)B)%2) C8 :5%&)2D -
(a) The shaie of each local goveinment unit shall be
ieleaseu, without neeu of any fuithei action, uiiectly to
the piovincial, city, municipal oi baiangay tieasuiei, as
the case may be, on a quaiteily basis within five (S)
uays aftei the enu of each quaitei, anu which shall not
be subject to any lien oi holuback that may be imposeu
by the national goveinment foi whatevei puipose.
(b) Nothing in this Chaptei shall be unueistoou to
uiminish the shaie of local goveinment units unuei
existing laws.
8@><=FG /DE4 4C.%B *)+)BC;F)"3 0&CR).32D - Each local goveinment
unit shall appiopiiate in its annual buuget no less than twenty
peicent (2u%) of its annual inteinal ievenue allotment foi
uevelopment piojects. Copies of the uevelopment plans of local
goveinment units shall be fuinisheu the Bepaitment of Inteiioi
anu Local uoveinment.
8@><=FG /DD4 7JB)2 %", 7)GJB%3(C"2D - The Secietaiy of Finance, in
consultation with the Secietaiy of Buuget anu Nanagement, shall
piomulgate the necessaiy iules anu iegulations foi a simplifieu
uisbuisement scheme uesigneu foi the speeuy anu effective
enfoicement of the piovisions of this Chaptei.

#$8'86

$!&$('a M %5-)%")$
WLGIL;[ 21B 1CCQ
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis assail the valiuity of RA 772u, conveiting
the Nunicipality of Santiago, Isabela into an Inuepenuent
Component City to be known as the City of Santiago. Petitioneis
claim that the municipality has not met the minimum aveiage
annual income iequiieu unuei Section 4Su of the LuC in oiuei to
be conveiteu into a component city. Question is W0N the Inteinal
Revenue Allotments (IRAs) aie to be incluueu in the computation
of the aveiage annual income of a municipality foi puiposes of its
conveision into an inuepenuent component city,
7@?J6 Petitioneis contentions aie untenable because the IRAs
foim pait of the income of Lu0s. The funus geneiateu fiom local
taxes, IRAs anu national wealth utilization pioceeus acciue to the
geneial funu of the local goveinment anu aie useu to finance its
opeiations subject to specifieu moues of spenuing the same as
pioviueu foi in the LuC anu its implementing iules anu
iegulations. <5) -7!2 %&) (3)F2 C8 (".CF) ').%J2) 35)9 8C&F ;%&3
C8 35) G&C22 %..&)3(C" C8 35) 8J",2 C8 35) BC.%B GC+)&"F)"3 J"(3D <5)
-7!2 &)GJB%&B9 %", %J3CF%3(.%BB9 %..&J) 3C 35) BC.%B 3&)%2J&9
A(35CJ3 ")), C8 %"9 8J&35)& %.3(C" C" 35) ;%&3 C8 35) BC.%B
GC+)&"F)"3 J"(3D IRAs aie a iegulai, iecuiiing item of income; nil
is theie a basis, too, to classify the same as a special funu oi
tiansfei, since IRAs have a technical uefinition anu meaning all its
own as useu in the Local uoveinment Coue that unequivocally
makes it uistinct fiom special funus oi tiansfeis iefeiieu to when
the Coue speaks of "funuing suppoit fiom the national
goveinment, its instiumentalities anu goveinment-owneu-oi-
contiolleu coipoiations"

3-*')+'! M $%5-(('
WI?[ 1CB /000
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei seeks to annul Section 1 of A0 No. S72,
insofai as it iequiies Lu0s to ieuuce theii expenuituies by 2S
peicent of theii authoiizeu iegulai appiopiiations foi non-
peisonal seivices; anu to enjoin iesponuents fiom implementing
Section 4 of the 0iuei, which withholus a poition of theii inteinal
ievenue allotments.
7@?J6 Requisites befoie the Piesiuent may inteifeie in local fiscal
matteis: (1) an unmanageu public sectoi ueficit of the national
goveinment; (2) consultations with the piesiuing officeis of the
Senate anu the Bouse of Repiesentatives %", 35) ;&)2(,)"32 C8 35)
+%&(CJ2 BC.%B B)%GJ)2g anu (S) the coiiesponuing iecommenuation
of the secietaiies of the Bepaitment of Finance, Inteiioi anu
Local uoveinment, anu Buuget anu Nanagement. A0 S72 is
81
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

meiely uiiectoiy anu has been issueu by the Piesiuent consistent
with his powei of supeivision ovei local goveinments. It is
intenueu only to %,+(2) all goveinment agencies anu
instiumentalities to unueitake cost-ieuuction measuies that will
help maintain economic stability. Section 4 of A0 S72 cannot,
howevei, be uphelu. ! '%2(. 8)%3J&) C8 BC.%B 8(2.%B %J3C"CF9 (2 35)
%J3CF%3(. &)B)%2) C8 35) 25%&)2 C8 4MN2 (" 35) "%3(C"%B ("3)&"%B
&)+)"J)D This is manuateu by no less than the Constitution. The
LuC specifies fuithei that the ielease shall be maue uiiectly to the
Lu0 conceineu within five (S) uays aftei eveiy quaitei of the
yeai anu "25%BB "C3 ') 2J'R).3 3C %"9 B()" C& 5CB,'%.P 35%3 F%9 ')
(F;C2), '9 35) "%3(C"%B GC+)&"F)"3 8C& A5%3)+)& ;J&;C2)D" As a
iule, the teim "shall" is a woiu of commanu that must be given a
compulsoiy meaning.

3("&-)#' "V :$+$)%$8 M ("*5!"
*L[ /EB /00U
(@N;@H]@;6 uoveinoi of Batangas assails ceitain piovisos
containeu in the ueneial Appiopiiations Acts of 1999, 2uuu anu
2uu1, insofai as they unifoimly eaimaikeu foi each
coiiesponuing yeai the amount of five billion pesos of the
Inteinal Revenue Allotment (IRA) foi the Local uoveinment
Seivice Equalization Funu (LuSEF) anu imposeu conuitions foi
the ielease theieof. Essentially, the Lu0s weie iequiieu to
iuentify the piojects eligible foi funuing the LuSEF anu submit
the pioject pioposals anu othei uocumentaiy iequiiements to
the BILu foi appiaisal. They aigueu theii case using Sec 6, Ait. X
of the Consti on "just shaie" anu Sections 18 anu 286 of the LuC.
Soluen aigues using same Consti aiticle saying it uoes not specify
that the "just shaie" of the Lu0s shall be ueteimineu solely by the
LCu anu that Congiess is the aibitei of what shoulu be the "just
shaie" of the Lu0s in the national taxes.
7@?J6 The assaileu piovisos in the uAAs violate the constitutional
piecept on local autonomy. The LuC, unueiscoies the automatic
ielease of the Lu0s' "just shaie". <5) 4M:?Z (2 ;%&3 C8 35) -7! C&
hRJ23 25%&)h C8 35) 4MN2 (" 35) "%3(C"%B 3%V)2D To subject its
uistiibution anu ielease to the vagaiies of the implementing iules
anu iegulations, incluuing the guiuelines anu mechanisms
unilateially piesciibeu by the 0veisight Committee fiom time to
time, as sanctioneu by the assaileu piovisos in the uAAs anu the
0CB iesolutions, makes the ielease not automatic, a flagiant
violation of the constitutional anu statutoiy manuate that the
"just shaie" of the Lu0s "shall be automatically ieleaseu to them."
The Lu0s aie, thus, placeu at the meicy of the 0veisight
Committee.

$#"(, M a$*"($
WIG@ DB /00T
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis in this case assail the uAA (of 2uuu)
piovisions that appiopiiate a sepaiate amount of P1u Billion of
IRA unuei the classification of "0npiogiammeu Funu" (the
amount to be ieleaseu only upon the occuiience of the conuition
stateu in the uAA,) as unconstitutional as it maue the ielease of
IRA contingent on whethei ievenue collections coulu meet the
ievenue taigets oiiginally submitteu by the Piesiuent, iathei
than making the ielease automatic. Responuents countei that the
above constitutional piovision is auuiesseu not to the legislatuie
but to the executive, hence, the same uoes not pievent the
legislatuie fiom imposing conuitions upon the ielease of the IRA.
7@?J6 Reiteiates iuling in eailiei 0&C+(".) C8 $%3%"G%2 case4
0nuei Aiticle X, Section 6 of the Constitution, only the just shaie
of local goveinments is qualifieu by the woius "as ueteimineu by
law," anu not the ielease theieof, thus the plain implication is
that KC"G&)22 (2 "C3 %J35C&(I), '9 35) KC"23(3J3(C" 3C 5(",)& C&
(F;),) 35) %J3CF%3(. &)B)%2) C8 35) -7!D While "automatic
ielease" implies that the just shaie of the local goveinments
ueteimineu by law shoulu be ieleaseu to them as a mattei of
couise, the uAA piovisions, on the othei hanu, withholu its
ielease penuing an event which is not even ceitain of occuiiing.
To iule that the teim "automatic ielease" contemplates such
conuitional ielease woulu be to stiip the teim "automatic" of all
meaning.

:5%&) C8 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 N"(32 (" @%3(C"%B \)%B35

8@><=FG4 /DC/CU6 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 E0EQ
WIG@ /EB 1CC1

$) $#+ #('$+-)% $ 3'"3!'j8 8*$!!8#$!' *-)-)%
3("%($* $), V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8
8@><=FG 1C4 3+4#'*)#*( @"&'# &*/ E22+()#*(4 - The ievenue to
be ueiiveu by the uoveinment fiom the opeiation of the mining
piogiam heiein establisheu shall be subject to the shaiing
pioviueu in the Local uoveinment Coue.



K&),(3 Z("%".("G
8@><=FG4 /CT2026 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2

#$8'6
#7$&'a M 35:!-# '8+$+'8 RGF< J=H>IHH@J PI< =G>?IJ@J ]@;@
NF; ;@N@;@G>@4S
WI?[ CB /00/
(@N;@H]@;6 Fiom the time of Naicos until Estiaua, poitions of
Nanila Bay weie being ieclaimeu. A law was passeu cieating the
Public Estate Authoiity which was gianteu with the powei to
tiansfei ieclaimeu lanus. Now in this case, PEA enteieu into a
}oint ventuie Agieement with ANARI, a piivate coipoiation.
0nuei the }oint ventuie Agieement between ANARI anu PEA,
seveial hectaies of ieclaimeu lanus compiising the Fieeuom
Islanus anu seveial poitions of submeigeu aieas of Nanila Bay
weie going to be tiansfeiieu to ANARI. Question was W0N the
stipulations in the Amenueu }vA foi the tiansfei to ANARI of
lanus, ieclaimeu oi to be ieclaimeu, violate the Constitution.
7@?J6 0nconstitutional. The ieclaimeu lanus compiising the
Fieeuom Islanus, now coveieu by TCTs in the name of PEA, aie
alienable lanus of the public uomain. PEA may lease these lanus
to piivate coipoiations but may not sell oi tiansfei owneiship of
these lanus to piivate coipoiations. PEA may only sell these lanus
to Philippine citizens, subject to the owneiship limitations in the
1987 Constitution anu existing laws. KB)%&B9# 35) !F)",), /L!
+(CB%3)2 GB%&("GB9 :).3(C"2 a %", S# !&3(.B) i-- C8 35) =bjk
KC"23(3J3(C"D :).D Sla C8 35) 4MK ,C)2 "C3 .C"23(3J3) B)G(2B%3(+)
%J35C&(39 3C 2)BB &).B%(F), B%",2 3C ;&(+%3) .C&;C&%3(C"2D The B0T
Law iecognizes the constitutional ban (".subject to
constitutional iequiiements."). Although Sec. Su2 uoesn't
contain a pioviso similai to that of the B0T law, the
constitutional iestiictions on lanu owneiship automatically apply
even though not expiessly mentioneu in the LuC. Thus, to avoiu
uiiect collision of piovs of the LuC anu the B0T law with the
piovs of the Consti: If the contiactoi oi uevelopei (in the
ieclamation of lanus) is -
V=;H<6 a coipoiate entity- it can only be paiu with leaseholus on
poitions of the ieclaimeu lanu
8@>FGJ6 an inuiviuual- she can be paiu poitions of the ieclaimeu
lanu, not exceeuing 12 hectaies of non-agiicultuial lanus.
82
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

4C.%B Z(2.%B !,F("(23&%3(C"
8@><=FG4 20U2TU6 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2

#$8'86
*$!")a" M a$*"($ RGF< J=H>IHH@J PI< =G>?IJ@J ]@;@ NF;
;@N@;@G>@4S
WI?[ /EB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 The Sangg. Panlungsou passeu an oiuinance which
incieaseu the appiopiiateu amount to be useu foi the
expiopiiation of the Naysilo Estate. The city govt. faileu to
concluue a voluntaiy sale. A suit foi eminent uomain was fileu
against CLT. Caloocan Legal 0fficei infoimeu Nayoi thiough a
lettei memoianuum of a penuing inteipleauei case involving the
lanu. Be iecommenueu that penuing the final ueteimination anu
iesolution of the same, the expiopiiation of the lanu be cancelleu
anuoi abanuoneu. The vice Nayoi wiote the Nayoi iequesting
the immeuiate iepaii anu ienovation of the offices of the
incoming councilois anu the hiiing of auu'l peisonnel. The Nayoi
enuoiseu lettei to the City Tieasuiei who manifesteu thiough a
memoianuum that since the expiopiiation of the lanu is
uiscontinueu, the appiopiiation foi expiopiiation of Su N can be
ieveiteu foi use in a supplemental buuget. Thus, the Nayoi
enuoiseu Supplemental Buuget to the Sanggunian which then
passeu 0iuinance 2S4. An aumin complaint was fileu against city
officials befoie 0P.
7@?J6 The petitioneis aie not guilty of misconuuct uue to the
allegeu iiiegulaiity of 0iuinance 2S4. 0P's ieliance on SEC S22
LuC is misplaceu as the CAB is not a question of W0N the
appiopiiations fall unuei the uef. of capital outlay oi continuing
appiopiiations. Issue is W0N pets. aie liable in iegaiu to the
oiuinance which iealigneu pait of the Su N which was
uenominateu in a geneial mannei as "Expiopiiation Piopeities"
anu classifieu as "Cuiient 0peiating Expenuituies" in the 1998
Annual Buuget of Caloocan. Cleaily these two amounts aie
uistinct. S0 N was appiopiiateu N0T foi the puipose of
puichasing lot 26 but foi expenses inciuental to expiopiiation.
Amount appiopiiateu unuei 0iu 246 still subsists anu is not
lumpeu with othei funus to aiiive at the Su N allocateu in the
1998 buuget. The SuN can be iealigneu. Realignments aie not
alloweu only if cont. appiopiiations oi capital outlays aie
involveu. The Su N was classifieu as a cuiient opeiating
expenuituie by the local council. It cannot be saiu then that
0iu.u2S4 was enacteu without funus actually available.

$+-')a$ M &-!!$("8$
*L[ 10B /00T
(@N;@H]@;6 uoveinoi issueu a Nemoianuum affiiming his
authoiity to sign anu appiove puichase oiueis as the local chief
executive. The vice-goveinoi opposeu this but the CA uphelu the
authoiity of the iesponuent uoveinoi. The CA explaineu that
Section 466(a)(1)

of the LuC speaks of the authoiity of the vice-
uoveinoi to sign "all A%&&%"32 uiawn on the public tieasuiy foi
all expenuituies appiopiiateu foi the opeiation of the
2%"GGJ"(%"G ;%"B%B%A(G%"." In ueclaiing this piovision
inapplicable, the CA ieasoneu that the appioval of puichase
oiueis is uiffeient fiom the powei of the vice-uoveinoi to sign
waiiants uiawn against the public tieasuiy. vice-uoveinoi now
seeks iecouise to this Couit alleging that the appellate couit
committeu ieveisible eiioi in iuling that it is the uoveinoi, anu
not the vice-uoveinoi, who has the authoiity to sign puichase
oiueis of supplies, mateiials, equipment, incluuing fuel, iepaiis
anu maintenance of the :%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"B%B%A(G%"D
7@?J6 The Couit helu that the vice-uoveinoi hau the authoiity to
appiove puichase oiueis. Reliance by the CA on the clause
"appioval of the uisbuisement vouchei by the local chief
executive himself shall be iequiieu whenevei local funus aie
uisbuiseu" of the above section (Section S44) to iule that it is the
uoveinoi who has the authoiity to appiove puichase oiueis foi
the supplies, mateiials oi equipment foi the opeiation of the
:%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"B%B%A(G%" is misplaceu. This clause cannot
pievail ovei the moie specific clause of the same piovision which
pioviues that "voucheis anu payiolls shall be ceitifieu to anu
appioveu by the heau of the uepaitment oi office who has
auministiative contiol of the funu conceineu." <5) L(.)MC+)&"C&#
%2 35) ;&)2(,("G C88(.)& C8 35) :%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"B%B%A(G%"# 5%2
%,F("(23&%3(+) .C"3&CB C8 35) 8J",2 C8 35) 2%(, 'C,9D !..C&,("GB9# (3
(2 35) L(.)MC+)&"C& A5C 5%2 35) %J35C&(39 3C %;;&C+)
,(2'J&2)F)"3 +CJ.5)&2 8C& )V;)",(3J&)2 %;;&C;&(%3), 8C& 35)
C;)&%3(C" C8 35) :%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"B%B%A(G%"D

f5-85*:-)% M %$(#-$
,@>@KP@; DB /00D
(@N;@H]@;6 The Commission on Auuit conuucteu a financial auuit
on the Piovince of Cebu anu ienueieu a iepoit which concluueu
that seveial contiacts weie not suppoiteu with a :%"GD
0%"B%B%A(G%" iesolution authoiizing the Piovincial uoveinoi to
entei into a contiact, as iequiieu unuei Section 22 of R.A. No.
716u. The auuit team then iecommenueu that, "Bencefoith, the
local chief executive must secuie a 2%"GGJ"(%" iesolution
authoiizing the foimei to entei into a contiact as pioviueu unuei
Section 22 of R.A. No. 716u." uov. uaicia allegeu that a sepaiate
authoiity to entei into such contiacts was no longei necessaiy.
The question is whethei the appiopiiation oiuinance iefeiieu to
in Sec. S46 in ielation to Sec. Su6 of R.A. No. 716u is the same
piioi authoiization iequiieu unuei Sec. 22(c) of the same law.
7@?J6 Reau in conjunction with Sec. S46, Sec. Su6 authoiizes the
local chief executive to make uisbuisements of funus in
accoiuance with the oiuinance authoiizing the annual oi
supplemental appiopiiations. The "oiuinance" iefeiieu to in Sec.
S46 peitains to that which enacts the local goveinment unit's
buuget, foi which ieason no fuithei authoiization fiom the local
council is iequiieu, the oiuinance functioning, as it uoes, as the
legislative authoiization of the buuget. <C .C"23&J) :).3(C"2 Slc
%", S]c C8 7D!D @CD k=cl %2 )V.);3(C"2 3C :).D aaT.U ACJB, &)",)&
35) &)QJ(&)F)"3 C8 ;&(C& 2%"GGJ"(%" %J35C&(I%3(C" 2J;)&8BJCJ2#
J2)B)22 %", (&&)B)+%"3D Bowevei, the 2%"GGJ"(%" authoiization
may be in the foim of an appiopiiation oiuinance passeu foi the
yeai which specifically coveis the pioject, cost oi contiact to be
enteieu into by the local goveinment unit. In cases wheie the
local goveinment unit opeiates unuei an annual as opposeu to a
ie-enacteu buuget, it shoulu be acknowleugeu that the
appiopiiation passeu by the 2%"GGJ"(%" may valiuly seive as the
authoiization iequiieu unuei Sec. 22(c) of R.A. No. 716u.


8-8") M 3'"3!'
*L;>] CB /010
(@N;@H]@;6 A post-auuit investigation of the Nayoi anu
Tieasuiei of Calintaan, 0cciuental Ninuoio which ievealeu that
no public biuuing anu that theie weie iiiegulaiities in the
uocuments suppoiting the puichase of seveial items incluuing a
cai, bags of cement, constiuction mateiials, etc. Petitionei
aumitteu that theie was no public biuuing anu stateu that they
weie uone thiough peisonal canvass. The Sanuiganbayan founu
petitionei guilty as chaigeu, hence the appeal.
7@?J6 The Couit uismisseu the appeal4 Since peisonal canvass is
an exception to the iule iequiiing public biuuing, Section S67 of
RA 716u pioviues foi limitations on the iesoit to this moue of
piocuiement. LuC iequiies that wheie the heau of the office oi
uepaitment iequesting the iequisition sits in a uual capacity, the
83
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

paiticipation of a :%"GGJ"(%" membei is necessaiy. 0)3(3(C")&
.B)%&B9 ,(2&)G%&,), 35(2 &)QJ(&)F)"3 ').%J2)# (" %BB 35) ;J&.5%2)2
F%,)# 5) 2(G"), (" % ,J%B .%;%.(39m%2 .5%(&F%" %", F)F')&D
0)3(3(C")& A%2 G&C22B9 ")GB(G)"3 (" %BB 35) ;J&.5%2)2 %", 25CJB,
5%+) .CF;B(), A(35 35) &)QJ(&)F)"32 B%(, ,CA" '9 7! k=cl C"
;)&2C"%B .%"+%22# "C F%33)& 5CA 23&(.3 35)9 F%9 5%+) '))"D

#$!-)%-) M ,'8-'(+"
$IZIH< 10B /00E
(@N;@H]@;6 The 0ffice of the Beputy 0mbuusman foi Ninuanao
iecommenueu the filing of cases against petitionei anu seveial
othei public officials but Special Piosecution 0fficei of the 0ffice
of the 0mbuusman foi Ninuanao, iecommenueu that the saiu
Resolution be uisappioveu anu the chaiges be uismisseu foi
insufficiency of eviuence. Then 0mbuusman Besieito appioveu
the Resolution anu cases weie fileu with the Sanuiganbayan
against petitionei anu his co-accuseu. The Special Piosecutoi
iecommenueu the uismissal of all the cases against all the
accuseu foi lack of piobable cause. The Chief of the 0ffice of Legal
Affaiis iecommenueu that petitionei anu his co-accuseu be
piosecuteu. Responuent 0mbuusman appioveu the
iecommenuation.
7@?J6 R.A. No. 677u, also known as the 0mbuusman Act of 1989,
pioviues that the Special Piosecutoi has the powei anu authoiity,
unuei the supeivision anu contiol of the 0mbuusman, to conuuct
pieliminaiy investigation anu piosecute ciiminal cases befoie
the Sanuiganbayan anu peifoim such othei uuties assigneu to
him by the 0mbuusman. L)&(B9# 35) H88(.) C8 35) :;).(%B 0&C2).J3C&
(2 'J3 % F)&) 2J'C&,("%3) C8 35) HF'J,2F%" %", (2 2J'R).3 3C 5(2
2J;)&+(2(C" %", .C"3&CBD Contiol means "the powei of an officei to
altei oi mouify oi nullify oi set asiue what a suboiuinate officei
hau uone in the peifoimance of his uuties anu to substitute the
juugment of the foimei foi that of the lattei." Cleaily, in
uisappioving the iecommenuation of the 0ffice of the Special
Piosecutoi to uismiss all the chaiges against petitionei anu his
co-accuseu, iesponuent 0mbuusman uiu not act with giave abuse
of uiscietion.


('35:!-# $#+ )"4 D1DT
WIG@ 11B 1CCQ

$) $#+ $*'),-)% 8'#+-") 2/U RJS FN ('35:!-# $#+ )"4
E1Q0B "+7'(.-8' ^)".) $8 +7' !"#$! %"&'()*')+
#",' "V 1CC1
8@><=FG 14 Section S24(u) of Republic Act No. 716u is heieby
amenueu to ieau as follows:

"(u)Five peicent (S%) of the estimateu ievenue fiom iegulai
souices shall be set asiue as annual lump sum appiopiiations foi
ielief, iehabilitation, ieconstiuction anu othei woiks oi seivices
in connection with calamities which may occui uuiing the buuget
yeai.Pioviueu, howevei, That such funu shall be useu only in the
aiea, oi a poition theieof, of the local goveinment unit oi othei
aieas affecteu by a uisastei oi calamity, as ueteimineu anu
ueclaieu by the local sanggunian conceineu.
"Calamity shall be uefineu as a state of extieme uistiess oi
misfoitune, piouuceu by some auveise ciicumstance oi event oi
any gieat misfoitune oi cause oi loss oi miseiy causeu by natuial
foices.
"In case of fiie oi conflagiation, the calamity funu shall be utilizeu
only foi ielief opeiations.
"The local uevelopment council shall moie monitoi the use anu
uisbuisement of the calamity funu."

8@><=FG4 /4 The 0veisight Committee on the Local uoveinment
Coue, in cooiuination with conceineu agencies, shall piepaie anu
issue the implementing iules anu iegulation within thiity (Su)
uays fiom the effectivity of this Act.

``` ``` ```


0&C;)&39 %", :J;;B9 6%"%G)F)"3 (" 35) 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 N"(32
8@><=FG4 2TT2D26 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2

#$8'6
%8-8 M 3("&-)#' "V +$(!$#
,@>@KP@; 1B /002
(@N;@H]@;6 The Sangguniang Panlalawigan of Tailac passeu a
iesolution which authoiizeu anu appioveu the conveision of
0iquico Nemoiial Athletic Fielu into a uoveinment Centei, thus
the uSIS ueciueu to put up an office at the site. Tailac uoveinoi
Cojuangco anu the uSIS then executeu a N0A wheieby the
Piovince of Tailac uonateu the lot to the uSIS. 0n the same uate,
the Piovince executeu a Beeu of Bonation ovei the subject lot in
favoi of the uSIS, which was uuly accepteu by the lattei.
Subsequently, uov. }ose Yap was electeu as the new chief
executive of Tailac, anu wiote a lettei to the uSIS, inviting the
lattei to ieevaluate theii iespective positions with iespect to the
N0A of Becembei 1S, 1997. uov. Yap was of the opinion that the
piovisions of the Beeu of Bonation weie unfaii to the Piovince.
The Piovincial Auministiatoi uemanueu the payment of the
balance of the value of the lot uonateu, which the uSIS iefuseu to
pay. The tiial couit ienueieu its uecision in favoi of the valiuity of
the uonation to the uSIS anu uismisseu the complaint foi
ueclaiation of nullity of uonation anu memoianuum of
agieement. CA ieveiseu.
7@?J6 A tiansfei of ieal piopeity by a Lu0 to an instiumentality
of gov't without fiist secuiing an appiaiseu valuation fiom the
local committee on awaius uoes not appeai to be one of the voiu
contiacts enumeiateu in the afoie-quoteu Aiticle 14u9 of the
Civil Coue. @)(35)& ,C)2 :).3(C" Sj= C8 35) 4C.%B MC+)&"F)"3 KC,)
)V;&)22B9 ;&C5('(3 C& ,).B%&) +C(, 2J.5 3&%"28)&2 (8 %" %;;&%(2),
+%BJ%3(C" 8&CF 35) BC.%B .CFF(33)) C" %A%&,2 (2 "C3 8(&23 C'3%("),D
<5)&) ')("G % ;)&8).3), .C"3&%.3# 35) 0&C+(".) C8 <%&B%.# 35&CJG5
MC+D ^%;# .%""C3 &)+CP) C& &)"CJ".) 35) 2%F) A(35CJ3 35) .C"2)"3
C8 35) C35)& ;%&39D Fiom the moment of peifection, the paities aie
bounu not only to the fulfillment of what has been expiessly
stipulateu but also to all the consequences which, accoiuing to
theii natuie, may be in keeping with goou faith, usage, anu law.
The contiact has the foice of law between the paities anu they
aie expecteu to abiue in goou faith by theii iespective contiactual
commitments.


3L;< ---4 !F>L? %FM@;GK@G< 5G=<H

<5) $%&%"G%9

8@><=FG4 2DUU2C6 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 DUU1
,@>@KP@; //B 1CCE
$) $#+ -)#('$8-)% +7' #$87 %-V+ +" V-&' +7"58$),
3'8"8 R3TB000400SB $*'),-)% V"( +7' 35(3"8' #'(+$-)
8'#+-")8 "V ('35:!-# $#+ )5*:'(', 8-A +7"58$), 8-A
84
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

75),(', '-%7+98-AB $), V"( "+7'( 35(3"8'8
8@><=FG U4 Section 4 of Republic Act No. 6686 is heieby amenueu
to ieau as follows:
"SEC. 4. All officials anu employees of local goveinment
units may ieceive the same benefits as aie pioviueu
unuei Sections 1 anu 2 of this Act chaigeable against
theii iespective local funus. Foi CY 1997, local
goveinment units (municipalities, cities anu piovinces)
may iealign theii buugets to give piioiity to the funuing
iequiiements unuei this Act anu any ueficiency may be
bookeu as accounts payable to be paiu on a fiist piioiity
basis in succeeuing yeais."

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 C1ED
)FM@KP@; 12B /00/
$) $#+ +" 3("*"+' +7' '8+$:!-87*')+ "V :$($)%$9
*-#(" :58-)'88 ')+'(3(-8'8 R:*:'HSB 3("&-,-)%
-)#')+-&'8 $), :')'V-+8 +7'('V"(B $), V"( "+7'(
35(3"8'84
8@><=FG 14 :5C&3 <(3B) E This Act shall be known as the "Baiangay
Nicio Business Enteipiises (BNBE's) Act of 2uu2."
8@><=FG /4 *).B%&%3(C" C8 0CB(.9 E It is heieby ueclaieu to be the
policy of the State to hasten the countiy's economic uevelopment
by encouiaging the foimation anu giowth of baiangay micio
business enteipiises which effectively seive as seeubeus of
Filipino entiepieneuiial talents, anu inteigianting those in the
infoimal sectoi with the mainstieam economy, thiough the
iationalization of buieauciatic iestiictions, the active gianting of
incentives anu benefits to geneiate much-neeueu employment
anu alleviate poveity.
8@><=FG 24 *)8("(3(C" C8 <)&F2 E As useu in this Act, the following
teims shall mean:
(a) "Baiangay Nicio Business Enteipiise," heieinaftei
iefeiieu to as BNBE, iefeis to any business entity oi
enteipiise engageu in the piouuction, piocessing oi
manufactuiing of piouucts oi commouities, incluuing
agio-piocessing, tiauing anu seivices, whose total
assets incluuing those aiising fiom loans but exclusive
of the lanu on which the paiticulai business entity's
office, plant anu equipment aie situateu, shall not be
moie than Thiee Nillion Pesos (PS,uuu,uuu.uu) The
Above uefinition shall be subjecteu to ieview anu
upwaiu aujustment by the SNEB Council, as manuateu
unuei Republic Act No. 6977, as amenueu by Republic
Act No. 8289.
``` ``` ```
('%-8+($+-") $), "3'($+-") "V :*:'
8@><=FG U4 7)G(23&%3(C" %", Z))2 The 0ffice of the Tieasuiei of
each city oi municipality shall iegistei the BNBE's anu issue a
Ceitificate of Authoiity to enable the BNBE to avail of the
benefits unuei this Act. Any such applications shall be piocesseu
within fifteen (1S) woiking uays upon submission of complete
uocuments. 0theiwise, the BNBEs shall be ueemeu iegisteieu.
The Nunicipal oi City Nayoi may appoint a BNBE Registiation
0fficei who shall be unuei the 0ffice of the Tieasuiei. Local
goveinment units (Lu0's) aie encouiageu to establish a 0ne-
Stop-business Registiation Centei to hanule the efficient
iegistiation anu piocessing of peimitslicenses of BNBEs.
Likewise, Lu0s shall make a peiiouic evaluation of the BNBE's
financial status foi monitoiing anu iepoiting puiposes.
The Lu0s shall issue the Ceitificate of Authoiity piomptly anu
fiee of chaige. Bowevei, to uefiay the auministiative costs of
iegisteiing anu monitoiing the BNBEs, the Lu0s may chaige a fee
ienewal.
The Ceitificate of Authoiity shall be effective foi a peiiou of two
(2) yeais, ienewable foi a peiiou of two (2) yeais foi eveiy
ienewal.
As much as possible, BNBEs shall be subject to minimal
buieauciatic iequiiements anu ieasonable fees anu chaiges.
8@><=FG T4 \5C %&) ?B(G('B) 3C 7)G(23)& E Any peison, natuial oi
juiiuical, oi coopeiative, oi association, having the qualifications
as uefineu in Section S(a) heieof may apply foi iegistiation as
BNBE.
8@><=FG Q4 <&%"28)& C8 HA")&25(; The BNBE shall iepoit to the
city oi municipality of any changei in the status of its owneiship
stiuctuie, anu shall suiienuei the oiiginal copy of the BNBE
Ceitificate of Authoiity foi notation of the tiansfei.
-)#')+-&'8 $), :')'V-+8
8@><=FG E4 ?V)F;3(C" 8&CF <%V)2 %", Z))2 E All BNBEs shall be
exempt fiom tax foi income aiising fiom the opeiations of the
enteipiise.
The Lu0s aie encouiageu eithei to ieuuce the amount of local
taxes, fees anu chaiges imposeu oi to exempt BNBEs fiom local
taxes, fees anu chaiges.
8@><=FG D4 ?V)F;3(C" 8&CF 35) KC+)&%G) C8 35) 6("(FJF \%G)
4%A E The BNBEs shall be exempt fiom the coveiage of the
Ninimum Wage Law: 0&C+(,),# That all employees coveieu unuei
this Act shall be entitleu to the same benefits given to any iegulai
employee such as social secuiity anu healthcaie benefits.
``` ``` ```
8@><=FG 104 <).5"CBCG9 <&%"28)&# 0&C,J.3(C" %", 6%"%G)F)"3
<&%("("G# %", F%&P)3("G !22(23%".) E A BNBE Bevelopment Funu
shall be set up with an enuowment of Thiee Bunuieu Nillion
pesos (PSuu,uuu,uuu.uu) fiom the Philippine Amusement anu
uaming Coipoiation (PAuC0R) anu shall be auministeieu by the
SNEB Council.
The Bepaitment of Tiaue anu Inuustiy (BTI), the Bepaitment of
Science anu Technology (B0ST), the univeisity of the Philippines
Institute foi Small Scale Inuustiies (0P ISSI), Coopeiative
Bevelopment Authoiity (CBA), Technical Euucation anu Skills
85
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

Bevelopment Authoiity (TESBA), anu Technology anu Livelihoou
Resouice Centei (TLRC) may avail of the saiu Funu foi
technology tiansfei, piouuction anu management tiaining anu
maiketing assistance to BNBEs.
The BTI, in cooiuination with the piivate sectoi anu non-
goveinment oiganization (Nu0s), shall exploie the possibilities
of linking oi matching-up BNBEs with small, meuium anu laige
enteipiises anu likewise establish incentives theiefoi.
The BTI, in behalf of the B0ST, 0P ISSI, CBA. TESBA anu TLRC
shall be iequiieu to fuinish the appiopiiate Committees of both
Bouses of Congiess a yeaily iepoit on the uevelopment anu
accomplishments of theii piojects anu piogiams in ielation to
technology tiansfei, piouuction anu management tiaining anu
maiketing assistance extenueu to BNBEs.
8@><=FG 114 <&%,) %", -"+)23F)"3 0&CFC3(C"2 E The uata
gatheieu fiom business iegistiation shall be maue accessible to
anu shall be utilizeu by piivate sectoi oiganizations anu non-
goveinment oiganizations foi puiposes of business matching,
tiaue anu investment piomotion.
-)V"(*$+-") ,-88'*-)$+-")
8@><=FG 1/4 -"8C&F%3(C" *(22)F("%3(C" The Philippine
Infoimation Agency (PIA), in accoiuance with the Bepaitment of
Laboi anu Employment (B0LE), the BILu anu the BTI, shall
ensuie the piopei anu auequate infoimation uissemination of the
contents anu benefits of this Act to the geneial public especially
to its intenueu beneficiaiies specifically in the baiangay level.
3')$!+9
8@><=FG 124 0)"%B39 Any peison who shall willfully violates any
piovision of this Act oi who shall in any mannei commit any act
to uefeat any piovisions of this Act shall, upon conviction, be
punisheu by a fine of not less than twenty-five Thousanu Pesos
(P2S,uuu.uu) but not moie than Fifty Thousanu Pesos
(PSu,uuu.uu) anu suffei impiisonment of not less than six (6)
months but not moie than two (2) yeais.
In case of non-compliance with the piovisions of Section 9 of this
Act, the BSP shall impose auministiative sanctions anu othei
penalties on the conceineu goveinment financial institutions,
incluuing a fine of not less than Five Bunuieu Thousanu Pesos
(PSuu,uuu.uu)
*-8#'!!$)'"58 3("&-8-")8
8@><=FG 1U4 !""J%B 7);C&3 E The BILu, BTI, anu BSP shall submit
an annual iepoit to the Congiess on the status of the
implementation of this Act.
8@><=FG 1T4 -F;B)F)"3("G 7JB)2 %", 7)GJB%3(C"2 E The Secietaiy
of the Bepaitment of Tiaue anu Inuustiy, in consultation with the
Secietaiies of the BILu, B0F, anu the BSP uoveinoi shall
foimulate the necessaiy iuleu anu iegulations to implement the
piovisions of this Act within ninety (9u) uays aftei its appioval.
The iules anu iegulations issueu puisuant to this section shall
take effect fifteen (1S) uays aftei its publication in a newspapei
of geneial ciiculation.
``` ``` ```

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 C/DT
$O;=? /B /00U
$) $#+ +" -)8+-+5+-")$!-a' +7' 58' "V $)
$!+'()$+-&' ,-835+' ('8"!5+-") 898+'* -) +7'
37-!-33-)'8 $), +" '8+$:!-87 +7' "VV-#' V"(
$!+'()$+-&' ,-835+' ('8"!5+-")B $), V"( "+7'(
35(3"8'8
8'#4 T24 E%%2.1&D.2.(A +, ("# `&(&'9*;&* 5&)D&'&*;&A4 - This
Act shall not be inteipieteu to iepeal, amenu oi mouify the
juiisuiction of the Kataiungan Pambaiangay unuei Republic Act
No. 716u, otheiwise known as the Local uoveinment Coue of
1991.



#$8'86
3'"3!' M ('#+"
"><FP@; 1EB /001
(@N;@H]@;6 }ulio Recto was founu guilty beyonu ieasonable uoubt
of the complex ciime of qualifieu uiiect assault with fiustiateu
homiciue. The tiial couit founu that appellant hau fiieu at a
baiangay tanou, Nelchoi Recto, who was at the ciime scene "on
the occasion of the peifoimance of his official uuties" anu auueu
that appellant hau shot a baiangay captain, Peicival 0ibe, also
"on the occasion of the peifoimance of his official uuties."
7@?J6 An %G)"3 C8 % ;)&2C" (" %J35C&(39 (2 h%"9 ;)&2C" A5C# '9
,(&).3 ;&C+(2(C" C8 B%A C& '9 )B).3(C" C& '9 %;;C("3F)"3 '9
.CF;)3)"3 %J35C&(39# (2 .5%&G), A(35 35) F%("3)"%".) C8 ;J'B(.
C&,)& %", 35) ;&C3).3(C" %", 2).J&(39 C8 B(8) %", ;&C;)&39# 2J.5 %2
'%&&(C .CJ".(BF%"# '%&&(C ;CB(.)F%" %", '%&%"G%9 B)%,)&# %", %"9
;)&2C" A5C .CF)2 3C 35) %(, C8 ;)&2C"2 (" %J35C&(39Dh

Nelchoi
Recto

being then the baiangay chief 3%"C, was cleaily an
agent of a peison in authoiity. Bowevei, he was not "engageu in
the peifoimance of his official uuties" at the time he was shot
since, at the ciime scene he was a meie bystanuei. Be was not
acting anu hau no occasion to act in the peifoimance of his
official uuties that afteinoon. Thus, the attack on him uiu not
amount to uiiect assault.

,$&-, M #"*'!'#
$O;=? DB 1CCE
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei Baviu fileu a petition to piohibit the
holuing of the baiangay election scheuuleu on the seconu
Nonuay of Nay 1997. Petitioneis

contenu that unuei Sec. 2 of
Republic Act No. 66SS, "(t)he teim of office of baiangay officials
shall be foi five (S) yeais . . ." This is ieiteiateu in Republic Act
No. 6679, which ieset the baiangay elections fiom "the seconu
Nonuay of Novembei 1988" to Naich 28, 1989 anu pioviueu in
Sec. 1 theieof that such five-yeai teim shall begin on the "fiist
uay of Nay 1989 anu enuing on the thiity-fiist uay of Nay 1994."
They also avei that although Sec. 4S of RA 716u ieuuceu the teim
of office of all local elective officials to thiee yeais, such ieuuction
uoes not apply to baiangay officials.
7@?J6 The intent anu uesign of the legislatuie is to limit the teim
of baiangay officials to only thiee (S) yeais as pioviueu unuei the
Local uoveinment Coue. The caiuinal iule in the inteipietation of
all laws is to asceitain anu give effect to the intent of the law anu
thiee yeais is the obvious intent. The Constitution uiu not
86
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

expiessly piohibit Congiess fiom fixing any teim of office foi
baiangay officials. Fuithei, the baiangay officials aie estoppeu
fiom asking foi any teim othei than that which they ian foi anu
weie electeu to, unuei the law goveining theii veiy claim to such
offices: namely, RA 716u, the Local uoveinment Coue.

$!f5-a"!$ M "#"!
$IZIH< /EB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuents in this case weie olu appointees of the
pievious Punong Baiangay anu petitionei Alquizola teiminateu
the seivices of iesponuents anu appointeu his co-petitioneis as
baiangay tieasuiei anu as baiangay secietaiy. In consonance
with Section S94 anu Section S9S of the LuC, he submitteu both
appointments to the Sangguniang Baiangay foi appioval. The
Sanggunian iejecteu the appointments. The RTC enjoineu
petitionei fiom teiminating the seivices of iesponuents on the
giounu that theii uismissal hau been effecteu without the
coiiesponuing appioval of the Sangguniang Baiangay anu helu
that Section S89(b) (S) limiteu the powei of a baiangay captain
to iemove appointive baiangay officials by iequiiing an appioval
of such act by a majoiity of the Sangguniang Baiangay.
7@?J6 The Coue explicitly vests on the punong baiangay, upon
appioval by a majoiity of all the membeis of the sangguniang
baiangay, the powei to appoint oi ieplace the baiangay
tieasuiei, the baiangay secietaiy, anu othei appointive baiangay
officials. This piovision is ieinfoiceu, in the case of the secietaiy
anu the tieasuiei, by the piovisions of Section S94 anu Section
S9S. <5J2# 35) ;CA)& C8 %;;C("3F)"3 (2 3C ') )V)&.(2), .C"RC("3B9
'9 35) ;J"C"G '%&%"G%9 %", % F%RC&(39 C8 %BB 35) F)F')&2 C8 35)
2%"GGJ"(%"G '%&%"G%9D \(35CJ3 2J.5 .C"RC("3 %.3(C"# ")(35)& %"
%;;C("3F)"3 "C& % &);B%.)F)"3 .%" ') )88).3J%BD

1%3%&J"G%"G 0%F'%&%"G%9
8@><=FG4 2CCU//B T1T6 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2

#-(#5!$( )"4 1UC2
WI?[ 1TB 1CC2
+"6 ALL REuI0NAL TRIAL C00RTS, NETR0P0LITAN TRIAL
C00RTS, N0NICIPAL TRIAL C00RTS ANB N0NICIPAL CIRC0IT
TRIAL C00RTS
85:W'#+6 u0IBELINES 0N TBE KATAR0NuANu PANBARANuAY
C0NCILIATI0N PR0CEB0RE T0 PREvENT CIRC0NvENTI0N 0F
TBE REvISEB KATAR0NuANu PANBARANuAY LAW (SECTI0NS
S99-422, CBAPTER vII, TITLE I, B00K III, R.A. 716u. 0TBERWISE
KN0WN AS TBE L0CAL u0vERNNENT C0BE 0F 1991).
``` ``` ```
In oiuei that the lauuable puipose of the law may not be
subveiteu anu its effectiveness unueimineu by inuisciiminate,
impiopei anuoi piematuie issuance of ceitifications to file
actions in couit by the Lupon oi Pangkat Secietaiies, attesteu by
the LuponPangkat Chaiimen, iespectively, the following
guiuelines aie heieby issueu foi the infoimation of tiial couit
juuges in cases biought befoie them coming fiom the Baiangays:
I. All uisputes aie subject to Baiangay conciliation puisuant to
the Reviseu Kataiungang Pambaiangay Law (foimeily P.B. 1Su8,
iepealeu anu now ieplaceu by Secs. S99-422, Chaptei vII, Title I,
Book III, anu Sec. S1S, Title I, Book Iv, R.A. 716u, otheiwise
known as the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991), anu piioi
iecouise theieto is a pie-conuition befoie filing a complaint in
couit oi any goveinment offices, except in the following uisputes:
1. Wheie one paity is the goveinment, oi any
subuivision oi instiumentality theieof;
2. Wheie one paity is a public officei oi
employee, anu the uispute ielates to the
peifoimance of his official functions;
S. Wheie the uispute involves ieal piopeities
locateu in uiffeient cities anu municipalities,
unless the paities theieto agiee to submit
theii uiffeience to amicable settlement by an
appiopiiate Lupon;
4. Any complaint by oi against coipoiations,
paitneiship oi juiiuical entities, since only
inuiviuuals shall be paities to Baiangay
conciliation pioceeuings eithei as
complainants oi iesponuents (Sec. 1, Rule vI,
Kataiungang Pambaiangay Rules);
S. Bisputes involving paities who actually
iesiue in baiangays of uiffeient cities oi
municipalities, except wheie such baiangay
units aujoin each othei anu the paities theieto
agiee to submit theii uiffeiences to amicable
settlement by an appiopiiate Lupon;
6. 0ffenses foi which the law piesciibes a
maximum penalty of impiisonment exceeuing
one (1) yeai oi a fine ovei five thousanu pesos
(PS,uuu.uu);
7. 0ffenses wheie theie is no piivate offenueu
paity;
8. Bisputes wheie uigent legal action is
necessaiy to pievent injustice fiom being
committeu oi fuithei continueu, specifically
the following:
a. Ciiminal cases wheie
accuseu is unuei police
custouy oi uetention (see
Sec. 412 (b) (1), Reviseu
Kataiungang Pambaiangay
Law);
b. Petitions foi 5%')%2
.C&;J2 by a peison illegally
uepiiveu of his iightful
custouy ovei anothei oi a
peison illegally uepiiveu oi
on acting in his behalf;
c. Actions coupleu with
piovisional iemeuies such
as pieliminaiy injunction,
attachment, ueliveiy of
peisonal piopeity anu
suppoit uuiing the
penuency of the action; anu
87
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

u. Actions which may be
baiieu by the Statute of
Limitations.
9. Any class of uisputes which the Piesiuent
may ueteimine in the inteiest of justice oi
upon the iecommenuation of the Secietaiy of
}ustice;
1u. Wheie the uispute aiises fiom the
Compiehensive Agiaiian Refoim Law (CARL)
(Sec. 46 & 47, R.A. 66S7);
11. Laboi uisputes oi contioveisies aiising
fiom employei-employee ielations (Nontoya
vs. Escayo, )3 %B., 171 SCRA 442; Ait. 226,
Laboi Coue, as amenueu, which giants oiiginal
anu exclusive juiisuiction ovei conciliation
anu meuiation of uisputes, giievances oi
pioblems to ceitain offices of the Bepaitment
of Laboi anu Employment);
12. Actions to annul juugment upon a
compiomise which may be fileu uiiectly in
couit (See Sanchez vs. Tupaz, 1S8 SCRA 4S9).
II. 0nuei the piovisions of R.A. 716u on Kataiungang
Pambaiangay conciliation, as implementeu by the Kataiungang
Pambaiangay Rules anu Regulations piomulgateu by the
Secietaiy of }ustice, the ceitification foi filing a complaint in
couit oi any goveinment office shall be issueu by Baiangay
authoiities only upon compliance with the following
iequiiements:
1. Issueu by the Lupon Secietaiy anu attesteu
by the Lupon Chaiiman (Punong Baiangay),
ceitifying that a confiontation of the paities
has taken place anu that a conciliation
settlement has been ieacheu, but the same has
been subsequently iepuuiateu (Sec. 412,
Reviseu Kataiungang Pambaiangay Law; Sec.
2|hj, Rule III, Kataiungang Pambaiangay
Rules);
2. Issueu by the Pangkat Secietaiy anu
attesteu by the Pangkat Chaiiman, ceitifying
that:
a. a confiontation of the
paities took place but no
conciliationsettlement has
been ieacheu (Sec. 4|fj,
Rule III, Kataiungang
Pambaiangay Rules; oi
b. that no peisonal
confiontation took place
befoie the Pangkat thiough
no fault of the complainant
(Sec. 4|fj, Rule III,
Kataiungang Pambaiangay
Rules).
S. Issueu by the Punong Baiangay, as
iequesteu by the piopei paity on the giounu
of failuie of settlement wheie the uispute
involves membeis of the same inuigenous
cultuial community, which shall be settleu in
accoiuance with the customs anu tiauitions of
that paiticulai cultuial community, oi wheie
one oi moie of the paities to the afoiesaiu
uispute belong to the minoiity anu the paities
mutually agieeu to submit theii uispute to the
inuigenous system of amicable settlement, anu
theie has been no settlement as ceitifieu by
the uatu oi tiibal leauei oi eluei to the Punong
Baiangay of place of settlement (Secs. 1,4 & S,
Rule IX, Kataiungang Pambaiangay Rules);
anu
4. If meuiation oi conciliation effoits befoie
the Punong Baiangay pioveu unsuccessful,
theie having been no agieement to aibitiate
(Sec. 41u |bj, Reviseu Kataiungang
Pambaiangay Law; Sec. 1, c. (1), Rule III,
Kataiungang Pambaiangay Rules), oi wheie
the iesponuent fails to appeai at the
meuiation pioceeuing befoie the Punong
Baiangay (Siu pai. Sec. 8, a, Rule vI,
Kataiungang Pambaiangay Rules), the Punong
Baiangay shall not cause the issuance at this
stage of a ceitification to file action, because it
is now manuatoiy foi him to constitute the
Pangkat befoie whom meuiation, conciliation,
oi aibitiation pioceeuings shall be helu.
III. All complaints anuoi infoimations fileu oi iaffleu to youi
salabianch of the Regional Tiial Couit shall be caiefully ieau
anu sciutinizeu to ueteimine if theie has been compliance with
piioi Baiangay conciliation pioceuuie unuei the Reviseu
Kataiungang Pambaiangay Law anu its Implementing Rules anu
Regulations, as a pie-conuition to juuicial action, paiticulaily
whethei the ceitification to file action attacheu to the iecoius of
the case comply with the iequiiements heieinabove enumeiateu
in pai. II;
Iv. A case fileu in couit without compliance with piioi Baiangay
conciliation which is a pie-conuition foi foimal aujuuication (Sec.
412 |aj of the Reviseu Kataiungang Pambaiangay Law) may be
uismisseu upon motion of uefenuants, not foi lack of juiisuiction
of the couit but foi failuie to state a cause of action oi
piematuiity (Royales vs. IAC, 127 SCRA 47u; uonzales vs. CA, 1S1
SCRA 289), oi the couit may suspenu pioceeuings upon petition
of any paity unuei Sec. 1, Rule 21 of the Rules of Couit; anu iefei
the case FC3J ;&C;&(C to the appiopiiate Baiangay authoiity,
applying by analogy Sec. 4u8 |gj, 2nu pai., of the Reviseu
Kataiungang Pambaiangay Law which ieaus as follows:
The couit in which non-ciiminal cases not
falling within the authoiity of the Lupon unuei
this Coue aie fileu may at any time befoie tiial,
FC3J ;&C;&(C iefei case to the Lupon
conceineu foi amicable settlement.
88
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

``` ``` ```

(@OIP?=> $>< )F4 C/DT
$O;=? /B /00U
$) $#+ +" -)8+-+5+-")$!-a' +7' 58' "V $)
$!+'()$+-&' ,-835+' ('8"!5+-") 898+'* -) +7'
37-!-33-)'8 $), +" '8+$:!-87 +7' "VV-#' V"(
$!+'()$+-&' ,-835+' ('8"!5+-")B $), V"( "+7'(
35(3"8'8
8'#4 2T4 ?+4#'&;# +, ("# 0&64 - Constiuction uisputes which fall
within the oiiginal anu exclusive juiisuiction of the Constiuction
Inuustiy Aibitiation Commission (the "Commission") shall
incluue those between oi among paities to, oi who aie otheiwise
bounu by, an aibitiation agieement, uiiectly oi by iefeience
whethei such paities aie pioject ownei, contiactoi,
subcontiactoi, quantity suiveyoi, bonusman oi issuei of an
insuiance policy in a constiuction pioject.


#$8'86
*"($+$ M %"
"><FP@; /EB 1CD2
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuents heie fileu a complaint against petioneis
foi a sum of money anu the petitioneis fileu a motion to uismiss
citing as giounus, the failuie of the complaint to allege piioi
availment by the of the baiangay conciliation piocess iequiieu by
P.B. 1Su8, as well as the absence of a ceitification by the Lupon oi
Pangkat Secietaiy that no conciliation oi settlement hau been
ieacheu by the paities. }uuge uenieu the NTB saying that the law
applies only to cases cognizable by the infeiioi couits mentioneu
in Sections 11 anu 12 of the law. Bence this appeal.
7@?J6 Except in the instances enumeiateu in sections 2 anu 6 of
the law, the Lupon has the authoiity to settle %F(.%'B9 %BB 39;)2 C8
,(2;J3)2 ("+CB+("G ;%&3()2 A5C %.3J%BB9 &)2(,) (" 35) 2%F) .(39 C&
FJ"(.(;%B(39D <5) B%A# %2 A&(33)"# F%P)2 "C ,(23(".3(C" A5%32C)+)&
A(35 &)2;).3 3C 35) .B%22)2 C8 .(+(B ,(2;J3)2 35%3 25CJB, ')
.CF;&CF(2), %3 35) '%&%"G%9 B)+)B# (" .C"3&%,(23(".3(C" 3C 35)
B(F(3%3(C" (F;C2), J;C" 35) 4J;C" '9 ;%&%G&%;5 TSU# 2).3(C" a
35)&)C8 %2 &)G%&,2 (32 %J35C&(39 C+)& .&(F("%B .%2)2D In fact, in
uefining the Lupon's authoiity, Section 2 of saiu law employeu
the univeisal anu compiehensive teim "all", to which usage one
shoulu neithei auu noi subtiact. The conciliation piocess at the
baiangay level, piesciibeu by P.B. 1Su8 as a pie-conuition foi
filing a complaint in couit# (2 .CF;JB2C&9 "C3 C"B9 8C& .%2)2 8%BB("G
J",)& 35) )V.BJ2(+) .CF;)3)".) C8 35) F)3&C;CB(3%" %", FJ"(.(;%B
3&(%B .CJ&32# 'J3 8C& %.3(C"2 .CG"(I%'B) '9 35) &)G(C"%B 3&(%B .CJ&32
%2 A)BBD

59 M #")+('($8
8@O<@KP@; /QB 1CCU
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei heie subleaseu fiom iesponuent some
space in a builuing wheie she opeiateu a beauty pailoi. When
petitionei sought to withuiaw hei movables fiom the place, a
scuffle eiupteu that eventually leu to the piivate iesponuent
filing seveial complaints with the baiangay captain of valenzuela
anu a confiontation uate was set but only the petitionei
appeaieu, thus the 0ffice of the Piovincial Piosecutoi of Rizal
fileu two infoimations foi slight physical injuiies against the
petitionei. The petitionei specifically allegeu the piematuiity of
the filing of the ciiminal cases foi failuie to unueigo conciliation
pioceeuings as she anu the piivate iesponuents aie iesiuents of
Nanila anu she also attacheu to it a ceitification by the baiangay
captain of valenzuela, Nakati, that theie was an ongoing
conciliation. The petitionei fileu a NTB but public iesponuent
}uuge Contieias hanueu uown an oiuei uenying the motion to
uismiss.
7@?J6 The juuge committeu uA0B. The ieviseu P%3%&J"G%"G
;%F'%&%"G%9 law has at least thiee new significant featuies:
1. It incieaseu the authoiity of the BJ;C" in ciiminal
offenses fiom those punishable by impiisonment not
exceeuing thiity uays oi a fine not exceeuing P2uu.uu in
P.B. No. 1Su8 to those offenses punishable by
impiisonment not exceeuing one yeai oi a fine not
exceeuing PS,uuu.uu.
2. As to venue, it pioviues that uisputes aiising at the
woikplace wheie the contenuing paities aie employeu
oi at the institution wheie such paities aie eniolleu foi
stuuy, shall be biought in the baiangay wheie such
woikplace oi institution is locateu.
S. It pioviues foi the suspension of the piesciiptive
peiious of offenses uuiing the penuency of the
meuiation, conciliation, oi aibitiation piocess.
While P.B. No. 1Su8 has been iepealeu by the Local uoveinment
Coue of 1991, the juiispiuuence built theieon iegaiuing piioi
iefeiial to the BJ;C" as a pie-conuition to the filing of an action in
couit iemains applicable because its piovisions on piioi iefeiial
weie substantially iepiouuceu in the Coue. -" +()A C8 35) ;&(+%3)
&)2;C",)"32f 8%(BJ&) 3C %;;)%& %3 35) 8(&23 2.5),JB), F),(%3(C"# "C
.CF;B%("3 8C& 2B(G53 ;592(.%B ("RJ&()2 .CJB, ') +%B(,B9 8(B), A(35 35)
6<K C8 6%P%3( %3 %"9 3(F) ')8C&) 2J.5 ,%3)D <5) 8(B("G 35)" C8
K&(F("%B K%2)2 A(35 35) 2%(, .CJ&3 A%2 ;&)F%3J&) anu, puisuant to
paiagiaph (a), Section 412 of the Local uoveinment Coue,
iesponuent }uuge Contieias shoulu have gianteu the motion to
uismiss the ciiminal cases.
a$*"($ M 7'-(8 "V -af5-'(,"
)FM@KP@; 1DB /00U
(@N;@H]@;6 Izquieiuo anu Zamoia enteieu into a veibal
stipulation wheieby the foimei leaseu to the lattei one of hei
apaitment units. Sometime latei, Zamoia's wiuow iefuseu to sign
a new agieement foi inciease in ient, continueu to opeiate a
business in the piemises anu packeu the place with two moie
families. In applying foi a watei line, Izquieiuo iefuseu to issue
consent which piompteu Zamoia to file a complaint in the
baiangay anu then she was askeu to vacate the piemises. Bespite
seveial baiangay conciliation sessions, the paities faileu to settle
theii uispute amicably, hence, the Baiangay Chaiiman issueu a
Ceitification to File Action. Petitioneis fileu NTB to the case foi
uamages fileu by iesponuents which was uenieu.
7@?J6 The Couit uiu not sustain petitioneis' contention that the
Lupon conciliation alone, without the pioceeuing befoie the
Pangkat ng Tagapagkasunuo, contiavenes the law on
Kataiungang Pambaiangay. Section 412(a) of R.A. No. 716u,
quoteu eailiei, cleaily pioviues that, as a pieconuition to filing a
complaint in couit, the paities shall go thiough the conciliation
piocess eithei befoie the Lupon Chaiiman (as what happeneu in
the piesent case), oi the Pangkat. Beie, while the Pangkat was
not constituteu, 5CA)+)&# 35) ;%&3()2 F)3 "(") TbU 3(F)2 %3 35)
H88(.) C8 35) $%&%"G%9 K5%(&F%" 8C& .C".(B(%3(C" A5)&)(" "C3 C"B9
35) (22J) C8 A%3)& ("23%BB%3(C" A%2 ,(2.J22), 'J3 %B2C ;)3(3(C")&2f
+(CB%3(C" C8 35) B)%2) .C"3&%.3D -3 (2 35J2 F%"(8)23 35%3 35)&) A%2
2J'23%"3(%B .CF;B(%".) A(35 35) B%A A5(.5 ,C)2 "C3 &)QJ(&) 23&(.3
%,5)&)".) 35)&)3CD


89
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

:"!'9!'9 M &-!!$)5'&$
8@O<@KP@; 1UB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei Boleyley fileu with the RTC ofBaguio City, a
complaint against piivate iesponuent foi collection of a sum of
money but piivate iesponuent Suila fileu with the tiial couit a
NTB on the giounu that petitionei uiu not comply with the
Reviseu Kataiungan Pambaiangay Law. The tiial couit issueu an
oiuei uismissing the case foi being piematuie, foi not having
been iefeiieu to the baiangay lupon. Subsequently, petionei fileu
with the tiial couit a motion foi ieconsiueiation on the giounu
that piivate iesponuent coulu not invoke the Kataiungan
Pambaiangay Law because he was not a iesiuent of Baguio City
but it was uenieu.
7@?J6 Fiom the allegations, the Couit noteu that it was obvious
that the paities uo not iesiue in the same city oi municipality,
anu hence, the uispute is excepteu fiom the iequiiement of
iefeiial to the baiangay lupon oi pangkat foi conciliation oi
settlement piioi to filing with the couit. KC"2)QJ)"3B9# 35) KCJ&3
&JB), 35%3 35)&) A%2 "C ")), C8 ;&(C& &)8)&&%B C8 35) ,(2;J3) 3C 35)
'%&%"G%9 BJ;C" C& ;%"GP%3 (" 35) %'2)".) C8 25CA("G (" 35)
.CF;B%("3 (32)B8 35%3 35) ;%&3()2 &)2(,) (" 35) 2%F) .(39 C&
FJ"(.(;%B(39D In thus uismissing the complaint foi insufficiency of
cause of action oi pie-matuiity, the tiial couit committeu giave
abuse of uiscietion.

*'),"&$ M $V$:!'
,@>@KP@; UB /00/
(@N;@H]@;6 Complainant Nenuova fileu with the 0ffice of the
Baiangay Chaiiman of Poblacion San }ulian, Eastein Samai a
complaint foi slight physical injuiies against Palaua. The Pangkat
Chaiiman ceitifieu in an unuateu "Ninutes In Settling Bisputes"

that the case was set foi heaiing, but the paities faileu to ieach an
amicable settlement. Thus, Nenuova fileu with the Nunicipal
Ciicuit Tiial Couit a complaint foi slight physical injuiies but
iesponuent juuge ienueieu his Becision uismissing the case on
the giounu of piesciiption. Complainant fileu with the 0ffice of
the Couit Auministiatoi an aumin. complaint against iesponuent
juuge. Be allegeu that in uismissing the case, iesponuent juuge
showeu his ignoiance of the law when he uiu not apply the
piovisions of the LuC on amicable settlement.
7@?J6 Auministiative complaint is not the appiopiiate iemeuy
foi eveiy iiiegulai oi eiioneous oiuei oi uecision issueu by a
juuge wheie a juuicial iemeuy is available, such as a motion foi
ieconsiueiation, oi an appeal. -3 (2 C"B9 A5)&) 35) )&&C& (2 2C G&C22#
,)B(')&%3) %", F%B(.(CJ2# C& (".J&&), A(35 )+(,)"3 '%, 8%(35 35%3
%,F("(23&%3(+) 2%".3(C"2 F%9 ') (F;C2), %G%("23 35) )&&("G RJ,G)D
The complainant uiu not bothei at all to file a motion foi
ieconsiueiation of iesponuent juuge's uecision uismissing the
ciiminal case. No ieason was auvanceu by complainant why he
faileu to uo so. <5J2# 8CBBCA("G 35) KCJ&3O2 2)33B), ;&C"CJ".)F)"32
(" )%&B()& .%2)2# 5(2 ("23%"3 %,F("(23&%3(+) .CF;B%("3 (2 ;&)F%3J&)D

&'(#-,' M W5,%' 7'()$),'a
$O;=? QB /000
(@N;@H]@;6 veiciue anu his wife hau fileu against ualleios a case
foi iecoveiy of possession of a piece of lanu. The lanu is locateu
in 0ppei Centio, Tuuela, Nisamis 0cciuental. Befenuant ualleios
is a iesiuent of the same municipality, while complainant anu his
wife aie iesiuents of Bipolog City. Because of this fact, the case
was fileu in couit without piioi iefeiial to the Lupong
Tagapamayapa. Bowevei, this mattei was iaiseu by uefenuant in
hei answei as an affiimative uefense, anu iesponuent, in hei
oiuei of }uly 1S, 1997, oiueieu the uismissal of the case without
piejuuice to the piosecution of the counteiclaim pleaueu by the
uefenuant in hei answei. veiciue moveu to ieconsiuei aiguing
thatwheie the paities to a uispute involving ieal piopeity oi any
inteiest theiein aie not actual iesiuents of the same city oi
municipality oi of aujoining baiangays, piioi iesoit to baiangay
conciliation is not iequiieu. This was uenieu.
7@?J6 7)2;C",)"3 RJ,G) 25CA), ;%3)"3 (G"C&%".) C8 35(2 KCJ&3O2
&JB("G2 C" 35) RJ&(2,(.3(C" C8 35) 4J;C"G <%G%;%F%9%;% '9 5)&
)&&C")CJ2 QJC3%3(C"2 of the piovisions of the Kataiungang
Pambaiangay Rules implementing R.A. No. 716u. In this case,
iesponuent at fiist citeu P.B. No. 1Su8, Sec S as basis of hei
action. When hei attention was calleu to the fact that this hau
been iepealeu by Sec 4u9(c) of R.A. No. 716u, iesponuent, who
obviously was moie intent in justifying hei pievious oiuei than
coiiecting hei eiioi, quoteu out of context the piovisions of the
Kataiungang Pambaiangay Rules implementing the Kataiungang
Pambaiangay piovisions of R.A. No. 716u. She thus violateu
Canon S of the Coue of }uuicial Conuuct which pioviues that "In
eveiy case, a juuge shall enueavoi uiligently to asceitain the facts
anu the applicable law unswayeu by paitisan inteiest, public
opinion oi feai of ciiticism." KC"3&%&9 3C &)2;C",)"3O2
("3)&;&)3%3(C"# (3 (2 .B)%& )+)" 8&CF 35) 1%3%&J"G%"G 0%F'%&%"G%9
7JB)2 35%3 &).CJ&2) 3C '%&%"G%9 .C".(B(%3(C" ;&C.)),("G2 (2 "C3
").)22%&9 A5)&) 35) ;%&3()2 ,C "C3 &)2(,) (" 35) 2%F) FJ"(.(;%B(39
C& .(39 C& (" %,RC("("G '%&%"G%92D

-,"!"( M #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
V@P;IL;[ EB /001
(@N;@H]@;6 To secuie a loan Iuoloi executeu in favoi of
uumeisinuo ue uuzman a Beeu of Real Estate Noitgage with
iight of extiajuuicial foieclosuie upon failuie to ieueem the
moitgage. Be uuzman fileu a complaint against Iuoloi befoie the
0ffice of the Bgy. Capt. Which iesulteu in a "Kasunuuang Pag-
aayos." Petitionei faileu to comply with hei unueitaking; thus
piivate iesponuent uumeisinuo obtaineu issueu a ceitification to
file action anu fileu an extia juuicial foieclosuie of the ieal estate
moitgage which the the moitgageu piopeity was eventually solu.
RTC enjoineu iesponuent via wiit of PI but the CA annulleu the
assaileu wiit of pieliminaiy injunction. Teiesita Iuoloi fileu hei
motion foi ieconsiueiation.
7@?J6 Injunction is a pieseivative iemeuy aimeu at piotecting
substantive iights anu inteiests. In this case, petitionei hau no
moie piopiietaiy iight to speak of ovei the foiecloseu piopeity
to entitle hei to the issuance of a wiit of injunction since she
faileu to exeicise hei iight to ieueem the piopeity. <5)
.CF;&CF(2) %G&))F)"3 5%2 35) 8C&.) %", )88).3 C8 % 8("%B RJ,GF)"3
%", ,(, "C3 "C+%3) C& FC,(89 35) C&(G("%B FC&3G%G)D The
Kasanuuan meiely gave life to the moitgage contiact, which was
at the time, moie than 2 yeais oveiuue. Eviuently, it was executeu
to facilitate easy compliance by moitgagoi with hei moitgage
obligation. It is not incompatible anu can stanu togethei with the
moitgage contiact.

$f5-)" M $5('
V@P;IL;[ 1DB /00D
(@N;@H]@;6 Auie Lenuing fileu a Complaint foi ejectment against
spouses Aquino alleging that aftei the spouses ieceiveu
substantial consiueiation foi the sale of the subject piopeity,
they iefuseu to vacate the same. Aquino counteieu that Auie uiu
not comply with theii N0A anu that they uiu not ieceive the
pioceeus theieon oi benefiteu theiefiom. The NeTC iuleu in
favoui of Aquino anu uismisseu the Complaint foi ejectment foi
non-compliance with the baiangay conciliation piocess, among
othei giounus. The NeTC obseiveu that Auie anu Aquino aie
iesiuents of the same '%&%"G%9 but theie is no showing that any
attempt has been maue to settle the case amicably at the
'%&%"G%9 level. The RTC affiimeu but the CA ieveiseu stating that
90
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

the failuie of Auie to subject the mattei to '%&%"G%9 conciliation
is not a juiisuictional flaw anu it will not affect the sufficiency of
Auie's Complaint since Aquino faileu to seasonably iaise such
issue in hei Answei.
7@?J6 Aquino's petition was uenieu. <5) .C".(B(%3(C" ;&C.)22 (2 "C3
% RJ&(2,(.3(C"%B &)QJ(&)F)"3# 2C 35%3 "C".CF;B(%".) 35)&)A(35
.%""C3 %88).3 35) RJ&(2,(.3(C" A5(.5 35) .CJ&3 5%2 C35)&A(2)
%.QJ(&), C+)& 35) 2J'R).3 F%33)& C& C+)& 35) ;)&2C" C8 35)
,)8)",%"3D Aquino cannot be alloweu to attack the juiisuiction of
the NeTC ovei the case aftei having submitteu heiself voluntaiily
theieto. Examining Aquino's Answei befoie the NeTC, theie is
uttei lack of any objection on hei pait to any ueficiency in the
complaint which coulu oust the NeTC of its juiisuiction.

3$)%'+ M *$)$#)'8,$"
*L;>] /B /00E
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis heie fileu a case foi iecoveiy of
possession of ieal piopeity against the pieuecessois in inteiest
of heiein iesponuent which they agieeu to iefei to the 4J;C" of
theii locality, thus suspenuing the NCTC pioceeuings. Since the
iesponuents iefuseu to entei into an aibitiation agieement, a
ceitification to file action was issueu anu foiwaiueu to the NCTC
but the couit iemanueu it back oiueiing the 4J;C" to ienuei anu
aibitiation awaiu, which the 4J;C" piomptly uiu. The NCTC
uenieu the iesponuent's motion to iepuuiate the awaiu stating
that it has become final anu executoiy. Petitionei Pang-et fileu
with the NCTC an action foi enfoicement of the Aibitiation
Awaiu which was sought to be uismisseu by the heii of the
iesponuents. The heii aigues that the Agieement foi Aibitiation
anu the Aibitiation Awaiu aie voiu. The NCTC uenieu the
petition to enfoice the awaiu, the RTC ieveiseu, which the CA
also ieveiseu back, stating that it was at a loss as to the basis of
the awaiu.
7@?J6 The Couit fails to see why the NCTC fuithei iemanueu the
case to the Lupon ng Tagapamayapa anu insisteu that the
aibitiation pioceeuings continue, uespite the cleai showing that
the iesponuents iefuseu to submit the contioveisy foi
aibitiation. What is compulsoiy unuei the law is that theie be a
confiontation between the paities befoie the Lupon Chaiiman oi
the Pangkat anu that a ceitification be issueu that no conciliation
oi settlement has been ieacheu. <5) C"B9 ").)22%&9 ;&).C",(3(C"
')8C&) %"9 .%2) 8%BB("G A(35(" 35) %J35C&(39 C8 35) 4J;C" C& 35)
0%"GP%3 F%9 ') 8(B), ')8C&) % .CJ&3 (2 35%3 35)&) 5%2 '))" ;)&2C"%B
.C"8&C"3%3(C" ')3A))" 35) ;%&3()2 'J3 ,)2;(3) )%&")23 )88C&32 3C
.C".(B(%3)# 35)&) A%2 % 8%(BJ&) 3C %F(.%'B9 2)33B) 35) ,(2;J3)D The
NCTC shoulu have continueu with the pioceeuings in the case foi
iecoveiy of possession which it suspenueu in oiuei to give way
foi the possible amicable iesolution of the case thiough
aibitiation befoie the Lupon ng Tagapamayapa.

4?!W

*-%5'! M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
V@P4 /2B 1CCU
(@N;@H]@;6 The petitionei is the piesiuent of the Katipunang
Panlungsou ng mga Baiangay ng Quezon City, anu uuiing his
teim the LuC took effect. The LuC cieateu the Liga ng mga
Baiangay. 0nuei the RRI of the LuC the incumbent piesiuents
unuei the olu Coue shall continue to act as piesiuents of the
coiiesponuing Liga chapteis penuing the election of the
piesiuents unuei the 1991 Coue. A ceitain Au-Boc Committee
conveneu anu electeu a new Piesiuent of the Liga. Petitionei
claims that such election was invaliu.

7@?J6 The RRI pioviues that penuing election of the piesiuents of
the municipal, city, piovincial, anu metiopolitan chapteis of the
Liga, the incumbent piesiuents of the association of the baiangay
councils shall continue to act as piesiuents of the coiiesponuing
liga chapteis, anu they shall continue to seive as )V C88(.(C
membeis of the sanggunian conceineu until the expiiation of
theii teim of office, unless soonei iemoveu foi cause. Petitionei,
even aftei the effectivity of the 1991 Coue, continueu to be a
baiangay official, as well as the piesiuent of the Liga-QC anu an )V
C88(.(C membei of the Sangguniang Panlungsou of Quezon City.
0nuei the RRI, the election of the fiist set of officeis of the
national anu local chapteis of the Liga cannot be helu unless a
constitution anu by-laws of the Liga is fiist auopteu anu iatifieu
by the baiangay national assembly (Rule XXIX, Ait. 21u |gj|Sj).
Inasmuch as no constitution anu by-laws hau been uiafteu by the
committee anu iatifieu by the baiangay national assembly when
the Au-Boc Committee met, the saiu meeting anu the elections
conuucteu theiein weie invaliu. Theie is neithei any conflict bet.
Rule XXIX anu the 1991 Coue noi any violation by saiu iule of the
stanuaius set by law. T"C3)> - ;J3 35(2 .%2) 5)&) ').%J2) (3 2))F2
CJ3 C8 ;B%.) 2% :1 .%2)2D - 35("P '%P% 2% '%&%"G%9 3%B%G% 2(9%
J",)&U

:%"GGJ"(%"G 1%'%3%%"

!%#B 8@>H4 U/2U2C6 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2D

('35:!-# $#+ )"4 ED0D
8@O<@KP@; /B 1CCU

$) $#+ ('8'++-)% +7' '!'#+-")8 "V 8$)%%5)-$)%
^$:$+$$) "VV-#-$!8 +" +7' V-(8+ *"),$9 "V *$9 1CCQB
$), '&'(9 +7('' R2S 9'$(8 +7'('$V+'(B $*'),-)% V"(
+7' 35(3"8' 8'#+-") T2/RLS "V ('35:!-# $#+ )"4 E1Q0B
"+7'(.-8' ^)".) $8 +7' Y!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",' "V
1CC14Y

8'#+-") 14 Section SS2(a) of Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise
known as the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, is heieby
amenueu to ieau as follows:

"Sec. SS2. Elections foi the Sangguniang Kabataan.
"(a) The fiist elections foi the sangguniang kabataan to be
conuucteu unuei this Coue shall be helu thiity (Su) uays aftei the
next local elections: Pioviueu, That, the iegulai elections foi the
sangguniang kabataan shall be helu on the fiist Nonuay of Nay
1996: Pioviueu, fuithei, That the succeeuing iegulai elections foi
the sangguniang kabataan shall be helu eveiy thiee (S) yeais
theieaftei: Pioviueu, finally, That the national, special
metiopolitan, piovincial, city anu municipal feueiations of the
sangguniang kabataan shall conuuct the election of theii
iespective officeis thiity (Su) uays aftei the Nay 1996
sangguniang kabataan elections on uates to be scheuuleu by the
Commission on Elections.

"The conuuct of the sangguniang kabataan elections shall be
unuei the supeivision of the Commission on Elections.
"The 0mnibus Election Coue shall govein the elections of the
sangguniang kabataan."


91
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

('35:!-# $#+ )"4 D0UU
$) $#+ #('$+-)% +7' )$+-")$! 9"5+7 #"**-88-")B
'8+$:!-87-)% $ )$+-")$! #"*3('7')8-&' $),
#""(,-)$+', 3("%($* ") 9"5+7 ,'&'!"3*')+ B
$33("3(-$+-)% V5),8 +7'('V"(B $), V"( "+7'(
35(3"8'8
8'#+-") 14 Title - This Act shall be known as the Y9FI<] =G
)L<=FG:I=?J=GZ $><Y4
8'#4 104 Functions of the Commission. - The Commission shall
have the following functions:
(a) To foimulate anu initiate the national policy oi policies on
youth;
(b) To plan, implement, anu oveisee a national integiateu youth
piomotion anu uevelopment piogiam;
(c) To establish a consultative mechanism which shall pioviue a
foium foi continuing uialogue between the goveinment anu the
youth sectoi on the piopei planning anu evaluation of policies,
piogiams anu piojects affecting the youth, convening foi the
puipose, iepiesentatives of all youth oiganizations anu
institutions, incluuing the Sangguniang Kabataan fiom baiangay,
municipal, city, piovincial, anu national levels;
(u) To assist anu cooiuinate with goveinmental anu non-
goveinmental oiganizations oi institutions in the
implementation of all laws, policies, piogiams anu piojects
ielative to youth piomotion anu uevelopment.
(e) To seek oi iequest the assistance anu suppoit of any
goveinment agency, office oi instiumentality incluuing
goveinment-owneu oi contiolleu coipoiations, local goveinment
units as well as non- goveinmental oiganizations oi institutions
in puisuance of its policies, piogiams anu piojects;
(f) To conuuct scientific, inteiuisciplinaiy anu policy-oiienteu
ieseaiches anu stuuies on youth-ielateu matteis, as well as
tiainings, seminais anu woikshops that will enhance the skills
anu leaueiship potentials of the youth, instilling in them
nationalism anu patiiotism, with paiticulai emphasis on Filipino
cultuie anu values.
(g) To establish anu maintain linkages with inteinational youth
anu youth-seiving oiganizations oi institutions anu counteipait
agencies of foieign goveinments in oiuei to facilitate anu ensuie
the paiticipation of the Filipino youth in inteinational functions
anu affaiis;
(h) To auministei youth exchange piogiams as well as the
monitoi anu cooiuinate all foieign-sponsoieu youth piogiams
anu piojects such as the Ship foi Southeast Asian Youth Piogiam
anu othei similai exchanges anu goouwill missions;
(i) To establish such oiganizational stiuctuies incluuing iegional
offices, as maybe iequiieu to effectively caiiy out its functions;
(j) To conuuct piomotion anu funu-iaising campaigns in
accoiuance with existing laws;
(k) To allocate iesouices foi the implementation of youth
piogiams anu piojects;
(l) To extenu anu pioviue suppoit oi assistance to ueseiving
youth anu youth oiganizations incluuing scholaiship giants;
(m) To iegistei, establish anuoi facilitate anu help in the
establishment of youth oiganizations anu youth-seiving
oiganizations;
(n) To paiticipate in inteinational youth foia, symposia anu
oiganizations such as the Inteinational Youth Foium, Asian
Youth Council, ASEAN Youth Foium, 0niteu Nations Commission
foi Inteinational Youth Yeai (IYY) anu othei similai bouies;
(o) To pioviue tiaining anu a national secietaiiat foi the
Sangguniang Kabataan National Feueiation puisuant to R.A. No.
716u, otheiwise known as the Local uoveinment Coue;
(p) To submit an annual iepoit on the implementation of this Act
to the Piesiuent anu to Congiess; anu
(q) To peifoim such othei functions as may be necessaiy to
effectively anu efficiently caiiy out the piovisions of this Act.

('35:!-# $#+ )"4 C1QU *L;>] 1CB /00/
$) $#+ 3("&-,-)% V"( 89)#7(")-a', :$($)%$9 $),
8$)%%5)-$)% ^$:$+$$) '!'#+-")8B $*'),-)%
('35:!-# $#+ )"4 E1Q0B $8 $*'),',B "+7'(.-8' ^)".)
$8 +7' Y!"#$! %"&'()*')+ #",' "V 1CC1YB $), V"(
"+7'( 35(3"8'8
$) (3 )"%.3), '9 35) :)"%3) %", WCJ2) C8 7);&)2)"3%3(+)2 C8 35)
05(B(;;(")2 (" KC"G&)22 %22)F'B),>
8@><=FG 14 *%3) C8 ?B).3(C"D - Theie shall be synchionizeu
baiangay anu sangguniang kabataan elections which shall be helu
on }uly 1S, 2uu2. Subsequent synchionizeu baiangay anu
sangguniang kabataan elections shall be helu on the last Nonuay
of 0ctobei anu eveiy thiee (S) yeais theieaftei.
8@><=FG /4 <)&F C8 H88(.)D -The teim of office of all baiangay anu
sangguniang kabataan officials aftei the effectivity of this Act
shall be thiee (S) yeais.
No baiangay elective official shall seive foi moie than thiee (S)
consecutive teims in the same position: Pioviueu, howevei, That
the teim of office shall be ieckoneu fiom the 1994 baiangay
elections. voluntaiy ienunciation of office foi any length of time
shall not be consiueieu as an inteiiuption in the continuity of
seivice foi the full teim foi which the elective official was electeu.
8@><=FG 24 7)G(23&%3(C"D - Foi puiposes of the }uly 1S, 2uu2
92
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

synchionizeu baiangay anu sangguniang kabataan elections
pioviueu unuei this Act, a special iegistiation of voteis foi the
sangguniang kabataan shall be fixeu by the Commission on
Elections (C0NELEC). Subsequent iegistiation of baiangay anu
sangguniang kabataan voteis shall be goveineu by Republic Act
No. 8189.
8@><=FG U4 !22JF;3(C" C8 H88(.)D - The teim of office of the
baiangay anu sangguniang kabataan officials electeu unuei this
Act shall commence on August 1S, 2uu2. The teim of office of the
baiangay anu sangguniang kabataan officials electeu in
subsequent elections shall commence at noon of Novembei Su
next following theii election.
8@><=FG T4 WCB, H+)&D - All incumbent baiangay officials anu
sangguniang kabataan officials shall iemain in office unless
soonei iemoveu oi suspenueu foi cause until theii successois
shall have been electeu anu qualifieu. The piovisions of the
0mnibus Election Coue ielative to the failuie of elections anu
special elections aie heieby ieiteiateu in this Act.
8@><=FG Q4 Section 424 of Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise
known as the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, is heieby
amenueu to ieau as follows:
Y8@>4 U/U4 1%3(;J"%" "G 1%'%3%%"D - The katipunan ng
kabataan shall be composeu of Filipino citizens actually
iesiuing in the baiangay foi at least six (6) months, who
aie fifteen (1S) but less than eighteen (18) yeais of age
on the uay of the election, anu who aie uuly iegisteieu
in the list of the sangguniang kabataan oi in the official
baiangay list in the custouy of the baiangay secietaiy."
8@><=FG E4 Section 428 of Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise
known as the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, is heieby
amenueu to ieau as follows:
"8@>4 U/D4 _J%B(8(.%3(C"2D - An elective official of the
sangguniang kabataan must be a Filipino citizen, a
qualifieu votei of the katipunan ng kabataan, a iesiuent
of the '%&%"G%9 foi at least one (1) yeai immeuiately
piioi to election, at least fifteen (1S) yeais but less than
eighteen (18) yeais of age on the uay of the election,
able to ieau anu wiite Filipino, English, oi the local
uialect, anu must not have been convicteu of any ciime
involving moial tuipituue."
```
8@><=FG C4 !;;B(.%'(B(39 C8 H35)& ?B).3(C" 4%A2D - The 0mnibus
Election Coue anu othei existing election laws, as fai as
piacticable, shall apply to baiangay anu sangguniang kabataan
elections.

#$8'86

$!5)$) --- M4 *-($8"!
WI?[ 21B 1CCE
(@N;@H]@;6 Case about the valiuity of the Sec. of BILu's oiuei
exempting the City of Nanila fiom holuing its SK elections on Bec.
4, 1992 foi having alieauy pieviously helu elections on Nay 26,
199u. This was puisuant to Resolution No. 2499 of C0NELEC
which placeu the SK elections unuei the uiiect contiol anu
supeivision of the BILu. The petitionei Sec. of BILu claims that
the BILu Secietaiy hau the authoiity to ueteimine unuei Sec. SS2
of the Local uoveinment Coue whethei it was iequiieu to holu its
fiist elections foi SK.
7@?J6 The petition is meiitoiious. Z(&23 C8 %BB# contiaiy to
iesponuents' contention, Resolution No. 2499 uiu not contiavene
Ait. IX, C, Sec. 2(1) of the Constitution which pioviues that the
C0NELEC shall have the powei to "enfoice anu auministei all
laws anu iegulations ielative to the conuuct of an election,
plebiscite, initiative, iefeienuum, anu iecall." Elections foi SK
officeis aie not subject to the supeivision of the C0NELEC in the
same way that contests involving elections of SK officials uo not
fall within the juiisuiction of the C0NELEC. :).C",# the authoiity
gianteu to the BILu was nothing moie than the asceitainment of
a fact, namely, whethei bet. }an. 1, 1988 anu }an. 1, 1992 elections
hau been helu in a given kabataang baiangay. If elections hau
been conuucteu, then no elections hau to be helu on Bec. 4, 1992
as by viitue of Sec. SS2 (u) the teim of office of those so electeu
was extenueu to coinciue with the teim of office of those electeu
unuei the LuC. Theie was no unuue uelegation of legislative
powei but only of the uiscietion as to the execution of a law.
<5(&,# it was piecisely to foieclose any question iegaiuing the
valiuity of KB elections helu in the afteimath of the EBSA
ievolution anu upon the effectivity of the new LuC that the
exception clause of Sec. SS2 (u) was inseiteu. It may be ueemeu
to be a cuiative law, which in essence is ietiospective in effect. It
is enacteu to valiuate acts uone which otheiwise woulu be invaliu
unuei existing laws, by consiueiing them as having complieu
with the existing laws.

$888"#-$+', !$:"( 5)-")8 M4 !'+("),"*")+'W"
"><FP@; 1UB 1CCU
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie the employees weie claiming holiuay pay
foi Bec. 4, 1992 on the giounu that the SK election was a local
election.

7@?J6 Yes, it is a local election. The SK is pait of the local
goveinment stiuctuie. The LuC cieates in eveiy baiangay a
Sangguniang Kabataan, composeu of a chaiiman, 7 membeis, a
secietaiy anu a tieasuiei. The chaiiman of the SK is an )V C88(.(C
membei of the Sangguniang Baiangay with the same poweis,
uuties, functions, anu piivileges as the iegulai membeis of the
Sangguniang Baiangay. The piesiuent of the Peueiasyon ng mga
Sangguniang Kabataan is an )V C88(.(C membei of the Sangguniang
Panlalawigan, Sangguniang Panlungsou, anu Sangguniang Bayan.
Bence, the election foi the membeis of the SK may piopeily be
consiueieu a "local election".


*$(f5'a M4 #"*'!'#
$IZIH< /TB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei won the position of SK Chaiiman in the SK
elections but piivate iesponuent fileu an election piotest befoie
the NTC. Petitionei claims that the election officials have
juiisuiction ovei the case, insteau of the iegulai couits, such that
Sec. 2SS of the 0mnibus Election Coue iegaiuing petitions foi QJC
A%&&%"3C is inapplicable to the case.
7@?J6 Sec. 2SS of the 0mnibus Election Coue, which pioviues that
the 0mnibus Election Coue shall govein the elections of the SK, is
contiolling. Thus, any contest ielating to the election of the
membeis of the SK (incluuing the chaiiman)whethei
peitaining to theii eligibility oi the mannei of theii electionis
cognizable by the NTCs, NCTCs, anu NeTCs. Sec. 6 of C0NELEC
Resolution No. 2824 applies only to pioceeuings befoie the
93
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

election. This is eviuent fiom the use of the woiu 'canuiuates' in
Sec. 6 anu the phiase "winning canuiuates" in Sec. 49. The
uistinction is baseu on the piinciple that it is the pioclamation
which maiks off the juiisuiction of the couits fiom the
juiisuiction of election officials. Befoie the pioclamation, cases
conceining eligibility of SK officeis anu membeis aie cognizable
by the Election 0fficei. But aftei the election anu pioclamation
the same cases become QJC A%&&%"3C cases cognizable by NTCs,
NCTCs, anu NeTCs. As the C0NELEC saiu, on the asseition that
Sec. 2SS of the 0mnibus Election not applicable as it applies only
to baiangay elective officials, it is off-tangent as the SK Chaiiman
is consiueieu a baiangay official unuei Sec. S87 (a) of the
0mnibus Election Coue.

%$(&-,$ M4 8$!'8
$O;=? 1DB 1CCE
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei's ceitificate of canuiuacy was uisappioveu
as she was then 21 yeais anu 1u months olu. The issues in the
case aie: (1) whethei the C0NELEC )" '%". has juiisuiction to
act on the petition to ueny oi cancel hei ceitificate of canuiuacy
anu; (2) whethei oi not petitionei has exceeueu the age
iequiiement to iun as an elective official of the SK.

7@?J6 Sec. SS2 (a) of the LuC of 1991 pioviues that the conuuct of
the SK elections is unuei the supeivision of the C0NELEC anu
shall be goveineu by the 0mnibus Election Coue. 0nuei the
C0NELEC Rules of Pioceuuie, juiisuiction ovei a petition to
cancel a ceitificate of canuiuacy lies with the C0NELEC sitting in
Bivision, not )" '%".. Cases befoie a Bivision may only be
enteitaineu by the C0NELEC )" '%". when the iuling is not
obtaineu in the Bivision. As to petitionei's age, a closei look at
the LuC will ieveal a uistinction between the maximum age of a
membei in the Katipunan ng Kabataan anu the maximum age of
an elective SK official. Sec. 424 of the Coue sets a membei's
maximum age at 21 yeais only. 0n the othei hanu, Sec. 428
pioviues that the maximum age of an elective SK official is 21
yeais olu "on the uay of his election." The auuition of the phiase
"on the uay of his election" is an auuitional qualification. The
membei may be moie than 21 yeais of age on election uay oi on
the uay he iegisteis as membei of the Katipunan ng Kabataan.
The elective official, howevei, must not be moie than 21 yeais
olu on the uay of election.. When the law speaks of yeais, it is
unueistoou that yeais aie of S6S uays each. The law uoes not
state that that the canuiuate be less than 22 yeais on election uay.
Petitionei is theiefoie ineligible foi being ovei the age
qualification foi canuiuacy.

a$($+' M4 #"*'!'#
)FM@KP@; 1CB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Buiing the 1996 SK elections, petitionei lougeu an
election piotest befoie the NTC of Pangasinan, which ienueieu a
uecision favoiable to him. Piivate iesponuent appealeu to the
C0NELEC, which in tuin iuleu in his favoi. Although it was not
iaiseu as an issue, the Supieme Couit iesolveu the question of
juiisuiction.
7@?J6 Petition gianteu. The appeal inteiposeu by the piivate
iesponuent to the C0NELEC fiom the uecision of the tiial couit of
oiigin in subject election case, was not iefeiieu to a uivision of
the C0NELEC but was insteau submitteu to the C0NELEC )"
'%".D Such iecouise tiansgiesseu Sec. S, Ait. IX-C of the
Constitution. In :%&F()"3C +D KH6?4?K# the Couit helu that such
piovision states that election cases incluue pie-pioclamation
contioveisies, anu all such cases must fiist be heaiu anu ueciueu
by a Bivision of the Commission.

:$9+$) M4 #"*'!'#
V@P;IL;[ UB /002
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie the petitioneis weie supposeuly met on
the way by a baiangay captain who leu them to iegistei in a
piecinct othei than theii piopei piecinct. The C0NELEC )" '%".
thus iesolveu to file an infoimation against them foi uouble
iegistiation. Petitioneis aie claiming that the C0NELEC )" '%".
committeu giave abuse of uiscietion in taking cognizance of the
case in the fiist instance in violation of Sec. S, Aiticle IX-C of the
Constitution
7@?J6 0nuei Sec. 2, Ait. IX-C of the 1987 Constitution, the
C0NELEC exeicises both auministiative anu quasi-juuicial
poweis. The 1987 Constitution uoes not piesciibe how the
C0NELEC shoulu exeicise its auministiative poweis, whethei )"
'%". oi in uivision. Cleaily, the C0NELEC )" '%". can act uiiectly
on matteis falling within its auministiative poweis. Inueeu, this
has been the piactice of the C0NELEC both unuei the 197S anu
1987 Constitutions. The piosecution of election law violatois
involves the exeicise of the C0NELEC's auministiative poweis.
Thus, the C0NELEC )" '%". can uiiectly appiove the
iecommenuation of its Law Bept. to file the ciiminal infoimation
foi uouble iegistiation against petitioneis in the instant case.

*")+'8#!$("8 M4 #"*'!'#
WI?[ CB /00/
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis, who all claim to be 2u yeais olu, aigue
that the postponement of the Nay 6, 2uu2 SK elections
uisenfianchises them, pieventing them fiom voting anu being
voteu foi in the SK elections, as the postponement woulu
uisqualify fiom SK membeiship youths who will tuin 21 yeais
olu between Nay 6, 2uu2 anu the uate of the new SK elections.
They also claim that a ieuuction in the SK membeiship to 1S but
less than 18 yeais of age woulu uisqualify about 7 million youths.
Thus, they also want to pievent the public iesponuents fiom
passing laws anu iules that woulu lowei the membeiship age in
the SK.
7@?J6 Theie is no actual contioveisy iequiiing the exeicise of the
powei of juuicial ieview. While seeking to pievent a
postponement of the Nay 6, 2uu2 SK elections, petitioneis aie
neveitheless amenable to a iesetting of the SK elections to any
uate not latei than }uly 1S, 2uu2. RA No. 9164 has ieset the SK
elections to }uly 1S, 2uu2, With iespect to the uate of the SK
elections, theie is theiefoie no actual contioveisy iegaiuing
juuicial inteivention. Petitioneis' piayei to pievent Congiess
fiom enacting into a law a pioposeu bill loweiing the
membeiship age in the SK uoes not piesent an actual
contioveisy. A pioposeu bill is not subject to juuicial ieview
because it is not a law. 0nuei the sepaiation of poweis, the Couit
cannot iestiain Congiess fiom passing any law, oi fiom setting
into motion the legislative mill accoiuing to its inteinal iules. The
Couit also has no powei to uictate to Congiess the object oi
subject of bills that Congiess shoulu enact into law. 0nuei RA
9164, Congiess meiely iestoieu the age iequiiement in PB No.
684, the oiiginal chaitei of the SK. Petitioneis uo not have a
vesteu iight to the peimanence of the age iequiiement unuei Sec.
424 of the LuC. SK membeiship is not a piopeity iight piotecteu
by the Constitution because it is a meie statutoiy iight confeiieu
by law.

8$*:$($)- M4 #"*'!'#
8@O<@KP@; 1TB /00U
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis contenu that the C0NELEC committeu a
giave abuse of uiscietion when, in light of the faileu Baiangay
anu SK elections, insteau of holuing anothei special election, it
94
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

uiiecteu the BILu to appoint the saiu Baiangay anu SK officials, in
accoiuance with the LuC.
7@?J6 RA 916, which is now the law that fixes the uate of
baiangay anu SK elections, piesciibes the teim of office of
baiangay anu SK officials, anu pioviues foi the qualifications of
canuiuates anu voteis foi the SK elections. As the law now stanus,
Sec. S of RA 9164 is cleai, anu since theie was a failuie of
elections in the iegulai anu special elections, the incumbent
petitioneis can legally iemain in office as baiangay chaiimen of
theii iespective baiangays in a holu-ovei capacity. Sec. S
explicitly pioviues that incumbent baiangay officials may
continue in office in a holu ovei capacity until theii successois
aie electeu anu qualifieu. The application of the holu-ovei
piinciple pieseives continuity in the tiansaction of official
business anu pievents a hiatus in goveinment penuing the
assumption of a successoi into office.

#"*'!'# (@HF?I<=FG )F4 0000UQ
2

WLGIL;[ 1CB /000

Thus, aftei the above iulings, it is cleai that the limiteu instances
wheie the SC appioveu the assumption of juiisuiction by the
C0NELEC En Banc as follows:

I. Special Action Cases
1. Petitions foi postponement oi suspension of elections.
2. Petitions to ueclaie failuie of election oi to annul election

II. Special cases
1. petition to ueclaie illegal the composition of pioceeuings of
local canvasseis
2. petitions to coiiect manifest eiiois

Fuithei, these aie petitions which iequiie actions of the
commission en banc on the basis of the constitutional manuate to
enfoice anu auministei all laws ielative to the conuuct of
elections, plebescites anu initiative to wit:

I. Special pioceeuings cases
1. petition foi annulment of peimanent list of voteis
2. petitions foi accieuitation of citizen's aims

II. Election Natteis
1. Recall elections
2 Initiative
S. Pleauings
4. 0thei contentious matteis in exeicise of auministiative,
supeivisoiy, anu iegulatoiy poweis of the Constitution (not
falling in the above enumeiation)

III. 6C3J 0&C;&(C action of the Commission in uisqualifying
canuiuates.











#
$%&'() &*+, '-( .,/0%1234 567*4 8(9%(:(*
+7' *5)-#-3$!-+9

!%#B 8@>H4 UU0UUEB !%#B 8@>4 UUU RPS R2S6 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2D

"!-&$('a M4 8$),-%$):$9$)
"><FP@; UB 1CCT
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei is accuseu of violating Sec. S (e) of RA Su19
foi iefusing to issue a peimit to BCCI to set up its night
manufactuieis' faii while authoiizing uniuentifieu Baclaian-
baseu oiganizations of venuois to holu a Chiistmas faii thiough
an executive oiuei.
7@?J6 As to petitionei's main uefense, it woulu appeai that
petitionei hau taken it upon himself to categoiize anu ueteimine
the exclusivity oi non-exclusivity of the authoiity to opeiate
gianteu to BCCI, uepenuing on whethei oi not it woulu suit his
puipose oi pieuilection. Petitionei's suspecteu paitiality may be
gleaneu fiom the fact that he issueu a peimit in favoi of the
uniuentifieu Baclaian-baseu venuois' associations by the meie
expeuient of an executive oiuei, wheieas so many iequiiements
weie imposeu on BCCI befoie it coulu be gianteu the same
peimit. Petitionei submits that no peimit coulu be issueu
because BCCI nevei fileu an application theiefoi with the piopei
office, that is, the Business Peimit anu Licensing 0ffice. Bowevei,
the petitionei, as a municipal mayoi, is expiessly authoiizeu anu
has the powei to issue peimits anu licenses foi the holuing of
activities foi any chaiitable oi welfaie puipose, puisuant to Sec.
444 (b) (S) (iv) of the LuC. Bence, he cannot ieally feign total lack
of authoiity to act on the lettei-application of BCCI.

5)-+', :V 7"*'".)'(8l $88"#-$+-") M4 #-+9 *$9"(
V@P;IL;[ EB /00E
(@N;@H]@;6 Case conceining Nunicipal 0iu. No. 97-u8 enacteu by
the Nunicipal Council of Paiaaque. Petitioneis aie contenuing
that the ieclassification of ceitain poitions of BF Bomes
Paiaaque fiom iesiuential to commeicial zone is
unconstitutional because it amounts to impaiiment of the
contiacts between the uevelopei of BF Bomes anu the lot buyeis.
Public iesponuents aie alleging that it is a valiu exeicise of police
powei.
7@?J6 The oiuinance is a legitimate exeicise of police powei anu
the ieclassification of the saiu poitions is not aibitiaiy oi
unieasonable. 0nuei Sec. 447 of the LuC, the Sangguniang Bayan
oi the Nunicipal Council, as the legislative bouy of the
municipality, has the powei to enact oiuinances foi the geneial
welfaie of the municipality anu its inhabitants. Even petitionei
0BFBAI has acknowleugeu the neeu foi auuitional commeicial
aiea, when it pioposeu a new commeicial aiea that is
substantially the same as the one ieclassifieu in the oiuinance. As
to the non-impaiiment clause, the Couit has uphelu in seveial
cases the supeiioiity of police powei ovei the non-impaiiment
clause, as contiactual iestiictions on the use of piopeity coulu
not pievail ovei the ieasonable exeicise of police powei thiough
zoning iegulations.

!%#B 8@>H4 UU2B UD16 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2D

#$8'86

($*"8 M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
"><FP@; 20B 1CD1
(@N;@H]@;6 The municipality of Bagonoy, Bulacan sueu petitionei
thiough a piivate law fiim. The law fiim allegeu at fiist that it
was entitleu to 2u% of the amount to be iecoveieu by plaintiff as
attoiney's fees, but then was uiiecteu by the CA to amenu its
complaint anu say that it was seiving as counsel without
95
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

compensation. Petitionei claims that such iepiesentation by a
piivate law fiim is invaliu.

7@?J6 The TC anu the CA eiieu in allowing the Ciuz law fiim to
act as counsel foi the municipality in collaboiation with the fiscal
anu the municipal attoiney. It is manifestly a tiansgiession of Sec.
168S of the Rev. Auministiative Coue which pioviues that the
piovincial fiscal shall iepiesent the piovince anu any
municipality oi municipal uistiict in any couit, subject to
exceptions not obtaining in this case, anu section S of the Local
Autonomy Act, which pioviues that the municipal attoiney shall
act as legal counsel of the municipality, anu who is paiu out of
municipal funus. Eviuently, the lawmakei in iequiiing that a
municipality shoulu be iepiesenteu in its couit cases by a
goveinment lawyei intenueu that the municipality shoulu not be
buiueneu with the expenses of hiiing a piivate lawyei, anu it is
expecteu that the municipal attoiney anu the piovincial fiscal
woulu be faithful anu ueuicateu to the municipality's inteiests,
anu that as civil seivice employees, they coulu be helu
accountable foi any misconuuct oi ueieliction of uuty.

3-!-!!$ M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
WIG@ /DB 1CCU
(@N;@H]@;6 In the execution of a Supieme Couit uecision, the
uefenuant coipoiation fileu a manifestation that the municipal
mayoi ieceiveu the sum aujuugeu anu executeu ielease anu
quitclaim uocuments. The piivate counsel opposeu this, claiming
that the mayoi coulu not waive the balance which iepiesents the
taxes uue unuei the juugment anu ovei which his law fiim hau
iegisteieu two liens foi allegeu consultancy seivices anu
attoineys' fees. The coipoiation, on the othei hanu, is
questioning the piivate counsel's authoiity to iepiesent the
municipality.
7@?J6 Atty. Nenuiola hau no authoiity to file a petition in behalf
anu in the name of the Nunicipality of Pililla. Piivate attoineys
cannot iepiesent a piovince oi municipality in lawsuits. The
municipality's authoiity to employ a piivate lawyei is expiessly
limiteu only to situations wheie the piovincial fiscal is
uisqualifieu to iepiesent it, a fact which uoes not appeai on the
iecoiu. The legality of his iepiesentation can be questioneu at
any stage of the pioceeuings. Anu even assuming that saiu
iepiesentation was uuly authoiizeu, saiu authoiity is ueemeu to
have been ievokeu by the municipality when the lattei, thiough
the mayoi anu without saiu counsel's paiticipation, enteieu into
a compiomise agieement with the coipoiation with iegaiu to the
execution of the juugment anu fileu peisonally with the couit
below two pleauings entitleu "Satisfaction of }uugment" anu
"Release anu Quitclaim." A client, by appeaiing peisonally anu
piesenting a motion by himself, is consiueieu to have implieuly
uismisseu his lawyei.

($*"8 M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
*L;>] 2B 1CCE
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie the piivate attoiney withuiew as counsel
foi the municipality anu the piovincial attoiney auopteu the
entiie pioceeuings paiticipateu inunueitaken by saiu piivate
attoiney.
7@?J6 As alieauy stateu, piivate lawyeis may not iepiesent
municipalities on theii own. Neithei may they uo so even in
collaboiation with authoiizeu goveinment lawyeis. This is
anchoieu on the piinciple that only accountable public officeis
may act foi anu in behalf of public entities anu that public funus
shoulu not be extenueu to hiie piivate lawyeis. Bowevei, the
auoption by the piovincial attoiney of the pioceeuings
paiticipateu in by piivate counsel piouuces valiuity. In the
inteiest of substantial justice, a municipality may auopt the woik
alieauy peifoimeu in goou faith by the piivate lawyei, which
woik is beneficial to it (1) pioviueu that no injustice is theieby
heapeu on the auveise paity anu (2) pioviueu fuithei that no
compensation in any guise is paiu theiefoi by saiu municipality
to the piivate lawyei. 0nless so expiessly auopteu, the piivate
lawyei's woik cannot binu the municipality.

$!-)85% M4 ('%-")$! +(-$! #"5(+
$IZIH< /2B 1CC2
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie a complaint incluuing a claim foi
uamages was fileu against the municipal mayoi anu municipal
tieasuiei, who then hiieu a piivate lawyei to iepiesent them in
the pioceeuings.
7@?J6 Inueeu, it appeais that the law allows a piivate counsel to
be hiieu by a municipality only when the municipality is an
auveise paity in a case involving the piovincial goveinment oi
anothei municipality oi city within the piovince. ?"&(QJ)I# :&D +D
M(F)")I enumeiateu instances when the piovincial fiscal is
uisqualifieu to iepiesent in couit a paiticulai municipality: if anu
when the oiiginal juiisuiction of the case involving the
municipality is vesteu in the SC, when the municipality is a paity
auveise to the piovincial goveinment oi to some othei
municipality in the same piovince, anu when, in a case involving
the municipality, he, oi his wife, oi chilu, is pecuniaiily involveu,
as heii legatee, cieuitoi oi otheiwise. Also, in one case, the Couit
helu that wheie iigiu auheience to the law on iepiesentation of
local officials in couit actions coulu uepiive a paity of his iight to
ieuiess foi a valiu giievance, the hiiing of a piivate counsel
woulu be piopei. The Couit has also saiu that a piovincial
goveinoi sueu in his official capacity may engage the seivices of
piivate counsel when the complaint contains othei allegations
anu a piayei foi moial uamages, which, if uue fiom the
uefenuants, must be satisfieu by them in theii piivate capacity.
The key then to iesolving the issue of whethei a local
goveinment official may secuie the seivices of piivate counsel, in
action fileu against him in his official capacity, lies on the natuie
of the action anu the ielief that is sought. Since the petition in this
case claimeu moial anu exemplaiy uamages as well as litigation
expenses, the iesponuent municipal officials weie not impiopeily
iepiesenteu by a piivate counsel, whose legal fees shall be foi
theii own account.

*$)#')-," M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
$O;=? 1/B /000
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitioneis fileu an action foi manuamus anu
uamages against the piovincial boaiu of Camaiines Noite, the
school boaiu, piovincial goveinoi, piovincial tieasuiei, anu
piovincial auuitoi to pay the teachei's claim foi unpaiu salaiy
incieases. They aie contenuing that the piivate attoiney coulu
not iepiesent the public iesponuents as only the 0Su can
iepiesent instiumentalities of the National uoveinment.
7@?J6 Notwithstanuing the fact that the tiial couit gianteu
manuamus, petitioneis appealeu to the CA since the tiial couit
uiu not awaiu uamages. In view of the uamages sought which, if
gianteu, coulu iesult in peisonal liability, iesponuents coulu not
be ueemeu to have been impiopeily iepiesenteu by piivate
counsel.

)$+-&-,$, M4 V'!-A
V@P;IL;[ UB 1CCU
(@N;@H]@;6 The issue in this case is whethei oi not the juuge
committeu giave abuse of uiscietion in aumitting the amenueu
infoimation foi muiuei fileu by the piovincial fiscal. Petitionei
contenus that it is the 0mbuusman anu not the piovincial fiscal
96
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

who has the authoiity conuuct a pieliminaiy investigation ovei
his case foi the allegeu muiuei, anu that it is the Sanuiganbayan
which hau juiisuiction ovei the case, not the RTC.
7@?J6 The latest law on the Sanuiganbayan, P.B. 1861, shows that
two iequiiements must concui unuei Sec. 4 (a) (2) foi an offense
to fall unuei the Sanuiganbayan's juiisuiction: (1) the offense
committeu by the public officei must be in ielation to his office
anu (2) the penalty piesciibeu must be highei than ;&(2(C"
.C&&)..(C"%B oi impiisonment foi six yeais, oi a fine of P6,uuu.uu.
In this case, the fiist iequiiement has not been met. We cannot
accept petitionei's aigument that the allegeu offense was
committeu in the peifoimance of the mayoi's iesponsibility to
maintain peace & oiuei on the pietext that the victim, a iobbeiy
anu NPA suspect, was unuei investigation at the time when he
was allegeuly killeu at the police station. The allegeu act in no
way falls unuei any of the functions of the municipal mayoi as
enumeiateu unuei Sec. 444 of the LuC oi implieu theiefiom. The
0mbuusman's powei to investigate is uepenuent on the cases
cognizable by the Sanuiganbayan, anu it is a shaieu oi concuiient
powei with similaily authoiizeu agencies of the goveinment.

*")+5'(+" M4 +9
"><FP@; QB /00D
(@N;@H]@;6 The issue is whethei the appointment of petitionei as
Nunicipal Buuget 0fficei, without the wiitten concuiience of the
Sanggunian, but uuly appioveu by the CSC anu aftei the
appointee hau seiveu as such foi almost ten yeais without
inteiiuption, can still be ievokeu by the CSC.
7@?J6 The law is cleai. 0nuei Sec. 44S (a) anu (u) of the LuC, the
heau of a uepaitment oi office in the municipal goveinment, such
as the Nunicipal Buuget 0fficei, shall be appointeu by the mayoi
with the concuiience of the majoiity of all :%"GGJ"(%"G $%9%"
membeis subject to civil seivice law, iules anu iegulations. Pei
iecoius, the appointment of petitionei was nevei submitteu to
the SB foi its concuiience oi, even if so submitteu, no such
concuiience was obtaineu. The veibal concuiience allegeuly
given by the SB, is not the concuiience iequiieu anu envisioneu
unuei the LuC. The :%"GGJ"(%", as a bouy, acts thiough a
iesolution oi an oiuinance.

+7' #-+9

!%#B 8@>H4 UUDUTD6 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2D
('35:!-# $#+ )"4 C00C
V@P;IL;[ /UB /001

$) $#+ $*'),-)% 8'#+-") UT0 "V ('35:!-# $#+ )"4
E1Q0B "+7'(.-8' ^)".) $8 +7' !"#$! %"&'()*')+
#",' "V 1CC1B :9 -)#('$8-)% +7' $&'($%' $))5$!
-)#"*' ('f5-('*')+ V"( $ *5)-#-3$!-+9 "( #!58+'(
"V :$($)%$98 +" :' #")&'(+', -)+" $ #"*3")')+
#-+94

8@><=FG 14 Sec. 4Su of Republic Act No. 716u, otheiwise known
as the Local uoveinment Coue of 1991, is heieby amenueu to
ieau as follows:

"8@>4 UT04 Requisites foi Cieation. (a) A municipality oi a
clustei of baiangays may be conveiteu into a component city if it
has a locally geneiateu aveiage annual income, as ceitifieu by the
Bepaitment of Finance, of at least 0ne hunuieu million pesos
(P1uu,uuu,uuu.uu) foi the last two (2) consecutive yeais baseu
on 2uuu constant piices, anu if it has eithei of the following
iequisites:
(i) a contiguous teiiitoiy of at least one hunuieu (1uu) squaie
kilometeis, as ceitifieu by the Lanu Nanagement Buieau; oi

(ii) a population of not less than one hunuieu fifty thousanu
(1Su,uuu) inhabitants, as ceitifieu by the National Statistics
0ffice.

The cieation theieof shall not ieuuce the lanu aiea, population
anu income of the oiiginal unit oi units at the time of saiu
cieation to less than the minimum iequiiements piesciibeu
heiein.

(b) The teiiitoiial juiisuiction of a newly-cieateu city shall be
piopeily iuentifieu by metes anu bounus. The iequiiement on
lanu aiea shall not apply wheie the city pioposeu to be cieateu is
composeu of one (1) oi moie islanus. The teiiitoiy neeu not be
contiguous if it compiises two (2) oi moie islanus.

(c) The aveiage annual income shall incluue the income
acciuing to the geneial funu, exclusive of special funus, tiansfeis,
anu non-iecuiiing income."

#$8'86

#$)'+ M4 ,'#')$
WLGIL;[ /0B /00U
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie the petitionei was gianteu authoiity to
establish a cockpit thiough a iesolution by the Sangguniang
Bayan, but the oiuinance iegulating the opeiation of cockpits anu
othei game-fowl activities in the municipality was set asiue anu
shelveu inuefinitely. The issue is whethei oi not iesponuent
mayoi can be compelleu to issue the necessaiy business peimit
to petitionei absent a municipal oiuinance which woulu
empowei hei to uo so.
7@?J6 Petitionei aumits that theie is no oiuinance which
authoiizes the giant of a mayoi's peimit to opeiate anu maintain
a cockfighting aiena. Bowevei, he invokes the iesolution wheiein
the :%"GGJ"(%"G $%9%" authoiizeu him to opeiate a cockpit, anu
the municipal tax oiuinances which geneially pioviue foi the
issuance of a mayoi's peimit foi the opeiation of businesses. It
was the 0iuinance that was withuiawn by the SB that pioviueu
foi the fees anu othei iules foi the opeiation of cockpits. Theie
being in effect no oiuinance allowing the opeiation of a cockpit,
the iesolution authoiizing petitionei to establish anu opeiate a
cockpit in the municipality cannot be implementeu. To compel
iesponuent to issue the mayoi's peimit woulu not only be a
violation of Sec. 447 of the LuC which pioviues foi the poweis
anu functions of the :%"GGJ"(%"G $%9%"# but woulu also be an
unuue encioachment on iesponuent's auministiative
pieiogatives.

$%5-(('B W(4 M4 ,' #$8+("
,@>@KP@; 1EB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 The City Legal 0fficei ieceiveu complaints against the
Chief of Legal Affaiis anu Complaint Seivices of the Bivision of
City Schools of Nanila anu iequiieu hei to explain why no
auministiative sanction shoulu be imposeu upon hei. Saiu Chief
of Legal Affaiis is claiming that she is a suboiuinate of the Sec. of
BECS, anu thus the case shoulu be enuoiseu to saiu Bepaitment.
The City Legal 0fficei claims that as the Chief of Legal Affaiis was
incluueu in the plantilla of the City of Nanila anu theiefoie hei
salaiy was ueiiveu fiom the funus of the City, she was subject to
the uisciplinaiy authoiity of the City Legal 0fficei.
7@?J6 0nuei the Auministiative Coue of 1987, the powei to
appoint anu uiscipline fiist-level employees, which incluue
iesponuent Chief of Legal Affaiis, is specifically lougeu with the
97
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

iegional uiiectoi of the BECS. The LuC uiu not automatically
iepeal the piovisions in the 1987 Auministiative Coue, anu theie
is no piovision expiessly iescinuing the authoiity of the BECS
iegional uiiectoi to appoint anu exeicise uisciplinaiy authoiity
ovei fiist-level employees. Fuitheimoie, iesponuent's position as
senioi legal officei in the Bivision of City Schools is not one of the
offices coveieu by the city mayoi's powei of appointment unuei
the LuC, anu the souice of wages is not the only ciiteiia in
ueteimining whethei the payoi may be ueemeu the employei;
the most impoitant factoi is the contiol test. Since iesponuent
was appointeu by the iegional uiiectoi of BECS, she may be
uisciplineu oi iemoveu by the lattei puisuant to law.

%"(,") M4 &'(-,-$)" --
)FM@KP@; DB 1CDD
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie theie is a conflict between the Foou anu
Biug Auministiation anu the mayoi of 0longapo City ovei the
powei to giant anu ievoke licenses foi the opeiation of uiug
stoies in the saiu city. A uiug stoie was founu to have been
selling valium without a uoctoi's piesciiption anu the mayoi
issueu a lettei summaiily ievoking the establishment's mayoi's
peimit while the FBA imposeu the stoie's closuie foi S uays, a fie,
anu a stein waining.
7@?J6 A stuuy of the peitinent laws will show that the
authoiization to opeiate issueu by the FBA is a conuition
pieceuent to the giant of a mayoi's peimit to the uiug stoie
seeking to opeiate within the city. This is not to say, howevei,
that the issuance of the mayoi's peimit is manuatoiy once it is
shown that the FBA has licenseu the opeiation of the applicant
uiug stoie, as theie may be othei conuitions that must be
complieu with. If the FBA giants a license upon its finuing that
the applicant uiug stoie has complieu with the iequiiements of
the geneial laws anu the implementing auministiative iules anu
iegulations, it is only foi theii violation that the FBA may ievoke
the saiu license. By the same token, having gianteu the peimit
upon his asceitainment that the conuitions theieof as applieu
paiticulaily to 0longapo City have been complieu with, it is only
foi the violation of such conuitions that the mayoi may ievoke
the saiu peimit. In the piesent case, as the infiaction involveu the
phaimacy anu uiug laws which the FBA hau the uiiect
iesponsibility to execute, the mayoi hau no authoiity to
inteipose his own finuings on the mattei anu substitute them foi
the uecision alieauy maue by the FBA. The tiansfei of the site of
the uiug stoie, howevei, was a violation of the mayoi's peimit,
anu theiefoie the suspension is ueemeu valiu, but only as the two
uiug stoies have not ietuineu to theii oiiginal sites as specifieu
in theii iespective peimits.

$#':'," "3+-#$! #"*3$)9 M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
*L;>] 21B /000
(@N;@H]@;6 Acebeuo was gianteu a business peimit by the
mayoi, but this was subsequently cancelleu because of a
complaint by the piivate iesponuent that Acebeuo violateu the
conuitions in the peimit. Acebeuo assails the conuitions as it
amounts to a confiscation of the business in which it is engageu.
7@?J6 The powei to issue licenses anu peimits necessaiily
incluues the coiollaiy powei to ievoke, withuiaw oi cancel the
same, anu it incluues the powei to iestiict thiough the
imposition of ceitain conuitions. Bowevei, such conuitions must
be ieasonable.
Bistinction must be maue between the giant of a license oi
peimit to uo business anu the issuance of a license to engage in
paiticulai piofession. The fiist is usually gianteu by the local
authoiities anu authoiizes saiu giantee to engage in business oi
some foim of commeicial activity. The seconu is issueu by the
Boaiu oi Commission taskeu to iegulate the paiticulai piofession
anu is a giant of authoiity to a natuial peison to engage in the
piactice oi exeicise of his piofession. Acebeuo uoes not puipoit
to seek a license to engage in the piactice of optometiy although
it employs peisons uuly licenseu to piactice such. The City Nayoi
cannot, thiough the issuance of a business peimit, iegulate the
piactice of a piofession.

Lastly, a license oi peimit is not in the natuie of a contiact but a
special piivilege; thus, estoppel cannot apply in this case, anu the
fact that petitionei acquiesceu in the special conuitions imposeu
by the Nayoi, which is JB3&% +(&)2, uoes not piecluue it fiom
challenging the saiu imposition.

!-* M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
$IZIH< 1/B /00/
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie Nayoi Alfieuo Lim stubboinly kept
having Bistio's opeiation closeu uown, even befoie the
expiiation of its business license, uespite injunctive oiueis fiom
the couit anu iefuseu to accept Bistio's license application foi
199S.
7@?J6 Sec. 4SS (S) (iv) of the LuC anu the Chaitei of the City of
Nanila show that the powei of the mayoi to issue business
licenses anu peimits necessaiily incluues the coiollaiy powei to
suspenu, ievoke, oi even iefuse to issue the same. Bowevei, the
powei to suspenu oi ievoke these licenses anu peimits is
expiessly piemiseu on the violation of the conuitions of these
peimits anu licenses, anu the powei to iefuse to issue such
licenses anu peimits is piemiseu on non-compliance with the
pieiequisites foi the issuance of such. The mayoi must obseive
uue piocess in exeicising these poweis, which means that the
mayoi must give the applicant oi licensee notice anu oppoitunity
to be heaiu. The mayoi may have the powei to inspect anu
investigate piivate commeicial establishments foi any violations
of the conuitions of theii licenses oi peimits, but he has no powei
to oiuei a police iaiu on these establishments in the guise of
inspection oi investigation, anu his act violateu a city oiuinance.
Lim uiu not chaige Bistio with any specific violation of the
conuitions of its business license oi peimits, thus, the CA uiu not
eii in upholuing the wiit of pieliminaiy injunction issueu by the
tiial couit.


*$+7$9B W(4 M4 V'!+ V"",8B -)#4
WI?[ /DB 1CCC
(@N;@H]@;6 Petitionei mayoi gianteu iesponuent a tempoiaiy
business peimit to opeiate its business "Club ueoigio." Bue to
police iepoits that iesponuent violateu the teims of saiu peimit,
petitionei cancelleu the peimit. Subsequently, the tempoiaiy
business peimit expiieu, aftei which the iesponuent fileu an
action in which the tiial couit issueu a wiit of pieliminaiy
manuatoiy injunction to allow iesponuent to open anu iesume
opeiation of its business.
7@?J6 The piimaiy issue is the valiuity of the closuie oiuei of
Nov. 27, 1997 anu the piincipal iight asseiteu by the iesponuent
is the iight to uo business unuei the license issueu by the
petitionei. Accoiuingly when iesponuent's business license
expiieu on Bec. S1, 1997, iesponuent ceaseu to have a legal iight
to uo business which may be the piopei subject of juuicial ielief
anu when the wiit of pieliminaiy manuatoiy injunction was
issueu by the tiial couit on Feb. 2S, 1998, theie was no moie
legal iight in favoi of the iesponuent foi the couits to piotect.
Whethei the closuie oiuei was issueu with oi without just cause
has been mooteu by the expiiation of the iesponuent's business
license fiom which iesponuent ueiiveu its cause of action.
98
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

)'%("8 "(-')+$! -- '!'#+(-# #""3'($+-&' -)#4 M4
8$)%%5)-$)% 3$)!5)%8", "V ,5*$%5'+'
)FM@KP@; TB 1CDE
(@N;@H]@;6 Buiing the couise of an investigation in connection
with penuing legislation ielateu to the opeiations of public
utilities, the iesponuent Sanggunian issueu a 2J';C)"% to the
petitioneis, anu subsequently, an oiuei uiiecting saiu petitioneis
to show cause why they shoulu not be punisheu foi legislative
contempt uue to theii failuie to appeai at saiu investigation. The
issue is whethei oi not the Sanggunian has the powei to issue
2J';C)"%2 anu to punish foi contempt.
7@?J6 No, it uoes not have such poweis. The exeicise by the
legislatuie of the contempt powei is a mattei of self-pieseivation
as that bianch of the goveinment vesteu with the legislative
powei, inuepenuently of the juuicial bianch, asseits it authoiity
anu punishes contempt theieof. The contempt powei of the
legislatuie is, theiefoie, 2J( G)")&(2# anu local legislative bouies
cannot coiiectly claim to possess it foi the same ieasons that the
national legislatuie uoes. Theie is no expiess piovision eithei in
the 197S Constitution oi in the Local uoveinment Coue (BP SS7)
gianting local legislative bouies, the powei to 2J';C)"% witnesses
anu the powei to punish non-membeis foi contempt. The
contempt powei anu the 2J';C)"% powei paitake of a juuicial
natuie, anu thus cannot be ueemeu implieu in the giant of
legislative powei.

,$,"!' M4 #"**-88-") ") $5,-+
,@>@KP@; 2B /00/
(@N;@H]@;6 The :%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"BJ"G2C, of Nanuaue City
gianteu the RTC anu NTC juuges auuitional monthly allowances.
Bowevei, following the BBN's Local Buuget Ciiculai No. SS, the
City Auuitoi issueu notices of uisallowance to the juuges, which
was uphelu by the C0A.
7@?J6 Sec. 4S8, pai. (a)(l)(xi) of the LuC, which supposeuly seives
as the legal basis of LBC SS, uoes not authoiize setting a uefinite
maximum limit to the auuitional allowances gianteu to juuges.
Thus, a city goveinment may allow the giant of auuitional
allowances highei than P1, uuu if the ievenues of the saiu city
goveinment exceeu its annual expenuituies. The BBN thus ovei-
steppeu its powei of supeivision ovei Lu0s by imposing a
piohibition that uiu not coiiesponu with the law it sought to
implement. Also, LBC SS is voiu foi lack of publication. Lastly, as
to whethei the appiopiiation oiuinance contiavenes any law,
iesponuent C0A faileu to piove that Nanuaue City useu the IRA
to spenu foi the auuitional allowances of the juuges, as theie was
no eviuence submitteu showing the bieakuown of the expenses
of the city goveinment anu the funus useu foi saiu expenses. }ust
because Nanuaue City's locally geneiateu ievenues weie not
enough to covei its expenuituies uiu not mean that the auuitional
allowances of petitionei juuges weie taken fiom the IRA anu not
fiom the city's own ievenues. The BBN also uiu not conuuct a
foimal ieview noi oiueieu a uisappioval of Nanuaue City's
appiopiiation oiuinances in accoiuance with Secs. S26 anu S27
of the LuC.

#-+9 "V #$!""#$) M4 #"5(+ "V $33'$!8
*L[ 2B /00Q
(@N;@H]@;6 In connection with a sale of lanu, Caloocan City
thiough its mayoi fileu 2 cases against uotesco. uotesco moveu
anu succeeueu in having the 2
nu
case uismisseu on the giounu of
foium shopping. Petitionei City claims that theie was no foium
shopping anu that its petition was fileu in accoiuance with the
poweis anu uuties of a mayoi unuei the chaitei of the city anu
unuei the LuC.

7@?J6 Baseu on Sec. 4SS of the LuC anu Sec. 9 of the Chaitei of
the City of Caloocan, it is cleai that the mayoi has the authoiity to
file suits "foi the iecoveiy of funus anu piopeity" on behalf of the
city, even without the piioi authoiization fiom the :%"GGJ"(%"D
Nowheie in the enumeiateu poweis anu uuties of the :%"GGJ"(%"
can one finu the iequiiement of such piioi authoiization in favoi
of the mayoi foi the puipose of filing suits on behalf of the city.
Bowevei, being the piopei paity to file such suits, the mayoi
must necessaiily be the one to sign the ceitification against
foium shopping, anu not the City Legal 0fficei, who, uespite
being an official of the City, was meiely its counsel anu not a
paity to the case. Also, the Couit uphelu the finuing of foium
shopping, theie being the same piincipal paities anu iuentity of
causes of action.

8"#-$! W58+-#' 8"#-'+9 M4 $+-')a$B W(4
*L;>] EB /00E
(@N;@H]@;6 Case wheie the petitioneis want to compel the Nayoi
of Nanila to enfoice 0iuinance No. 8u27 which ieclassifieu the
aiea wheie the Panuacan Teiminals aie locateu fiom inuustiial
to commeicial anu uiiecteu the owneis anu opeiatois of such
businesses, incluuing saiu Panuacan Teiminals, to cease anu
uesist fiom opeiating theii businesses within a ceitain peiiou.
Responuent Nayoi's uefense is that saiu oiuinance has been
supeiseueu by the Nemoianuum of 0nueistanuing between the
oil companies anu the city anu the Bepaitment of Eneigy anu
subsequent iesolutions enacteu by the :%"GGJ"(%"D
7@?J6 Sec. 4SS (b) (2) of the LuC imposes upon the iesponuent
the uuty, as city mayoi, to "enfoice all laws anu oiuinances
ielative to the goveinance of the city." 0ne of these is 0iuinance
No. 8u27. As the chief executive of the city, he has the uuty to
enfoice saiu oiuinance as long as it has not been iepealeu by the
:%"GGJ"(%" oi anulleu by the couits. It is his ministeiial uuty to
uo so. Assuming that the teims of the N00 weie inconsistent
with 0iuinance No. 8u27, the iesolutions which iatifieu it anu
maue it binuing on the City of Nanila expiessly gave it full foice
anu effect only until Apiil Su, 2uuS. Thus, at piesent, theie is
nothing that legally hinueis iesponuent fiom enfoicing
0iuinance. No. 8u27.

+7' 3("&-)#'

!%#B 8@>H4 UTCUQD6 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2D

#$8'86

#$($* M4 #"**-88-") ") '!'#+-")8
$IZIH< 20B 1CC2
(@N;@H]@;6 Petition to compel the C0NELEC to conuuct special
elections foi the Sub-piovince of uuimaias, Piovince of Iloilo, anu
in aieas in the Seconu Congiessional Bistiict of Iloilo which weie
uiiectly affecteu by the conveision of uuimaias into a full-fleugeu
piovince. The petition allegeu that the C0NELEC hau no
authoiity to excluue the voteis of the Sub-piovince of uuimaias
to vote foi the uoveinoi, vice-uoveinoi anu Nembeis of the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan of the Piovince of Iloilo.
7@?J6 In M&(nC +D KH6?4?K# the Couit helu that the C0NELEC hau
no authoiity to excluue the voteis of the Sub-piovince of
uuimaias fiom voting foi the positiions of the uoveinoi, vice-
uoveinoi, anu Nembeis of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan
iepiesenting the Seconu Bistiict of the Piovince of Iloilo because
unuei Sec. 462 of the LuC, it was only in the case wheie the
voteis iatifieu the conveision of the Sub-piovince to a iegulai
piovince that the Piesiuent was empoweieu to appoint the
officials of the newly appointeu piovince. Bowevei, consiueiing
99
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

that the "yes" voes in the plebiscite pievaileu, it was iuleu that it
woulu seive no useful puipose to unuo what the C0NELEC hau
uone anu that theie woulu be no legal basis to call special
elections foi the piovincial officials of the Piovince of Iloilo.
Petitioneis have not shown the basis of theii claim that about
one-thiiu of the voteis in the Sub-Piovince of uuimaias weie not
able to vote foi a Congiessman. The official ballots containeu a
space foi the voting of Congiessman foi the Seconu
Congiessional Bistiict of Iloilo. This was a cleai inuication that
the uuimaias voteis coulu vote foi saiu official. In the absence of
eviuence that saiu voteis weie not able to vote uue to lack of
uissemination of infoimation that they coulu uo so, it can be
ueuuceu that those who uiu not vote foi the position of
congiessman meiely abstaineu fiom voting foi the saiu position.

3("&-)#' "V )'%("8 "##-,')+$! M4 #"**-88-")'(8B
#"**-88-") ") $5,-+
8@O<@KP@; /DB /010
(@N;@H]@;6 The main issue is whethei C0A committeu giave
abuse of uiscietion in affiiming the uisallowance of PS,76u, uuu
foi piemium paiu foi the hospitalization anu health caie
insuiance benefits gianteu by the Piovince of Negios 0cciuental
to its officials anu employees. Petitionei claims that such was not
unlawful anu impiopei as it was paiu fiom an allocation of its
ietaineu eainings puisuant to a valiu appiopiiation oiuinance,
anu it was a cleai exeicise of its expiess poweis unuei the
piinciple of local fiscal autonomy. Responuents claim that
although Lu0s aie affoiueu local fiscal autonomy, Lu0s aie still
bounu by RA 67S8 (Salaiy Stanuaiuization Law) anu theii
actions aie subject to the sciutiny of the BBN anu applicable
auuiting iules enfoiceu by C0A.
7@?J6 Fiom a close ieauing of the piovisions of A0 1uS,
petitionei uiu not violate the iule of piioi appioval fiom the
Piesiuent as the piohibition applies only to national goveinment
officesagencies, incluuing u0CCs as well as theii iespective
goveining boaius. Since Lu0s aie subject only to the powei of
geneial supeivision of the Piesiuent, the Piesiuent's authoiity is
limiteu to seeing to it that iules aie followeu anu laws aie
faithfully executeu. Also, while it is tiue that Lu0s aie still bounu
by RA 67S8, the C0A uiu not cleaily establish that the meuical
caie benefits given by the goveinment at the time unuei PB No.
1S19 weie sufficient to covei the neeus of goveinment
employees especially those employeu by Lu0s. Petitionei
coiiectly ielieu on the CSC Nemo Ciiculai No. SS, seiies of 1997,
unuei which all goveinment offices incluuing Lu0s weie uiiecteu
to pioviue a health piogiam foi goveinment employees which
incluueu hospitalization seivices anu annual mental, meuical-
physical examinations. Thus, consistent with the state policy of
local autonomy as guaianteeu by the 1987 Constitution, unuei
Sec. 2S, Ait. II, anu Sec. 2, Ait. X, anu the 1991 LuC, the giant anu
ielease of the hospitalization anu health caie insuiance benefits
weie valiuly enacteu.

$33"-)+-&' !"#$! "VV-#-$!8 #"**") +" $!!
*5)-#-3$!-+-'8B #-+-'8B $), 3("&-)#'8

!%#B 8@>H4 UQC k UC06 :)) 9CJ& CA" KC,)2D

#$8'86

($3-8"($ M4 #-&-! 8'(&-#' #"**-88-")
,@>@KP@; 1EB 1CC2
(@N;@H]@;6 Befoie the LuC took effect, petitionei was extenueu a
peimanent appointment of the position Piovincial Bealth 0fficei
I by the then Sec. of Bealth. Aftei the LuC took effect, the CSC
uisappioveu petitionei's peimanent appointment on the giounu
that he uiu not possess a CeitificateNastei in Public
BealthBospital Auministiation which is the euucational
iequiiement foi the position at the time of appointment, anu that
as the LuC took effect when petitionei assumeu office, he shoulu
be appointeu by the local chief executive conceineu with the
concuiience of a majoiity of all the membeis of the :%"GGJ"(%"D
7@?J6 Petitionei was extenueu a peimanent appointment even
befoie the LuC took effect. Even though petitionei uiu not
possess the iequiieu euucational iequiiement, appaiently, then
Bealth Secietaiy ueciueu that petitionei's othei qualifications,
such as his tiaining anu expeiience in hospital auministiation,
offset oi maue up foi his ueficiency in euucational iequiiement.
The CSC is not empoweieu to ueteimine oi change the kinu oi
natuie of the appointment, foi it is an essential uiscietionaiy
powei anu must be peifoimeu by the officei on whom it is vesteu
accoiuing to his best lights, the only conuition being that the
appointee shoulu possess the minimum qualifications iequiieu
by law. TKCJ&3 ,(, "C3 F%P) %"9 ,(2.J22(C" %2 3C 35) %&GJF)"3 35%3
35) BC.%B .5()8 )V).J3(+) 25CJB, F%P) 35) %;;C("3F)"3# ;&C'%'B9
').%J2) ;)3(3(C")& A%2 %;;C("3), ')8C&) 35) 4MK 3CCP )88).3DU

,'3$(+*')+ "V :5,%')+ $), *$)$%'*')+ M4 !'")'8
*L;>] 1DB /010
(@N;@H]@;6 Penuing iesolution of auministiative cases against
hei, piivate iesponuent, who was a Nunicipal Tieasuiei, was
ieassigneu to the 0ffice of the Piovincial Tieasuiei. Because of
this, the Nunicipality stoppeu paying iesponuent's
iepiesentation anu tianspoitation allowance (RATA), which was
uphelu by the BBN. The CA oiueieu the BBN anu the mayoi to
pay iesponuent hei RATA, saying that the RATA is pait of hei
salaiy.
7@?J6 The BBN coiiectly chaiacteiizeu RATA as allowance
uistinct fiom salaiy, as it is to uefiay expenses ueemeu
unavoiuable in the uischaige of office. Bowevei, theie was no
legal basis to uiscontinue the payment of iesponuent's RATA. The
uAAs have no application to a local goveinment official whose
compensation anu allowances aie funueu by local appiopiiation
laws passeu by the :%"GGJ"(%"G $%9%"D The municipality's
appiopiiations foi the peiiou in question containeu no piovision
iequiiing actual peifoimance of functions as conuition foi ieceipt
of RATA, unlike the uAAs. As to the BBN's National
Compensation Ciiculai, such excluues local goveinment officials,
anu in any case, iesponuent falls unuei the exception clause,
having been ieassigneu to anothei unit of the same agency with
uuties anu iesponsibilities "compaiable" to hei pievious position.
Sec. 47u (u) anu (e) pioviue the functions of the tieasuiei, anu
shows that iiiespective of the level of the local goveinment unit
involveu, no uistinction exists in the functions of the local
tieasuieis except in the technical supeivision by the piovincial
tieasuiei ovei suboiuinate tieasuiy offices.

!$ #$(!"+$ #-+9 M4 ("W"
$O;=? /UB /01/
(@N;@H]@;6 Responuent, who hau just tenueieu his iesignation as
membei of the :%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"BJ"G2C, the uay befoie, was
appointeu :%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"BJ"G2C, Secietaiy. Petitioneis aie
claiming that saiu appointment is voiu. The issue is whethei oi
not the vice-mayoi shoulu be counteu in ueteimining whethei a
quoium exists, such that if theie was no quoium, no business
coulu have been valiuly tiansacteu on the uay the acceptance of
iesponuent's iiievocable iesignation was maue.

7@?J6 The LuC cleaily states that the :%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"BJ"G2C,
"shall be composeu of the city vice-mayoi as piesiuing officei, the
100
Local Government Reviewer | Prof. G | Ann, Barbie, Dana, David, Ice, Jenin, JP, Kester, Leah, Mae, Raffy, Sandra and Steph

iegulai sanggunain membeis, xxx". Cleaily, the vice-mayoi, as
piesiuing officei, is a "membei" of the :%"GGJ(%"G 0%"BJ"G2C,
consiueiing that he is manuateu unuei Sec. 49 of the LuC to vote
to bieak a tie. Following e%FC&% +D K%'%BB)&C anu opinions
ienueieu by the BILu# a quoium of the :%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"BJ"G2C,
shoulu be computeu baseu on the total composition of the
:%"GGJ"(%"G 0%"BJ"G2C,# which incluues the vice-mayoi as the
piesiuing officei. Thus, in this case, theie was a quoium such that
the iiievocable iesignation of iesponuent was valiuly accepteu.

:;=FGB W4B >FG>I;;=GZ =G <]@ ;@HI?<6 While I concui with the
conclusion ieacheu by the ponencia, I wish to emphasize that the
vice-Nayoi as piesiuing officei is consiueieu a membei of the
sanggunian foi puiposes of quoium ueteimination only. If the
voting level iequiieu woulu engage the entiiety of the
sanggunian as a collegial bouy, making the quoium iequiiement
least significant, theie is no ihyme oi ieason to incluue the
piesiuing officei's peisonality at all.


0!7< al> :%",&%