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EPø™ KAI EY°ONIA
TPIA E§§HNIKA KEIMENA

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A ¶ O TA K E I M E N A T H ™ E§ §H N I K H ™ ° P AM M H ™

\AÓÙˆÓ›Ô˘ \A‰ÚÈ·ÓÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘
\EÎ ÙÔÜ Û˘ÁÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ùfi˜ ÙÔ˘, «ï òAÓıÚˆÔ˜ ηd ì Zˆ‹ » (¶˘ÚÛfi˜, 1950, Û. 38).

EPø™ KAI EY°ONIA

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e ôÙÔÌÔÓ, οı ôÙÔÌÔÓ, ÂrÓ·È ÊÔÚÂf˜ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ Ùɘ ʇÛˆ˜, àÏÏa Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ηd ÊÔÚÂf˜ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜. A
\ ¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÙÔÜ ë·˘ÙÔÜ ÙÔ˘ ‚‚·›ˆ˜
Ùe ôÙÔÌÔÓ âÎÏËÚÔÖ ÛÎÔfiÓ. A
\ ÏÏa ηd à¤Ó·ÓÙÈ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜ Ùe ôÙÔÌÔÓ
àÔÙÂÏÂÖ Ì›·Ó ÌÔÓ¿‰· ̤۷ Âå˜ Ùe ÏÉıÔ˜ ÙáÓ ÌÔÓ¿‰ˆÓ, ·î ïÔÖ·È àÔÙÂÏÔÜÓ Ùe
Âr‰Ô˜, ηd ëÔ̤ӈ˜ ï ÚfiÏÔ˜ ÙÔÜ àÙfiÌÔ˘ à¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜, ö¯ÂÈ úÛËÓ ÙÔéÏ¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ÛËÌ·Û›·Ó ηd àÍ›·Ó Úe˜ ÙeÓ ÚfiÏÔÓ, ÙeÓ ïÔÖÔÓ ö¯ÂÈ Ùe ôÙÔÌÔÓ à¤Ó·ÓÙÈ
ÙÔÜ ë·˘ÙÔÜ ÙÔ˘Ø ‰ÈfiÙÈ âÎ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜ ÚÔÉÏıÂÓ, âÎ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜ ·Ú¤Ï·‚ Ùa˜
ۈ̷ÙÈÎa˜ ηd „˘¯ÈÎa˜ å‰ÈfiÙËÙ·˜, Ùa˜ ïÔ›·˜ η٤¯ÂÈ, Âå˜ ·éÙe ÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ì
≈·ÚÍ›˜ ÙÔ˘, ηd ÌÂÙ\ ·éÙÔÜ Û˘˙FÉ. ™˘Ó¤ÂÈ· ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ ÂrÓ·È, ¬ÙÈ Ùe ôÙÔÌÔÓ Ú¤ÂÈ
Óa ‰›‰Ë ÌÂÁ¿ÏËÓ ÚÔÛÔ¯cÓ Âå˜ ÙeÓ ÚfiÏÔÓ, ÙeÓ ïÔÖÔÓ ·›˙ÂÈ à¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ë·˘ÙÔÜ.
ηÙ\ àÎÔÏÔ˘ı›·Ó Ú¤ÂÈ Ùa˜ ÚÔÛˆÈÎa˜ ·éÙÔÜ âÈı˘Ì›·˜ ηd Ù¿ÛÂȘ ηd Ùe
ÚÔÛˆÈÎeÓ ·éÙÔÜ Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓ, Óa Ù·éÙ›˙FË Úe˜ Ùe Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜ ηd Ùɘ
àÓıÚˆ›Ó˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜. ¢Èa Ùa Û˘ÓÂȉËÙa ÏÔÈfiÓ, Ùa äıÈÎa ôÙÔÌ· ÁÂÓÓáÓÙ·È âÎ
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ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ ñÔ¯ÚÂÒÛÂȘ ηd ηı‹ÎÔÓÙ· à¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜ ηd Âå‰ÈÎÒÙÂÚÔÓ ‰Èa
ÙcÓ ‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛÈÓ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜ Âå˜ Î·ÏcÓ Î·d ñÁÈÄ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛÈÓ, ‰Èa ÙcÓ
ÂéÂÍ›·Ó ÙÔ˘, ‰Èa ÙcÓ ÚÔ·ÁˆÁcÓ ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ ηd ÙcÓ âͤÏÈÍ›Ó ÙÔ˘ Âå˜ àÓÒÙÂÚÔÓ
â›‰ÔÓ ˙ˆÉ˜, Âå˜ àÓˆÙ¤Ú·Ó ‚·ıÌ›‰· âÍÂϛ͈˜. ¢ÈfiÙÈ Ùe Âr‰Ô˜ ʤÚÂÈ ÙcÓ ·éÙcÓ
˙ˆcÓ Ìb ìÌĘ ηd ìÌÂÖ˜ ˙áÌÂÓ ÙcÓ ˙ˆcÓ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜, ‰ËÏ·‰c ÙcÓ ˙ˆcÓ Ùɘ º‡Ûˆ˜
Û˘Ì¿Û˘, ≥ÙȘ ó˜ ÂúÔÌÂÓ, ö¯ÂÈ óÚÈṲ̂ÓËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛÈÓ Î·d ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂı· Óa ÂúˆÌÂÓ óÚÈṲ̂ÓÔÓ ÛÎÔfiÓ, ̤۷ Âå˜ Ùe Ï·›ÛÈÔÓ ÙÔÜ ïÔ›Ô˘ ÎÂÖÙ·È Î·d ì ˙ˆc ÙÔÜ
Âú‰Ô˘˜ ηd ì å‰È΋ Ì·˜ àÎfiÌË ˙ˆ‹.
^O ôÓıÚˆÔ˜ ö¯ÂÈ ÌbÓ âÏ¢ıÂÚ›·Ó Óa Ú˘ıÌ›˙FË ÙcÓ å‰›·Ó ·éÙÔÜ ˙ˆcÓ ó˜ ·éÙe˜
ı¤ÏÂÈ, àÏÏa ‰bÓ ‰‡Ó·Ù·È Âå˜ ÙÔÜÙÔ, âaÓ â¯ÂÊÚÔÓFÉ, ·Úa Óa Û˘ÌÌÔÚÊÔÜÙ·È Úe˜
ÙeÓ ¬ÏÔÓ Ú˘ıÌeÓ Ùɘ º‡Ûˆ˜, ‰ÈfiÙÈ ôÏψ˜ àÔÙÂÏÂÖ ·Ú·ÊˆÓ›·Ó Úe˜ Ùe Û‡ÓÔÏÔÓ. ™˘ÓÂᘠ‰bÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa à¤¯FË Ùɘ ïÌ·‰ÈÎɘ ˙ˆÉ˜, Úe ·ÓÙe˜ ‰b Ú¤ÂÈ Óa
Û˘ÓÙÂÏFÉ Âå˜ ÙcÓ àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁcÓ Î·d ‰È·ÈÒÓÈÛÈÓ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜.

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≠OÛÔÓ àÊÔÚ÷Ä Âå˜ Ùe öÓÛÙÈÎÙÔÓ Ùɘ ‰È·ÈˆÓ›Ûˆ˜ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜ ·Úa Ùˇá àÓıÚÒˇˆ
ö¯ÔÌÂÓ Óa ·Ú·ÙËÚ‹ÛˆÌÂÓ, ¬ÙÈ ÙÔÜÙÔ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙÂÓᘠÌb ÙeÓ ÙÚfiÔÓ Ùɘ
àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁɘ ηd ÔyÙÔ˜ Ìb ÙeÓ ıÂÛÌeÓ ÙÔÜ Á¿ÌÔ˘. Eå˜ Ùa ηÙÒÙÂÚ· Âú‰Ë ÌÂÙ·Íf
ÙáÓ Û˘ÓÙÚ¯fiÓÙˆÓ Âå˜ ÙcÓ àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁcÓ àÙfiÌˆÓ àÓ·Ù‡ÛÛÂÙ·È Ì›· âÎÏÂÎÙÈÎfiÙ˘ ηd Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ¯ÒÚ·Ó ≤Ó·˜ àÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÌfi˜, ¬ÛÙȘ ôÁÂÈ Âå˜ ÙcÓ âÈÎÚ¿ÙËÛÈÓ ÙáÓ
åÛ¯˘ÚÔÙ¤ÚˆÓ Î·d ηٷÏÏËÏÔÙ¤ÚˆÓ ‰Èa ÙcÓ àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁcÓ àÙfiÌˆÓ Î·d Ì›· âÈÏÔÁc Û˘ÓÙÂÏÔÜÛ· Âå˜ ÙcÓ âͤÏÈÍÈÓ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜. ^H âÈÏÔÁc ·≈ÙË Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ¯ÒÚ·Ó
ηd Ù¯ÓÈÎᘠÂå˜ ÙcÓ ˙ˇˆÔÙ¯ӛ·Ó, ÙcÓ ÁˆÚÁ›·Ó ηd âÓ Á¤ÓÂÈ Âå˜ ÙcÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁcÓ
ηd àÓ¿Ù˘ÍÈÓ ÙáÓ ˙ÒˆÓ Î·d Ê˘ÙáÓ, Ùa ïÔÖ· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÂÖ ï ôÓıÚˆÔ˜Ø Î·d
Ô≈Ùˆ˜ âÈÙ˘Á¯¿ÓÂÙ·È ì ‚ÂÏÙ›ˆÛȘ Ùɘ Ú¿ÙÛ·˜ j ηd ì ‰Èa Ùɘ ‰È·ÛÙ·˘ÚÒÛˆ˜
àÓ¿Ù˘ÍȘ Ó¤ˆÓ ÔÈÎÈÏÈáÓ.
¶·Úa Ùˇá àÓıÚÒˇˆ ì âÎÏÂÎÙÈÎfiÙ˘ ·éÙc ÌÂÙ·ÊÚ¿˙ÂÙ·È Ìb ÙcÓ Ï¤ÍÈÓ «òEÚˆ˜»,
‰ËÏ·‰c ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ àÙfiÌˆÓ àÓÙÈı¤ÙÔ˘ ʇÏÔ˘ àÓ·Ù‡ÛÛÂÙ·È Ì›· ≤ÏÍȘ, Ì›·
àÌÔÈ‚·›· Û˘Ì¿ıÂÈ·, Ì›· àηٷӛÎËÙÔ˜ Ù¿ÛȘ Úe˜ ≤ÓˆÛÈÓ. AéÙe Ùe ·úÛıËÌ·
ÂrÓ·È Ì›· âΉ‹ÏˆÛȘ Ê˘ÛÈÎc ·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔÜÛ· âÓ Ùˇá àÓıÚÒˇˆ Ùe öÓÛÙÈÎÙÔÓ Ùɘ
‰È·‰fiÛˆ˜ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜, ≥ÙȘ ‰bÓ ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÔÌÂÓ Î·Ïa-ηÏa Ô›·Ó â›‰Ú·ÛÈÓ àÛÎÂÖ
âd ÙáÓ „˘¯áÓ ÙáÓ âÚˆÙÂ˘Ì¤ÓˆÓØ ¿ÓÙˆ˜ Ùa˜ ηıÈÛÙ÷Ä ÙÚ˘ÊÂÚˆÙ¤Ú·˜,
ÁÏ˘Î˘Ù¤Ú·˜, ÂéÁÂÓÂÛÙ¤Ú·˜. A
\ ÏÏa Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ì ‰Èa Ùɘ àÓ·ه͈˜ ÙÔÜ öÚˆÙÔ˜
àÛÎÔ˘Ì¤ÓË Ê˘ÛÈÎc âÈÏÔÁc ÂrÓ·È àÓ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÙÔÓ ¬ÙÈ àÛÎÂÖ â›‰Ú·ÛÈÓ Âå˜ ÙcÓ
âͤÏÈÍÈÓ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜.
£a öÚÂ ÏÔÈeÓ Î·d ·î ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈηd Û˘ÓıÉηÈ, ¬ÛÔÓ àÊÔÚ÷Ä Âå˜ Ùe ˙‹ÙËÌ·
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Ùɘ àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁɘ Óa ÛÙËÚ›˙ˆÓÙ·È Âå˜ Ùa˜ àfi„ÂȘ ·éÙa˜ ηd Óa Ìc âÈÙÚ¤ˆÓÙ·È Á¿ÌÔÈ, Ôî ïÔÖÔÈ Óa ÌcÓ ÂrÓ·È â·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÌ· Ê˘ÛÈÎɘ ≤Ï͈˜, öÚˆÙÔ˜, ηd
Ùɘ àÔχو˜ âÏ¢ı¤Ú·˜ ıÂÏ‹Ûˆ˜ ÙáÓ Û˘ÓÂÚ¯ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Âå˜ Á¿ÌÔÓ àÙfïÓ, àËÏÏ·Á̤Ó˘ ¿Û˘ çÈÛıÔ‚Ô‡ÏÔ˘ ñÏÈÎɘ ÛΤ„ˆ˜, ηıg˜ ηd Ôî àÓ¿ÚÌÔÛÙÔÈ Á¿ÌÔÈ, 剛ˆ˜ àe àfi„ˆ˜ ìÏÈΛ·˜, ñÁ›·˜ Î.Ù.Ï. TÔÜÙÔ, ‰˘ÛÙ˘¯á˜, ‰bÓ Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ
ηd àÔÙÂÏÂÖ öÁÎÏËÌ· Ùɘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ ηÙa ÙÔÜ àÓıÚˆ›ÓÔ˘ Âú‰Ô˘˜, ηı\ ¬ÛÔÓ
öÙÛÈ àÔÎÏ›ÂÙ·È ì ¯·Úa Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ ηd ì âͤÏÈÍȘ ÙáÓ àÙfiÌˆÓ Î·ıg˜ ηd ì ‚ÂÏÙ›ˆÛȘ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜.
Aî Û˘ÓıÉηÈ, ·¥ÙÈÓ˜ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa ÏËÚáÓÙ·È Âå˜ Ùe ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔÓ ·éÙe Ú¤ÂÈ Óa
ÂrÓ·È ÙÔÈ·ÜÙ·È, œÛÙ Óa ÌcÓ â¤Ú¯ˆÓÙ·È àÓÂ·ÓfiÚıˆÙÔÈ ˙ËÌ›·È ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜, ¬ˆ˜
ÙÒÚ· Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ. ¶á˜ ÂrÓ·È ‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ ï ıÂÛÌe˜ ÙÔÜ Á¿ÌÔ˘, ¬ˆ˜ âÊ·ÚÌfi˙ÂÙ·È Û‹ÌÂÚÔÓ, Óa ñËÚÂÙFÉ Ùe ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎeÓ Û‡ÓÔÏÔÓ àÏÏa Úe ¿ÓÙˆÓ Ùe Âr‰Ô˜; ≠OıÂÓ Ôî ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔd ÓfiÌÔÈ Î·d Âå˜ Ùe ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔÓ ·éÙe àÓ·ÌÊÈÛ‚Ëًو˜ ö¯Ô˘Ó àÓ¿ÁÎËÓ àÓ·ıˆڋÛˆ˜.

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Oî A
\ Ú¯·ÖÔÈ ≠EÏÏËÓ˜ Âr¯ÔÓ ÌÂÏÂÙ‹ÛÂÈ Ùa ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ù·ÜÙ· ηÙa ‚¿ıÔ˜ ηd Âr¯ÔÓ
ηٷϋÍÂÈ Âå˜ ıÂÙÈÎa Û˘ÌÂÚ¿ÛÌ·Ù· ÂÚd ÙáÓ ¬ÚˆÓ, ñÊ\ ÔR˜ Ú¤ÂÈ Î·d Ôî Á¿ÌÔÈ
Óa Û˘Ó¿ÙˆÓÙ·È Î·d Óa Ï·Ì‚¿ÓFË ¯ÒÚ·Ó ì ÚÄÍȘ Ùɘ ·È‰ÔÔÈ˝·˜, ≥ÙȘ ηd Ìb
ÙcÓ ÚÔ¸fiıÂÛÈÓ àÎfiÌË ÙÔÜ öÚˆÙÔ˜ Ú¤ÂÈ, âaÓ àԂϤˆÌÂÓ Âå˜ ÙcÓ ÔÈfiÙËÙ·
ÙáÓ âÎÁfiÓˆÓ, ÙcÓ ÂéÁÔÓ›·Ó ηd Âå˜ ÙcÓ âͤÏÈÍÈÓ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜, ÙeÓ ÂéÁÂÓÈÛÌfiÓ, Óa
Û˘ÓÙÂÏÉÙ·È ñe óÚÈṲ̂ӷ˜ Û˘Óı‹Î·˜.
òøÎÂÏÏÔ˜ ï §Â˘Î·Ófi˜, ¶˘ı·ÁfiÚÂÈÔ˜ ÊÈÏfiÛÔÊÔ˜ ˙‹Û·˜ Ùe 500 ÂÚ›Ô˘, ϤÁÂÈ,
¬ÙÈ ì ʇÛȘ à·ÈÙÂÖ ÙcÓ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·Ó Î·d ÙcÓ ‰È·ÈÒÓÈÛÈÓ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜. ¢Èa
ÙÔÜÙÔ ö‰ˆÎ ÙcÓ Úe˜ ôÏÏËÏ· ≤ÏÍÈÓ ÙáÓ ùÓÙˆÓ, ÙcÓ ÁÂÓÂÙ‹ÛÈÔÓ ÙÔéÙ¤ÛÙÈÓ ïÚÌcÓ
ηd ÙcÓ ì‰ÔÓ‹Ó, ¬ˆ˜ ÙÂÏáÛÈ Ùe öÚÁÔÓ Ùɘ ʇÛˆ˜ Â鯷ڛÛÙˆ˜ Úe˜ Ú·ÁÌ¿ÙˆÛÈÓ ÙáÓ ÛÎÔáÓ Ù˘. ™ÎÔe˜ ‰b ÂrÓ·È ï ÔÏÏ·Ï·ÛÈ·ÛÌe˜ ηd ì àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁc
ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜. ^O ôÓıÚˆÔ˜, ϤÁÂÈ, Ú¤ÂÈ Óa ÚÔÛ·ÚÌfi˙ÂÙ·È Úe˜ ÙcÓ ¬ÏËÓ Û‡ÓÙ·ÍÈÓ ÙÔÜ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ ηd Óa ö¯FË ñ\ ù„ÈÓ ÙÔ˘, ¬ÙÈ ÂrÓ·È Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔÜ ÔúÎÔ˘ ηd Ùɘ
fiψ˜, àÏÏa Úe ·ÓÙe˜ ÙÔÜ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘, ηd ‰bÓ Ú¤ÂÈ à¤¯ˆÓ ÙÔÜ Á¿ÌÔ˘ Óa
Á›ÓÂÙ·È ÏÈÔÙ¿ÎÙ˘ Ùɘ ı›·˜ ëÛÙ›·˜. Oî ‰b Û˘ÓÂÚ¯fiÌÂÓÔÈ Âå˜ Á¿ÌÔÓ, Ôé¯d ‰Èa ÙcÓ
àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁcÓ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜, àÏÏa ‰È\ ôÏÏÔ˘˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔf˜ j ÔåÎÔÓÔÌÈÎÔf˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜,
Ôî ÙÔÈÔÜÙÔÈ Û˘ÓÂÚ¯fiÌÂÓÔÈ ÌÂı\ ≈‚Úˆ˜ ηd àÎÚ·Û›·˜ ÂrÓ·È ÌÔ¯ıËÚÔd ηd ‚‰ÂÏ˘ÚÔd
ñe Ù £ÂáÓ Î·d àÓıÚÒˆÓ ηd ó˜ ÙÔÈÔÜÙÔÈ ıa àÔ‚áÛÈ Î·ÎÔ‰·›ÌÔÓÂ˜Ø Ôî ‰b
Û˘Ó¿ÙÔÓÙ˜ Á¿ÌÔÓ ‰Èa ÏfiÁÔ˘˜ Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙÔ˜ ηd Ìc Û˘˙¢ÁÓ‡ÌÂÓÔÈ Ìb „˘¯a˜
Û˘Ì·ıÂÖ˜ ηd ïÌÔÈÔٿٷ˜, ÔyÙÔÈ àÂÚÁ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È âÓ Ùˇá ÔúΡˆ ÙˆÓ àÓÙd Û˘Ìʈӛ·˜
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‰È·ÊˆÓ›·Ó ηd àÓÙd ïÌÔÊÚÔÛ‡Ó˘ ‰È¯fiÓÔÈ·Ó Î·d ÙÔÈÔ˘ÙÔÙÚfiˆ˜ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔÜÓ ÙcÓ
àÙÔÌÈÎ‹Ó ÙˆÓ ‰˘ÛÙ˘¯›·Ó.
^H ÚÄÍȘ Ùɘ ·È‰ÔÔÈ˝·˜, ηÙa ÙeÓ ·éÙeÓ ÊÈÏfiÛÔÊÔÓ, Ú¤ÂÈ Óa Á›ÓÂÙ·È Âå˜
ηٿÏÏËÏÔÓ ìÏÈΛ·Ó, ¬ˆ˜ ì ·Ú·ÁˆÁc Ï·Ì‚¿ÓFË ¯ÒÚ·Ó âÎ ÛˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ â¯fiÓÙˆÓ
ÙÂÏ›·Ó àÓ¿Ù˘ÍÈÓ Î·d ÂéÚÒÛÙˆÓ, ηd ηÙa ÛÙÈÁÌa˜ ηÙa Ùa˜ ïÔ›·˜ Óa âÈÎÚ·ÙFÉ Âå˜ ÙÔf˜ Û˘ÓÂÚ¯Ô̤ÓÔ˘˜ êÚÌÔÓ›· àÏÏa ηd ÓËÊ·ÏÈfiÙ˘. K·d ëÔ̤ӈ˜ ï
‚Ô˘ÏfiÌÂÓÔ˜ Óa ÙÂÎÓÔÔÈ‹ÛFË Ú¤ÂÈ Óa ‰È¿ÁFË ÛÒÊÚÔÓ· ηd ñÁÈÂÈÓcÓ ˙ˆ‹Ó, ¯ˆÚd˜
ÔÏ˘Ê·Á›·Ó ηd ̤ıËÓ j ôÏÏËÓ Ù·Ú·¯cÓ ÙÔÜ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜. ¢ÈfiÙÈ âÓ âÓ·ÓÙ›÷· ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂÈ Ôî àfiÁÔÓÔÈ ‰bÓ ‰‡Ó·ÓÙ·È Óa ÂrÓ·È ÔûÙ ñÁÈÂÖ˜, ÔûÙ Ìb åÛÔÚÚÔË̤ÓËÓ ‰È¿ÓÔÈ·Ó. MÂÙa ‰b ÙcÓ Á¤ÓÓËÛÈÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa ηٷ‚¿ÏÏËÙ·È ÄÛ· ÛÔ˘‰c ηd ÚÔÛÔ¯‹, ¬ˆ˜ Ùa Ù¤ÎÓ· Á›ÓˆÛÈ ¯·ÚȤÛٷٷ ηd àÓ·ÙÚ·ÊáÛÈ Î·Ïá˜, ‰ÈfiÙÈ ‰bÓ ÂrÓ·È
‰›Î·ÈÔÓ Ôî ÌbÓ âÎÙÚ¤ÊÔÓÙ˜ ¥Ô˘˜ ηd ·ӷ˜ ηd ùÚÓÈı·˜ ¯¿ÚÈÓ Ùɘ ÂéÁÔÓ›·˜ Óa
ηٷ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ÄÛ·Ó âÈ̤ÏÂÈ·Ó Î·d ÊÚÔÓÙ›‰·, œÛÙ ì àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁc Óa Á›ÓÂÙ·È
¬ÔÙ Ú¤ÂÈ Î·d ¬ˆ˜ Ú¤ÂÈ, ηd ᘠÚ¤ÂÈ Óa ‰È¿ÎÂÈÓÙ·È Ùa ôÙÔÌ· Ù·ÜÙ·
ηÙa Ùa˜ Ì›ÍÂȘ, ηd Ôé¯d ÂåÎFÉ Î·d ó˜ öÙ˘¯Â, Ôé‰ÂÌ›·Ó ‰b ÊÚÔÓÙ›‰· Óa ηٷ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ‰Èa ÙcÓ å‰ÈÎ‹Ó ÙˆÓ àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹Ó, àÏÏa Óa ÁÂÓÓáÛÈ ó˜ öÙ˘¯Â ηd ·ÎfiÌË Óa
çÏÈÁˆÚáÛÈ ‰Èa Ùa Ù¤ÎÓ· ηd ‰Èa ÙcÓ ÙÚÔÊcÓ Î·d ‰Èa ÙcÓ ·È‰Â›·Ó ·éÙáÓ. ≠OÙ·Ó
‰b Ù·ÜÙ· àÌÂÏÔÜÓÙ·È Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È Ôî ôÓıÚˆÔÈ ·úÙÈÔÈ ¿Û˘ ηΛ·˜ ηd ¿Û˘
Ê·˘ÏfiÙËÙÔ˜, Ùa ‰b ÁÂÓÓÒÌÂÓ· Ù¤ÎÓ· àÔ‚·›ÓÔ˘ÛÈ ˙ˇˆÒ‰Ë ηd àÁÂÓÉ.
^O ¶Ï¿ÙˆÓ ÚÔ¯ˆÚÂÖ àÎfiÌË ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ηd ó˜ Úe˜ Ùe ˙‹ÙËÌ· Ùɘ ÂéÁÔÓ›·˜
ηd ó˜ Úe˜ Ùe ˙‹ÙËÌ· ÙÔÜ ÂéÁÂÓÈÛÌÔÜ (¶Ï¿ÙˆÓÔ˜-¶ÔÏÈÙ›· Eã). ^O ¶Ï¿ÙˆÓ ÏÔÈeÓ ÊÚÔÓÂÖ, ¬ÙÈ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa ‰ÔıFÉ åÛ¯˘Úa ‚¿ÛȘ Âå˜ ÙÔf˜ Á¿ÌÔ˘˜, Ô¥ÙÈÓ˜ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa
ıˆÚáÓÙ·È îÂÚÔ›Ø àÏÏa, ÚÔÛı¤ÙÂÈ, ¬ÙÈ îÂÚÔd Á¿ÌÔÈ ÂrÓ·È Ôî èÊÂÏÈÌÒÙ·ÙÔÈ. K·d
ÚáÙÔÓ, ϤÁÂÈ, ÙÔÈÔÜÙÔÈ Á¿ÌÔÈ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa Û˘ÓÈÛÙáÓÙ·È âÎ ÚÔÛÒˆÓ àÎÌ·˙fiÓÙˆÓ
ηd Ó¤ˆÓ ηd àÚ›ÛÙˆÓ ÙcÓ ‰È¿Ï·ÛÈÓ. ¶Ú¤ÂÈ ‰b Óa ı¤ÙÔ˘Ó Âå˜ âÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·Ó (Ôî
òAÚ¯ÔÓÙ˜) ÙÔf˜ ïÌÔÏÔÁÔ˘Ì¤Óˆ˜ àÚ›ÛÙÔ˘˜ Úe˜ Ùa˜ ïÌÔÏÔÁÔ˘Ì¤Ó·˜ àÚ›ÛÙ·˜ ¬ÛÔÓ
Ùe ‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ ÏÂÈÛÙ¿ÎȘ, ÙÔf˜ ‰b Ê·˘ÏÔÙ¿ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÔéÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ. K·d ÙáÓ ÌbÓ ÚÒÙˆÓ
Óa ÙÚ¤ÊÔ˘Ó ÙÔf˜ àÔÁfiÓÔ˘˜, ÙáÓ ‰b ôÏÏˆÓ Ô鯛. ¢Èa ÙÔÜÙÔ, ϤÁÂÈ, Ú¤ÂÈ Óa
ÙÔÔıÂÙáÓÙ·È ëÔÚÙ·› ÙÈÓ˜, Âå˜ Ùa˜ ïÔ›·˜ Óa Û˘Ó¿ÁˆÓÙ·È Ôî Ó˘ÌÊ›ÔÈ Î·d ·î Ó‡ÌÊ·È Î·d Óa Á›ÓˆÓÙ·È ı˘Û›·È ηd Óa „¿ÏψÓÙ·È ≈ÌÓÔÈ êÚÌfi˙ÔÓÙ˜ Âå˜ ÙÔf˜ ÙÂÏÔ˘Ì¤ÓÔ˘˜ Á¿ÌÔ˘˜, Óa Âû¯ˆÓÙ·È îÂÚÂÖ˜ ηd î¤ÚÂÈ·È Î·d ïÏfiÎÏËÚÔ˜ ì fiÏȘ, ¬ˆ˜ âÍ
àÁ·ıáÓ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔÈ Î·d âÍ èÊÂÏ›ÌˆÓ èÊÂÏÈÌÒÙÂÚÔÈ Á›ÓˆÓÙ·È Ôî àfiÁÔÓÔÈ.
A
\ ÏÏa ÙÔÜ ÌbÓ \øΤÏÏÔ˘ ηd ÙÔÜ ¶Ï¿ÙˆÓÔ˜ ·î 剤·È ‰ÈÂÙ˘ÒıËÛ·Ó ÌbÓ àÏÏa
‰bÓ âÊËÚÌfiÛıËÛ·Ó. \EÓ ÙÔÛÔ‡Ùˇˆ Ï‹ÚË âÊ·ÚÌÔÁcÓ öÛ¯ÔÓ ·î àÚ¯·d ÙÔÜ ÂéÁÂÓÈÛÌÔÜ Âå˜ ÙcÓ ÔÏÈÙ›·Ó Ùɘ ™¿ÚÙ˘ ÙcÓ Û˘ÓÙ·¯ıÂÖÛ·Ó ñe ÙÔÜ §˘ÎÔ‡ÚÁÔ˘.

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≠øÛÙ ‚ϤÔÌ ¬ÙÈ Âå˜ ·Ï·ÈÔÙ¤Ú·˜ âÔ¯a˜ Âr¯Â ÌÂÏÂÙËıÉ Ùe ˙‹ÙËÌ· Ùɘ ÂéÁÔÓ›·˜ ηd ÙÔÜ ÂéÁÂÓÈÛÌÔÜ, ‰Èa ÙáÓ ïÔ›ˆÓ ·Ú¤¯ÂÙ·È Û˘Ó‰ÚÔÌc Âå˜ Ùe öÚÁÔÓ Ùɘ
ʇÛˆ˜Ø âÓ z
ˇ Ìb Ùa˜ ÎÚ·ÙÔ‡Û·˜ ÙÒÚ· àÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ ηd Û˘Óı‹Î·˜, àÓÙd âÍÂϛ͈˜
‚·›ÓÔÌÂÓ Úe˜ ÙeÓ âÎÊ˘ÏÈÛÌeÓ Î·d ÙcÓ Î·Ù¿ÙˆÛÈÓ ÙÔÜ àÓıÚˆ›ÓÔ˘ Âú‰Ô˘˜.

***
\EÓÙ·Üı· ÂúÌÂı· ñÔ¯Úˆ̤ÓÔÈ Óa ÚÔÛı¤ÛˆÌÂÓ, ¬ÙÈ Âå˜ ÙcÓ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔÓ
ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·Ó ·Ú·ÙËÚÂÖÙ·È Ì›· ÙÚÔÌÂÚa àӈ̷ϛ· Âå˜ Ùe ˙‹ÙËÌ· ÙÔÜÙÔ, ‰È\ n âÎÙe˜
ÙáÓ ôÏÏˆÓ âÁ›ÚÔÓÙ·È ÊˆÓ·›, ¬ÙÈ ì ÔåÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·, ̤۷ Âå˜ ÙcÓ ïÔ›·Ó ì àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁc Û˘ÓÙÂÏÂÖÙ·È, Ù›ÓÂÈ Óa ‰È·Ï˘ıFÉ Úe ·ÓÙe˜ ÏfiÁˇˆ ÙÔÜ âÁˆÎÂÓÙÚÈÛÌÔÜ,
¬ÛÙȘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ Î·d ÙÔf˜ ôÓ‰Ú·˜ ηd Ùa˜ Á˘Ó·Öη˜, Ôf àÔÙÂÏÔÜÓ ÙcÓ
ÔåÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·Ó. K·ı\ ìÌĘ Ùe ·úÙÈÔÓ ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ öÁÎÂÈÙ·È Âå˜ ·éÙfi, Ùe ïÔÖÔÓ àÔÙÂÏÂÖ
ηd Ùe ·úÙÈÔÓ Ôf Ù›ÓÂÈ Óa ‰È·Ï˘ıFÉ Î·d ïÏfiÎÏËÚÔ˜ ì àÓıÚˆ›ÓË ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·Ø ηd
Ùe ·úÙÈÔÓ ÙÔÜÙÔ öÁÎÂÈÙ·È Âå˜ ‰‡Ô ÙÈÓ¿: ¶ÚáÙÔÓ, ¬ÙÈ ‰bÓ ö¯Ô˘Ó ÌÔÚʈıÉ Ùa ôÙÔÌ·
äıÈÎá˜, Âå˜ ÙÚfiÔÓ œÛÙ Ó\ àÓ·ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó, ¬ÙÈ Î·d Ôî ôÏÏÔÈ ö¯Ô˘Ó ‰ÈηÈÒÌ·Ù·, Ùa
ïÔÖ· Ę ÙȘ çÊ›ÏÂÈ Óa àÓ·ÁÓˆÚ›ÛFË Î·d Óa Û¤‚ÂÙ·È. ¢Â‡ÙÂÚÔÓ ‰¤, ¬ÙÈ ì àÓıÚˆ›ÓË „˘¯c ñe ÙcÓ üıËÛÈÓ ÙÔÜ âÓÛÙ›ÎÙÔ˘, ÙÔÜ ÓfiÌÔ˘ ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜, Ù›ÓÂÈ
Úe˜ ÙcÓ âÏ¢ıÂÚ›·Ó ηd ÙcÓ ÚfiÔ‰ÔÓ, ηd ≤ÓÂη ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ ·î „˘¯·d ÙáÓ àÓıÚÒˆÓ âÎ˙ËÙÔÜÓ Ùa ‰ÈηÈÒÌ·Ù· Ù·ÜÙ·. ^H ˙ˆc ηd ·î ÛΤ„ÂȘ ÙáÓ àÓıÚÒˆÓ
âÍÂÏ›ÛÛÔÓÙ·È, àÏÏ\ Ôî ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔd ÓfiÌÔÈ ‰bÓ àÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔÜÓ ÙcÓ âͤÏÈÍÈÓ ·éÙ‹Ó.
™˘ÓÂᘠì Ù¿ÛȘ ·≈ÙË Úe˜ âÏ¢ıÂÚ›·Ó ηd ÚfiÔ‰ÔÓ, ÍÂÛ÷Ä Âå˜ Ì›·Ó â·Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛÈÓ, â·Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛÈÓ ‚¤‚·È· ù¯È âÌÊ·ÓÉØ Î·d ì â·Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛȘ ·≈ÙË, ¬ˆ˜ ηd
οı â·Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛȘ, ‰bÓ àÎÔÏÔ˘ıÂÖ ÙÔf˜ ÏÔÁÈÎÔf˜ ηÓfiÓ·˜. O≈Ùˆ ‰\ â¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È ·î
·Ú·ÙËÚÔ‡ÌÂÓ·È àӈ̷ϛ·È ηd ÔÏÏ¿ÎȘ ·î ηٷÛÙÚÔÊ·d ηd Âå˜ Ùa˜ ÔåÎÔÁÂÓ›·˜ ηd Âå˜ ÙÔf˜ Ï·Ô‡˜. §ÔÁÈÎc Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ· Ùɘ ηٷÛÙ¿Ûˆ˜ Ù·‡Ù˘ ÂrÓ·È, ¬ÙÈ
ηd Ôî ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔd ÓfiÌÔÈ, ıa öÚÂ Óa âÍÂÏ›ÛÛˆÓÙ·È àÓ·ÏfiÁˆ˜, ‰ÈfiÙÈ Ùa õıË, Ùa
öıÈÌ·, ·î äıÈηd àÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ, ηd ì ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎc Ù¿ÍȘ ö¯Ô˘Ó àÍ›·Ó ηd ÙËÚÔÜÓÙ·È,
âÊ\ ¬ÛÔÓ â͢ËÚÂÙÔÜÓ ÙcÓ ˙ˆcÓ Î·d ÙeÓ ÛÎÔeÓ ÙÔÜ àÓıÚÒÔ˘. \EÊ\ ¬ÛÔÓ ¬Ìˆ˜
̤ÓÔ˘Ó ÛÙ¿ÛÈÌ· ηd àÌÂÙ¿‚ÏËÙ· âÓ z
ˇ ì ˙ˆc Ú¤ÂÈ Î·d âÍÂÏ›ÛÛÂÙ·È, ‰bÓ ÂrÓ·È
‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ ·Úa Óa â¤Ú¯ÂÙ·È Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘ÛȘ ÌÂÙ·Íf Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ ηd ·éÙáÓ Î·d Óa
â·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔÜÓ ·î ·Ú·ÙËÚÔ‡ÌÂÓ·È àӈ̷ϛ·È ηd ηٷÛÙÚÔÊ·›. ^HÌÂÖ˜ ÂÚÈÔÚÈ˙fiÌÂı· Óa ÙÔÓ›ÛˆÌÂÓ ÙcÓ ‰˘Û·ÚÌÔÓ›·Ó ·éÙcÓ Î·d Ùa˜ âÎ Ù·‡Ù˘ Û˘ÓÂ›·˜Ø
à¤¯ÔÌÂÓ ‰b Óa ñԉ›͈ÌÂÓ ÙeÓ ÙÚfiÔÓ, ηÙa ÙeÓ ïÔÖÔÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa Ú˘ıÌÈÛıFÉ
Ùe ˙‹ÙËÌ· ÙáÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÙÔÜ àÓ‰Úe˜ ÌÂÙa Ùɘ Á˘Ó·ÈÎe˜ ηd ÙÔÜ ÙÚfiÔ˘ àÓ·ه͈˜ ÙáÓ ÁÂÓÓˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ Ù¤ÎÓˆÓ, àÊ‹ÓÔÓÙ˜ Âå˜ Ùe ̤ÏÏÔÓ Óa ηıÔÚ›ÛFË Ù·ÜÙ·.
A
^ Ïᘠ‰b ηٷ‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÔÌÂÓ ÌfiÓÔÓ, ¬ÙÈ, iÓ ı¤ÏˆÌÂÓ ì ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎc ˙ˆc Óa Ú¤FË ìڤ̷
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ηd ·Ú·Ïϋψ˜ Úe˜ ÙcÓ âÍÂÏÈÛÛÔ̤ÓËÓ ÚfiÔ‰ÔÓ, Ú¤ÂÈ Óa Û˘ÓÙÔÓÈÛıÔÜÓ ·î
Û˘ÓıÉÎ·È Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ ηd ÙÔÜ Á¿ÌÔ˘ ηÙa ÙÚfiÔÓ Û˘ÌʈÓfiÙÂÚÔÓ Úe˜ ÙcÓ àÓıÚˆ›ÓËÓ Ê‡ÛÈÓ Î·d ÙÔf˜ ÓfiÌÔ˘˜ Ùɘ ¶·ÁÎÔÛÌ›Ô˘ ˙ˆÉ˜.
≠OÛÔÓ àÊÔÚ÷Ä ‰b ÙÔf˜ ¬ÚÔ˘˜, ñe ÙÔf˜ ïÔ›Ô˘˜ ñe Ùa˜ ÛËÌÂÚÈÓa˜ Û˘Óı‹Î·˜
ÂrÓ·È ‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ Óa Ú˘ıÌÈÛıFÉ Ùe ˙‹ÙËÌ· Ùɘ àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁɘ ηd Ùɘ âÎÏËÚÒÛˆ˜
ÙÔÜ Î·ı‹ÎÔÓÙÔ˜, Ôf ö¯ÔÌÂÓ ‰Èa ÙcÓ ‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛÈÓ âÓ àÎÌFÉ Î·d ÙcÓ ‚ÂÏÙ›ˆÛÈÓ Î·d
ÙcÓ âͤÏÈÍÈÓ ÙÔÜ àÓıÚˆ›ÓÔ˘ Âú‰Ô˘˜, Ú¤ÂÈ Óa Êı¿ÛˆÌÂÓ Âå˜ ÙÔÈÔÜÙÔÓ ÛËÌÂÖÔÓ
àÓÙÈÏ‹„ˆ˜ ÙÔÜ Î·ı‹ÎÔÓÙÔ˜ Úe˜ Ùe Âr‰Ô˜, œÛÙ Á¿ÌÔÈ Ìc Ê˘ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ›, Ìc
àÓ¿ÏÔÁÔÈ, Á¿ÌÔÈ ÙÂÏÔ‡ÌÂÓÔÈ âÎ Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙÔ˜ Óa âÈÛ‡ÚÔ˘Ó ÙcÓ ÁÂÓÈÎcÓ ÂÚÈÊÚfiÓËÛÈÓ Î·d Ô≈Ùˆ ηÓÂd˜ Óa Ìc ÙÔÏÌ÷Ä Óa ÚÔ‚·›ÓFË Âå˜ ÙÔÈÔÜÙÔÓ Á¿ÌÔÓ. \E›Û˘ ‰‡Ó·ÓÙ·È Óa ÏËÊıÔÜÓ Ì¤ÙÚ·, œÛÙ Ôî ¿Û¯ÔÓÙ˜ âÎ ¯ÚÔÓ›ˆÓ ÓÔÛËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, Ôî öÎÊ˘ÏÔÈ,
Ôî ö¯ÔÓÙ˜ ηÎcÓ ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈÎfiÙËÙ·, Ôî àÏÎÔÔÏÈÎÔ›, Ôî ÌÔÚÊÈÓÔÌ·ÓÂÖ˜, Ôî Ó¢ڷÛıÂÓÈÎÔ›, Ôî ö¯ÔÓÙ˜ âÁÎÏËÌ·ÙÈÎa˜ Ù¿ÛÂȘ, ıa öÏÂÁÔÓ àÎfiÌË Ôî ‰‡ÛÌÔÚÊÔÈ Î·d Ôî
ö¯ÔÓÙ˜ ηÎcÓ çÚÁ·ÓÈÎcÓ ‰È¿Ï·ÛÈÓ ôÚÚÂÓ˜ j ı‹ÏÂȘ, Óa àÔÎÏ›ˆÓÙ·È àe ÙcÓ
àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹Ó. ¶á˜ ÂrÓ·È ‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ Óa âÊ·ÚÌÔÛıFÉ Ùe ̤ÙÚÔÓ ÙÔÜÙÔ, i˜ Ú˘ıÌÈÛıFÉ
àe ÙcÓ ¶ÔÏÈÙ›·Ó. M›· ÚÔ‡fiıÂÛȘ ‰Èa ÙeÓ Á¿ÌÔÓ ‚‚·›ˆ˜ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa ÂrÓ·È Ì›·
àÌÔÈ‚·›· Û˘Ì¿ıÂÈ· ηd âÎÙ›ÌËÛȘ. A
\ ÏÏa ηd Ì›· âͤٷÛȘ ÙáÓ àÙfiÌˆÓ àe
ñÁÈÂÈÓɘ àfi„ˆ˜ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa ÙÂıFÉ ó˜ à·Ú·›ÙËÙÔ˜ ÚÔ¸fiıÂÛȘ ‰Èa ÙeÓ Á¿ÌÔÓ
ηd ÙcÓ àÓ··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹Ó. AéÙe ÌÔÚÂÖ Óa Á›ÓÂÙ·È, ηÙ\ â̤, ù¯È ÌfiÓÔÓ ÎÚ˘Ê›ˆ˜
àÏÏa ηd Ê·ÓÂÚ¿, âÈۋ̈˜, âÍ å‰›·˜ ÙáÓ àÙfiÌˆÓ ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›·˜ ηd ù¯È ï Á¿ÌÔ˜
Óa àÔÙÂÏFÉ êÏᘠ̛·Ó âÈÛÊÚ¿ÁÈÛÈÓ ÙÔÜ öÚˆÙÔ˜ Ìb ÎÏÂÈÛÙa Ì¿ÙÈ·.
°ÂÓÈÎᘠ‰b ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂı· Óa ÂúˆÌÂÓ, ¬ÙÈ ì ÌÂÁ·Ï˘Ù¤Ú· ËÁc Ùɘ ‰˘ÛÙ˘¯›·˜ ηd
Ùɘ àıÏÈfiÙËÙÔ˜ ÙÔÜ àÓıÚˆ›ÓÔ˘ Âú‰Ô˘˜ öÁÎÂÈÙ·È àÎÚȂᘠÂå˜ ÙcÓ àÓÙ›ıÂÛÈÓ, ÙcÓ
ïÔ›·Ó ö¯ÔÌÂÓ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ Û˘ÓıËÎáÓ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ Ì·˜ ηd ÙáÓ ÓfïÓ
Ùɘ ·ÁÎÔÛÌ›Ô˘ ˙ˆÉ˜, Âå˜ ÙÔf˜ ïÔ›Ô˘˜ ñÔΛÌÂı· àÓ·Áη›ˆ˜ ηd àÓ·Ô‰Ú¿ÛÙˆ˜ ηd âÎ Ùɘ ·Ú·‚¿Ûˆ˜ ÙáÓ ïÔ›ˆÓ ñÊÈÛÙ¿ÌÂı· Ùa˜ â·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Û·˜
Ù·‡ÙËÓ Î˘ÚÒÛÂȘ, ·¥ÙÈÓ˜ ÚÔηÏÔÜÓ ÙeÓ fiÓÔÓ Î·d ÙeÓ ÛÙÂÓ·ÁÌfiÓ. Ìb ÙcÓ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛÈÓ ‰¤, ÙcÓ ïÔ›·Ó ö¯ÔÌÂÓ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ, ‰bÓ àÓ·ÎfiÙÂÙ·È ÌfiÓÔÓ ì âͤÏÈÍȘ
ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜, àÏÏa Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ηd ì âͤÏÈÍȘ ÙÔÜ Ó‡̷ÙÔ˜ Ùɘ °É˜ âÓ ÙFÉ
àÓıÚˆ›ÓFË ÌÔÚÊFÉ.—

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A¶O TA KEIMENA TH™ E§§HNIKH™ °PAMMH™

™¶YPI¢øNO™ NA°OY

Â

ò Úˆ˜
^H

ÌÂÁ¿ÏË ÙÔÜ ¶·ÓÙe˜ 剤· Û˘ÓÂÎÂÓÙÚÒıË Âå˜ Ì›·Ó öÎÊÚ·ÛÈÓ ≥ÙȘ àÔÙÂÏÂÖ Ùe ÎÔڇʈ̷ Ùɘ àÓıÚˆ›Ó˘ ‰fi͢. ¶ÄÛ· ÌÂÁ·ÏÔÊ˘˝· ÂrÓ·È
àfiÚÚÔÈ· Ùɘ 剤·˜ ·éÙɘ. ¶ÄÛ· „˘¯c Ôf ö¯ÂÈ à·ÏÏ·¯ıÉ àe Ùe
ÛÎfiÙÔ˜, àËÏÏ¿ÁË ‰ÈfiÙÈ Âr¯Â âÓ·ÛÌÂÓÈÛıÉ ÙcÓ ÌÂÁ¿ÏËÓ ÙÔÜ ¶·ÓÙe˜ 剤·Ó. ^H
àÓıÚˆ›ÓË Î·Ú‰›· ÂrÓ·È Ùe ΤÓÙÚÔÓ ¬Ô˘ ì ÌÂÁ¿ÏË ÙÔÜ ¶·ÓÙe˜ 剤· ö¯ÂÈ ÛÙ‹ÛÂÈ
ÙeÓ ıÚfiÓÔÓ ÙË˜Ø àÏÏa Ô›· ηډ›·; ^H ηډ›· âΛÓË ì ïÔ›· ö¯ÂÈ à·ÏÏ·ÁÉ âÎ
ÙÔÜ ÛÎÒÏËÎÔ˜ Ùɘ Ù˘ÊÏfiÙËÙÔ˜ ηd Ùɘ ‰È·ÊıÔÚĘ. AéÙe˜ ÂrÓ·È ï òEÚˆ˜.
^O òEÚˆ˜ ÂrÓ·È ñfiÛÙ·ÛȘ ñÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎc ηd ñÔ›ÙÂÈ Âå˜ Ùa˜ àÓıÚˆ›Ó·˜
·åÛı‹ÛÂȘ. ¶ÄÛ· ·úÛıËÛȘ Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ºá˜ ÌÂÁ·Ï›Ԣ âÎ Ùɘ ñÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎɘ ÙÔÜ
òEÚˆÙÔ˜ ñÔÛÙ¿Ûˆ˜. hAÓ ï àÓıÚÒÈÓÔ˜ ÓÔܘ ‰bÓ àÂÙÂÏÂÖÙÔ àe Ùa˜ âȉ·„ÈχÛÂȘ Ùɘ ʇÛˆ˜ ÙÔÜ òEÚˆÙÔ˜, à›ÔÙ Ùe ¶ÄÓ ıa qÙÔ X¿Ô˜ ÎÂÓfiÓ. Oé‰ÂÌ›·
·úÛıËÛȘ ıa àÂÙ¤ÏÂÈ ñfiÛÙ·ÛÈÓ, Ôé‰ÂÌ›· „˘¯c ıa Âr¯Â \EÁÒ, Ùe ÄÓ ıa qÙÔ
öÚ‚Ԙ ηd ì ‰fiÍ· ÙÔÜ ¶·ÓÙe˜ àÓ·ÈÛıËÛ›·, ÛÈÁc ηd àÓ˘·ÚÍ›·. AéÙe ÂrÓ·È ï
òEÚˆ˜.
Te X¿Ô˜ âÁ¤ÓÓËÛ ÙeÓ òEÚˆÙ· ηd ï òEÚˆ˜ ÙÔf˜ £ÂÔf˜ ηÙa ÙcÓ KÔÛÌÔÁÔÓ›·Ó
ÙáÓ àÚ¯·›ˆÓ Ì˘ÛÙáÓ, Ôé‰bÓ ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ àÏËı¤ÛÙÂÚÔÓ. Te X¿Ô˜ ÂrÓ·È Ù¤ÎÓÔÓ Ùɘ
A
\ Ó¿Ú¯Ô˘ ÔéÛ›·˜ ì ïÔ›· âÁ¤ÓÓËÛ ÙeÓ òEÚˆÙ·, ÚˆÙfiÙÔÎÔÓ ·éÙɘ Ù¤ÎÓÔÓ ÌÂÙa
Ùɘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËı›Û˘ ≈Ï˘. Te X¿Ô˜ ÂrÓ·È öÚ‚Ԙ, àÏÏa ±Ì· ÙFÉ âÌÊ·Ó›ÛÂÈ ÙÔÜ
òEÚˆÙÔ˜ Ùe öÚ‚Ԙ ÌÂÙ‚ϋıË Âå˜ ºá˜. ºá˜ ηd òEÚˆ˜, ‰‡Ô ‰È·ÎÚÈÙÈÎa ÛÙÔȯÂÖ·
Ùɘ ñ¿Ú͈˜ ÙáÓ £ÂáÓ. ^O òEÚˆ˜ âÁ¤ÓÓËÛ Ùe ºá˜, Ùe ÊᘠÙeÓ £ÂfiÓ. ¶ÄÛ·
ñÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎc ÙÔÜ ™‡Ì·ÓÙÔ˜ ñfiÛÙ·ÛȘ ÂrÓ·È àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÙÔÜ òEÚˆÙÔ˜ ï ïÔÖÔ˜
΢ÚÈ·Ú¯ÂÖ Î·d ‰ÂÛfi˙ÂÈ Âå˜ ÄÛ·Ó ÙcÓ Ê·ÈÓÔ̤ÓËÓ º‡ÛÈÓ. ^H º‡ÛȘ ÂrÓ·È Ù¤ÎÓÔÓ
Ùɘ A
\ ˚‰›Ô˘ ÔéÛ›·˜, àÏÏa Ùe ñÔΛÌÂÓÔÓ ·éÙɘ ÂrÓ·È ï òEÚˆ˜, ï ïÔÖÔ˜ ‰Èa Ùɘ
·ÓÔ‡ÚÁÔ˘ ·éÙÔÜ ‰È·ÓÔ›·˜ ‰È¤Ï·Û Ùe \EÁÒ, ·éÙe Ôf ÌÂÙ‚ϋıË Âå˜ àÓıÚˆ›ÓËÓ ÌÔÚÊcÓ Î·d ‰ÈÂÏ¿ÛıË Âå˜ £ÂeÓ ·ÓÙÔÁÓÒÛÙËÓ. AéÙe˜ ÂrÓ·È ï òEÚˆ˜.

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^H \Hg˜ ÂrÓ·È ì âÌÊ¿ÓÈÛȘ ·éÙÔÜ Âå˜ Ùa Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛı¤ÓÙ· ÛÒÌ·Ù· Âå˜ Ùa ïÔÖ·
ö‰ˆÎ Âå˜ ÙcÓ ˙ˆ‹Ó ÙˆÓ \EÁÒ. ^H Zˆc ‰È·Ê¤ÚÂÈ ÙÔÜ \EÁÒ. Te \EÁg ÂrÓ·È àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÙÔÜ òEÚˆÙÔ˜, ‰Èa ÙÔÜÙÔ Î·d ÄÓ \EÁg ñÔ·ÙÂÈ Âå˜ ¿Û·˜ ·éÙÔÜ Ùa˜
çÚ¤ÍÂȘ.
¶ÚÔÛˆÈÎc ηd ñÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎc ÙÔÜ òEÚˆÙÔ˜ îηÓfiÙ˘ ÂrÓ·È Ùe ÌÂȉȷ̿ ÙÔ˘, Ùe
ïÔÖÔÓ âÓ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÂÁ¿ÏËÓ ÙÈÓa àÍ›·Ó ‰Èa ÙcÓ ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊ›·Ó ηd ÌÈÎÚaÓ ‰Èa ÙcÓ àÓÔËÛ›·Ó. ¶ÄÛ· ıÂfiÙ˘ ñÔ·ÙÂÈ Âå˜ Ùe ÌÂȉ›·Ì¿ ÙÔ˘. ¶ÄÓ \EÁg àԂϤÂÈ Âå˜ ·éÙe
Ùe ÌÂȉ›·Ì· ‰Èa ÙcÓ ÛˆÙËÚ›·Ó ÙÔ˘. °ÂÏ÷Ä ó˜ ÌÂÈÚ¿ÎÈÔÓ àÓ·›ÛıËÙÔÓ Î·d ‰Èa ÙÔÜ
ÂåÚˆÓÈÎÔÜ ÙÔ˘ Á¤ÏˆÙÔ˜ ‰ËÏËÙËÚÈ¿˙ÂÈ ÄÛ·Ó Î·Ú‰›·Ó. ¶ÚÔÛ¤¯ÂÈ ¿ÓÙÔÙ Óa
âÁÎÂÓÙÚ›˙FË Ùa˜ ÂéÁÂÓÂÖ˜ ηډ›·˜, Ô鉤ÔÙ ÏËÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ ·éÙa˜ Ôf ö¯Ô˘Ó âÏ·ÙÙÒÌ·Ù· ηd ηΛ·˜, ÂrÓ·È Î·ı·Úe˜ ó˜ OéÚ·Óe˜ ηd Ï¢ÎÔÊÔÚÂÖ. ¢bÓ ÏËÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ
ÔÙb Ùa˜ àηı¿ÚÙÔ˘˜ ñ¿ÚÍÂȘ η›ÙÔÈ ÔÏÏÔd ÙÔÈÔ‡ÙÔ˘ Âú‰Ô˘˜ ôÓıÚˆÔÈ ÊÂӷΛ˙ÔÓÙ·È Âå˜ Ùe ùÓÔÌ¿ ÙÔ˘. ¶Ä˜ ¬ÛÙȘ ‰Èa Ùɘ Ù¤Ú˘Áfi˜ ÙÔ˘ ÎÙ˘ÒÌÂÓÔ˜ ˙ËÙÂÖ Óa
ηٷÓ›ÍFË Ùe ·úÛıËÌ· Ùe ïÔÖÔÓ àӷʇÂÙ·È, ñÔ›ÙÂÈ Âå˜ ÙcÓ ‰˘Ṳ̂ÓÂÈ¿Ó ÙÔ˘
ηd ì ηډ›· ÙÔ˘ âÛ·Âd ̤ÓÂÈ ÛÙÂÖÚ· àe ·úÛıËÌ· êÁÓfiÙËÙÔ˜. A
\ Ú¤ÛÎÂÙ·È Óa
‚ϤFË ÙeÓ ñfi‰Ô˘ÏfiÓ ÙÔ˘ ÈÂ˙fiÌÂÓÔÓ, àÓ˘„Ô‡ÌÂÓÔÓ, Ù·ÂÈÓÔ‡ÌÂÓÔÓ, à‰ËÌÔÓÔÜÓÙ·, âÓıÔ˘ÛÈ·˙fiÌÂÓÔÓ, ÁÂÏáÓÙ·, ÛÙÂÓÔ¯ˆÚÔ‡ÌÂÓÔÓ, ÙÚ¤¯ÔÓÙ·, îÙ¿ÌÂÓÔÓ ó˜
ÙËÓeÓ àÓ·ÚÚȯÒÌÂÓÔÓ Âå˜ Ùe ≈„Ô˜ ÙÔÜ OéÚ·ÓÔÜ. ¶ÔÙb ‰bÓ àÓ¤¯ÂÙ·È Ùe „Â܉Ԙ,
ÙcÓ ñÔÎÚÈÛ›·Ó, ÙcÓ àÏ·˙ÔÓ›·Ó. ^ø˜ ÂrÓ·È Î·ı·Úe˜ Âå˜ Ùe öÓ‰˘Ì¿ ÙÔ˘, Ô≈Ùˆ ı¤ÏÂÈ
ηd ÙeÓ âÚáÓÙ· ηı·ÚeÓ Âå˜ ÙcÓ Î·Ú‰›·Ó. ^O ‰È·ÙËÚáÓ ÙcÓ Î·Ú‰›·Ó ηı·ÚaÓ
Ô鉤ÔÙ âÁηٷÏ›ÂÙ·È ·Úa ÙÔÜ öÚˆÙÔ˜. Eå˜ Ùe ÁÉÚ·˜ ·éÙÔÜ àÁ·÷Ä
ÂÚÈ·ı¤Ûٷٷ ηd ì „˘¯‹ ÙÔ˘ Û˘Óԉ‡ÂÙ·È ñe ÙÔÜ òEÚˆÙÔ˜ Âå˜ âÎÂÖÓÔÓ
ÙeÓ £ÂeÓ ¬ÛÙȘ ÌÂÛÔÏ·‚ÂÖ ‰Èa ÙcÓ âÏ¢ıÂÚ›·Ó Ù˘. ^O àÔʇÁˆÓ Ùe ‚¤ÏÔ˜
ÙÔ˘ ıˆÚÂÖÙ·È ÌÈÛËÙfi˜. ^O ı¤ÏˆÓ Óa ÙeÓ ÁÂÏ¿ÛFË ·ı·›ÓÂÈ ¬,ÙÈ ï ̤Á·˜ ZÂf˜ ö·ıÂÓ. ¢¤¯ÂÙ·È Óa àÛÙ½˙ÂÛ·È Ì·˙d ÙÔ˘ ηd Óa ¯·ÚÈÂÓÙ›˙ÂÛ·È, Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ÙcÓ ‰È¿ÓÔÈ¿Ó
ÛÔ˘, ÙcÓ ÛÊ˘ÚËÏ·ÙÂÖ, ÙcÓ âÍ¢ÁÂÓ›˙ÂÈ Î·d Ô鉤ÔÙ ‰¤¯ÂÙ·È ‰È·ÓÔ›·˜ ·î ïÔÖ·È
ö¯Ô˘ÛÈ çÈÛıÔ‰ÚÔÌÈÎÔf˜ ÛÎÔÔ‡˜.

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A¶O TA MA£HMATA AN£Pø¶O§O°IA™ TH™ ETAIPEIA™

\AÓıÚÒÈÓ·È Ê˘Ï·d j àÓıÚÒÈÓ· Âú‰Ë;

ñ‚ÚȉÈÛÌe˜ $ ·Ú·Á¤ÓÂÛȘ
“ÙcÓ ‰b Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· Á·ÌÂÖÓ, ≥ ÙȘ Û¤ıÂÓ âÁÁ‡ıÈ Ó·›ÂÈ”
^HÛ›Ô‰Ô˜, «òEÚÁ· ηd ^H̤ڷȻ, ÛÙ.700.

ÙÔÜ Î. ¢ËÌËÙÚ›Ô˘ ¢ËÌÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘

A
\

e ÙfiÙ Ôf â‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ıË ì ˙ˆc ÛÙcÓ ÁÉ, Ôf ÍÂΛÓËÛ àe ÙÔf˜ ÌÔÓÔ΢ÙÙ·Ú›Ô˘˜ çÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡˜, Û˘Ó¯ᘠÂú¯·Ì ≤Ó· ‰È·ÚÎÉ Î·Ù·ÎÂÚÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi,
Ì›· Û˘ÓÂ¯É ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔ›ËÛÈ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜Ø ‰È¿Û·ÛÈ Ûb ‰È¿ÊÔÚ· Âú‰Ë, ηÙfiÈÓ
Ûb ôÏÏ· Âú‰Ë, Ûb ÌÔÚÊc ‰ËÏ·‰‹, ‚ÂÓÙ¿ÏÈ·˜. AéÙe˜ ï ηٷÎÂÚÌ·ÙÈÛÌe˜ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜
Ûb ‰Âο‰Â˜ ëηÙÔÓÙ¿‰Â˜ ¯ÈÏÈ¿‰Â˜, ëηÙÔÌ̇ÚÈ· Âú‰Ë, Ê˘Ï¤˜, ÊÜÏ· ηd Á¤ÓË ‰bÓ
ö¯ÂÈ ÛÙ·Ì·Ù‹ÛÂÈ ¬ÛÔ ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ ˙ˆc âd Ùɘ Áɘ. AéÙc ì Ù¿ÛÈ ÏÔÈeÓ ÁÈa Û˘Ó¯É
ηٷÎÂÚÌ·ÙÈÛÌe Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜ àÔÙÂÏÂÖ ≤Ó· ‚·ÛÈÎe Ê˘ÛÈÎe ÓfiÌÔ, ôÚ· ≤Ó· ıÂÖÔ ÓfiÌÔ.
^O ÓfiÌÔ˜ ·éÙe˜ ϤÁÂÈ ¬ÙÈ Ùa Âú‰Ë ÚÔԉ¢ÙÈο, Ìb ÙeÓ ¯ÚfiÓÔ, ‰È·ÛáÓÙ·È, ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔÈÔÜÓÙ·È Ûb âÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ Á¤ÓË, ÔÙb ‰b Ùe àÓÙ›ÛÙÚÔÊÔ. ¢bÓ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÂÖÙ·È ÔÙb
ëÓÔÔ›ËÛÈ õ‰Ë ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔÈËÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÁÂÓáÓ [ÓfiÌÔ˜ ÙÔÜ Dolo]. ErÓ·È ì ı›· ‚Ô‡ÏËÛÈ,
¬ÔÈÔ˜ ‰b àÓÙÈÙ¿ÛÛÂÙ·È Ûb ·éÙcÓ ÚÔÛ·ıáÓÙ·˜ Óa ëÓÔÔÈ‹ÛFË, Óa Û˘ÌÌ›ÍFË,
ëÙÂÚÔÁÂÓÉ Î·d ëÙÂÚfiÛÂÚÌ· Á¤ÓË, ‰È·Ú¿ÙÙÂÈ àÙÈÌ›·, ‰È·Ú¿ÙÙÂÈ àÛ¤‚ÂÈ·, Úe˜
ÙcÓ ı›·Ó ‚Ô‡ÏËÛÈ, ëÔ̤ӈ˜ οı ëÓÔÔ›ËÛÈ, οı ۇÌÌÈÍÈ, ëÙÂÚÔÁÂÓáÓ âÌ‚›ˆÓ
ùÓÙˆÓ àÔÙÂÏÂÖ àÛ¤‚ÂÈ· Úe˜ Ùe £ÂÖÔÓ [\I‰Ôf ‰È·Ùd ì âÈÛÙ‹ÌË çÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÈ âÈۋ̈˜ ·éÙcÓ ÙcÓ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛÈ “ñ‚ÚȉÈÛÌeÓ” ηd Ùa ÚÔ˚fiÓÙ· Ù˘ “ñ‚Ú›‰È·-hybrids”,
âÎ Ùɘ ëÏÏËÓÈÎɘ Ϥ͈˜ “≈‚ÚȘ”] . K·d ÌfiÓÔÓ ·éÙe ıa àÚÎÔÜÛ ÁÈa Óa ηٷ‰ÈηÛıÔÜÓ Ôî ‰È·Ê˘ÏÂÙÈÎb˜ âÈÁ·Ì›Â˜, ηd ÌfiÓÔÓ ·éÙfi.
TÒÚ·, ıa ÚÔ¯ˆÚ‹ÛˆÌ ηd ıa ÔÜÌ ۋÌÂÚ· ηd ÁÈa ÔÈÔf˜ ôÏÏÔ˘˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜
·éÙb˜ Ôî âÈÌÈ͛˜ ‰bÓ âÈÙÚ¤ÂÙ·È Óa Á›ÓˆÓÙ·È. ^O ‚·ÛÈÎÒÙÂÚÔ˜ ÏfiÁÔ˜ ÂrÓ·È ï
ÓfiÌÔ˜ ‰Èa ÙcÓ ‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛÈ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜Ø ·éÙe ÂrÓ·È ï ÁÂÓÈÎe˜ àÊÔÚÈÛÌfi˜. §¤ÁÔÓÙ·˜ «Âr‰Ô˜» âÓÓÔÔÜÌ οı ÔÈÎÈÏ›· ïÔÈÔ˘‰‹ÔÙ Âú‰Ô˘˜, οı öÌ‚ÈÔ Âr‰Ô˜ ö¯ÂÈ

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̤۷ ÙÔ˘ àe ÙcÓ Ê‡ÛÈ ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË Ì›· ‰È·Ù·Á‹, Ì›· ïÚÌ‹, Ì›· öÌÊ˘ÙÔ Ù¿ÛÈ ì
ïÔ›· ÙÔÜ Ï¤ÁÂÈ Óa ‰È·ÙËÚËıFÉ ÛÙcÓ ˙ˆ‹, ÂrÓ·È ì ·éÙÔÛ˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛÈ ÙÔÜ Âú‰Ô˘˜: Óa
·Ú·Ì›ÓFË ÛÙcÓ ˙ˆc ¬ÛÔ Ùe ‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ åÛ¯˘ÚfiÙÂÚÔ âÓ ¯ÒÚˇˆ ηd âÓ ¯ÚfiÓˇˆ. ¢ËÏ·‰c
Óa ÌÂٷʤÚFË Ùa ÁÔÓ›‰È¿ ÙÔ˘ Ûb ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎb˜ ÁÂÓ¤˜, ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ¿ÓÙÔÙ Ùe
ú‰ÈÔ ôÌÌÈÎÙÔ Î·d ηı·Úfi, ηd Óa ηٷϿ‚FË ¬ÛÔ ÌÔÚÂÖ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ ¯áÚÔ. A
\ e
âÎÂÖ ôÏψÛÙ ‚Á·›ÓÂÈ Î·d ì öÓÓÔÈ· ÙÔÜ àÁáÓÔ˜ ÁÂÓÈÎᘠÛÙcÓ ˙ˆ‹Ø ÛÙcÓ ˙ˆc ï
àÁÒÓ, ï fiÏÂÌÔ˜, ÂrÓ·È ï ·Ù¤Ú·˜ ÙáÓ ¿ÓÙˆÓ. ¢bÓ ÙeÓ ÎÚ›ÓÔÌ ÙeÓ àÁáÓ· ôÓ
ÂrÓ·È Î·Ïe˜ j ηÎe˜, ÙeÓ àԉ¯fiÌÂı· ¬ˆ˜ àÔ‰¤¯ÂÙ·È Î·ÓÂd˜ ≤Ó· ıÂÖÔ ÓfiÌÔ. ^O
fiÏÂÌÔ˜ ÂrÓ·È ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔ˜ àe ÙcÓ Ê‡ÛÈ, fiÏÂÌÔ˜ ¬ÏˆÓ ÙáÓ âÌ‚›ˆÓ ùÓÙˆÓ ÌÂٷ͇
ÙÔ˘˜, ù¯È ηÙ' ôÙÔÌ· ¬Ìˆ˜ àÏÏa ηÙa Âú‰Ë, ηÙa ïÌ¿‰Â˜. Ta ‰È¿ÊÔÚ·, ‰ËÏ·‰‹,
Âú‰Ë ÙáÓ ÁÂÓáÓ Ôf ñ¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó, Ôî ‰È¿ÊÔÚ˜ ÌÔÚʤ˜, ÂñÚ›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È Ûb ≤Ó· ‰È·ÚÎÉ,
‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈÎfi, ·åÒÓÈÔ fiÏÂÌÔ, ÚÔÛ·ıáÓÙ·˜ Óa ηٷϿ‚Ô˘Ó Ùe ηı¤Ó· ¬ÛÔ Ùe
‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ ¯áÚÔ Ì¤Û· ÛÙcÓ Ê‡ÛÈ, Óa âÈÎÚ·Ù‹ÛFË ·éÙe öÓ·ÓÙÈ ÙáÓ
ôÏψÓ, ïÌÔÂȉáÓ j Ìc ïÌÔÂȉáÓ, ʇψÓ, Ê˘ÏáÓ, ÁÂÓáÓ Î·d Âå‰áÓØ Î·d Ûb ·éÙeÓ
ÙeÓ à¤Ó·Ô fiÏÂÌÔ, Ôf Á›ÓÂÙ·È ÙáÓ ¿ÓÙˆÓ Î·Ùa ¿ÓÙˆÓ, ÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Ûb ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· àÓ¿Ï˘ÛÈ ì ÚfiÔ‰Ô˜ Ùɘ ˙ˆÉ˜. ^O ηٷÎÂÚÌ·ÙÈÛÌe˜ ·éÙe˜ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ¬ÙÈ â͢ËÚÂÙÂÖ ÙcÓ âÈ‚›ˆÛÈ: °ÂÓÈÎa ÌÂÙa àe ïÔÈ·‰‹ÔÙ ηٷÛÙÚÔÊ‹, Ï‹ÙÙÂÙ·È
‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎa ·éÙe Ùe Âr‰Ô˜, à' ¬ÙÈ Ùe ôÏÏÔ, àÓ¿ÏÔÁ· Ìb Ùa ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎa Ôf
ö¯ÂÈ Ùe οı Âr‰Ô˜. A
\ ÎfiÌË Î·d Ì›· ˘ÚËÓÈÎc ηٷÛÙÚÔÊc Ï‹ÙÙÂÈ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ
ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘˜, ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ ÙÔf˜ ôÏÏÔ˘˜. òIÛˆ˜ ÂrÓ·È ·éÙe˜ ≤Ó·˜ ÏfiÁÔ˜ Ùɘ ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔÈ‹Ûˆ˜, úÛˆ˜ ‰bÓ ÂrÓ·È ·éÙfi˜, úÛˆ˜ ÂrÓ·È ì Ù¿ÛȘ Úe˜ ÙeÓ ñÂÚ¿ÓıÚˆÔ ÁÂÓÈο,
‰ËÏ·‰c ÚÔ¯ˆÚÂÖ Û˘Ó¯ᘠηd ‰È·ÛÄÙ·È Î·d ηٷÎÂÚÌ·Ù›˙ÂÙ·È ì ˙ˆc ÚÔÛ·ıáÓÙ·˜ ηÙ' ÔéÛ›·Ó Óa Êı¿ÛFË Ûb ≤Ó· ñ¤ÚÙÂÚÔ ıÂÖÔ ùÓ ¬Ô˘ ¬Ï· Ùa ôÏÏ·
Âú‰Ë ηd Á¤ÓË Ùa ïÔÖ· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔÜÓÙ·È àÔÙÂÏÔÜÓ [¬ˆ˜ ϤÁÂÈ ï Bergson- ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ˜ ^E‚Ú·ÖÔ˜ ÊÈÏfiÛÔÊÔ˜- Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ¬ÙÈ ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ ≤Ó· Û¯¤‰ÈÔ Ùɘ ı›·˜ ‚Ô˘Ï‹Ûˆ˜
Úe˜ Ì›·Ó ηÙ‡ı˘ÓÛÈ ñÂÚ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘ ¬Ô˘ ¬Ï˜ Ôî ôÏϘ ÌÔÚÊb˜ Âå‰áÓ Î·d
ÁÂÓáÓ Ôf ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔÜÓÙ·È ÛÙc ÁÉ ÂrÓ·È ÛaÓ Ùd˜ ñÏÈÎb˜ àÔÛ΢¤˜, ÛaÓ Ùd˜ ‚·Ï›ÙÛ˜, Ôf ÎÔ˘‚·Ï¿ÂÈ Î·Ó¤Ó·˜ ÚÔ¯ˆÚáÓÙ·˜ ÁÈa Óa Êı¿ÛFË ÛÙeÓ ÚÔÔÚÈÛÌfi ÙÔ˘]
·Ú·ÚÔ˚fiÓ, ıa öÏÂÁ·, Ùɘ ÚÔÛ·ı›·˜ Ùɘ ʇÛˆ˜ Óa Êı¿ÛFË Úe˜ Ùe ñ¤ÚÙÂÚÔ ùÓ. ≠OÏ· ‰ËÏ·‰c ·éÙa Ôf Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È ÙÂÏÈÎᘠÛaÓ ÛÙfi¯Ô Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È, úÛˆ˜, ¬ÙÈ
ö¯Ô˘Ó ÙeÓ ≤Ó·, ·éÙeÓ Ôf ıa ÌÔÚ¤ÛÂÈ Î¿ÔÙ Óa Êı¿ÛFË Ûb Ì›· ηٿÛÙ·ÛÈ
ñÂÚÙ¤ÚÔ˘ ùÓÙÔ˜.
™Ä˜ Âr· ¬ÙÈ ÙÔf˜ ÓfiÌÔ˘˜ Ùɘ ʇÛˆ˜ ‰bÓ ÙÔf˜ ÎÚ›ÓÂÈ Î·Ó›˜, ‰bÓ ‰È·Ï¤ÁÂÙ·È
Ìb ·éÙÔ‡˜. TÔf˜ àÎÔ‡ÂÈ, ÙÔf˜ ‰È·ÈÛÙÒÓÂÈ Î·d ÂÈı·Ú¯ÂÖ. ^O ‚·ÛÈÎÒÙÂÚÔ˜ ÏÔÈeÓ ÓfiÌÔ˜ Ùɘ ʇÛˆ˜ ÂrÓ·È ì ‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛÈ ÙÔÜ Âr‰Ô˘˜. B¤‚·È· ì ʇÛÈ ö¯ÂÈ

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ı¤ÛÂÈ Î·ÓfiÓ˜ ÁÈa ÙcÓ âÊ·ÚÌÔÁc ·éÙÔÜ ÙÔÜ Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÔ˜. ¢ËÏ·‰c âaÓ ÚÔÛ·ı‹ÛÔ˘Ó ‰‡Ô Âú‰Ë Óa öÏıÔ˘Ó Ûb âÈÌÈÍ›· ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ·éÙc ì âÈÌÈÍ›· ı¿ ÂrÓ·È
ÛÙÂÖÚ·, ¬ˆ˜ ÙÔÜ ¥Ô˘ ηd ÙÔÜ ùÓÔ˘ Ôf ÌÔÚÔÜÓ Óa öÏıÔ˘Ó Ûb âÈÌÈÍ›· η›
ÌÔÚÔÜÓ Óa öÏıÔ˘Ó Ûb âÈÌÈÍ›· ‰ÈfiÙÈ ·éÙa Ùa ‰‡Ô Âú‰Ë ö¯Ô˘Ó Á›ÓÂÈ Î·ÙÔÈΛ‰È·.
ErÓ·È ·Ú·ÙËÚË̤ÓÔ ¬ÙÈ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎa Âú‰Ë ¬Ù·Ó ÂñÚÂıÔÜÓ âÎÙe˜ Ê˘ÛÈÎÔÜ
ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜ .¯. Óa Û˘ÁηÙÔÈÎÔÜÓ Ì¤Û· Ûb ≤Ó· ˙ˆÔÏÔÁÈÎe ÎÉÔ, ñÊ›ÛÙ·ÓÙ·È
≤Ó· οÔÈÔ ÌÈÎÚe âÎÊ˘ÏÈÛÌe Ìb àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Óa ÌÔÚÔÜÓ Óa öÏıÔ˘Ó Ûb âÈÌÈÍ›·
ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜. Te ôÏÔÁÔ Î·d Ùe Á·˚‰Ô‡ÚÈ ö¯Ô˘Ó ñÔÛÙÉ ·éÙcÓ ÙcÓ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛÈ, Ôf
Âú·ÌÂ, ÙÔÜ Î·ÙÔÈÎȉ›Ô˘, Ùɘ domestication, Ìb àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Óa ÌÔÚÔÜÓ Óa
öÏıÔ˘Ó Ûb âÈÌÈÍ›·, Óa ÌÔÚÔÜÓ Óa οÓÔ˘Ó ·È‰È¿, Ùa ÌÔ˘Ï¿ÚÈ·, Ùa ïÔÖ· ¬Ìˆ˜
·éÙa âÓ Û˘Ó¯›÷· ÂrÓ·È ÛÙÂÖÚ·. º·›ÓÂÙ·È ¬ÙÈ ï ôÓıÚˆÔ˜ Ôf ÂrÓ·È Ùe ηÙÂÍÔ¯cÓ
ηÙÔÈΛ‰ÈÔ ˙áÔ ö¯ÂÈ ñÔÛÙÉ ·éÙe Ùe Âr‰Ô˜ ÙÔÜ ÌÈÎÚÔÂÎÊ˘ÏÈÛÌÔÜ, Óa ÌÔÚÉ
‰ËÏ·‰c Óa ÁÂÓÓÄ ·È‰Èa àÎfiÌË Î·d ÛÙcÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ Ùɘ âÈÌÈÍ›·˜. §¿‚ÂÙ ñfi„ÈÓ Û·˜ ¬ÙÈ ÔÏÏÔd àÓıÚˆÔÏfiÁÔÈ, ‰È·ÚÂ¤ÛÙ·ÙÔÈ Î·d ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔÈ àÓıÚˆÔÏfiÁÔÈ
ηd ‚ÈÔÏfiÁÔÈ åÛ¯˘Ú›˙ÔÓÙ·È ¬ÙÈ Âå‰ÈÎᘠì Ï¢Îc Ê˘Ï‹, ì ÎÈÙÚ›ÓË Ê˘Ïc ηd ì
ÓÂÁÚÈÎc Ê˘Ïc ‰bÓ ÂrÓ·È Ê˘Ïb˜ àÏÏa ÂrÓ·È Í¯ˆÚÈÛÙa Âú‰Ë, ͯˆÚÈÛÙa species.
º˘Ïb˜ ñ¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ̤۷ ÛÙcÓ Ï¢΋, ÛÙeÓ Ï¢Îe ÎfiÛÌÔ, Ê˘Ïb˜ ñ¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ̤۷
ÛÙeÓ Î›ÙÚÈÓÔ ÎfiÛÌÔ, ñ¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ̤۷ ÛÙeÓ Ì·ÜÚÔ ÎfiÛÌÔ. A
\ ÏÏa ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ·éÙÔd
Ôî ÙÚÂÖ˜ ÎfiÛÌÔÈ ‰bÓ ÂrÓ·È Ê˘Ïb˜ ¬ˆ˜ Û˘ÓËı›Û·Ì Óa ϤÌÂ. ErÓ·È Âr‰Ë, ηd ηÓÔÓÈÎa ‰bÓ ıa öÚÂ Óa ÂrÓ·È ‰˘Ó·Ùc j âÈı˘ÌËÙc ì Á¤ÓÓËÛÈ Ù¤ÎÓˆÓ àe ÙcÓ âÈÌÈÍ›· ÌÂÙ·Íf ·éÙáÓ ÙáÓ ÌÂÁ¿ÏˆÓ Ê˘ÏáÓ-Âå‰áÓ, àÓıÚˆ›ÓˆÓ Âå‰áÓ. \EaÓ ÂrÓ·È
‰˘Ó·Ù‹, j âÈı˘ÌËÙ‹, ·éÙe çÊ›ÏÂÙ·È àÎÚȂᘠÛb ·éÙe Ùe Âr‰Ô˜ ÙÔÜ âÎÊ˘ÏÈÛÌÔÜ
‰ËÏ. Ùɘ domestication ÙÔÜ àÓıÚÒÔ˘. K·d ¿ÏÈ ÌcÓ Ê·ÓÙ·ÛıÂÖÙ ¬Ìˆ˜ ¬ÙÈ ·éÙc
ì âÈÌÈÍ›· Ôf ÌÔÚÂÖ Óa ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËıÉ ÌÂٷ͇ ·éÙáÓ ÙáÓ àÓıÚˆ›ÓˆÓ Âå‰áÓ,
¬ÙÈ ÂrÓ·È ôÓ¢ ‰˘ÛÌÂÓáÓ àÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·d ôÓ¢ âÈÙÒÛÂˆÓ j ¬ÙÈ ÂrÓ·È
‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ Óa ‰È·ÚΤÛË Î·d Óa ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËıÉ Ì›· Ó¤· Ê˘Ïc ‰ÈfiÙÈ âÌ›ÙÂÈ Âå˜ ÙcÓ
ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈÓ Ùɘ ·Ú·ÁÂÓ¤Ûˆ˜. Te ı¤Ì· ö¯ÂÈ ÌÂÏÂÙËıÉ â·ÚÎᘠàe ÔÏÏÔf˜
Âå‰ÈÎÔf˜ âÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜.
\E¯Ô˘Ì ÏÔÈeÓ Ì›· ÁÂÓÂa P1 ¬ˆ˜ ÙcÓ Ï¤ÌÂ, ÚÒÙË ·ÙÚÈÎc ÁÂÓ¿, ì ïÔ›·
ÁÂÓÓÄ ÙcÓ F1, ÙcÓ ÚÒÙË ı˘Á·ÙÚÈÎc ÁÂÓ¿, ·éÙe ÌÔÚÂÖ Óa Á›ÓË àÎfiÌË Î·d
ÌÂÙ·Íf ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎáÓ àÓıÚˆ›ÓˆÓ Âå‰áÓ. òE¯ÂÈ ¬Ìˆ˜ ·Ú·ÙËÚËıÉ ¬ÙÈ ·éÙc ì F1
ÁÂÓÂa ‰bÓ ·ÓÙÚ‡ÂÙ·È ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘, ïfiÙ ηd ıa àÔÎ·Ï˘ÊıÉ ì ·Ú·ÁÂÓÂÙÈÎc
ÛÙÂÈÚfiÙ˘ Ôf âÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È Âå˜ ÙcÓ ‰Â˘Ù¤Ú· ÁÂÓ¿. ¶¿ÓÙÔÙ Ôî F1 Ù›ÓÔ˘Ó Óa
·ÓÙÚ¢ÙÔÜÓ Ìb οÔÈÔ˘˜ âÎÚÔÛÒÔ˘˜ Ùɘ P1, ·ÙÚÈÎɘ ÁÂÓÂĘ. ¢ËÏ·‰‹, ≤Ó·˜

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Ï¢Îe˜ ηd ≤Ó·˜ KÈÓ¤˙Ô˜ âaÓ ·ÓÙÚ¢ÙÔÜÓ ıa οÓÔ˘Ó ·È‰¿ÎÈ·, Ùa F1, ·éÙe Ùe
·È‰d, Ùe F1, ¬Ù·Ó ÌÂÁ·ÏÒÛÂÈ ‰bÓ ıa ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ÔÙb Óa ·ÓÙÚ¢ÙÉ Ìb
οÔÈÔ ôÏÏÔ Ï¢ÎÔÎÈÓÂ˙¿ÎÈØ ıa àÓ·˙ËÙ‹ÛË Óa ·ÓÙÚ¢ÙÉ j Ìb Ï¢Îe j Ìb KÈÓ¤˙Ô.
Oî àÓıÚˆÔÏfiÁÔÈ Ôf ÌÂϤÙËÛ·Ó ·éÙa Ùa Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· ÛĘ ϤÓ ¬ÙÈ Ê˘ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈÎa
âaÓ ·ÓÙÚ¢ÙÔÜÓ ï F1 Ìb ÙeÓ F1, ‰bÓ ıa ÌÔÚÔÜÓ Óa οÓÔ˘Ó ·È‰È¿. AéÙc ÂrÓ·È
ì ·Ú·Á¤ÓÂÛȘ.

^Y¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó Ù¤ÛÛÂÚ· Âú‰Ë ÁÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙÔ˜: ErÓ·È ì ηٿÛÙ·ÛÈ ì àÁÂÓÂÙÈ΋, ì
‰˘ÛÁÂÓÂÙÈ΋, ì ·Ú·ÁÂÓÂÙÈÎc ηd ì ÂéÁÂÓÂÙÈ΋. AéÙb˜ Ùd˜ Ù¤ÛÛÂÚÂȘ ηÙËÁÔڛ˜
ÁÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙÔ˜ Ùd˜ âÌÂϤÙËÛ å‰È·ÈÙ¤Úˆ˜ ï °¿ÏÏÔ˜ àÓıÚˆÔÏfiÁÔ˜ ¶gÏ MÚÔοÚ, ï
ïÔÖÔ˜ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ à¤‰ÂÈÍ ¬ÙÈ: A) K·Ùa ÙcÓ àÁÂÓÂÙÈÎc ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ÁÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙÔ˜, Ùa ·È‰Èa Ùa ïÔÖ· ÁÂÓÓÈÔÜÓÙ·È,Ùa F1, ÂrÓ·È ÛÙÂÖÚ· ηd ‰bÓ Û˘Ó¯›˙ÂÙ·È ì
ÛÂÈÚ¿. B) K·Ùa ÙcÓ ‰˘ÛÁÂÓÂÙÈÎc ·éÙa ÂrÓ·È ÛÙÂÖÚ· âÊfiÛÔÓ öÏıÔ˘Ó Ûb âÈÌÈÍ›· Ìb
οÔÈ· àe Ùd˜ ·ÙÚÈÎb˜ Ê˘Ï¤˜. °) Eå˜ ÙcÓ ·Ú·ÁÂÓÂÙÈÎc ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ÁÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙÔ˜, ö¯Ô˘Ì j Ùa F1 j Ùa F2 Óa ÂrÓ·È ÛÙÂÖÚ· ηÙa ÙcÓ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰È·ÛÙ·‡ÚˆÛÈ,
âÓá Ûb ïÔÈ·‰‹ÔÙ ôÏÏË ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ÌÔÚÔÜÓ Óa ÙÂÎÓÔÔÈÔÜÓ, ‰ËÏ·‰c Ùa F1
ηd Ùa F2 ÂrÓ·È ÁfiÓÈÌ· Ìb Ùd˜ ·ÙÚÈÎb˜ Ê˘Ï¤˜. Eå˜ ·éÙc ÙcÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ÂrÓ·È
‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ Î·d Ùa F1 ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ Óa ÙÂÎÓÔÔÈÔÜÓ, ù¯È ¬Ìˆ˜ ηd Ùa F2 . ^EÔ̤ӈ˜
ÌÔÚÂÖ ì ÛÂÈÚa Óa Êı¿ÛË Ì¤¯ÚÈ Ùe F2 àÏÏa ‰bÓ ÌÔÚÂÖ Óa ÚÔ¯ˆÚ‹ÛË ôÏÏÔ,
âÎÙe˜ âaÓ Á›ÓË ÌÖÍȘ ÙÔÜ F1 j ÙÔÜ F2 Ìb οÔÈ· àe Ùd˜ ·ÙÚÈÎb˜ ÁÂÓÓ¤˜, Ùd˜
ηı·Úb˜ ‰ËÏ·‰c Ê˘Ïb˜ Ôf âÌ›¯ıËÛ·Ó àÚ¯ÈÎá˜. ¢) K·Ùa ÙcÓ ÂéÁÂÓÂÙÈÎc ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ÂrÓ·È ¬Ï˜ Ôî ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÁÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙÔ˜ ‰˘Ó·Ù¤˜.
™‡Ìʈӷ Ìb ÙeÓ ‰È¿ÛËÌÔ BÚÂÙ·ÓÓe àÓıÚˆÔÏfiÁÔ John Baker, Ôf ¤ı·ÓÂ
Úe çÏ›ÁÔ˘ ηÈÚÔÜ, ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ 3 àÓıÚˆ›ÓˆÓ Âå‰áÓ, ¬ˆ˜ öÏÂÁ ηd ·éÙfi˜ ÁÈ·Ù› ηd ·éÙe˜ à¤‰ÂÈÍ ¬ÙÈ ÂrÓ·È àÓıÚÒÈÓ· Âú‰Ë ͯˆÚÈÛÙa ì Ï¢΋, ì ΛÙÚÈÓË
ηd ì ÓÂÁÚÈÎc Ê˘Ï‹- ì ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ÁÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙÔ˜ ÂrÓ·È ·Ú·ÁÂÓÂÙÈ΋. A
\ fi ÏÉıÔ˜
·Ú·ÙËÚ‹ÛÂˆÓ Ôf Âr¯Â οÓÂÈ ‰ÈÂ›ÛÙˆÛ ¬ÙÈ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ àÓıÚˆ›ÓˆÓ Âå‰áÓ
‰bÓ ÂrÓ·È ‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ ¤Ú·Ó Ùɘ ‰Â˘Ù¤Ú·˜ ı˘Á·ÙÚÈÎɘ ÁÂÓÂĘ Óa ÚÔ¯ˆÚ‹ÛË ì âÈÌÈÍ›·, â¿Ó, ‰ËÏ·‰‹, οÔÈÔ˜ Ùɘ F2 ÁÂÓÂĘ öÏıË Ûb Á¿ÌÔ Ìb οÔÈÔÓ ôÏÏÔÓ Ùɘ
F2 ÁÂÓÂĘ ‰bÓ ıa οÓÔ˘Ó ·È‰È¿. òAÏÏË öÚ¢ӷ, ÙÔÜ 1920, ëÓe˜ ^OÏÏ·Ó‰ÔÜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÔÏfiÁÔ˘ ö‰ÂȯÓ ¬ÙÈ Ôî Á¿ÌÔÈ ÌÂٷ͇ Ï¢ÎáÓ Î·d ^E‚Ú·›ˆÓ ÂrÓ·È Î·ÙÂÍÔ¯cÓ
ôÁÔÓÔÈ Á¿ÌÔÈ. ¢ËÏ·‰c ö¯ÂÈ ÔÏf ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚ˜ ÙÔÜ Û˘Ó‹ıÔ˘˜ Èı·ÓfiÙËÙ˜ ÁÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙÔ˜ ·éÙe˜ ï Á¿ÌÔ˜. ≠EÓ·˜ ôÏÏÔ˜ BÚÂÙ·ÓÓe˜ ‚ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˜, ï NÙ¿ÚÏÈÓÁÎÙÔÓ, öηÓÂ
ÏÉıÔ˜ ÂÈÚ¿Ì·Ù· âd ÛÎ‡ÏˆÓ Î·d ‰ÈÂ›ÛÙˆÛ ¬ÙÈ ¬Ù·Ó öÊÙÈ·¯Ó ÁÂÓ¤˜ F1 ηd
F2, Ôî ÌbÓ F1 ÁÂÓÂb˜ qÙ·Ó Î·Ïb˜ ≤ˆ˜ àÓÂÎÙ¤˜Ø àÏÏa Ôî F2, Ôî Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎb˜ ¬Ìˆ˜
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F2 Ôf ö¯Ô˘Ó ÚÔ·„ÂÈ àe ÌÖÍÈ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ F1, qÙ·Ó à·Ú¿‰ÂÎÙ˜, qÙ·Ó ÙÚ·ÁÈΤ˜, ·ÚÂÙËÚÂÖÙÔ ÔÏf ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ˜ àÚÈıÌe˜ ÓÂÎÚáÓ ÁÂÓÓ‹ÛÂˆÓ Î·d ÔÏf ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ˜
àÚÈıÌe˜ ÛÎ‡ÏˆÓ Î·Îɘ ÔÈfiÙËÙÔ˜ Ìb ۈ̷ÙÈÎa âÏ·ÙÙÒÌ·Ù· Î.Ï. M¿ÏÈÛÙ·,
àÊÔÜ Ùa ·Ú¤ıÂÙ ¬Ï· ·éÙ¿, öÁÚ·Ê ¬ÙÈ: «ErÌ·È ‚¤‚·ÈÔ˜ ¬ÙÈ Î·d ÌÂٷ͇ ÙáÓ
àÓıÚˆ›ÓˆÓ Âå‰áÓ, âaÓ qÙ·Ó ‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ Óa οÓÔ˘Ì ÂÈÚ¿Ì·Ù·, Ùa ú‰È· àÎÚÈ‚á˜
àÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· ıa Âú¯·Ì ÛÙcÓ F2 ÁÂÓ¿. K·d ÂrÌ·È ‚¤‚·ÈÔ˜ ¬ÙÈ ï ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ˜ àÚÈıÌe˜ ÙáÓ „˘¯ÈÎᘠàÓˆÌ¿ÏˆÓ Î·d Ó¢ڷÛıÂÓáÓ Î·d „˘¯·ÛıÂÓáÓ Î·d àÓÈÛÔÚÚfiˆÓ, Ôf ñ¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ÛÙcÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·, çÊ›ÏÔÓÙ·È àÎÚȂᘠÛb Ù¤ÙÔȘ ·Ï·ÈfiÙÂÚ˜
âÈÌÈ͛˜ ‰È·Ê˘ÏÂÙÈΤ˜». \E‰á Âå‰ÈÎa ÁÈa Ùe ı¤Ì· ÙáÓ âÈÙÒÛÂˆÓ ÛÙa ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈÎa ηd ÛÙa „˘¯ÈÎa â›‰· Ùɘ âÈÌÈÍ›·˜ ıa öÚÂ Óa àӷʤڈÌ 2-3 öÚ¢Ó˜, àe Ùd˜ ¿Ú· ÔÏÏb˜ Ôf ñ¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó, Ôî ïÔÖ˜ ÂrÓ·È àÍÈÔÚfiÛÂÎÙ˜. ^H Ì›·
öÁÈÓ àe ≤Ó· NÔÚ‚ËÁe çÓfiÌ·ÙÈ MÈÁbÓ Î·d àÊÔÚÄ ÙcÓ âÈÌÈÍ›· Ôf ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ
ÛÙcÓ ¯ÒÚ· ÙÔ˘ ÌÂÙ·Íf NÔÚ‚ËÁáÓ Î·d §·ÒÓˆÓ ÛÙe ‚fiÚÂÈÔ ÙÌÉÌ· Ùɘ ¯ÒÚ·˜. ^ø˜
ÁÓˆÛÙeÓ Ôî §¿ˆÓ˜ ÂrÓ·È ÎÏ¿‰Ô˜ Ùɘ ΛÙÚÈÓ˘ Ê˘Ïɘ ηd óÚÈṲ̂ÓÔÈ àe ·éÙÔf˜ öÚ¯ÔÓÙ·È Ûb âÈÌÈÍ›· Ìb ÙÔf˜ NÔÚ‚ËÁÔf˜ Ôî ïÔÖÔÈ, ‚‚·›ˆ˜, àÓ‹ÎÔ˘Ó ÛÙe
BfiÚÂÈÔ, ÛÙe NÔÚ‰ÈÎe ÊÜÏÔ. ^H öÚ¢ӷ ÏÔÈeÓ ÙÔÜ MÈÁbÓ ö‚Á·Ï ¬ÙÈ ö¯Ô˘ÌÂ, ÏfiÁˆ
àÓÈÛÔÚÚÔ›·˜ Ùɘ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ ÙáÓ âÓ‰ÔÎÚÈÓáÓ à‰¤ÓˆÓ, ËéÍË̤ÓÔ àÚÈıÌe „˘¯ÈÎᘠ‰È·Ù·Ú·ÁÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÚÔÛÒˆÓ. AéÙe Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ ‰ÈfiÙÈ ‰bÓ àÓÙÈÛÙÔȯÔÜÓ Ùa ÁÔÓ›‰È· ÙáÓ ÌbÓ Ìb ·éÙa ÙáÓ ‰¤, ‰ÈfiÙÈ Ùa ÁÔÓ›‰È· ÂñÚ›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È Ûb ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎb˜ ˙áÓ˜
ÙÔÜ ¯ÚˆÌ·ÙÔÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜, àÓ¿ÏÔÁ· ‰b Ìb Ùe ÔÜ ÂñÚ›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È â¿Óˆ ÛÙa ¯ÚˆÌÔÛÒÌ·Ù· âÈÙÂÏÔÜÓ Ì›· Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·. \EaÓ ÏÔÈeÓ ¿ÚÂȘ ηd Ì›ÍÂȘ
¯ÚˆÌÔÛÒÌ·Ù· ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎáÓ Ê˘ÏáÓ ÙfiÙ ϤÔÓ Ùa ÁÔÓ›‰È· ·‡Ô˘Ó Óa ·›˙Ô˘Ó Ùe
ÚfiÏÔ Ôf ö·È˙·Ó ÛÙd˜ ·ÙÚÈÎb˜ Ê˘Ïb˜ ηd ÂñÚÈÛÎfiÌÂÓ· ϤÔÓ Ûb ôÏÏË ˙ÒÓË
àÚ¯›˙Ô˘Ó Óa ·›˙Ô˘Ó ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎe ÚfiÏÔ Ìb àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Óa ö¯ˆÌ ‰È·Ù·Ú·¯¤˜,
âÎÙe˜ ÙáÓ ôÏÏˆÓ Î·d ÛÙcÓ ¬ÏË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙáÓ âÓ‰ÔÎÚÈÓáÓ à‰¤ÓˆÓ. òAÏÏË öÚ¢ӷ
àÓ¿ÏÔÁË öÁÈÓ ÛÙcÓ ™Ô˘Ë‰›· àe ÙeÓ MÂÚÙdÓ §Ô‡ÓÙ‚·Ó, ηıËÁËÙc Ùɘ àÓıÚˆÔÏÔÁ›·˜, ηd àÊÔÚÔÜÛ ÙÔf˜ ÌÈÁ¿‰Â˜ ÌÂÙ·Íf ™Ô˘Ë‰áÓ Î·d Á‡ÊÙˆÓ. ^H öÚ¢ӷ
ÙÔÜ §Ô‡ÓÙ‚·Ó ö‚Á·Ï ·ÚfiÌÔÈ· àÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù·, ‰ËÏ·‰c ¬ÙÈ ö¯Ô˘Ì ≤Ó· ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ
ÔÛÔÛÙe ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ ÌÈÁ¿‰ˆÓ ۈ̷ÙÈÎᘠηd ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈÎᘠàÓ·‹ÚˆÓ. òAÏÏË
öÚ¢ӷ öÁÈÓ àe ÙeÓ °ÂÚÌ·Óe MÔ˘Î¯¿ÚÓÙ, Ôf ηd ·éÙe˜ öÊÙ·Û Ûb ·ÚfiÌÔÈ·
Û˘ÌÂÚ¿ÛÌ·Ù· ηd âÂÛ‹Ì·Ó å‰È·›ÙÂÚ· Ùe ·Ú·ÙËÚÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙáÓ ÌÈÁ¿‰ˆÓ
ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ÔÛÔÛÙe ·éÙÔÎÙÔÓÈáÓ, Ùe ïÔÖÔÓ àÔ‰›‰ÂÙ·È ÛÙcÓ „˘¯ÈÎc àÓÈÛÔÚÚÔ›·
Ôf ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÛÙa ôÙÔÌ· ·éÙa Ùa ïÔÖ· ‰bÓ ö¯Ô˘Ó àÚÙ›· ÁÂÓÂÙÈÎc ñÔ‰ÔÌ‹.

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§¤Ó ÔÏÏÔd ¬ÙÈ: «•¤ÚÂȘ, ö¯ÂÈ ·Ú·ÙËÚËıÉ ¬ÙÈ ¬Ù·Ó ö¯Ô˘Ì οÔ˘ Ì›· âÈÌÈÍ›·, Ùa ·È‰Èa Ôf ‚Á·›ÓÔ˘Ó ÂrÓ·È ¿Ú· ÔÏf ùÌÔÚÊ·». ¢bÓ Ùe ö¯ÂÙ àÎÔ‡ÛÂÈ
·éÙfi; «ErÓ·È, ϤÓÂ, ·éÙc Ì›· ηٷÏËÎÙÈÎc ÌÈÁa˜ ηd ÁÈ' ·éÙe ÂrÓ·È ÔÏf óÚ·›·»,
j ÙÔÜÙÔ j Ùe ôÏÏÔ. AéÙa Ùa ϤÓ ÁÈa Óa ÚÔ¯ˆÚ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ·Ú·Î¿Ùˆ, ÛÙe “‰Èa Ù·ÜÙ·”, ÁÈa Óa ÛÔÜ ÔÜÓ «ôÚ· ÂrÓ·È âȂ‚ÏË̤ÓÔ àe ÙcÓ Ê‡ÛÈ». ¢ËÏ·‰c Ùe ı¤ÏÂÈ
ì ʇÛÈ Ùe Óa οÓÔ˘Ì âÈÁ·Ì›Â˜ ÌÂÙ·Íf ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎáÓ Ê˘ÏáÓ ‰ÈfiÙÈ öÙÛÈ ÌÔÚá
Óa ÂÙ‡¯ˆ οÙÈ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ. AéÙe ¬Ìˆ˜ àÔÙÂÏÂÖ Ì¤Á· ÛÊ¿ÏÌ· ηd ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ‰Èa
Ì›·Ó Ï¿ÓËÓ ÔåÎÙÚaÓ ÙcÓ ïÔ›· ÌÂÙ·¯ÂÈÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ·éÙÔd Ôî ïÔÖÔÈ ‰bÓ ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó
ÙÔf˜ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔf˜ ÓfiÌÔ˘˜ j ÙÔf˜ ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó àÏÏa ÙÔf˜ àÔÎÚ‡ÙÔ˘Ó àe ÙÔf˜
ÔÏÏÔf˜ ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Óa ÙÔf˜ ·Ú·Û‡ÚÔ˘Ó. ¢ÈfiÙÈ Ûb ¬ÏË ·éÙcÓ ÙcÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ·
Ùɘ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·˜ àӷ̛͈˜ ÙáÓ Ê˘ÏáÓ ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ Û¯¤‰ÈÔ èÚÁ·ÓˆÌ¤ÓÔ. ¢bÓ Á›ÓÂÙ·È
Ù˘¯·›ˆ˜. ™ÙcÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·, ·éÙe Ùe Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ Ùe Óa ÁÂÓÓËıÔÜÓ ·È‰Èa àe
Ù¤ÙÔÈ· âÈÌÈÍ›· Ùa ïÔÖ· Óa ÂrÓ·È ÔÏf ÚÔÈÎÈṲ̂ӷ ÂrÓ·È ÁÓˆÛÙe ÛÙcÓ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁ›·.
¢bÓ ÂrÓ·È Î¿ÙÈ Î·ÈÓÔ‡ÚÁÈÔ. ErÓ·È ·Ì¿Ï·È· ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛÈ Ùɘ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ η› çÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÙ·È Ùfi Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ ·éÙe ëÙ¤ÚˆÛȘ. \OÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÙ·È öÙÛÈ Î¿Ô˘ 300 ¯ÚfiÓÈ·, ı¤Ïˆ
Ó¿ á ÂrÓ·È ÁÓˆÛÙe õ‰Ë ÛÙÔf˜ ‚ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˘˜. A
\ ÏÏa Ù› ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ëÙ¤ÚˆÛÈ; ™ËÌ·›ÓÂÈ
¬ÙÈ âaÓ ÌȯıÉ ≤Ó· Âr‰Ô˜ 1 Ìb Ùe Âr‰Ô˜ 2, Ùe Âr‰Ô˜ 1 ıa ö¯Ë 2 ¯ÚˆÌÔÛÒÌ·Ù·, ÛÙcÓ
êÏÔ˘ÛÙ¿ÙË ÙáÓ ÂÚÈÙÒÛˆÓ, àe ·Ù¤Ú· ηd ÌËÙ¤Ú·, Ù¿ P1 ηd M1 ηd i˜
éÔı¤ÛˆÌ ¬ÙÈ Ì›ÁÓ˘ÓÙ·È Ìb Ùa P2 ηd M2 àe Ì›· ôÏÏË Ê˘Ï‹. ™b Ì›· Ù¤ÙÔÈ·
ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ıa ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËıÔÜÓ ıˆÚËÙÈÎa ‰È¿ÊÔÚÔÈ Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌÔ›: ^O Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌe˜
P1P2, ï Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌe˜ P1M2, ï Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌe˜ M1P2 ηd ï Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌe˜ M1M2. ErÓ·È
‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ Ùe ¯ÚˆÌfiۈ̷ P1 Óa ö¯Ë ηÏb˜ å‰ÈfiÙËÙ˜. K·d Ûb ·éÙcÓ ÙcÓ ôÏÏË Ê˘Ïc
Ùe P2 ÌÔÚÂÖ Óa ÂrÓ·È Î·Ïfi. A
\ ÏÏa Ùe M2 Óa ÂrÓ·È ÔÏf ÌÂÈÔÓÂÎÙÈÎfi, ·ıÔÏÔÁÈÎfi.
\EÂȉc ¬Ìˆ˜ Ùe P2 ÂrÓ·È âÈÎÚ·ÙÔÜÓ, ¬ˆ˜ ϤÌÂ, ÁÈ' ·éÙe ·éÙe Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È.
[[^H ηٿÛÙ·ÛȘ ηÙa ÙcÓ ïÔ›· ηd Ùa ‰fÔ ¯ÚˆÌ·ÙÔÛÒÌ·Ù· Ùa ñ‡ı˘Ó· ‰È\
≤Ó· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎeÓ ö¯Ô˘Ó Ùa˜ 剛·˜ âÁÁÚ·Ê¿˜ (‰Èa ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·: P1P2,
P=ηÛÙ·Óc ÎfiÌË) ϤÁÂÙ·È ïÌÔ˙˘ÁˆÙ›·. ≠OÙ·Ó, àÓÙÈı¤Ùˆ˜, Ùa ‰fÔ ¯ÚˆÌ·ÙÔÛÒÌ·Ù· Ùa ñ‡ı˘Ó· ‰È\ ≤Ó· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎeÓ ö¯Ô˘Ó ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎa˜ âÁÁÚ·Ê¿˜, ÙfiÙÂ
·éÙc ì ηٿÛÙ·ÛȘ çÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÙ·È ëÙÂÚÔ˙˘ÁˆÙ›·. Eå˜ ·éÙcÓ ÙcÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈÓ ì Ì›·
àe Ùa˜ ‰‡Ô âÁÁÚ·Êa˜ âÈÎÚ·ÙÂÖ Î·d âÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È, ‰È\ ¬ Ùe ¯ÚˆÌfiۈ̷ ·éÙe
ϤÁÂÙ·È âÈÎÚ·ÙÔÜÓ, âÓá Ùe ≤ÙÂÚÔÓ Ï¤ÁÂÙ·È ñÔÏÂÈfiÌÂÓÔÓ. °ÔÓfiÙ˘Ô˜=Ùe
Û‡ÓÔÏÔÓ ÙÔÜ ÁÂÓÂÙÈÎÔÜ ñÏÈÎÔÜ, P2 ηd M2-‰Èa ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·: ηÛÙ·Óc ÎfiÌËÌÂÏ·Óc ÎfiÌË. º·ÈÓfiÙ˘Ô˜= ·éÙe Ôf âÈÎÚ·ÙÂÖ Î·d âÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È Âå˜ Ùe ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ¿ Ì·˜: âÈÎÚ·ÙÔÜÓ Ùe P2 ôÚ· âÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È Î·ÛÙ·Óc ÎfiÌË.]]
A
\ e ÙcÓ âÈÌÈÍ›· ı¿ ÌĘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËıÉ ì ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ P1P2 ¬Ô˘ ıa Á›ÓË ï Û˘Ó-

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^H ·Ú·ÁˆÁc Ùɘ ÚÒÙ˘ ı˘Á·ÙÚÈÎɘ
‰˘·ÛÌe˜ ÙáÓ Î·ÏáÓ ÁÔÓȉ›ˆÓ Ùɘ ÌÈĘ ηd Ùɘ
ÁÂÓÂĘ:
ôÏÏ˘ Ê˘Ïɘ, ·éÙc ÂrÓ·È ì ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ Ùɘ ëÙÂÚÒÛˆ˜. òIÛˆ˜ Ù‡¯ÂÈ, ‰ËÏ·‰c, οÔÈ· ÛÙÈÁÌc
P1M1
P2M2
Óa ÌĘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËıÉ Î·d Ì›· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ηÏc ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ j àÎfiÌË ıa Ù‡¯Ë ηd ì ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ
Ùɘ P1M2 ¬Ô˘ âaÓ ñÔı¤ÛˆÌ ¬ÙÈ Ùe P1
ÂrÓ·È âÈÎÚ·ÙÔÜÓ ‰bÓ ıa Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ùe M2 ¬ÙÈ
P1P2 P1M2 M1P2 M1M2
ÂrÓ·È ÌÂÈÔÓÂÎÙÈÎfi. hA˜ öÏıÔ˘Ì ¬Ìˆ˜ Âå˜ ÙcÓ F2
ÁÂÓ¿, ÙfiÙ ıa àÓÙÈÏËÊıÔÜÌ ‰È·Ùd ¿ÓÙ·
öÏÂÁÂ ì ‚ÈÔÏÔÁ›· ¬ÙÈ Ùe Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ Ùɘ ëÙÂÚÒÛˆ˜ ÂrÓ·È Ì›· ÚÔÛˆÚÈÓc àÓ·Ï·Ì‹, ‰ÈfiÙÈ àe Ùɘ ëÔ̤Ó˘ ÁÂÓÂĘ (F2) àÚ¯›˙ÂÈ ì ηٷÛÙÚÔÊ‹. ¢ËÏ·‰‹, ÌÂÙa àe
ÙcÓ F1 ÁÂÓ¿, ¬Ù·Ó ıa οÓÔ˘Ì Ӥ˜ âÈÌÈ͛˜ ÌÂÙ·Íf ·éÙáÓ ıa öÏıÂÈ Ùe M2 ηd
ıa Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛıÉ, i˜ ÔÜÌÂ, Ìb Ùe M1 ηd ıa ÌĘ οÓË ÙcÓ M1M2 ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ,
ïfiÙ ö¯ÔÌ ïÌÔ˙˘ÁˆÙ›· ηd ıa âÌÊ·ÓÈÛıÉ ì ÌÂÈÔÓÂÎÙÈÎfiÙ˘, ì ÓfiÛÔ˜, j ıa ÌĘ
οÓË ïÔÈ·‰‹ÔÙ ôÏÏË ¬Ô˘ ϤÔÓ ıa ηٷÛÙÚ·ÊÉ ì ÂåÎfiÓ· ì ïÔ›· ñÉÚ¯Â,
ëÔ̤ӈ˜ àe ÙcÓ F2 ÁÂÓÂa ıa àÚ¯›ÛÔ˘Ó Ôî Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌÔd Ôî ηÎÔ›.
Te Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ Ùɘ ëÙÂÚÒÛˆ˜, ÏÔÈeÓ, qÙ·Ó ¿ÓÙ· ÁÓˆÛÙe ηd â¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÂÖÙÔ ÁÈa Ùa Ê˘Ù¿ : ¶ÚÔÛ·ıÔÜÓ Óa ÊÙÈ¿ÍÔ˘Ó óÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ηÏb˜ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÏÔ˘ÏÔ˘‰ÈáÓ Î·d ͤÚÔ˘Ó ¬ÙÈ ·éÙe ıa Á›ÓË ÌfiÓÔÓ ÛÙcÓ F1 ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ. Ta ÊÙÈ¿¯ÓÔ˘Ó
ÏÔÈeÓ ÛÙcÓ F1, ‚Á·›ÓÔ˘Ó ‚¤‚·È· öÛÙˆ 5.000 Ê˘Ùa ÏÔ˘ÏÔ˘‰ÈáÓ àe Ùa ïÔÖ· Ùa
100 ÌfiÓÔÓ ÂrÓ·È Ôî ıÂÙÈÎb˜ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ Ùɘ ëÙÂÚÒÛˆ˜, Ùa ·›ÚÓÔ˘Ó Î·d àe
·éÙa ϤÔÓ ‰bÓ ÌÔÚÔÜÓ Óa Í·Ó·ÊÙÈ¿ÍÔ˘Ó Ù›ÔÙÂ. ¶Ú¤ÂÈ Óa ͷӷοÓÔ˘Ó ¿ÏÈ
àe ÙcÓ àÚ¯c ÙeÓ àÚ¯ÈÎe Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌe, Óa Í·Ó·‚Á¿ÏÔ˘Ó 5.000 Ê˘Ù¿, Óa Í·Ó·‰È·Ï¤ÍÔ˘Ó Ùa 100 ÁÈa Óa Ùa ˆÏ‹ÛÔ˘Ó.
òE¯ÂÈ ÛËÌ·Û›·, ηd Ú¤ÂÈ Óa Ùe ÔÜÌÂ, ¬ÙÈ ÛÙd˜ âÈÌÈ͛˜ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ Ê˘ÏáÓ
‰bÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Óa Ê·ÓÙ·ÛıÉ Î·ÓÂd˜ ¬ÙÈ ·éÙe Ôf ıa ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËıÉ ıa ÂrÓ·È ÂÚ›Ô˘
ï ̤ÛÔ˜ ¬ÚÔ˜ ÙáÓ Ê˘ÏáÓ Ôf âÌ›¯ıËÛ·Ó: £a ÛÔÜ ‚ÁÉ ôÏÏÔ ÚÄÁÌ·, Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ‰b
ÔÏf - ÔÏf ÌÂÈÔÓÂÎÙÈÎÒÙÂÚÔ Î·d àe Ùd˜ ‰‡Ô ·ÙÚÈÎb˜ Ê˘Ï¤˜. ^O EéÁ¤ÓÈÔ˜ º›ÛÂÚ Âr¯Â οÓÂÈ öÚ¢ӷ Ùe 1923 ÛÙcÓ NÔÙÈÔ‰˘ÙÈÎc A
\ ÊÚÈ΋. \EÎÂÖ ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ ì Ê˘Ï‹
ÙáÓ \OÙÙÂÓÙfiÙˆÓ Ôf ÂrÓ·È ≤Ó· ͯˆÚÈÛÙe àÓıÚÒÈÓÔ Âr‰Ô˜, ·éÙe ηd ôÓ ÂrÓ·È
ͯˆÚÈÛÙe àÓıÚÒÈÓÔ Âr‰Ô˜, Ôî ‰È·ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ àe Ùd˜ ñfiÏÔÈ˜ àÓıÚÒÈÓ˜
Ê˘Ïb˜ ÂrÓ·È ÎÚ·˘Á·Ï¤Â˜. ¶ÉÁ ï EéÁ¤ÓÈÔ˜ º›ÛÂÚ âÎÂÖ, ‰ÈfiÙÈ âÎÂÖ ñ¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó
ôÊıÔÓ˜ âÈÌÈ͛˜ Ìb ÙÔf˜ ^OÏÏ·Ó‰Ôf˜ Ôf ηÙÔÈÎÔÜÛ·Ó âÎÂÖ. AéÙb˜ öÁÈÓ·Ó
ÛÙcÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯c PÂÔÌeÙ Ùɘ N.¢. A
\ ÊÚÈÎɘ ηd àe ·éÙc âÉÚ·Ó Ùe ùÓÔÌ¿ ÙÔ˘˜
Ôî ÌÈÁ¿‰Â˜ ÌÂٷ͇ \OÙÙÂÓÙfiÙˆÓ Î·d Ï¢ÎáÓ Î·d ϤÁÔÓÙ·È PÂÔÌÔ‰fiÚ. ErÓ·È ÁÓˆ-

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ÛÙÔd ÛÙcÓ A
\ ÓıÚˆÔÏÔÁ›·. Te Û˘ÌÂÚ¿ÛÌ· ÏÔÈeÓ ÙÔÜ º›ÛÂÚ ÔÈe qÙ·Ó; ¶ÔÏÏa
qÙ·Ó Ùa Û˘ÌÂÚ¿ÛÌ·Ù·, ≤Ó· àe ·éÙa ö¯ÂÈ ÛËÌ·Û›· ÁÈa ÙÒÚ·: Ta ÌÈÎÙa Ù¤ÎÓ·,
Ôî PÂÔÌÔ‰eÚ ‰ËÏ·‰‹, ‰bÓ Âr¯·Ó Û¯¤ÛÈ Ìb ηÌÌ›· àe Ùd˜ ‰‡Ô ·ÙÚÈÎb˜ Ê˘Ïb˜
ηd qÛ·Ó ÔÏf Èe ÚˆÙfiÁÔÓÔÈ Î·d àe ÙÔf˜ \OÙÙÂÓÙfiÙÔ˘˜, ÚÄÁÌ· Ôf ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ¬ÙÈ àÎÚȂᘠì âÈÌÈÍ›· âÎÂÖ Âr¯Â àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ì›· àÓ·ÛÙÚÔÊc Ùɘ âÍÂϛ͈˜,
ηÌÌ›· Û¯¤ÛÈ ‰ËÏ·‰c Ìb ÙeÓ Ì¤ÛÔ ¬ÚÔ. hAÓ ı¤ÏÂÙ ηd ≤Ó· Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·
çÊı·ÏÌÔÊ·Ó¤˜, ÂrÓ·È ÙáÓ TÔ˘Ú·ÓÈÎáÓ ÏÂÁÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Ï·áÓ. TÔ˘Ú·ÓÈÎÔd Ï·Ôd ϤÁÔÓÙ·È
¬ÏÔÈ Ôî ÙÔ˘ÚÎÈÎÔd Ï·Ôd Ôf ˙ÔÜÓ Û‹ÌÂÚ· àe Ùɘ MÈÎÚĘ A
\ Û›·˜ ̤¯ÚÈ ÙáÓ ñ„È¤‰ˆÓ A
\ ÏÙ¿˚ ÛÙcÓ MÔÁÁÔÏ›·. ≠OÏÔÈ ·éÙÔd Ôî Ï·Ôd ÂrÓ·È ÌÖÁÌ· Ï¢ÎáÓ Î·d ÎÈÙÚ›ÓˆÓ. A
\ e Ï¢ÚĘ ¬Ìˆ˜ ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈÎÔÜ Î·d ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎÔÜ âÈ¤‰Ô˘ ÂrÓ·È ÔÏf
¯·ÌËÏfiÙÂÚ· ηd àe ÙÔf˜ Ï¢ÎÔf˜ ηd àe ÙÔf˜ ÎÈÙÚ›ÓÔ˘˜. \E‰á οÓÔÌ ̛·
ÁÂÓÈÎc ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎc - àÓıÚˆÔÏÔÁÈÎc ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛÈ: Te ÌÖÁÌ· ÂrÓ·È Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ηÙÒÙÂÚÔ Î·d ÙáÓ ‰‡Ô ·ÙÚÈÎáÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ. AéÙe ÂrÓ·È Ùe ÁÂÓÈÎe Û˘Ì¤Ú·ÛÌ·. ¢ËÏ·‰c
ÌcÓ ÂÚÈ̤ÓÂÈ Î·Ó¤Ó·˜ ¬ÙÈ ıa ö¯Ô˘Ì ̤ÛÔ ¬ÚÔ. Oî ̤ÛÔÈ ¬ÚÔÈ åÛ¯‡Ô˘Ó ÛÙa Ì·ıËÌ·ÙÈο, ‰bÓ åÛ¯‡Ô˘Ó ÛÙcÓ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁ›·. A
\ e ÙcÓ ÎÚÄÛÈ ‰‡Ô àÓÔÌÔ›ˆÓ Ú·ÁÌ¿ÙˆÓ ıa
Á›ÓË àÓ¿ÚÌÔÛÙÔ˜ ηٿÛÙ·ÛȘ, ϤÁÂÈ ï ¶Ï¿ÙˆÓ. Te ú‰ÈÔ åÛ¯‡ÂÈ Î·d ÁÈa ÔÏÏb˜
ôÏϘ Ì›ÍÂȘ Ôf ö¯Ô˘Ó Á›ÓÂÈ ÛÙcÓ ^IÛÙÔÚ›·. ¶¿ÚÂÙÂ Ù‹Ó NfiÙÈÔ A
\ ÌÂÚÈ΋, ¬Ô˘
ö¯Ô˘ÌÂ Ù‹Ó ÌÖÍÈ ÙáÓ \IÓ‰È¿ÓˆÓ Ìb ÙÔf˜ ^IÛ·ÓÔ‡˜. ^H ηٿÛÙ·ÛÈ Ôf ö¯ÂÈ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËıÉ àe Ï¢ÚĘ ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈÎÔÜ Î·d ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎÔÜ âÈ¤‰Ô˘ ‰bÓ Êı¿ÓÂÈ ÔûÙÂ
ÛÙcÓ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛÈ ÙáÓ ·Ï·ÈáÓ M¿ÁÈ·˜ ηd òIÓη˜ ÔûÙ ‚¤‚·È· ÛÙcÓ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛÈ
ÙáÓ ÌÂÛÔÁÂÈ·ÎáÓ ^IÛ·ÓáÓ. ¶¿ÚÂÙ ≤Ó· ôÏÏÔ ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÙcÓ BfiÚÂÈÔ B·ÏηÓÈ΋, ÙcÓ ‰È΋ Ì·˜ ¯ÂÚÛfiÓËÛÔ, ì ÌÖÍÈ ÌÂÙ·Íf MÂÛÔÁÂÈ·ÎáÓ Î·d ¢ËÓÓ·ÚÈÎáÓ qÙ·Ó ì
·åÙ›· Óa ÂrÓ·È ì BfiÚÂÈÔ˜ ¯ÂÚÛfiÓËÛfi˜ Ì·˜ Ûb ÙfiÛÔ ¯·ÌËÏc ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎc ÛÙ¿ıÌË
Ô≈Ùˆ˜ œÛÙ ۋÌÂÚ· ¬Ù·Ó Ïb˜ ÛÙcÓ EéÚÒË ÙcÓ Ï¤ÍÈ “B·ÏοÓÈ·” Óa ıˆÚÂÖÙ·È ¬ÙÈ
ïÌÈÏɘ ÁÈa οÙÈ Î·ÙÒÙÂÚÔ. ≠OÏ· ·éÙa ÂrÓ·È àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· àÎÚȂᘠ·éÙɘ Ùɘ âÈÌÈÍ›·˜.
£a õıÂÏ· â‰á Óa àӷʤڈÌ ̛· ôÏÏË ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛÈ Ôf ö¯ÂÈ Á›ÓÂÈ ÛÙcÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ÙáÓ àÔÁfiÓˆÓ ÙáÓ ÌÈÁ¿‰ˆÓ. ¶Ú¤ÂÈ ‰b Óa ö¯ˆÌ ¿ÓÙÔÙ ñ\ ù„ÈÓ Ì·˜
¬ÙÈ Ôî âÈÙÒÛÂȘ àe Ùd˜ âÈÌÈ͛˜ ÂrÓ·È Ûb ‰‡Ô â›‰·: ¶ÚáÙÔÓ ÂrÓ·È Ùe â›Â‰Ô ÙÔÜ àÙfiÌÔ˘, ÙÔÜ ÌÈÁ¿‰Ô˜, ï ïÔÖÔ˜ ÂrÓ·È ôÙÔÌÔ ÌÂÈÔÓÂÎÙÈÎe ηÙa ÄÛ·Ó Èı·ÓfiÙËÙ· ηd ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔÓ ì â›ÙˆÛÈ ÂrÓ·È ÛÙe Û‡ÓÔÏÔÓ, ÛÙe Ï·fi. McÓ Ê·ÓÙ·ÛıÂÖÙÂ
¬ÙÈ Ôî ÌÈÁ¿‰Â˜ ÂrÓ·È Ê˘ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈÎa ôÙÔÌ·, Âú·Ì ÚÔËÁÔ˘Ì¤Óˆ˜ ÁÈa ÙcÓ âÛˆÙÂÚÈÎc âÓÙÂϤ¯ÂÈ· Ôf ηٷÛÙÚ¤ÊÂÙ·È, Âú·Ì ÁÈa Ùd˜ „˘¯ÈÎb˜ àÓÈÛÔÚÚÔ›Â˜ Ôf
‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔÜÓÙ·È, Âú·Ì ÁÈa Ùd˜ ‰È¿ÊÔÚ˜ âÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÁÂÓÈÎa ÛÙeÓ „˘¯ÈÛÌe ηd
ÛÙcÓ ÓÂ˘ÚˆÙÈÎc ηٿÛÙ·ÛÈ, ñ¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ¬Ìˆ˜ ηd âÈÙÒÛÂȘ ôÏϘ. ErÓ·È Ôî âÈ-

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ÙÒÛÂȘ Ôf çÊ›ÏÔÓÙ·È ÛÙcÓ Î·Îc ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· óÚÈÛÌ¤ÓˆÓ âÓ˙‡ÌˆÓ õ‰Ë àe ÙcÓ
œÚ· Ùɘ ΢‹Ûˆ˜: ≠OÙ·Ó Ùe ‚Ú¤ÊÔ˜ ÂrÓ·È àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· âÈÌÈÍ›·˜, ÏfiÁˇˆ ηÎɘ àÓÙÈÛÙÔȯ›·˜ ÙáÓ ÁÔÓȉ›ˆÓ ÙáÓ ‰‡Ô ·ÙÚÈÎáÓ ÌÂÚáÓ, ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÂÖÙ·È Ì›· ηÎc ηd
ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÎc öÎÎÚÈÛȘ âÓ˙‡ÌˆÓ Ìb àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ùe ‚Ú¤ÊÔ˜ Óa ÌcÓ àÓ·Ù‡ÛÛÂÙ·È
ÛˆÛÙ¿. A
\ ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÂrÓ·È ÂúÙ Óa ö¯Ô˘Ì ÚfiˆÚÔ ÙÔÎÂÙe ÂúÙ Óa ö¯Ô˘Ì ÓÂÔÁÓe
ÏÈÔ‚·Ú¤˜. ¢ËÏ·‰c ÌÂȈ̤ÓÔ˘ ‚¿ÚÔ˘˜. ^EÔ̤ӈ˜ ÔÏÏa ÓÂÔÁÓa Âı·›ÓÔ˘Ó ÙcÓ
œÚ· Ùɘ ÁÂÓÓ‹Ûˆ˜, ôÏÏ· ‰¤ ÏfiÁˇˆ ÙÔÜ ÚÔÒÚÔ˘ ÙÔÎÂÙÔÜ Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È Û·ÛÙÈο. Te
Û·ÛÙÈÎe ·È‰d ÁÂÓÓÈ¤Ù·È ÂúÙ àe ηÎe ÙÔÎÂÙe ÂúÙ àe ÌÈÎÙe Á¿ÌÔ, àe Á¿ÌÔ
‰ËÏ·‰c ÌÂÙ·Íf ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎáÓ Ê˘ÏáÓ. Er¯· ÙcÓ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· Âå˜ ¿Ú· ÔÏÏa
ΤÓÙÚ· Ûb ¬ÏË ÙcÓ EéÚÒË Óa ÁÓˆÚ›Ûˆ ù¯È ‰Âο‰Â˜ àÏÏa ëηÙÔÓÙ¿‰Â˜ ÁÔÓÂÖ˜
Û·ÛÙÈÎáÓ ·È‰ÈáÓ. ¶ÔÈ¿ qÙ·Ó ÏÔÈeÓ ì ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛ› ÌÔ˘: ≠OÙÈ ÌÂÙ·Íf ¬ÏˆÓ
·éÙáÓ ÙáÓ ÁÔÓ¤ˆÓ ≤Ó· à›ı·Ó· ñ„ËÏe ÔÛÔÛÙe qÙ·Ó ÁÔÓÂÖ˜ Ìc àÓ‹ÎÔÓÙ˜ ÛÙeÓ
ú‰ÈÔ Ï·fi. A
\ ÎÚÈ‚b˜ ÔÛÔÛÙe ‰bÓ ÌÔÚá Óa ÛĘ á, ÂÚ›Ô˘ 1 ÛÙd˜ 5 Ìb 1 ÛÙd˜ 10
ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ Ôî ÁÔÓÂÖ˜ ‰bÓ ÚÔ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È àe ÙeÓ ú‰ÈÔ Ï·fi. £a ‰ÔÜÌ ÏÔÈeÓ Ù›
ϤÁÂÈ â' ·éÙÔÜ Ì›· àÌÂÚÈηÓÈÎc öÚ¢ӷ ÙÔÜ ¶Ú¤ÛÏÂÚ ï ïÔÖÔ˜ Âr¯Â ÙcÓ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· Óa âÚÁ·ÛıÉ âd àÊıfiÓÔ˘ ñÏÈÎÔÜ, âÂȉc ÛÙcÓ A
\ ÌÂÚÈÎc Ôî âÈÌÈ͛˜ ÂrÓ·È
àÊıÔÓÒٷ٘ ëÔ̤ӈ˜ ηd Ùe ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈÎe ñÏÈÎe ÂrÓ·È ÏÔ‡ÛÈÔ Î·d â›Û˘ âÎÂÖ
ÙËÚÂÖÙ·È ÏÉÚ˜ å·ÙÚÈÎe àÚ¯ÂÖÔ, ‰ËÏ. ÌÔÚÂÖ Î·Ó¤Ó·˜ ÂûÎÔÏ· Óa àÓ·ÙÚ¤ÍË Ûb
¬Ï· Ùa àÚ¯ÂÖ· ÙáÓ Ì·È¢ÙËÚ›ˆÓ ηd Óa ‚Á¿ÏË Û˘ÌÂÚ¿ÛÌ·Ù·. §ÔÈeÓ ï ¶Ú¤ÛÏÂÚ
ÛÙcÓ âÎÙÂٷ̤ÓË ÙÔ˘ öÚ¢ӷ ö‚Á·Ï ‰‡Ô ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎa Û˘ÌÂÚ¿ÛÌ·Ù·. ¶ÚáÙÔÓ,
¬ÙÈ [ͤÚÂÙ ¬ÙÈ ¬ÏÔÈ Ôî ôÓıÚˆÔÈ ö¯Ô˘Ì ‰‡Ô ÁÔÓÂÖ˜ Ôf àÓ‹ÎÔ˘Ó ÛÙcÓ P1, Ù¤ÛÛÂÚȘ ¿Ô˘˜ Ô‡ àÓ‹ÎÔ˘Ó ÛÙ‹Ó P2, çÎÙÒ ÚÔ¿Ô˘˜ Ôf àÓ‹ÎÔ˘Ó ÛÙcÓ P3]
ÁÈa οı ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎc âıÓfiÙËÙ· ÛÙcÓ ÁÂÓÂa P2 ö¯Ô˘Ì ̛· ·ûÍËÛÈ 2,5% ≤ˆ˜ 3%
ÙáÓ àÔ‚ÔÏáÓ. ¢Â‡ÙÂÚÔÓ, ¬ÙÈ Ôî àÔ‚ÔÏb˜ ηd Ôî ÚfiˆÚÔÈ ÙÔÎÂÙÔd ÂrÓ·È Âéı¤ˆ˜
àÓ¿ÏÔÁÔÈ Úe˜ ÙcÓ àfiÛÙ·ÛÈ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ ÙfiˆÓ ηٷÁˆÁɘ ÙáÓ ÁÔÓ¤ˆÓ. ^O ≤Ó·˜
.¯. ÂrÓ·È àe ÙcÓ K·ÏÈÊfiÚÓÈ· η› ï ôÏÏÔ˜ àe Ùe KÂÓÙ¿Î˘, ì àfiÛÙ·ÛË ÂrÓ·È
ÙfiÛË. §ÔÈfiÓ, ·éÍ¿ÓÂÈ ì Èı·ÓfiÙËÙ· ÙáÓ àÔ‚ÔÏáÓ àÎfiÌË Î·d Ìb ÙcÓ àfiÛÙ·ÛÈ
ηd ı˘ÌfiÌ·ÛÙ ÙfiÓ ^HÛ›Ô‰Ô Ôf ϤÁÂÈ, ·ÓÙÚ¤„Ô˘ Ì›· ÎÔ¤ÏÏ· àe ÙcÓ ÁÂÈÙÔÓÈ¿
ÛÔ˘. ErÓ·È à›ı·ÓÔ ·éÙfi, ≈ÛÙÂÚ· àe ÙfiÛ˜ ¯ÈÏÈ¿‰Â˜ ¯ÚfiÓÈ· Ó¿ àÔ‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È
âÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎa οÙÈ Ùe ïÔÖÔÓ Ùe Âr¯Â Û˘ÏÏ¿‚ÂÈ ÙfiÙ ï àÚ¯·ÖÔ˜ ÓÔܘ. ErÓ·È ‰b
·Ú·ÙËÚË̤ÓÔ àÎfiÌË ¬ÙÈ ÛÙcÓ A
\ ÌÂÚÈÎc ö¯Ô˘Ì âd ÙáÓ ÁÂÓÓ‹ÛÂˆÓ 14% ‚Ú¤ÊË
ÏÈÔ‚·ÚÉ, ÌÂȈ̤ÓÔ˘ ‰ËÏ·‰c ‚¿ÚÔ˘˜, ¬Ù·Ó ÛÙcÓ EéÚÒË ‰bÓ ÍÂÂÚÓ¿ÂÈ ·éÙe Ùe
ÔÛÔÛÙe Ùe 9-10%. °È·Ù›; ¢ÈfiÙÈ ÛÙcÓ A
\ ÌÂÚÈ΋ ö¯Ô˘Ì ÌÂÁ¿Ï˜ âÈÌÈ͛˜. AéÙe˜
ÂrÓ·È ï ÏfiÁÔ˜, ηd Ùd Óa ÛÔÜ Î¿ÓË ì å·ÙÚÈÎc ÊÚÔÓÙ›‰· ¬Ù·Ó ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ Ï¿ıÔ˜ âÎΛÓËÛÈ Âå˜ ÙeÓ ‚›Ô.

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≠EÓ· ôÏÏÔ ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· Ùe ïÔÖÔ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÂÖÙ·È àe Ùd˜ âÈÌÈ͛˜ ÂrÓ·È
Ùa ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓ· ÙÚÔÔÔÈËÙÈÎa ÁÔÓ›‰È·. T› ÂrÓ·È ·éÙ¿; ErÓ·È ÁÔÓ›‰È· Ùa ïÔÖ· ‰bÓ
·›˙Ô˘Ó Î¿ÔÈÔÓ å‰È·›ÙÂÚÔ ÚfiÏÔ Ûb Ì›· âÓÂÛÙáÛ· Ê˘Ï‹. ™b ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ¬Ìˆ˜ âÈÌÈÍ›·˜ οÔÈÔ ÁÔÓ›‰ÈÔ àıáÔ ı¿ öÏÂÁ· Ùɘ ÌÈĘ Ê˘Ïɘ ·›˙ÂÈ ÚfiÏÔ Î·Ù·Ï‡ÙÔ˘,
ÙÚÔÔÔÈ‹Ûˆ˜ ‰ËÏ·‰c ÙáÓ àÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÛÙe ÌÖÁÌ·. K·d ö¯ÂÈ ·Ú·ÙËÚËıÉ ¬ÙÈ
Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ÁÔÓ›‰È· ÙÚÔÔÔÈËÙÈÎa ÂrÓ·È ì ·åÙ›· ÁÈa ÏÉıÔ˜ ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈÎáÓ ÓÔÛËÌ¿ÙˆÓ. M›· ÂÚ›ÙˆÛȘ ÂrÓ·È Ì›· ·îÌÔÛÊ·ÈÚÈÓÔ¿ıÂÈ· Ôf ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó Ôî Ó¤ÁÚÔÈ
ÛÙcÓ A
\ ÌÂÚÈ΋. òAÏÏË ÂÚ›ÙˆÛȘ ÎÏ·ÛÛÈÎc ÂrÓ·È ï ‰·ÏÙÔÓÈÛÌfi˜, ï ÙfiÛÔ ÁÓˆÛÙe˜
ηd ôÓ ı¤ÏÂÙ ‰È·‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔ˜ ϤÔÓ. ¢ËÏ·‰c Ùe Óa ÌcÓ ‚Ϥ˘ Ùa ¯ÚÒÌ·Ù·. ErÓ·È
Ùe ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ Ôf ÌÔÚÂÖ Óa ¿ıË Î·ÓÂd˜ àe ÙcÓ âÈÌÈÍ›·, ÂrÓ·È iÓ ı¤ÏÂÙ ¯¿‰È,
¬ˆ˜ ηd ì ˘ÚÚÔÙÚȯ›·, Ùa ÎfiÎÎÈÓ· Ì·ÏÏÈ¿, Ùa ïÔÖ· ÂrÓ·È Ì›· ‰È·Ì·ÚÙ˘Ú›· Ùɘ
ʇÛˆ˜ ÛÙcÓ ‰È·Ê˘ÏÂÙÈÎc âÈÌÈÍ›·. ™ÙcÓ A
\ ÓıÚˆÔÏÔÁ›· ·éÙe ÂrÓ·È ÁÓˆÛÙe àe
·ÏÈ¿, ö¯Ô˘Ó Á›ÓÂÈ öÚ¢Ó˜ àfi ÔÏÏÔf˜ àÏÏa ì ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÂrÓ·È ëÓe˜ BÚÂÙ·ÓÓÔÜ
àÓıÚˆÔÏfiÁÔ˘ ÙÔÜ MÚfiıÁÔ˘ÂÏ ï ïÔÖÔ˜ ö¯ÂÈ ‚Á¿ÏÂÈ Ùa ÔÛÔÛÙa ˘ÚÚÔÙÚȯ›·˜
ηd ‰·ÏÙÔÓÈÛÌÔÜ ÛÙd˜ BÚÂÙ·ÓÓÈÎb˜ Ó‹ÛÔ˘˜ ηd Ùa η٤ٷÍ àÓ¿ÏÔÁ· Ìb Ùd˜ âÈÌÈ͛˜ Ôf ö¯Ô˘Ó Á›ÓÂÈ âÎÂÖ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ KÂÏÙáÓ Î·d ÙáÓ BÔÚ›ˆÓ ηd ÙáÓ NÔÚ‰ÈÎáÓ
ηÙa ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜, ÁÈ·Ùd ¬ˆ˜ ͤÚÂÙ ì MÂÁ¿ÏË BÚÂÙ·ÓÓ›· ÂrÓ·È Ì›· ÂÚÈÔ¯c ̤ ‰È¿ÊÔÚ˜ «˙áÓ˜» ¬Ô˘ àÏÏÔÜ ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ âÈÌÈÍ›· ηd àÏÏÔÜ ‰¤Ó ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ. §ÔÈfiÓ,
ö‚Á·Ï Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· à›ÛÙÂ˘Ù·: ï ‰·ÏÙÔÓÈÛÌe˜ àÓ‚·›ÓÂÈ Î¿ıÂÙ· ÛÙd˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯b˜ Ùɘ
âÈÌÈÍ›·˜, àÓ‚·›ÓÂÈ â›Û˘ ì ˘ÚÚÔÙÚȯ›· ηd àÎfiÌË âÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È öÓÙÔÓ· Ôî
àÓÂÁÎÂÊ·ÏÈΤ˜ ÁÂÓÓ‹ÛÂȘ (·È‰È¿ àΤʷϷ) ηd â›Û˘ ·ı‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔÜ åÛ¯‡Ô˘.
ErÓ·È ‰¤ ·Ú·ÙËÚË̤ÓÔ ¬ÙÈ ÛÙÔf˜ ^E‚Ú·›Ô˘˜, Ôî ïÔÖÔÈ ó˜ ÁÓˆÛÙeÓ ÂrÓ·È ÔÏ˘ÌÖÍȘ, ö¯Ô˘Ì ÔÏf ñ„ËÏe ÔÛÔÛÙe ˘ÚÚÔÙÚȯ›·˜, 6%, ÔÜ; ™b Ì›· Ê˘Ïc ì ïÔ›·
ÂrÓ·È Î·ÙÂÍÔ¯cÓ Ì·˘ÚfiÌ·ÏÏË. A
\ ÎfiÌË Î·d ÛÙcÓ öÚ¢ӷ Ôf Âr¯Â Á›ÓÂÈ â‰á ÛÙcÓ
¶ÂÏÔfiÓÓËÛÔ ï àÓıÚˆÔÏfiÁÔ˜ ¶›ÙÛÈÔ˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙáÓ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚˆÓ Ôf â˙‹ÙËÛÂ
ÁÈa Óa âȂ‚·ÈÒÛË ¬ÙÈ ‰bÓ ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ âÈÌÈÍ›· Ìb ÙÔf˜ ™Ï¿‚Ô˘˜, Âå˜ à¿ÓÙËÛÈÓ
Ùɘ ıˆڛ·˜ º·ÏÌÂÚ¿¸ÂÚ, wÙ·Ó Î·d ï ‰·ÏÙÔÓÈÛÌfi˜, ÁÈa Óa ‰Â›ÍË Î·d Ùe ö‰ÂÈÍÂ, ¬ÙÈ
ï ‰·ÏÙÔÓÈÛÌe˜ ÂrÓ·È ÙfiÛÔ ¯·ÌËÏa Ôf àÔ‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È âÌ̤ۈ˜ ¬ÙÈ ‰bÓ ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ
âÈÌÈÍ›·. hA˜ ηٷÓÔ‹ÛˆÌÂ, ÏÔÈfiÓ, ¬ÙÈ ì âÈÌÈÍ›· ì Ê˘ÏÂÙÈÎc ÂrÓ·È ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁe˜
ÌÈĘ ÛÂÈÚĘ ·ı‹ÛÂˆÓ Î·d àÛıÂÓÂÈáÓ, ôÏÏˆÓ ÁÓˆÛÙáÓ Î·d ôÏÏˆÓ àÁÓÒÛÙˆÓ.
^Y¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó âÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ Ôf ñÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ¬ÙÈ Î·d ì Ù¿ÛȘ Úe˜ ÙeÓ Î·ÚΛÓÔ
·éÍ¿ÓÂÈ Ûb ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ Ê˘ÏÂÙÈÎáÓ âÈÌÈÍÈáÓ. ¶ÚdÓ Êı¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÛÙd˜ âÈÙÒÛÂȘ
Ôf ö¯ÂÈ ì âÈÌÈÍ›· ÛÙeÓ Ï·fi, ÁÈ·Ù› ÙfiÛË œÚ· ÌÈÏÄÌ ÁÈa Ùd˜ âÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÛÙa
ôÙÔÌ·, Ú¤ÂÈ Óa ÔÜÌ ¬ÙÈ Ùa ·È‰Èa ÙáÓ ÌÈÎÙáÓ Á¿ÌˆÓ ïˆÛ‰‹ÔÙ ö¯Ô˘Ó Ì›·
ÙÚ·˘Ì·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ̤۷ ÙÔ˘˜. ¢bÓ ÂrÓ·È Â鯿ÚÈÛÙÔ Ûb Î·Ó¤Ó·Ó Óa ÂrÓ·È ‰·ÎÙ˘ÏÔ‰ÂÈ-

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ÎÙÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ˜, Óa ‰È·Ê¤ÚË ‰ËÏ·‰c à' ¬ÏÔ ÙÔ˘ Ùe ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ Î·ı' ïÈÔÓ‰‹ÔÙÂ
ÙÚfiÔ. Ta ·È‰Èa ÙáÓ âÈÌÈÍÈáÓ, âÓÓÔá ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ÙáÓ âÈÌÈÍÈáÓ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ
‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎáÓ àÓıÚˆ›ÓˆÓ Âå‰áÓ Î·d ù¯È ÙfiÛÔ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ Ùɘ EéÚˆ·˚Îɘ Ê˘Ïɘ, ÂrÓ·È Î·Ù' àÓ¿ÁÎËÓ ‰·ÎÙ˘ÏÔ‰ÂÈÎÙÔ‡ÌÂÓ· ηd ηÙ' àÓ¿ÁÎËÓ ö¯Ô˘Ó
âÌÂÈڛ˜ ÙÚ·˘Ì·ÙÈΤ˜. A
\ ÏÏa àÎfiÌË Î·d ÌÂٷ͇ ÙáÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ Ùɘ EéÚˆ·˚Îɘ
Ê˘Ïɘ ÌcÓ ÓÔÌ›˙ÂÙ ¬ÙÈ Ùa ·È‰Èa ·éÙa ‰bÓ ö¯Ô˘Ó ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù·. òA˜ ÔÜÌ ¬ÙÈ
ÂrÓ·È ≠EÏÏËÓ˜ ηd ^IÛ·ÓÔ›. \EaÓ Û˘Ì‚É Î¿ÔÈ· ÛÙÈÁÌc ηٿÛÙ·ÛÈ â¯ıÚfiÙËÙÔ˜ j
ηd ÔϤÌÔ˘ Ùa ·È‰Èa ·éÙa ÂñÚ›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È Ûb ηٿÛÙ·ÛÈ „˘¯ÈÎɘ ϤÔÓ àӈ̷ϛ·˜ ηd Û˘Á¯‡Ûˆ˜ ÊÔ‚ÂÚɘ, ηٷÛÙÚ¤ÊÂÙ·È Ì¤Û· ÙÔ˘˜ ¬ÏË ì âÓÙÂϤ¯ÂÈ·. °Èa
·éÙe ÂrÓ·È ÛÎfiÈÌÔ Óa àÔʇÁˆÓÙ·È àÎfiÌË Î·d Ôî âÈÌÈ͛˜ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ
̤۷ ÛÙcÓ EéÚÒË, ÔÏÏˇá ‰b ÌÄÏÏÔÓ ÌÂÙ·Íf ÙáÓ àÓıÚˆ›ÓˆÓ Âå‰áÓ. AéÙe ÂrÓ·È
ηٷÛÙÚÔÊÈÎfi.

K¿ÔÙ Âú¯·Ì ÂÖ Î·d ı¿ ÛĘ Ùe ı˘Ì›Ûˆ ÙÒÚ·, ¬ÙÈ ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ ≤Ó·˜ ÓfiÌÔ˜ ÛÙcÓ
ÏËı˘ÛÌÈ·Îc ÁÂÓÂÙÈ΋, ï ÓfiÌÔ˜ ÙÔÜ X¿Ú‚ÈÎ M¿˚ÓÌÂÚÁÎ, ï ïÔÖÔ˜ ϤÁÂÈ ¬ÙÈ
P âd Q Âå˜ Ùe ÙÂÙÚ¿ÁˆÓÔÓ úÛÔÓ Ìb ≤Ó·. ≠OÔ˘ P ηd Q ÂrÓ·È Ùa ‰‡Ô àÓÙ›ÌÔÚÊ·
ÁÔÓ›‰È· Ôf ö¯ÂÈ Î·ı¤Ó·˜ ïÔ˘‰‹ÔÙ Ûb οı ¯ÚˆÌfiۈ̿ ÙÔ˘, Ùe ≤Ó· âÎ ·ÙÚe˜ ηd Ùe ôÏÏÔ âÎ ÌËÙÚfi˜. AéÙe ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ¬ÙÈ Ì¤Û· Ûb ≤Ó· ÏËı˘ÛÌe ï ïÔÖÔ˜
ÂrÓ·È ïÌÔÁÂÓc˜ ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ Ì›· ÌÂÚ›‰· àÙfiÌˆÓ Ôf ö¯Ô˘Ó 2 ÊÔÚb˜ Ùe P, Ì›· ÌÂÚ›‰·
àÙfiÌˆÓ Ôf ö¯Ô˘Ó 2 ÊÔÚb˜ Ùe Q ηd ‰‡Ô ÌÂÚ›‰Â˜ àÙfiÌˆÓ Ôf ö¯Ô˘Ó ÙeÓ Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌe PQ. ¢ËÏ·‰c âd 100 àÙfiÌˆÓ Ôî 25 ö¯Ô˘Ó PP, ôÏÏÔÈ 25 ö¯Ô˘Ó QQ ηd ôÏÏÔÈ 50
ö¯Ô˘Ó PQ. AéÙc ì ηٿÛÙ·ÛÈ ‰¤Ó ‰È·Ù·Ú¿ÛÛÂÙ·È ÔÙb Âå˜ ÙeÓ ·åáÓ·, ÏcÓ ÙÚÈáÓ
ÂÚÈÙÒÛˆÓ: Tɘ âÈÏÂÎÙÈÎɘ ‰È·ÛÙ·˘ÚÒÛˆ˜, Ùɘ Ê˘ÛÈÎɘ âÈÏÔÁɘ ηd Ùɘ
ÁÔÓȉȷÎɘ ÚÔɘ. T› ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ âÈÏÂÎÙÈÎc ‰È·ÛÙ·‡ÚˆÛÈ; ™ËÌ·›ÓÂÈ, ‰Èa ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·,
¬ÙÈ ıˆÚÔÜÓÙ·È Èe ùÌÔÚÊÔÈ ·éÙÔd Ôf ö¯Ô˘Ó Ì·‡ÚË ÎfiÌË, ηd ëÔ̤ӈ˜
·ÓÙÚ‡ÔÓÙ·È Î·Ùa ÚÔÙÂÚ·ÈfiÙËÙ·, οÓÔ˘Ó ÂÚÈÛÛÔÙ¤ÚÔ˘˜ àÔÁfiÓÔ˘˜, âÓá Ôî
ôÏÏÔÈ Ôf ‰bÓ ö¯Ô˘Ó ·éÙe Ùe ÁÓÒÚÈÛÌ· ÌÂÈÒÓÔÓÙ·È Î·d ‰È·Ù·Ú¿ÛÛÂÙ·È öÙÛÈ ì
ÁÔÓȉȷÎc åÛÔÚÚÔ›·. ¢ËÏ·‰c ì âÈÏÂÎÙÈÎc ‰È·ÛÙ·‡ÚˆÛÈ âÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ¬Ù·Ó
âÈÎÚ·Ù‹ÛË Ì›· Ìfi‰·, Óa Ùe ÔÜÌ êÏÄ, ηd ÚÔÙÈÌáÓÙ·È âÙÔÜÙÔÈ j âÎÂÖÓÔÈ Ìb
·éÙb˜ j âÎÂÖÓ˜ Ùd˜ å‰ÈfiÙËÙ˜. K·Ùa ÙcÓ Ê˘ÛÈÎc âÈÏÔÁc àÔÚÚ›ÙÔÓÙ·È Ôî
ÌÂÈÔÓÂÎÙÈÎb˜ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ, οÔÈÔ˜ .¯. Ôf ö¯ÂÈ ≤Ó· ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈÎe ÓfiÛËÌ·, ‰bÓ
ÌÔÚÂÖ Óa οÓË àÔÁfiÓÔ˘˜. ^H ÁÔÓȉȷÎc ÚÔc Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ ¬Ù·Ó ö¯Ô˘Ì ÂåÛÚÔc
ÌÂÙ·Ó·ÛÙáÓ Úe˜ Ùe âÛˆÙÂÚÈÎe ηd âÈÌÈÍ›· j àÓÙÈı¤Ùˆ˜ ¬Ù·Ó àe ÙeÓ Ï·e ʇÁÔ˘Ó Úe˜ Ùe â͈ÙÂÚÈÎe ÁÈa ÌÂÙ·Ó¿ÛÙ¢ÛÈ, ‰ËÏ·‰c Óa ·›ÚÓÔ˘Ì j Óa ¯¿ÓÔ˘ÌÂ
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ÁÔÓ›‰È·. K·d ì ÌbÓ âÈÏÂÎÙÈÎc ‰È·ÛÙ·‡ÚˆÛÈ ÂrÓ·È Î¿ÙÈ Ôf Ì·ÎÚÔÚfiıÂÛÌ· èÊÂÏÂÖ ÙeÓ Ï·e ‰ÈfiÙÈ âÈϤÁÔÓÙ·È Î¿ı ÊÔÚa Ôî ηχÙÂÚÔÈ â

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    ηٿÏÔÈ· ̤۷ ÛÙÔf˜ ÛËÌÂÚÈÓÔf˜ Ï·Ô‡˜. AéÙe çÊ›ÏÂÙ·È àÎÚȂᘠÛÙcÓ âÈÏÂÎÙÈÎc ‰È·ÛÙ·‡ÚˆÛÈ, ‰ËÏ. Ôî Ï·Ôd ·éÙÔd ηÙa οÔÈÔ ÙÚfiÔ ÙÔf˜ àÔÌfiÓˆÓ·Ó, ‰bÓ
    ÙÔf˜ ö‰ÈÓ·Ó ÙcÓ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· Óa ö¯Ô˘Ó àÔÁfiÓÔ˘˜. ^H ÎÏ·ÛÛÈÎÒÙÂÚË ÙáÓ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂˆÓ ·éÙáÓ ÂrÓ·È ì OñÁÁ·Ú›·, ì ïÔ›· ÂrÓ·È ÁÓˆÛÙe ¬ÙÈ Âr¯Â ηٷÎÙËıÉ àe ÌÔÁÁfiÏÔ˘˜ ÎÈ' ¬Ìˆ˜ Ôî ÛËÌÂÚÈÓÔd àÓıÚˆÔÏfiÁÔÈ ‰¤Ó ÂñÚ›ÛÎÔ˘Ó ÛÙcÓ OñÁÁ·Ú›· ηӤӷ ηٿÏÔÈÔ Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ. §ÔÈfiÓ, ì âÈÏÂÎÙÈÎc ‰È·ÛÙ·‡ÚˆÛÈ ÛÙe ÌÉÎÔ˜ ÙÔÜ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘
    ‰ÚÄ ıÂÙÈο, ¬ˆ˜ ηd ì Ê˘ÛÈÎc âÈÏÔÁ‹. \EΛÓË Ôf ‰bÓ ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ ıÂÙÈÎe àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ·, Ôf àÏÏ¿˙ÂÈ ÙcÓ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛÈ ÂrÓ·È ì ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ Ùɘ ÁÔÓȉȷÎɘ ÚÔɘ.
    °ÂÓÈο, ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ ≤Ó·˜ ¬ÚÔ˜ Ôf ϤÁÂÙ·È âÓ‰ÔÁ·Ì›·, ‰ËÏ·‰c Óa öÚ¯ÂÙ·È Î·ÓÂd˜ Ûb
    Á¿ÌÔ Ì¤Û· ÛÙcÓ Ê˘Ï‹. ^Y¿Ú¯ÂÈ Î·d ï ¬ÚÔ˜ ïÌÔÁ·Ì›· ηd ï ¬ÚÔ˜ ëÙÂÚÔÁ·Ì›·, Ùe
    ïÔÖÔ ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ Óa Ù›ÓË Î·Ó¤Ó·˜ Óa ˙¢Á·ÚÒÓË Ìb ôÙÔÌ· Ùa ïÔÖ· ÙÔÜ ïÌÔÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó (ïÌÔÁ·Ì›·), ì ‰b ëÙÂÚÔÁ·Ì›· Ìb ôÙÔÌ· Ùa ïÔÖ· ÂrÓ·È àÓfiÌÔÈ·. ™Ù‹Ó ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË Ùɘ ïÌÔÁ·Ì›·˜ ö¯Ô˘Ì ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚ˜ Èı·ÓfiÙËÙ˜ Óa ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËıÔÜÓ ·éÙb˜
    Ôî ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÙáÓ P2 ηd ÙáÓ Q2. ¢ËÏ·‰c Óa ö¯Ô˘Ì ïÌÔ˙˘ÁáÙ˜ àÔÁfiÓÔ˘˜. \EÓá
    ÛÙcÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ Ùɘ ëÙÂÚÔÁ·Ì›·˜ ö¯Ô˘Ì ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Èı·ÓfiÙËÙ· - ÁÈa ÛÙ·ıÂÚfi,
    ¿ÓÙ·, Ê˘ÏÂÙÈÎe Û‡ÓÔÏÔ - Óa ö¯Ô˘Ì ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ëÙÂÚÔ˙˘ÁˆÙáÓ ‰ËÏ. Óa ö¯Ô˘ÌÂ
    Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌe P ηd Q. ^H ïÌÔÁ·Ì›· ‰ÚÄ ‚ÂÏÙȈÙÈÎa ÁÈa ÙeÓ Ï·e ÛÙe ÌÉÎÔ˜ ÙÔÜ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘ ‰ÈfiÙÈ âaÓ ÌbÓ Ùe P2, ‰ËÏ·‰c ï Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌe˜ ÙáÓ ‰‡Ô ÁÔÓȉ›ˆÓ P, ÂrÓ·È Î·Îfi˜,
    i˜ á ¬ÙÈ Ùe P ÂrÓ·È âÏ·Ùو̷ÙÈÎfi, âaÓ Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛıÉ 2 ÊÔÚb˜ ÙfiÙ ηd ÛÙeÓ Ê·ÈÓfiÙ˘Ô ıa ÌĘ ‰ÒÛË âÏϷو̷ÙÈÎc âÌÊ¿ÓÈÛÈ, Ìb àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÙfiÙ Óa ‰Ú¿ÛFË ì
    Ê˘ÛÈÎc âÈÏÔÁc j öÛÙˆ ì âÈÏÂÎÙÈÎc ‰È·ÛÙ·‡ÚˆÛÈ Î·d Óa ÌcÓ ÚÔ¯ˆÚ‹ÛË ϤÔÓ
    Ùe P ÛÙeÓ ¯ÚfiÓÔ, Óa àÚ¯›ÛË Óa ÌÂÈÒÓÂÙ·È. \EaÓ ‰b ñÔı¤ÛÔ˘Ì ¬ÙÈ Ùe Q2 ÂrÓ·È Ì›·
    Âå‰ÈÎc ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ‰‡Ô ñÔÏÂÈÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÁÔÓȉ›ˆÓ Ùa ïÔÖ· ¬Ìˆ˜ ÂrÓ·È âÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈÎa
    ÚÔÈÎÈṲ̂ӷ, οÔÈ· ηÏc ÎÚ˘Êc î‰ÈfiÙ˘, Ìb Ùe Q2 àÓ·ˉÔÜÓ Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ôÙÔÌ·
    ÔÏÏ¿. AéÙe ÏÔÈeÓ ÂrÓ·È àÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ùɘ ïÌÔÁ·Ì›·˜ ηd ¬Ù·Ó ö¯Ô˘Ì ÔÏÏa Q
    ·éÍ¿ÓÂÈ Ùe Q2 ηd ÌÂÈÔÜÙ·È àÓÙ›ÛÙÔȯ· Ùe PQ ÁÈ·Ùd Ìb ÙcÓ âÓ‰ÔÁ·Ì›· ö¯Ô˘Ì Ì›ˆÛÈ
    ÙÔÜ 2, ·ûÍËÛË ÙÔÜ 1 (ÙáÓ Û˘ÓÙÂÏÂÛÙáÓ) ηd öÙÛÈ Ôî àÓ·ÏÔÁ›Â˜ Ôf ϤÁ·Ì ÚÔËÁÔ˘Ì¤Óˆ˜ - 25, 25, 50 - ‰È·Ù·Ú¿ÛÛÔÓÙ·È â' èÊÂÏ›÷· ÙÔÜ Q2 Ôf ÛÙcÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ
    Ùɘ ïÌÔÁ·Ì›·˜ ÂrÓ·È Î¿ÔÈÔ Î·Ïe ÁÔÓ›‰ÈÔ.

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    21
    A
    \ Á·ËÙÔ› ÌÔ˘ Ê›ÏÔÈ, ·éÙc qÙ·Ó ì ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ Ùɘ àÚ¯·›·˜ A
    \ ı‹Ó·˜, ·éÙc qÙ·Ó
    ì ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ Ùɘ àÚ¯·›·˜ ™¿ÚÙ˘. T› ÁÈÓfiÙ·Ó ÛÙcÓ àÚ¯·›· A
    \ ı‹Ó· âd ·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·ÙÈ; òO¯È ÌfiÓÔÓ ñÉگ Ï‹Ú˘ à·ÁfiÚ¢ÛÈ, à·ÁfiÚ¢ÛÈ ‰bÓ ¯ÚÂÈ·˙fiÙ·Ó ÎiÓ,
    qÙ·Ó à‰È·ÓfiËÙÔ Î·ÓÂd˜ Óa ·ÓÙÚ¢ÙÉ Ìb ‚¿Ú‚·ÚÔ, ‰¤Ó Û˘ÓÂ˙ËÙÂÖÙÔ, ñÉÚ¯Â
    àÎfiÌË, iÓ ı¤ÏÂÙÂ, ηd Ù·ÍÈÎc ‰È·›ÚÂÛÈ ÙáÓ ÔÏÈÙáÓ, ÙáÓ ÌÂÙÔ›ÎˆÓ Î·d ÙáÓ ‰Ô‡ÏˆÓ, ¬ÏˆÓ A
    \ ıËÓ·›ˆÓ, ηd ¬Ìˆ˜ Ôî ÔÏÖÙ·È ·ÓÙÚ‡ÔÓÙ·Ó ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜. ¢bÓ âÂÙÚ¤ÔÓÙÔ Á¿ÌÔÈ ÔûÙ ÎiÓ Ìb ÙÔf˜ ÏÂÁÔ̤ÓÔ˘˜ ÌÂÙÔ›ÎÔ˘˜. AéÙc ÂrÓ·È Ì›· ÎÏ·ÛÈÎc
    ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ ïÌÔÁ·Ì›·˜. AéÙc ÏÔÈeÓ ¬Ù·Ó âÊ·ÚÌÔÛıÂÖ âd Ì·ÎÚeÓ ¯ÚfiÓÔ, âaÓ ì
    Ê˘Ïc ÂrÓ·È âÓ¿ÚÂÙË, ö¯ÂÈ ‰ËÏ·‰c ÎÚ˘Êb˜ å‰ÈfiÙËÙ˜ ηÏb˜ Ìb ñÔÏÂÈfiÌÂÓ· ÁÔÓ›‰È· Ôf ‰bÓ Ùa ‚ϤÂȘ, Ìb ÙcÓ ·Ú·ÙÂٷ̤ÓË ïÌÔÁ·Ì›· ·éÙa âÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È Î·d
    öÙÛÈ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ıËΠ·éÙe˜ ï àÛÙÂÚÈÛÌe˜ ÙáÓ ÌÂÁ·ÏÔÊ˘áÓ Ùɘ âԯɘ âΛӢ.
    \I‰Ôf ÏÔÈeÓ ÔÜ çÊ›ÏÂÙ·È Ùe ÁÂÁÔÓe˜ âÎÂÖÓÔ, Ùe ïÔÖÔ ‰bÓ ÌÔÚÂÖ Óa Ùe âÍËÁ‹ÛË Î·Ó¤Ó·˜ iÓ ‰bÓ ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙÔf˜ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔf˜ ÓfiÌÔ˘˜, ηd fiÛÔ ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ÚfiÏÔ
    ·›˙ÂÈ ù¯È ÌfiÓÔÓ ì âÓ‰ÔÁ·Ì›· ̤۷ ÛÙcÓ Ê˘Ïc àÏÏa Âå ‰˘Ó·ÙeÓ Î·d ì ïÌÔÁ·Ì›·,
    ‰ËÏ. Óa Ù›ÓË Î·ÓÂd˜ Ûb Á¿ÌÔ˘˜ Ìb ÚfiÛˆ· Ìb Ùa ïÔÖ· ïÌÔÈ¿˙ÂÈ ù¯È ηÙ' àÓ¿ÁÎËÓ ÌfiÓÔ ÛˆÌ·ÙÈÎa àÏÏa ηd ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈÎa ηd „˘¯Èο.
    òE¯ÂÈ ÛËÌ·Û›· Óa âÈÛË̿ӈ̠¬ÙÈ âd 100 ¯ÈÏÈ¿‰ˆÓ A
    \ ıËÓ·›ˆÓ Ùɘ ÎÏ·ÛÛÈÎɘ
    âԯɘ Âr¯·Ó ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËıÉ 14 ÌÂÁ·ÏÔÊ˘˝Â˜ ÚÒÙÔ˘ ÌÂÁ¤ıÔ˘˜ (¬ˆ˜ ϤÂÈ ì ™‚ÈÙ¤ÊÛÎÈ) Ùe ÔÛÔÛÙe ‰b 14 âd 100 ¯ÈÏÈ¿‰ˆÓ ÂrÓ·È à›ı·Ó· ñ„ËÏfi, Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ‰bÓ
    ñÂÚ‚·›ÓÂÈ ÛÙd˜ ηχÙÂÚ˜ ÂéÚˆ·˚Îb˜ ¯áÚ˜ Ùe 1 Ìb 1,5 âd 100 ¯ÈÏÈ¿‰ˆÓ àÙfïÓ. ™ÙcÓ A
    \ ı‹Ó· ÙfiÙ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÙËÎ·Ó 14!

    uv
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      °ÂÓÈο, ñ¿Ú¯ÂÈ ≤Ó·˜ ¬ÚÔ˜ Ôf ϤÁÂÙ·È âÓ‰ÔÁ·Ì›·, ‰ËÏ·‰c Óa öÚ¯ÂÙ·È Î·ÓÂd˜ Ûb
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      21
      A
      \ Á·ËÙÔ› ÌÔ˘ Ê›ÏÔÈ, ·éÙc qÙ·Ó ì ÂÚ›ÙˆÛÈ Ùɘ àÚ¯·›·˜ A
      \ ı‹Ó·˜, ·éÙc qÙ·Ó
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      \ ı‹Ó· âd ·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·ÙÈ; òO¯È ÌfiÓÔÓ ñÉگ Ï‹Ú˘ à·ÁfiÚ¢ÛÈ, à·ÁfiÚ¢ÛÈ ‰bÓ ¯ÚÂÈ·˙fiÙ·Ó ÎiÓ,
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