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INSTITUTE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION (ICE) YEAR BOOK 2011/12

ORIENTATION MESSAGE FROM THE DIRECTOR, INSTITUTE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION (ICE) ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012 Dear ICE Students, I have great pleasure to welcome you all to the Institute of Continuing Education (ICE) of the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) during the New Academic year 2011/12. Firstly, I wish to congratulate the new students, whom it is the first time to study with us, I commend you for making a right choice by enrolling in ICE programmes. For the continuing students accept my congratulations for all that you have accomplished in the previous year.

We consider the ICE as a firm ladder to lifelong learning with a vision of opening up education opportunities to people with a wide range of educational background. Your admission into programmes offered by the ICE is a clear testimony that you share in this vision. Be assured that the staff members of the OUT in general and the ICE in particular, are happy and ready to work with you in pursuing successfully your learning objectives.

The purpose of this message is to welcome you to the OUT, to highlight on programmes offered at ICE, provide some hints on the Open and Distance mode of delivery (to new students), to provide hints on the tools and skills you need to equip yourself with in preparations for your progression in the course of your studies.

Programmes Offered at ICE Let me now briefly inform you about the ICE and its programmes. The ICE was established under the Government Notice No. 159, published on 26th July 1996. Currently, it is operating under the Universities Act No. 7 of 2005. ICE is the arm of the OUT for developing, promoting and undertaking the provision of continuing lifelong learning through the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode. The mission of the ICE is, therefore, to develop and disseminate knowledge and skills required for the enhancement of competencies and effective solutions to the economic and social problems of our society.

ICE has a mandate to offer educational programmes including non-degree courses such as Diplomas, Certificates and Demand Driven Short Courses. All these courses are currently being offered through a distance education mode except the demand driven courses which involve mostly contact sessions. Furthermore, our academic staff

coordinates the Universitys Gender Mainstreaming and HIV/AIDS activities.

The following are academic and professional programmes that are currently being offered by ICE: 1. The Commonwealth Youth Programme (CYP) Diploma, 2. The Ordinary Diploma in Distance Education and Open Learning (ODDEOL), 3. Diploma in Primary Teacher Education (DPTE). 4. The Certificate in Foundation Course (OFC). 5. The Certificate Course in Distance Education (CCDE). 6. Demand Driven Short Courses that are announced from time to time. I encourage you to study carefully requirements for completing successfully each programme as elaborated in the OUT Prospectus 2011/2012. However, the number of study units to be completed vary from one programme to another. It is 5 for OFC; 4 for OCC; 14 for CYP; 16 for ODDEOL and 18 for DPTE. While students complete the certificate courses within 1 year, they complete the diploma courses in 2 years.

ODL Mode of Delivery Again I take this opportunity to reiterate the nature and challenges faced by distance learners. Firstly, under Open and Distance Learning the learners and instructors are separated both in space and time. For that matter a learner is constrained in time

and space. Nevertheless, this mode of learning widens access to educational and training opportunities, which is realized through the employment of the following principles: Lifelong learning Flexibility of learning provision Removal of barriers to educational access

At this juncture, I would like to underscore a point that ODL is merely a mode of delivery and in no way should it compromise the outcome of the learning process or ultimate qualifications. With recent technological advancements, it is opportune that I remind you about the importance of integrating the ICT in ODL delivery and access. Youre all advised that in order to study at OUT successfully you need to have access to the internet. For that matter, ownership of a computer (desktop) or a laptop is mandatory, not an option. Gender Studies and Issues The Institute Coordinates Gender activities at the University. Planned activities include gender sensitization; developing and implementing the OUT gender policy as well as mainstreaming gender in the university programmes. It is imperative that all of us should refrain from gender insensitive actions and contribute pro-actively towards gender harmony.

HIV/AIDS Activities The Institute is also fortunate that the current Coordinator of HIV/AIDS activities at the University is a staff member of ICE. Activities that focus on implementation of the OUT HIV and AIDS Policy including raising awareness in preventive and treatment of HIV/AIDS as well as support to persons infected and/or affected by HIV/AIDS are planned and encouraged. We wish to caution you on the need to take recommended 3

measures in order to ensure that you will neither infect or be infected by others with HIV/AIDS. That way you will graduate with As and not with AIDS. Currently, efforts are being made to mainstream HIV/AIDS matters in the OUT curricula. In this way, members of staff and students will be empowered with comprehensive knowledge and skills in the core areas of prevention, care, treatment and support services for impact mitigation. In order to acquire adequate knowledge and skills in HIV and AIDS, study carefully relevant parts of the attached lecture notes on Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in OUT Curricula and Research Agenda, as you will be directed by your Lecturers.

Let me end here by wishing you success in your learning endeavors.

Very sincerely,

Dr James L. Kisoza

Director Institute of Continuing Education

2.0 Academic Programmes The ICE offers Foundation Course (OFC), Certificate Course in Distance Education (CCDE), Commonwealth Youth Programme Diploma (CYP), Diploma in Distance Education and Open Learning (ODDEOL), Diploma in Primary Teachers Education(DPTE) and Demand Driven Short Courses (DDSCs) 2.1 Foundation Course (OFC) The objectives of the course are to: (i) Prepare students for admission to the Open University of Tanzania degree programmes for which they would have not otherwise qualified. (ii) Provide basic information to basic procedures, methods and language of the subjects for degree level. (iii) Introduce students to intelligent reading, assimilation, critical judgement,analysis and synthesis of information. (iv) Identify the students' aptitudes and interests for slotting them to specific degree courses. Entry Qualifications and Course Duration The education background should be ordinary level or equivalent with 5 passes or 3 credits or equivalent plus other professional courses after O level as approved by SENATE. The applicant should be 18 years of age or above. The minimum duration is one year and maximum duration of the course is 2 years after which a student may be advised to re-register for the course. Course Units All candidates are required to take five course units relevant to specific degree programme they will pursue after successful completion of Foundation course. The Units are: OFC 007: English Language OFC 008: Kiswahili OFC 009: Mathematics OFC 010: Physics OFC 011: History OFC 012: Geography OFC 013: Biology OFC 014: Business Mathematics OFC 015: Business Studies and Economics OFC 016: Chemistry OFC 017: Communications Skills OFC 018: Development Studies OFC 017: Communcation Skills, is compulsory to all OFC students; this should be the fifth course unit in a combination. 5

Course unit combinations for each programme are indicated in the Table below: PROGRAMME Arts Business Studies Science Law Education SUBJECTS 018, 017, 012, 011, 008, 007,014 018, 017, 015, 007, 014 018, 017, 016, 013, 010, 009. 018, 017, 011, 008, 007 To take combinations of either Arts or Business Studies or Science

Those who pass main tests and annual examinations set during the Foundation Course will be eligible for admission to the degree programme for which they appear best prepared to pursue. In order to pass the Foundation Course, a candidate must score an average mark of at least 50% or above in his/her subject combination.

Pass Mark for the Foundation Course is the average mark of 50% which is a B Grade.
Each unit will be assessed independently under the following mode: 1 Test 30% Annual Examination 70% The grading system will be as follows: Marks Grade Remarks 70 - 100% A Excellent 60 - 69% B+ Very Good 50 - 59% B Good 40 - 49% C Marginal Fail 35 - 39% D Fail 0 - 34% E Absolute Fail (i) All marks for course units and written examinations shall be adjusted by markers concerned before amalgamation. (ii) The mark for marginal fail shall be a C Grade. A candidate who gets a C grade will be allowed to do Supplementary Examinations. (iii) A candidate who gets less than the average mark of 40% will be advised, not to do the supplementary Examinations but to Register afresh for the Foundation Course and pay full University Fees. (iv) The average mark shall be calculated on the basis of rounding to one decimal place. For example 39.39 shall be taken as 39.4 2.2 Certificate Course in Distance Education (OCC) (i) The Certificate course in Distance Education is a two year Professional Course. It is offered jointly by the OUT and Southern Africa Extension Unit (SAEU). 6

The course is geared towards professional and academic development of serving as well as prospective distance education personnel. (ii) This course is offered in four modules/units: OCC 001: Introduction to distance education OCC 002: Distance Education Media OCC 003: Support Services in Distance Education OCC 004: Distance Education Management There are also audio programmes which accompany each of the above modules/units: OAC 001: Introduction to Distance Education OAC 002: Distance Education Media OAC 003: Support Services in Distance Education OAC 004: Distance Education Management All candidates are required to take four units (Modules) accompanied by any audio cassette programme. The grading system for each module of the OCC will be as follows: Admission requirements Candidates holding the following qualifications will be eligible for admission to the OCC programme: 3 credits or 5 passes at O Level secondary education PLUS a Grade A certificate in teaching or its equivalent. OR Advanced level certificate with at least one principal pass or three subsidiaries. OR A two year Diploma or a Degree in any relevant field e.g. Education, Humanities, Social Sciences, Sciences, etc. Marks Grade Remarks 70 - 100% A Excellent 60 - 69% B+ Very Good 50 - 59% B Good 40 - 49% C Satisfactory 35 - 39% D Marginal Fail 0 - 34% E Absolute Fail Students who fail in the Certificate course in Distance Education are allowed to do Supplementary Examinations for the Units or Modules in which they have failed during the Following year without paying any University Fees. Students who sit and fail in Supplementary Examinations in the Certificate Course in Distance Education are allowed to Register for the same course during the third year and pay full university fees. A candidate who gets an E grade in three units will be advised not to do the supplementary examinations and instead will be advised to register for the Certificate Course in Distance Education Course and pay full university fees. 7

The average mark shall be calculated on the basis of rounding to one decimal place. For example, 35.29 shall be taken as 35.3. Students studying certificate in Distance Education course will only the allowed to change from one course to another within the deadline which is eight weeks from the first date of the orientation conducted at the Regional Centres. The pass mark for the Certificate in Distance Education course is 40% which is a C Grade. Other grades given include B, B+ and A. The mark for absolute fail shall be an E grade (0-34%). All marks for course units and written examinations shall be adjusted by departments concerned before amalgamation.

2.3 Commonwealth Youth Programme Diploma in Youth in Development Work (CYP) The entry requirements for CYP Diploma are: 5 passes at O-Level or its equivalent plus at least 2 years of experience in youth work. or Professional Certificate in Commonwealth Youth Programme plus three credits at OLevel and at least 2 years experience in youth work Or Principal pass and one subsidiary at A-Level plus one year experience in youth work Or A 2 year Diploma or degree from any field related to youth work plus at least one year experience in youth work. The Commonwealth Youth Programme Diploma in Youth in Development Work is part of Staff Development Programme. This is a two Year Academic Professional Programme aimed at Developing both prospective candidates and those specifically engaged in Youth in Development Work. The students are required to study thirteen core units (modules) as follows: ODC 001: Commonwealth values ODC 002: Young People and Society ODC 003: Principles and Practice of Youth Development ODC 004: Working with people in their Communities ODC 005: Gender and Development ODC 006: The Learning Process ODC 007: Management Skills ODC 008: Project Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation ODC 009: Policy Planning and Implementation ODC 010: Conflict resolution, strategies and skills ODC 011: Promoting Enterprise and Economic Development ODC 012: Youth and Health 8

ODC 013: Sustainable Development and Environmental issues. The grading system for each module of the CYP Diploma will be as follows: Marks Grade Remarks 70-100% A Excellent 60 - 69% B+ Very Good 50 - 59% B Good 40 - 49% C Satisfactory 35 - 39% D Marginal Fail 0 - 34% E Absolute Fail Students who fail in six units (modules) of the Commonwealth Youth Programme Diploma in Youth in Development Work are allowed to do supplementary examinations for the modules they have failed. They can do it during the following year without paying any university fees. Students who fail in the Commonwealth Youth Programme Diploma in Youth in Development Work in more than 7 units (modules) are required to repeat the course for a year and pay full university fees. The pass mark for the Commonwealth Youth Programme Diploma in Youth in Development Work is 40% which is a C Grade. Other grades given include B, B+ and A. The mark for complete fail shall be an E grade. (0-34%) All marks for course units and written examinations shall be adjusted by departments concerned before amalgamation. The average mark shall be calculated on the basis of rounding to one decimal place. For example, 49.39 shall be taken as 49.4. Students studying the Commonwealth Youth Programme Diploma in Youth in Development Work will only be allowed to change from this course to another within the deadline which is eight weeks from the first date of the orientation week conducted at the Regional Centre. 2. 4 Diploma Course in Distance Education and Open Learning (ODDEOL) The entry requirements for the Course are: (i) A Class B and above, Certificate in Distance Education of the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) or an equivalent qualification. or (ii) 5 Passes at O-Level or its equivalent plus at least 2 years of relevant professional experience. or (iii) At least 1 Principal Pass and I Subsidiary at A-Level plus one year of relevant professional experience. or (iv) A two year Diploma or a Degree in any relevant field e.g. Education, Humanities,Social Sciences, Sciences, etc. 9

The Diploma course in Distance Eduction and Open Learning is a two year course. It is designed to expose the learners to the current body of knowledge and skills in distance education and open learning in order to build and strengthen their capacity in catering to the needs of distance learners and institutions. Course Units Students are required to study sixteen core units as follows: ODC 020: Foundations, Achievements and Limitations of Education (core) 1 ODC 021: Rise and Development of Distance Education and Open Learning (core) 1 ODC 022: Philosophy and Scope of Distance Education and Open Learning (core) 1 ODC 023: Case Studies in Distance Education and Open Learning (core) 1 ODC 024: Communication in Distance Education and Open Learning (core) 1 ODC 025: Development of Instructional Materials in Print (core) 1 ODC 026: Broadcast and Recorded Instructional Materials (core) 1 ODC 027: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)Instructional Materials (core) 1 ODC 028: Nature and Essence of Student Support Services (core) 1 ODC 029: Tutorial Support, Marking and Commenting (core) 1 ODC 030: Counselling and Guidance Services (core) 1 ODC 031: Administrative Support, Library Services and Record Keeping (core) 1 ODC 032: Organisation and Management of Distance Education and Open Learning (core) 1 ODC 033: Research and Evaluation in Distance Education and Open Learning (core) 1 ODC 034: Sustainability of Distance Education and Open Learning (core) 1 ODC 035: Independent Study (core) 1 Total 16 The grading system for each unit of the course will be as follows: Marks Grade Remarks 70-100% A Excellent 60 - 69% B+ Very Good 50 - 59% B Good 40 - 49% C Satisfactory 35 - 39% D Marginal Fail 0 - 34% E Absolute Fail Students who fail in any unit of the Course will be allowed to do supplementary examinations in units they have failed. They can do so during the following year without paying any university fees. Students who fail in more than 8 units of the Course will be required to repeat the Course and pay full university fees. All marks for Course units shall be adjusted by departments concerned before amalgamation. 10

The average mark shall be calculated on the basis of rounding to one decimal place. For example 49.39 shall be taken as 49.4 Students studying the Diploma in Distance Education and Open Learning will only be allowed to change from the Course to another within the deadline which is eight weeks from the first date of the orientation week conducted at the Regional Centre.

2.5 Diploma in Primary Teacher Education (DPTE) The Diploma in Primary teacher Education (DPTE) is a two year programme that is offered by OUT in response to the ardent need for quality teachers in Tanzania. The programme integrates theory with practice, with the aim of professionally developing teachers with enhanced capability to provide quality primary education. The focus of the programme is to promote knowledge and skills in various techniques of interactive learning and teaching that are child friendly and gender sensitive. In addition, students are to update their knowledge in their teaching subjects and enhance their professional competences. The programme shall be open to local and international students interested in pursuing a career in teaching and educational administration in the primary education sector. Entry qualifications Candidates holding the following qualifications will be eligible for admission to the programme: 3 credits or 5 passes at OLevel secondary education PLUS a Grade A Certificate in teaching with an average pass of B and above or its equivalent OR Advanced level Certificate with at least one principal pass or three subsidiaries Or Grade A teaching certificate with a teaching experience of not less than 2 years PLUS any other qualifications approved by OUT senate.

Course Organization The courses are organized at two levels. Most of the courses focusing on pedagogical skills have a weight of two units each and are taught in two levels Learners are expected to complete the course in 2 3 years of study. The following Units are offered in this programme LEVEL 1 Course Code Course title Units Professional Competencies ODC 040: Communication and Study Skills 1 ODC 041: ICT Skills 1 ODC 042:Introduction to Educational Foundations 1 11

ODC 043: Introduction to Educational Psychology 1 Pedagogical skills and competencies ODC 044: General Teaching Methods and Strategie 1 ODC 045: Numeracy Teaching Methods And Strategies I1 ODC 046: Literacy Teaching Methods And Strategies I 1 ODC 047: Science Teaching Methods And Strategies I 1 ODC 048: Social Studies Teaching Methods AndStrategies I1 Academic Advancement Competencies ODC 055: Mathematics 1 ODC 059: Biology 1 LEVEL 2 Professional Competencies ODC 050: Introduction to Special Needs Education 1 ODC 051: School Adminstration and Management 1 ODC 052: Introduction to Research in Education 1 ODC 053: Classroom Managementlife in the Classroom 1 ODC 054: Primary School Curriculum Development and Innovations 1 Pedagogical Skills and Competencies ODC 045: Numeracy Teaching Methods And Strategies II 1 ODC 046: Literacy Teaching Methods And Strategies II 1 ODC 047: Science Teaching Methods And Strategies II 1 ODC 048: Social Studies Teaching Methods And Strategies II 1 ODC 064: Vocational Skills Teaching Methods and Strategies 1 Academic Advancement 0DC 056: English Langugage 1 ODC 057: Kiswahili 1 ODC 058: Physics 1 ODC 059: Chemistry 1 ODC 060: Geography 1 ODC 061: Geography 1 ODC 062: History 1 ODC 063: General Studies 1 2.6 Classification of Cerificate and Diploma Programmes (i) In the classification of certificate and diploma programmes, a FIVE point system will be used in averaging the final grades.

(ii) The letter grades will be assigned the following points: 12

A 5

B+ 4

B 3

C 2

D 1

E 0

(iii) Courses given for each programme have to be appropriately weighted by the units.

(iv) To get the score for each course, multiply the points by the appropriate weights. For example, getting a B in a 2 unit course the score shall be 3 x 2= 6.

(v) The total score for the programme will be the total scores for all courses taken for the final, computed as in 4.

(vi) The average score for the programme will be computed by dividing the Total Score in 5 by the total weight obtained under 3.

(vii) The Final Classification of a certificate/diploma programme will be as follows: Classification Distinction Credit Credit Pass Range (5.0 - 4.4) (4.3 - 3.5) (3.4 - 2.7) (2.6 - 2.0) Letter Grade A B+ B C

(vii) Rounding Off of GPA: GPA figures will be presented to the nearest single decimal point to be rounded up for 0.05 and to be ignored for < 0.05. As an example 3.36 will be taken as 3.4 while 3.34 will be taken as 3.3.

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(ix) The range of marks will be as follows:-

A B+ B C D E

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Marginal Fail Absolute Fail

(70%-100%) (60%-69%) (50%-59%) (40%-49%) (35%-39%) (0%-34%)

2.7 Demand Driven Short Courses (DDSCs) Since the academic year 2005, the Institute of Continuing Education has been offering the following Demand Driven Courses: (i) Applied French for Beginners The general aim of this course is to introduce communicative French Sounds to students for whom the French sounds are totally foreign in the hope that, at the end of the day, students will be able to communicate with their French speaking entourage in matters related to every day life. In so doing, each student will have expanded automatically his/her domain of multi-linguism, which is characteristic of all Tanzanians. (ii) Comprehensive Applied English Language The general aim of the Comprehensive Applied English Course is to improve the competence and thereafter the performance in not only spoken, but also in written English language for communication in todays world of business. Improving the above means that this course must focus at improving the grammatical structure of English, the spoken and writen forms, and finally thereafter, improving the communicative role of English for business purposes. (iii) Business Kiswahili (Kiswahili cha Mawasiliano Toshelevu/Nguvu Kazi) The main aim of Business Kiswahili course (Kozi ya Kiswahili cha Nguvu Kazi) is to develop skills that will enable the learners to competently use Kiswahili language as a means of communication in business and administration. (iv) Intermediate Kiswahili for Foreign Students The General aim of the Kiswahili for Foreign Students course is to improve their spoken and written proficiency in Kiswahili. (v) Project Planning The aim of this course is to expose and familiarize the course participants to the modern knowledge and skills that are increasingly required in project planning, management and evaluation. At the end of this course, the participants should be able to apply the tools 14

of analysis gained, in the formulation and the execution of projects both at micro and macro levels. Besides the foregoing courses, in 2010/11, ICE will also offer additional short courses as follows: Local Governance. Staff Orientation in Open and Distance Learning. Conflict Resolution. Mode of Delivery and Course Assessment The above mentioned courses will be taught by a dedicated team of highly qualified and experienced lecturers in their respective areas of specialty. The lectures will be delivered through a face-to-face mode by using carefully selected reading materials drawn from up to-date literature coupled with class exercises. In terms of assessment, students will be examined both on individual basis and group work presentation based on meticulously selected case studies. In addition, students will be given adequate opportunity to present and share their own practical opinions and experiences on topical issues taught in classes. Consequently, the courses will be highly interactive and participatory.

Entry requirement Demand Driven Courses are open to the general public. They do not involve serious academic rigour. That being the case, there is no specific entry requirement. Award It is important to underscore that the OUT offers certificates of accreditation for DDSCs as directed by the SENATE.

3.0 Bursaries and Fees The OUT has the right to change tuition fees in line with the average annual inflation rate announced by the Bank of Tanzania. Any change of annual fees will be announced by the Council of the Open University of Tanzania (OUT), before the commencement of the academic year. At the beginning of every academic year, all students of the OUT will be required to meet their financial obligations, before they can be registered. In addition to tuition and examination fees, students will be required to buy essential reference books and stationeries, pay for residential face to face sessions, and related costs for attending practical sessions, projects and field trips. Students who are sponsored through the Higher Education Student Loans Board (HESLB) or any other sponsor, will not be considered for registration until when their 15

fees have been remitted to the University by the sponsor. In order for them not to miss the registration deadline, students will be required to pay half of the requisite fees for that level, which will be refunded upon the university receiving full payment of their fees from the HESLB or any other sponsor. All students must pay an examination fee as stipulated, to be eligible for main examinations. Students who for one reason or another, have been allowed to attend special examinations, will not need to pay again for the special examinations. Students who attempt to appear for special examinations without prior authorization, will be required to pay the fees for that examination session. Students attempting supplementary examinations must also pay the fees for the supplementary examination session. Students or their sponsors, are allowed to pay the complete tuition fees at the beginning of studies. In case of any subsequent rise in fees from the time of the initial payment and completion of the programmes, the student will be required to settle the calculated difference, in order to be allowed graduation. Payments of fees by Cheque or by Telegraphic Money Orders is not acceptable. Students who deposit their fees through the banks must present their deposit slips to the Directors of Regional Centre, who will issue them with a receipt. We discourage submission of deposit slips to the Finance office at the HQ. This receipt must be kept in a safe and secure place for future reference. Apart from Tuition fees, students and sponsors must also meet personal costs for books stationery, practical and field visits, field research work, teaching practice, and attendance of tests and examinations. Students who decide to change their programme of study after a period of two weeks from the date of the orientation will be required to pay a penalty of Tshs 30,000 (USD 30) before the change can be implemented. Students who lose their identity cards may be given another one after paying a processing cost of Tshs 20,000 (USD 20) Fees must be deposited in respective bank accounts as shown in the Table below: Type of Payment Tuition fees (local) Tuition fees (local) Registration & Examination fees Student Union fees Bank NBC, Corporate Branch NMB, Bank House As above NBC, Kinondoni Branch Account Number 011103002558 2011100105 As above 081101000085

A non-refundable application fee of Tsh 10,000 must be paid by all Tanzanian applicants, 16

while non Tanzanians have to pay USD 30. An examination fee of Tsh 20,000 (USD 200 for exams in EAC/SADC countries, USD 420 for exams outside EAC/SADC) is to be paid in respect to the tests and annual examinations. Students wishing to sit for supplementary examinations are required to pay a separate examination fee. Students who for some reason were given permission by the DVC Academic, to write for special examination, having made such a request before or during the annual examination session, will not be required to pay the examination fees. Those who apply for special examinations after the annual examination has passed will be required to pay the examination fee for the special examination session.

4.0 Fees for Courses Offered During 2011/12 Academic Year The various fees for 2011/12 academic year are shown in the Table below. What is shown is the annual and total programme fee. Students or the sponsor may negotiate to pay this amount by installments annually. The total fees to be paid by the time of completion of studies is the amount shown for a candidate to be cleared for graduation. Distance learning students doing undergraduate courses must present proof of having paid at least the amount due for the level they are to attempt examinations. Each level represents one third of the fees. All students must pay the stipulated student organization fees to the Open University Student Organization (OUTSO) account, with details below. According to the SADC and EAC Protocols, students from member countries are to pay the equivalent of local fees. Additional costs for logistic support, such as transportation of study materials, invigilation and freight of examinations, hire of examination halls, etc; have been consolidated into their fees as shown in the Table below. Item Minimum Annual Fee (Tshs) 240,000.00 240,000.00 600,000.00 Full Programme Fee (Tshs) 240,000.00 480,000.00 1,200,000.00 Full for EAC/SADC (USD) 600 1,200 1,920 Full for Non EAC/SADC (USD) 860 1,720 3,080

Certificate Courses CYP &ODDEOL DPTE

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5.0 Frequently Asked Questions Quite often, prospective students tend to ask the following questions regarding: (1) OUT

Questions
(i) (ii) Where are the lecture rooms/halls and hostels for students? How do OUT students study?

Answers
(i) OUT is a distance teaching and open learning institution. For this reason, unlike conventional institutions, the University does not have lecture rooms/halls and hostels for its students, both at the Headquarters and in Regional Centres. (ii) OUT students study using pre prepared self instructional materials which they collect from the Regional Centres after paying the required fees. They study the materials when and where they find it convenient to do so. However, in order to complete a course, a student has to do timed tests, annual examinations and other assessment requirements as arranged by the University. (2) Foundation Course

Question
(i) Is the Foundation Course Certificate recognised by other Universities and Colleges as an entry qualification to their undergraduate programmes?

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Answer
(i) As already indicated, the basic objective of the Foundation Course is to prepare students lacking direct entry qualifications to undergraduate programmes, for admission to OUT undergraduate programmes. The Course has been audited and quality assured by the Tanzania Commission of Universities (TCU). While all the students who complete successfully the Foundation Course are admitted into OUT undergraduate programmes, not all Universities and Colleges in the country recognise it as an entry qualification to their undergraduate programmes. (3) CYP Diploma Questions (i) Will the Government employ me as a Youth Development Officer after completing successfully the course? (ii) What is the importance of the Commonwealth Award which is normally given to CYP Diploma graduands? Answers (i) As indicated in the entry requirements to the programme, the CYP Diploma is not a pre service but an in service course for youth in development work personnel. However, whenever there are vacancies for such personnel in the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Youth Development or in NGOs, CYP Diploma holders are invited to submit applications for consideration for the posts. (ii) The Commonwealth Award is a certificate issued and signed by the Commonwealth Secretary General to all the students who complete successfully the CYP Diploma course in Africa, Asia, Pacific and the Carribean

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Commonwealth Regions. It signifies unity and solidarity among youth workers in the Commonwealth. (4) Certificate and Diploma Courses in Distance Education and Open Learning Questions Will the Certificate and Diploma be recognised by employers like the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training? Will the Diploma qualify me as a Secondary School Teacher?

Answers Yes, they will be recognised as valid qualifications as the Courses are taught and accredited by a recognised Institution of Higher Learning. In fact, similar to all the other programmes being offered by the OUT, the Certificate and Diploma programmes in distance education and open learning, have been vetted by the Tanzania Commission of Universities (TCU). Yes, provided you will serve as a distance education and open learning specialist in a secondary education programme.

(5) Diploma in Primary Teacher Education (DPTE) Question (i) Will I be allowed to use the DPTE to access non education undergraduate programmes? Answer (i) Of course yes. However, we should remember that the basic objective of the DPTE programme is to capacity build primary education sector in the core areas of pedagogy, curriculum development and management.

Once again we thank you for enrolling in these Courses. We encourage you to study your Course with enthusiasm and complete it successfully. Finally, we wish you a rewarding career at the end of your course. In case you have any other querries, kindly 20

address them to any of the members of staff listed below using their respective e mail contacts.

6.0 Staff Director Dr. L. J. Kisoza james.kisoza@out.ac.tz Senior Lecturer Dr. C. K. Muganda cornelia.muganda@out.ac.tz Lecturers Mr. P. K. Komba philip.komba@out.ac.tz Mr. N. Z. Reuben neville.reuben@out.ac.tz Dr. K. Kazungu khatibu.kazungu@out.ac.tz Mr. K. A. Nihuka kassim.nihuka@out.ac.tz Assistant Lecturers Mr. S. Chale samwel.chale@out.ac.tz Mr. P. Mgumba paul.mgumba@out.ac.tz Ms. H. Hellar herieth.heller@out.ac.tz Mr. J. Leopard Jacob.leopold@out.ac.tz Ms. R. Mohamed rahma.mohamed@out.ac.tz Mr. I. Messo innocent.messo@out.ac.tz Mr. B. Nsiima beatus.nsiima@out.ac.tz

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The Open University of Tanzania P.O. Box 23409, Tel:255-022668992/2668820/2668445 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Fax: 255-022-2668835

Chuo Kikuu Huria cha Tanzania S.L.P. 23409, Simu: 255-022-2668445/2668960 Dar es Salaam Tanzania Fax: 255-022-2668835

MAINSTREAMING HIV/AIDS IN OUT CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH AGENDA, EDEMA CONFERENCE CENTRE, MOROGORO 11TH 14TH JANUARY 2012 OPENING REMARKS BY THE VICE CHANCELLOR AND CHAIRMAN OF THE TECHNICAL HIV/AIDS SUB - COMMITTEE (TASC), PROF. TOLLY S. A. MBWETTE

Dear Moderator, Facilitators and Workshop Participants,

It gives me very great pleasure to welcome the Moderator, Facilitators and Participants to this Workshop on Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in the University Curricula and Research Agenda. It will be recalled that preventive HIV and AIDS activities at the OUT started way back in 2001, when the Technical AIDS Sub Committee (TASC) was established. Since then, TASC has initiated and coordinated implementation of HIV and AIDS awareness seminars, workshops, training of counsellors and mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS matters in the Institutional Rolling Strategic Plan. Strategic Objective No. 18 in the Institutional Rolling Strategic Plan 2008/09 2012/13 is on Enhanced HIV/AIDS and Medical Health Service. Among its 10 targets is mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS within the OUT curricula by June 2012. It is, therefore, self evident that this Workshop is designed to realize this target ahead of the set deadline.

Furthermore, it will be recalled that in 2005, TASC launched the Institutional Policy on HIV and AIDS. The Vision of the policy is to empower employees, students and the

surrounding communities with competencies to protect themselves and others from HIV and AIDS infections and to provide within the capacity of the Institution, care and
22

support to those infected and affected. I should stress that it is not easy to realise
satisfactorily this vision without mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in the core functions of the University. Towards the end of 2009, TASC registered another important mile stone in its endeavour to fight the pandemic, when it carried out a Situational Analysis of HIV and AIDS at the OUT. The study was designed to set the ground for initiating a comprehensive programme for combating HIV and AIDS, including the training and deployment of peer educators throughout the country. Furthermore, the study explored how students counselling and guidance services, gender awareness and integrity practices could be strengthened in order to enhance academic institutional performance as well the crusade against HIV and AIDS. The thrust of setting up HIV and AIDS Clubs for staff and students in every Regional Centre in the current Institutional HIV and AIDS Action Plan is based on the findings of the study. In this regard, it is not out of sheer coincidence that this Workshop is being held in Morogoro. Morogoro Regional Centre was the first OUT Regional Centre to set up an HIV and AIDS Club for staff and students on May Day 2011. Once again, I wish to congratulate the DRC, staff and students of the Centre for pioneering this initiative which is an effective forum for pursuing the vision of the Institutional HIV and AIDS Policy. Needless to add that other Centres are required to follow the foot steps of Morogoro Centre.

Dear Workshop Participants, This Workshop is yet another important mile stone in the efforts of the University to fight the pandemic. Although limited attempts to integrate HIV and AIDS in teaching, research and consultancy services exist in all Faculties, Institutes and Directorates, they are neither comprehensive nor coordinated or even streamlined with current National HIV and AIDS policies particularly the Essential HIV and AIDS Minimum Planning Package for Higher Learning Institutions and the National Multi Sectoral HIV Prevention Strategy 2009 2012. This situation accounts for the limited impact of these efforts in addressing effectively, the biological, behavioural, social and structural drivers of the epidemic. Through mainstreaming, specific interventions i.e. prevention, treatment, impact mitigation and support services, will be integrated into the 23

Institutional Programme in order to tackle the drivers of the epidemic. I am very hopeful that this Workshop will empower you with knowledge and skills to carry out and eventually accomplish this task successfully.

In carrying out this task, it will be essential to pay special attention to three important factors. First, as provided in the OUT Charter (2007), two of the functions of this University, are to promote gender equity and mainstreaming, and to address HIV and AIDS pandemic, both in the course of the acquisition, provision and application of Higher Education. We should resist the temptation of treating gender and HIV and AIDS matters as peripheral issues to our core roles of organizing and disseminating higher education in our respective areas of specialization. There is close correlation between gender awareness and HIV and AIDS prevalence rates. Where the level of awareness is high, the prevalence rate is low and vice versa. Secondly, the HIV and AIDS pandemic is a threat to optimal performance and gains in every sector in the society including the academia. Without controlling and eventually rolling back this threat, our mission of pursuing the truth in teaching, research and public service will be derailed. Thirdly, the National Multi Sectoral HIV Prevention Strategy (NMHP) 2009 2012, has adopted Pre testing of HIV and AIDS, Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) and Awareness on Gender Issues as strategies which can mitigate effectively HIV and AIDS infection, while paving the way for the pursuit of the UNAIDS three zeros (Zero New Infection, Zero Deaths and Zero Stigma and Discrimination), by 2015. In short, the International as well as the National target is to eliminate HIV and AIDS in the next three years. In mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in the University Curricula and Research Agenda, ensure that these factors are accorded commensurate attention. Furthermore, integrate relevant aspects of the Essential HIV and AIDS Minimum Planning Package for Higher Learning Institutions in the Institutional HIV and AIDS Programme in order to address ably the needs of each and every member in the society, including people with disabilities.

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Dear Workshop Participants, HIV prevalence is stabilising and even slightly decreasing in many parts of our country. Prevention efforts and the availability of effective treatment have reduced the impact of AIDS among the infected people. However, we should not be complacent. While more than 1,000,000 Tanzanians are already infected, about 130,000 others between 15 49 years are infected each year. The high incidence of new HIV infections is very disturbing because almost the entire population is knowledgeable on HIV and AIDS and how to avoid infection. On the other hand, it is quite embarrassing to note new infections occurring even in Higher Learning Institutions where role models of the society either work or are groomed. It is therefore, essential to mainstream HIV and AIDS in the core activities of Higher Learning Institutions to curb new HIV infections in our country. The HIV epidemic still poses a major threat to national development. Furthermore, it causes widespread suffering among individuals, families and communities across.

We should continue to share information, education and communication on relevant and pertinent matters on HIV and AIDS. According to UNAIDS:

in the absence of a cure, preventive measures through educational programmes and information exchanges can significantly control the impact of the disease.
In the same report issued in 1999, it is stressed . the importance of workplace based

HIV/AIDS education is increasingly recognised. This is because workers spend 75% of their time at work and HIV and AIDS tend to strike the productive age group.
Last but not least, I wish to thank the Moderator from TACAIDS, Mr. Eliazary Nyagwaru, for agreeing to share his invaluable experiences with us in this Workshop. I wish also to express sincere gratitude to SADC HIV and AIDS Project for Institutions of Higher Learning in Southern Africa and the National University of Lesotho, for funding this Workshop. With these remarks, I wish now to declare this Workshop on Mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS in OUT Curricula and Research Agenda, officially opened. I thank you for your attention. 25

Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in OUT Curriculum and Research Agenda EDEMA Conference Centre, Morogoro, 11th 14th January 2012 Lecture Notes 0.0 Introduction In this lecture, we shall explore the process of mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in OUT Curriculum and Research Agenda as well as the emerging issues. Mainstreaming

(kutungamanisha in Kiswahili), is the integration of specific HIV and AIDS interventions


prevention, care, treatment and support and impact mitigation, in sectoral core activities, in order to address the drivers of the epidemic. Mainstreaming ensures that addressing HIV and AIDS is not an addition or separate activity but rather an integral part of the institutional core functions, policies, strategies and actions. The core functions of Higher Learning Institutions are knowledge dissemination through teaching, knowledge creation through research and provision of public service though consultancy. Besides integrating relevant HIV and AIDS matters in core functions, it is mandatory to ensure effective articulation of relevant National policies and strategies on HIV and AIDS in mainstreaming. Furthermore, mainstreaming entails a comprehensive approach which addresses adequately issues related with the management of HIV and AIDS in terms of creation of an enabling environment; prevention; care and support; impact mitigation; workplace issues; monitoring and evaluation. This is the context within which mainstreaming will create a conducive environment for Higher Learning Institutions to produce graduates who are not only free from HIV and AIDS but also conscious of their mission of fighting the pandemic wherever they will be deployed.

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0.1

Objectives

After studying this lecture, you should be able to: (i) Describe the historical background of the OUT and the challenges it is facing in addressing the HIV and AIDS pandemic. (ii) Discuss the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS and assess the impact of the pandemic in Africa. (iii) (iv) Identify the drivers of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in Tanzania. Assess the impact of the epidemic in the country in general and in Higher Learning Institutions in particular. (v) Discuss the thrust of the current response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic in Tanzania. (vi) (vii) Explain how sexuality education can prevent infection to HIV and AIDS. Design activities which can engender behaviour change essential for mitigating the impact of HIV and AIDS in the society. (viii) Conduct situational analysis of HIV and AIDS in order to be able to recommend, design and implement appropriate preventive and impact mitigation

programmes. (ix) Develop, employ and disseminate communication and negotiation skills for assertiveness. (x) Identify research issues in HIV and AIDS.

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0.2 Structure The lecture is structured as follows:

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x)

OUT: Historical Background and Challenges of HIV and AIDS Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and Impact in Africa Drivers of the HIV and AIDS Epidemic in Tanzania Impact of HIV and AIDS in Higher Learning Institutions in Tanzania The Thrust of the Current Response to HIV and AIDS Epidemic Sexuality Education and Prevention of HIV and AIDS Behaviour Change to Mitigate the Impact of HIV and AIDS Situational Analysis of HIV and AIDS Life Skills Research Agenda

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SECTION

1
OUT: Historical Background and Challenges of HIV and AIDS
1.0 Introduction The Open University of Tanzania (OUT) was established by an Act of Parliament No. 17 of 1992. Following the legislation of private universities, Act No. 17 of 1992 was repealed and replaced by the Universities Act No. 7 of 2005 and the OUT Charter (2007), effectively from the 1st January 2007 (OUT, 2011).

As an Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Institution, the OUT conducts its operations through Coordination Centres, Regional Centres and Study Centres. Currently, there are 27 Regional Centres and 69 Study Centres within Tanzania and 2 Coordination Centres in neighbouring Kenya. It is envisaged to establish Coordination Centres in Kigali, Rwanda and Kampala, Uganda soon. OUTs total cummulative admission for the period 1994 2010/11 is 59, 658, consisting of 15,616 non degree students, 35,442 undergraduate students and 8,600 postgraduate students. This large and rapidly expanding student body is served by a total of 648 staff consisting of 308 academic staff, 296 administrative staff and 44 technical staff (Ibid). 1.1 Preventive activities Preventive HIV and AIDS activities at the OUT started way back in 2001, when the Technical AIDS Sub Committee (TASC) was established. Since then, the University has initiated and coordinated implementation of HIV/AIDS awareness seminars, workshops, training of counsellors and mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS matters in the Institutional Rolling Strategic Plan. The Institutional Policy on HIV and AIDS was launched in 2005. The Vision of the policy is to

empower employees, students and the surrounding


29

communities with competencies to protect themselves and others from HIV and AIDS

infections and to provide within the capacity of the Institution, care and support to those infected and affected. (OUT, 2005). In spite of its comprehensiveness, it is now
essential to review the policy in order to keep it abreast with the current International and National thrust in the campaign against the epidemic . Similarly, to ensure that it is user - friendly and accessible to all including people with disabilities.

Courses in which awareness creation and preventive HIV and AIDS aspects have been integrated include: OEM 304: Human Rights and Cross Cutting Issues (FED) OME 212: Business Environment (FBM) ODC 005: Gender and Violence (ICE) ODC 012: Youth and Health (ICE) ODC 063: General Studies (ICE) These are elective courses which are not, therefore, mandatory to all the students. Towards the end of 2009, a Situational Analysis of HIV and AIDS was carried out at the OUT. The study was designed to set the ground for initiating a comprehensive programme for combating HIV and AIDS, including the training and deployment of peer educators throughout the country. Furthermore, the study explored how students counselling and guidance services, gender awareness and integrity practices could be strengthened in order to enhance academic institutional performance as well the crusade against HIV and AIDS (OUT, 2010a). Situational Analysis Report estimated morbidity and mortality rates from HIV and AIDS at less than 5%; noted that staff and students fall ill and die due to AIDS related illness, but failed to identify staff/students openly living with HIV (Ibid). The current Institutional HIV and AIDS Action Plan is based on the findings of the study. 1.3 Challenges of HIV and AIDS It is obvious from the foregoing account that the University needs to address the challenge of disclosure among its staff and students. It is noted in the Situational Analysis Report . . . as a result of the general tendency of stigmatizing people who are HIV+, many people are reluctant to disclose their HIV/AIDS status. In this context, it 30

cannot be concluded that the nature and level of awareness on HIV/AIDS among staff, students and other community members are as high as expected (Ibid:15). However, this is not the only challenge that OUT has to address. Based on latest available data, the HIV prevalence is stabilising and even slightly decreasing in many parts of Tanzania. Prevention efforts and the availability of effective treatment have reduced the impact of AIDS among the infected people. However, about 1.5 million Tanzanians are infected, out of whom 10% are children. Meanwhile, 130,000 Tanzanians between 15 49 years are infected with HIV each year (PMO, 2009). According to the Second National MultiSectoral Strategic Framework (NMSF) on HIV and AIDS for the period 2008 to 2012, the occurrence of new HIV infections is very disturbing because almost the entire population is knowledgeable on HIV and AIDS and how to avoid infection (PMO, 2008). The reported 400,000 episodes of sexually transmitted diseases treated in health facilities each year, and high number of pregnancies among school girls clearly indicate the lack of seriousness and behaviour change in combating the epidemic (Ibid). These and related facts show that the impact of the efforts of the OUT in rolling back the pandemic is far from being significant.

Presently, the country has adopted the National Multi Sectoral HIV Prevention Strategy (NMHP) 2009 2012, as the policy framework for rolling back the pandemic. This policy framework has adopted Pre testing of HIV and AIDS, Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) and Awareness on Gender Issues as strategies which can mitigate effectively HIV and AIDS infection, while paving the way for the pursuit of the UNAIDS three zeros (Zero New Infection, Zero Deaths and Zero Stigma and Discrimination), by 2015 (PMO, 2009, op.cit). In this regard, the challenge facing the OUT is to align the orientation of its HIV and AIDS programme with the context of the NMHP. Mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS in Curriculum and Research Agenda is the initial step towards this objective (OUT, 2010b). Before discussing further this assertion, let us remind ourselves about the meaning, epidemiology, trends and impact of HIV and AIDS in Africa.

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SECTION

2
Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and Impact in Africa
2.1 What is HIV/AIDS? The Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a medical condition where a virus attacks and slowly destroys the immune system by entering and destroying CD4+ or T4 cells. It is only after a long period of infection, usually 3-7 years or more that enough of the immune cells have been destroyed to lead to immune deficiency. HIV/AIDS cannot be detected shortly (less than two weeks) after a person has been infected with the virus. It takes 2-12 weeks for the immune system to develop antibodies which can be detected in the bloodstream. It is these antibodies that form the basis of the HIV antibody blood test used in diagnosing whether a person is positive. Early detection of HIV can be achieved using sophisticated techniques such as (AAU, 2007): Cell Culture; PCR-Viral Load; and P24 Antigen. Origin of HIV Several theories have been propounded regarding the origin of HIV, as detailed in the excerpt below: Many researchers argue that AIDS originated somewhere in Central Africa from a retrovirus infecting the African Green Monkey. Scientists speculate that the ancestors of AIDS virus have been living in the Green Monkey, a native of Africa for a long time that could stretch as long as 50,000 years. It has been postulated that some African Green Monkey, sometime, somewhere, must have bitten or scratched some African in the forest infecting the human being with retroviruses that cause AIDS. Others believe that the virus manifested

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itself in some tribe that eats monkeys meat and later spread to other people due to the migration of the tribe (Mehta and Sodhi, 2004:5). According to these theories, Africa was the origin of the virus, from where it spread via Haiti to the United States and the rest of the World. Most probably, these theories were intended to counter a third theory which postulates that HIV is a man made virus from a medical laboratory in the USA. It spread from there to Africa and the rest of the World via the Caribbean Islands. It should, however, be stressed that theories regarding the origin of HIV lack scientific evidence. For example, it is speculated that both chimpanzees and human beings may have been infected from a third, but yet unidentified primate. In any case, it is more prudent to deal with the crisis instead of wasting time and resources on establishing its origin. All in all, it has been established that international travel, blood transfusion and widespread drug use have contributed to the spread of AIDS worldwide (Ibid: 5 7). Types of HIV There are currently two types of HIV: HIV 1 and HIV 2 (Ibid: 14). Worldwide, the predominant virus is HIV 1. Both HIV 1 and HIV 2 are transmitted by sexual contact, through blood and from mother to child and they appear to cause clinically indistinguishable AIDS. However, HIV 2 is less easily transmitted and the period between initial infection and illness is longer. On the contrary, HIV 1 is easily transmitted, more virulent and mutates very rapidly, thus defying clinical efforts to trap and destroy it. This task is further complicated by the fact that there are many strains of HIV 1. These strains can be classified into two groups: M and O. Within Group M, there are currently 10 genetically distinct subtypes of HIV 1. These are subtypes A J. Group O contains another distinct group of very heterogeneous viruses, although it is of very low prevalence. Subtypes are very unevenly distributed throughout the World as indicated below:

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Table 1: Distribution of HIV 1 Subtypes Subtype/Group Regions A&D Sub Saharan Africa C South Africa and India B Americas, Japan, Australia, Caribbean and Europe E Central African Republic F Brazil and Romania G&H Russia and Central Africa I Cyprus Group O Cameroon Source: Mehta and Sodhi, 2004: 14. Stages of HIV Development Infection Primary Infection Establishment into the body Window period Period between primary infection and seroconversion Seroconversion Body reacts by producing antibodies against the virus. Immune system decline Virus slowly damages the immune system Mild non-specific features Initial damage to the system More severe features Severe damage to the immune system, opportunistic infections AIDS WHO has developed a clinical classification system for predicting morbidity and mortality of infected adults based on clinical symptoms, lab markers and patient performance scale. It has FOUR stages. It should be stressed that medical guidance can prevent progression to subsequent and fatal stages, provided the virus is detected in the early stages. In the absence of regular medical checkups and VCT, HIV diagnosis is often done in Stages 3 and 4. By then, it may be very difficult to control the opportunistic infections which are the major cause of death among PLWHA (Chiduo, 2009). Stage 1 Asymptomatic and persistent generalized lymphadenopathy Performance scale 1: normal activity

Stage 2 (CD4< 350) Weight loss < 10% body weight (wt) Minor mucocutaneous manifestations Herpes zoster Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections Recurrent oral ulcerations Performance scale 2: symptomatic, normal activity

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Stage 3 Wt loss > 10% body wt Unexplained chronic diarrhea Unexplained prolonged fever Oral Candidiasis (fungus) Pulmonary TB Severe bacterial infections Performance scale 3: bedridden <50% of day Stage 4 HIV wasting syndrome Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia Toxoplasmosis of brain Cryptosporidiosis with diarrhea Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Oesophageal Candidiasis Extrapulmonary TB Lymphoma Kaposis sarcoma Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) HIV Dementia Performance scale 4, bedridden >50 % (Ibid).

Activity Why is it essential to do regular medical checkups and even VCT? 2.2 Trends of HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is more than a medical emergency. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a global threat which is receiving global attention. African universities and higher education institutions should be especially concerned as the data shows its impact on Africa is greater than on any other continent. For example, although only 10% of the worlds population lives in Africa, 70% of the worlds HIV infections are found on the continent. It is estimated that there are 24.7 million people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (see Table 2 below).

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& Table 2: Regional statistics for Adults HIV & AIDS, end of 2006 Region children living with HIV/AIDS Sub-Saharan Africa 24.7 million North Africa & Middle East 460,000 South and South-East Asia 7.8 million East Asia 750,000 Oceania 81,000 Latin America 1.7 million Caribbean 250,000 Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1.7 million Western & Central Europe 740,000 North America 1.4 million Global Total 39.5 million

Adults & Adult children newly prevalence* infected 2.8 million 5.9% 68,000 0.2% 860,000 0.6% 100,000 0.1% 7,100 0.4% 140,000 0.5% 27,000 1.2% 270,000 0.9% 22,000 0.3% 43,000 0.8% 4.3 million 1.0%

Deaths of adults & children 2.1 million 36,000 590,000 43,000 4,000 65,000 19,000 84,000 12,000 18,000 2.9 million

Source: UNAIDS and WHO 2006 Report on Global AIDS Epidemic * Proportion of adults aged 15-49 who were living with HIV/AIDS These numbers for South and South-East Asia are now thought to be too high, based on revised Indian estimates published in July 2007. It is likely that the true number of people living with HIV in this region is between 4 and 5 million.

During 2006 around four million adults and children became infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), the virus that causes AIDS. By the end of the year, an estimated 39.5 million people worldwide were living with HIV/AIDS. The year also saw around three million deaths from AIDS, despite recent improvements in access to antiretroviral treatment. Activity Study carefully Table 1. Why do you think Sub Saharan Africa is hardest hit by HIV/AIDS? Most probably, Sub Saharan Africa is the hardest Region as unlike other Regions, it has a preponderance of most subtypes of HIV 1. 2.3 Potential Impact of HIV/AIDS on Core Business of Institutions of Higher Education The Table above also indicates that the main mode of transmission in Africa is heterosexual intercourse. People aged 19 -24 are in the sexually active group and these are precisely the immediate targets of higher education.

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Higher Education Institutions provide the stage for easy interaction among this age group, thereby facilitating the spread of the disease. Clearly the institutions provide a special environment for HIV/AIDS. Another important point is that relationships are not stable as sessions interchange with holidays. In your opinion, does this factor apply to the OUT which is not a residential but a distance teaching university whose students are mostly working adults?

On the other hand, it must be noted that this age group is constituted as a captive population which is easy to reach with interventions. Universities and other higher education institutions can confront the challenge of HIV/AIDS by dealing with the menace decisively on campus. Higher education institutions must be involved in the fight against HIV/AIDS for several other reasons. First, HIV/AIDS affects human resource development, the raison detre of higher education institutions. Secondly, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is a clear disaster in African countries, particularly in Southern Africa, the hardest hit Region. The case for higher education institutions fighting HIV/AIDS cannot be overemphasized when facing such national danger. In Swaziland, for example, a third of adults are infected (see Table below). On the contrary, the data in Table 3 indicate that Mauritania and Senegal have the lowest rates, 0.7 and 0.9 respectively. An estimated 24.5 million adults and children were living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2005. During that year, an estimated 2 million people died from AIDS. The epidemic has left behind some 12 million orphaned African children. The estimated number of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS, the number of deaths from AIDS, and the number of living orphans in individual countries in SubSaharan Africa at the end of 2000 are shown below (Table 3).

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Table 3: Adult HIV Prevalence for 2006 Country Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Comoros Congo Cte d'Ivoire Dem. Republic of Congo Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia
Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia* Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria

People living with HIV/AIDS 320,000 87,000 270,000 150,000 150,000 510,000 250,000 180,000 <500 120,000 750,000 1,000,000 15,000 8,900 59,000 420,0001,300,000 60,000 20,000 320,000 85,000 32,000 1,300,000 270,000 49,000 940,000 130,000 12,000 4,100 1,800,000 230,000 79,000 2,900,000

Adult (15- Women 49) rate % with HIV/AIDS 3.7 170,000 1.8 45,000 24.1 140,000 2.0 80,000 3.3 79,000 5.4 290,000 10.7 130,000 3.5 90,000 <0.1 <100 5.3 61,000 7.1 400,000 3.2 520,000 3.1 8,400 3.2 4,700 2.4 31,000 0.9- 3.5 190,000730,000 7.9 33,000 2.4 11,000 2.3 180,000 1.5 53,000 3.8 17,000 6.1 740,000 23.2 150,000 2.0-5.0 0.5 13,000 14.1 500,000 1.7 66,000 0.7 6,300 0.6 <1,000 16.1 960,000 19.6 130,000 1.1 42,000 3.9 1,600,000

Children with HIV/AIDS 35,000 9,800 14,000 17,000 20,000 43,000 24,000 16,000 <100 15,000 74,000 120,000 1,200 <1,000 6,600 30,000220,000 3,900 1,200 25,000 7,000 3,200 150,000 18,000 1,600 91,000 16,000 1,100 140,000 17,000 8,900 240,000

AIDS deaths 30,000 9,600 18,000 12,000 13,000 46,000 24,000 11,000 <100 11,000 65,000 90,000 1,200 <1,000 5,600 38,000130,000 4,700 1,300 29,000 7,100 2,700 140,000 23,000 2,900 78,000 11,000 <1,000 <100 140,000 17,000 7,600 220,000

Orphans due to AIDS 160,000 62,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 240,000 140,000 57,000 110,000 450,000 680,000 5,700 4,600 36,000 280,000870,000 20,000 3,800 170,000 28,000 11,000 1,100,000 97,000 13,000 550,000 94,000 6,900 510,000 85,000 46,000 930,000

Source:UNAIDS and WHO 2006 Report on Global AIDS Epidemic Insufficient data available for Liberia

As indicated in Annex I, Globally, as recently as 2009, Sub Saharan Africa was the hardest Region. Against the background of the devastating impact of the HIV/AIDS on the education sector in Africa in general, the need for the Management of Institutions of Higher Education to initiate

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effective measures to address it, has become obvious and urgent. Below, we shall discuss programmes which can be put in place in order to address the pandemic.

2.4 Programmes (i) Prevention Prevention is key to keeping a majority of students and staff free of HIV. Abstinence and condom use are the main strategies for promoting HIV prevention. However, these are hardly adhered to by the sexually active young adults. Socio-cultural-economic factors are partly responsible for this which needs to be addressed through more innovative education strategies. Preventive strategies have been summarized under the ABCDE principles, elaborated as detailed below: Abstain Be faithful Condom use Disclose your status Empowerment. Abstaining from engagement in sexual relations is obviously the most effective preventive measure against HIV infection. This is followed by remaining faithful to one sexual partner who is not infected. Use of condom in sexual relations where one is unable to abstain or stick to one sexual partner, is also an effective preventive measure against HIV infection. However, engagement in sexual relations under all conditions, is a risk behaviour. For this reason, sexually active people including married couples are strongly advised to undertake VCT regularly, in order to ascertain and disclose their HIV status. Where people are ready to disclose their HIV status, they need to be empowered with knowledge, skills and even resources to remain HIV free or live positively in case they are already infected. In other words, PLWHA should not be stigmatized or discriminated. (ii) Care and Support Some of the established treatment, care and support options include: VCT Counselling Referral Services to local clinics, hospitals, etc 39

AIDS Support clubs Home Based Care Treatment for opportunistic Infections (TB, Pneumonia etc) Contraceptions Services (Condoms, fermidoms, oral contraception) STI treatment services Parent and community support groups Activity Study carefully the services outlined above. Which services are being or can be provided by the OUT? Find out other services which need to be provided under this thematic area.

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Care and support also needs to be looked at as a point of leverage in a comprehensive response. For example, VCT is best used as a way of reaching uninfected, infected and affected people. For uninfected people, VCT is intended to provide an opportunity for them to know their health status and to develop the knowledge they need to remain HIV free. Likewise a routine treatment for a STI should be used by the health provider as a way of improving the clients knowledge of HIV and their vulnerability to infection because of STIs. Appropriate treatment of STIs through cheap and easily available public health services has proved to be a key element in reducing vulnerability to HIV infection. In both cases, VCT and STI treatment services require advocacy, strict confidentiality, high quality services, youth friendly service delivery and observance of health protocols.

(iii) HIV/AIDS Peer Education Peer education has the potential of meeting the HIV/AIDS challenge at least with respect to students. Peer education is an effective way of reaching young people. It mobilizes students in their own cause. Peer education is a very powerful tool in higher education institutions as overall, peer educators tend to reach peers similar to themselves. They reach peers of their same age, educational levels, ethnic group, religion, and social clubs, organizations and groups. The most common activity/service is education about STDs and HIV/AIDS and information about STD/HIV prevention methods. Both peer educators and their contacts have a high level of exposure to AIDS information, especially via the mass media (radio, television and newspapers) (Wolf, Tawfik and Bond, 2000). Activity Assess the effectiveness of peer education as a preventive mechanism against HIV and AIDS.

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Peer education has the advantage of requiring comparatively very little in terms of resources. This is because on the financial level, it is assumed to be inexpensive to operate (since it relies on unpaid volunteers); on the intellectual level, peers are assumed to be more acceptable sources of information to adolescents than professionals and the approach takes advantage of pre-existing channels of information sharing; and on the emotional level, the idea of people donating to their community or peer group for altruistic motives is appealing.

In the context of lack of financial resources, peer education appears to have no equal with respect to costs. Given that fund raising has been proposed as one of the major constraints in meeting the challenge of HIV/AIDS, peer education should be given pride of place as financing is not an overriding factor.

What about the challenge? The challenge of peer education itself is to ensure that it is sustainable, worthwhile for the student and sufficiently structured to allow for standards to be put in place. One factor that may influence effectiveness is the high turnover of peer educators. In the university or educational institutions in general the high turnover may not have serious adverse effects since every year there are new students and some of them need to become peer educators. Every generation of students has fellow students to deal with the challenge of HIV/AIDS. The target of peer education will not only be students of higher education but all the learners in the educational system. Campuses may be the easiest to reach; institutions without a main campus or with non residential students may find it quite difficult. Reaching outside the university requires resources. Peer education remains a key strategy in the arsenal of higher education institutions meeting the challenge of HIV/AIDS (AAU, 2007).

Activity Are there peer education groups at the OUT? How do they carry out their activities?

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SECTION

3
Drivers of the HIV and AIDS Epidemic in Tanzania
3.1 Drivers of the Epidemic In a meeting held from 20th 22nd June 2011 in Dar es Salaam to deliberate on strategies for strengthening the coordination of the National Multi Sectoral Framework on HIV and AIDS, 2009 2012, TACAIDS Chairperson, Dr. Fatma Mrisho pointed out that after 30 years of fighting the pandemic, people were now fed up with it. According to her, this fatigue accounts for the current thrust of ensuring that by 2015, there will be 0 infection rate; 0 deaths from HIV and AIDS and 0 rate stigma and discrimination. To achieve these goals, Dr. Mrisho stressed the need to scale up preventive measures against HIV and AIDS. However, the TACAIDS Chairperson cautioned that it was quite challenging to achieve the three 0s. She, therefore, urged Higher Learning Institutions to ensure that students, staff and community members, are provided with the highest quality prevention, counselling and guidance services, in order to mitigate their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection.

To understand why the pandemic has settled in the country for so long, it is essential to identify the factors driving it. These have been classified under three categories:

(i) -

Biomedical Low level of male circumcision High level of HIV discordance High prevalence of STIs Low coverage of quality assured blood transfusion

(ii) -

Behavioural Multiple partnerships

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Early sex Cross generational sex Transactional sex, CSWs Low and inconsistent condom use IDUs and MSM and drug/substance abuse

(iii) -

Underlying factors Social cultural norms Gender inequities and gender based violence Wealth and poverty Population mobility for work or trade Conflict situations

As indicated in Box 1, Regions with low male circumcision rates have corresponding high levels of HIV/AIDS infection (Box 2). Below we will elaborate on how the identified drivers promote HIV and AIDS. As already indicated, the main drivers of the epidemic are underlying factors, behavioural and biomedical. These singly or in combination provide opportunities for HIV infection to occur to an individual.

3.2 Underlying factors Commercial sex workers form a group that potentially increases the sexual transmission rate of HIV infection. Studies by AMREF along the major truck stops and towns have shown this group to have a high HIV prevalence of up to 60%. A study conducted in the Moshi Municipality showed that bar workers had HIV infection prevalence rate of 32%, while a study in Dar es Salaam showed that 50% of the bar workers were HIV positive (ASAP/UNAIDS/TACAIDS, 2008).

44

HIV prevalence and male circumcision status


70% of Tanzanians are circumcised Five regions with low circumcision rates (<50%)
Iringa (43%) Kagera (27%) Rukwa (31%) Shinyanga (38%) Tabora (26%)

Circumcision cuts across religious lines (72% of Muslims and 68% of Protestants circumcised (THIS 2003-04))

Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS are quite common in Tanzania. People would not admit that their sick relative could be suffering from HIV/AIDS but believe instead in witchcraft as the cause of their sickness. This situation makes it difficult to convince people with widow-inheritance traditions not to marry women whose husbands may have died from AIDS.

A large proportion of the population with very low and/or irregular income is an important social determinant. Over 50% of Tanzanians live below the poverty line and females are worse than males. In addition, low and or irregular income creates an environment that encourages labour migration. Women in such situations may be easily tempted to exchange sex for money and this puts them and their spouses at risk for HIV. People with low income have less access to medical care including that for STDs and HIV/AIDS.

Social isolation for long periods and peer pressures for high-risk behaviour constitute other social determinants. In Tanzania, when one is enrolled in the army, he/she is confined in a camp and barred from getting married for six years. This makes one vulnerable to high-risk behaviour and

45

hence to HIV infection especially when the army has no proper programs for HIV/AIDS prevention like the promotion of condom use and provision of IEC and BCC for HIV prevention.

Cultural norms, beliefs and practices that subjugate/subordinate women are other social determinants. They include cultural practices like widow inheritance and cleansing, polygamy and female circumcision, which are common among many tribes in Tanzania. Furthermore, obligatory sex in marital situations is condoned even by religion, and women cannot divorce in some faiths. In some cultures multiple sex partners for men is tolerated and may even be encouraged as an expression of masculinity.

Young people leave home and school environments to become independent without a source of income. In Tanzania, every year, about 300,000 pupils leave primary education quite early (age 13 - 17yrs) and a significant proportion migrates to large towns like Dar es Salaam in search of employment. These youth and especially the girls, become very vulnerable because they end up getting employment, which is poorly paid and in turn have to supplement their meagre income through unsafe and risky lifestyles. Although there have been attempts to introduce sexuality education in schools, these have not adequately prepared those leaving school address adequately challenges of life.

Illiteracy and lack of formal education is on the rise in Tanzania. In the eighties the level of literacy in the country was around 80%. At that time, many people could read and understand messages meant for their well being. Today, the literacy rate has gone down to less than 60%. This means less people can understand written messages. This has been contributed by the fact that many young people are not being enrolled into schools and these are unfortunate because it has been shown that the prevalence of HIV infection in educated women is lower than in those who were not educated. The other contributing factor to the declining literacy rate is that the post-independence adult education campaigns are currently so poorly managed for lack of resources that there is little or no output (Ibid).

46

3.3 Behavioural determinants Unprotected sexual practices among mobile population groups with multiple partners make them vulnerable to HIV infection. The groups include long distance truck drivers who have been found to unprotect sexual intercourse with HIV sero-positivity of up to 50%. This is because they have multiple sexual partners available in all major truck stops. Migrant or seasonal workers are also vulnerable. It has been found that farm and plantation workers in Iringa and Morogoro for example, have HIV prevalence of about 30%, which is very high compared to the general population.

There is also reduced social discipline for making good decisions about social and sexual behaviour. For example, long before the eighties when the AIDS epidemic became apparent, Tanzanians constituted a disciplined society where traditional values and norms were cherished. But recently, social discipline has been eroded. This is so because of several factors such as failure of parents to institute traditional values and discipline to their children for lack of time. Sudden mushrooming of television programmes and other mass media have also contributed negatively to social discipline (Ibid).

3.4 Biomedical determinants STDs Infections (especially gonorrhoea and other genital discharges) are among the top-ten causes of disease in Mainland Tanzania. Studies have found that patients with STDs are 2 to 9 times more likely to be infected with HIV. However, because HIV and other STDs are both highly associated with high-risk sexual behaviour it is difficult to show the extent to which STD alone enhance infection of HIV. Nevertheless, studies in Mwanza have shown that STD management within the existing PHC system can reduce the incidence of HIV infection by about 40%.

Unsafe blood transfusion is a major determinant of HIV transmission. The HIV transmission rate through transfusion of contaminated blood is almost 100%. For this reason, in Tanzania all centres rendering this service are equipped with facilities to ensure safe blood transfusion. However, due to lack of regular supplies of reagents and equipment as well as lack of reliable power supply in some

47

centres there is some risk of transfusing contaminated blood. This situation therefore calls for improved blood transfusion services in the whole country (Ibid).

3.5 Impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic Given that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has progressed with different rates in various population groups in Tanzania, the impact has varied from being minor to being profound depending on the time the infection was introduced in the area, rate of spread and the proportion of the population affected.

Experiences from several parts of the country indicate that HIV infected persons, on average, die about 4 to 12 months after falling ill with one or more of the major manifestations of AIDS. During this period a member of the family often has to stay at home or hospital with the patient to provide care especially during the terminal stages of the disease. The medical, emotional and social costs on the patient and indeed the family are frequently high. More socio-economic difficulties arise when the patient is the main bread earner. When death finally comes the traditional family structures, already stressed by poor health, increased burden of care and poverty, are in many cases at breaking points. Funeral costs have been estimated to exceed US $100 for every adult death in Kagera. Available data from severely affected communities show that AIDS often leads to social and economic disruption of affected individuals, families and communities. The poorest households are least able to cope with the impact of adult deaths due to AIDS and are frequently unable to obtain even the most basic needs in the short term. Child nutrition, education, health and living standards for the survivors may be severely affected.

Hospital based data indicate that up to 50% of beds are occupied by patients with HIV/AIDS related illness. Consequently the demand for care and hospital supplies is enormous and by-and-large government health facilities are facing inadequate funding and manpower. It is estimated that in Tanzania the ideal lifetime and nursing-care costs for HIV/AIDS is US $ 290 for adults and US$ 195 for children. Gains made during 1980's in TB control have been lost due to HIV/AIDS. TB case rates had been declining steadily up to 1982. Since then, there has been a sharp increase in the number of reported TB cases and in most urban areas these have more than doubled ( www.tanzania.go.tz/hivaids.html). 48

The number of adult HIV infection in Tanzania in 1999 was estimated to be 1,745,320 (NACP). Given the fatality of the illness, and with 1.7 million infected adults, HIV/AIDS can no longer be viewed as just a health problem it has to be cognised as a development problem. The impact of the epidemic is serious given its widespread; it is now the major cause of adult mortality in many parts of Tanzania. The health sector in particular is experiencing an increased demand for its services, as AIDS patients occupy an ever-increasing number of beds in hospitals. And given illness episodes per AIDS patient, the public expenditure on AIDS treatment is high. In the education sector we find children pulled out of school either due to a lack of money or needed to help at home. The social welfare sector is experiencing a large increase of AIDS orphans. Furthermore, industries experiencing the loss of skilled workers are facing high costs of recruitment and training of the new personnel. Meanwhile, as the labour force in agriculture declines, agricultural production will decline. Agriculture takes place on family farms where agricultural production is labour intensive, and seasonal labour constraints are common. Since agriculture is the backbone of the Tanzanian economy, and most agricultural workers are in the age group 15-45 who are mostly affected by the epidemic, the impact of HIV/AIDS is gradually becoming noticeable as the epidemic spreads to rural communities. Production of food and cash crops is bound to suffer as the labour force gets sick and perish to AIDS.

The World Bank estimates that because of the AIDS epidemic, life expectancy by 2010 will revert to 47 years instead of the projected 56 years in the absence of AIDS. The Bank further predicts that the mean age of the working population (labour force) will decline from 31.5 to 29 years between 1992 and 2010. The overall younger work force will have less education, less training and less experience. In addition the number of children orphaned by AIDS was estimated to be increasing from between 260,000 to 360,000 in 1995 to between 490,000 and 680,000 by the year 2000. Families, communities and the government will be required to generate resources to cater for the needs of these children. The Bank further estimates that, AIDS will reduce average real GDP growth rate in the period 1985-2010 from 3.9% without AIDS to between 2.8 and 3.3% with AIDS. These

49

factors will certainly have a negative impact on the overall economic performance of the country and its living standards (Ibid).

Activity On the basis of the consequences outlined above, HIV/AIDS is not only a health issue but also a development challenge. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.

3.6 HIV and AIDS in Tanzania and Why Prevention Strategy It is obvious that the goal of a Tanzania without new HIV/AIDS infections has not been attained.

9 8 HIV prevalence rate (%) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 Projected HIV prev alence - National

Source: Kibbassa, 2010 The above chart clearly shows that in spite of the success of reversing the upward trend of the prevalence rate experienced between 1980 and 1998, the projected national prevalence has stabilised at a high level (Kibbassa, 2010).Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicative Survey (THMIS) 50

2007/2008 show that there are between 130,000 to 200,000 new cases of HIV infections in Tanzania annually or a prevalence rate of 5.7% reported for the age group of 15 49 years, as illustrated in the Chart below.

Source: Kibbassa, 2010 TACAIDS is responsible for the promotion of programmes, activities and effecting strategies that will facilitate the achievement of targets set by the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (MKUKUTA) to reduce the prevalence of new HIV infections from 6% in 2009 2012 to 4.5% in 2015 and subsequently achieving the Millennium Development Target of reducing HIV/AIDS infections by 25% among young men and women (15 24 years) by 2012. Current Regional prevalence rates are as indicated in Box 2 below.

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HIV Prevalence by Region


Kagera

7.7%
Mara Arusha Mwanza

3.4% 5.6%
Shinyanga

7.4%

1.6%
Manyara

Kili.

National Average: 5.7%


Pemba 0.3% Unguja 0.8%%

1.8% 12% Kigoma

1.9%
Tanga

6.4%
Tabora

2.7%
Singida

1.5% 3.3%
Dodoma Morogoro

4.8%

4.9%
Rukwa Iringa

Dar- 9.3%
Pwani

6.7%

9.2%
Mbeya

15.7% 5.1% 5.9%


Ruvuma

7.0-15.7% 3.1-6.9% 0.3-3.0%

Lindi

3.8%
Percent of women and men age 15-49 who are HIV-positive

3.6%
Mtwara

2007-08 THMIS: NBS, TACAIDS, and Macro International, Inc.

Expenses for managing the pandemic, accounts for 10% of the National Budget. The bulk of the budget is provided by Donors (97%). The remaining portion (3%), equivalent to Tshs 20,000,000,000/= , is provided by the Government. However, the Government captures only 14% of donor funds. The rest is channelled directly to NGOs. Treatment which is fairly costly, absorbs more resources than prevention which needs to be the priority. To improve the funding position, the Government was planning to set up an AIDS Trust Fund. The Trust will serve as a local mechanism for resource mobilisation. Its sources will include grants and donations, taxes and levies and investment income.

Prevention needs to be a priority as besides being less costly than cure or even treatment, it will save the country from new HIV infections. Without new HIV infections, the country will be better placed to control and eventually eliminate completely deaths from AIDS, stigma and discrimination against PLWHA.

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SECTION

4
Impact of HIV and AIDS in Higher Learning Institutions in Tanzania
4.1 Prevalence Rates We have already noted the impact of the pandemic in Higher Learning Institutions in Africa in Section 2, as well as its general impact in Tanzania, in the previous Section. Here, we shall only allude to prevalence rates in specific institutions in the country. Hopefully, you will recall that in the specific case of the OUT, a situational analysis carried out in 2009, estimated the mortality and morbidity rates from HIV and AIDS at less than 5%. In a study conducted by a team of experts sponsored by SIDA, the East African Community (EAC) and AMREF in 2011, HIV prevalence rates in selected Universities in Tanzania were established as detailed in the Chart below.

2.5 2.03 2 Percentage 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.41 0.25 0 0 0.74 0.56

M ZU

Universities

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TU M

M U

O ve ra ll

AI NI

DS M

SU A

M B

SA U

HA

Source: SIDA (2011), Baseline Study Report on HIV/AIDS in Institutions of Higher Learning in East Africa: The Case of Tanzania. The above Chart as well as the Study as a whole show that: Overall, HIV prevalence in universities is 0.56% ranging from 0 to 2.03%. Relatively higher among female students than male students Evenly distributed among age groups except for age group 30-34 years. None of the respondents aged 45 or above years was HIV positive. Relatively higher among those who spend relatively less amount of money per semester (up to Tshs. 500,000) than those who spend larger amount of money. No major difference in prevalence by sponsorship It was concluded: University population and neighboring Communities are at risk of HIV infections due to the long list of risk factors reported in this study HIV prevalence among students is relatively low but is accompanied by many potential sexual risks University administrations are responsible for lack of quality and dynamic HIV/AIDS programs in universities Poor quality of HIV/AIDS-related services in universities negatively affects students access and utilization of these services University prioritization of HIV/AIDS coupled with Funding of university HIV-related interventions may result into effective HIV/AIDS programs within universities. Activity What lessons can we draw from these findings? In discussing the lessons, consider critically comments made in relation to the situational analysis of HIV and AIDS at the OUT (Section 8).

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SECTION

5
The Thrust of the Current Response to the HIV and AIDS Epidemic in Tanzania
5.1 National Multi Sectoral HIV Prevention (NMHP) Strategy 2009 2012 In a Workshop held in Dar es Salaam, 22nd 24th June 2011, TACAIDS disseminated the National Multi Sectoral HIV Prevention (NMHP) Strategy 2009 2012 and the Gender Operational Plan for HIV Response in Mainland Tanzania 2010 2012. During the dissemination of these policy strategies, participants were sensitised on how knowledge and skills on Pre testing of HIV and AIDS, Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) and Awareness on Gender Issues can mitigate effectively HIV and AIDS infection. The three preventive measures constitute the thrust of the NMHP Strategy 2009 2012 which was disseminated during the Workshop. Besides evolving from the second National Strategic Framework 2008 2012, NMHP Strategy 2009 2012 has adopted and localized the UNAIDS three zeros (Zero New Infection, Zero Deaths and Zero Stigma and

Discrimination) approach to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care, support and MDGs.

5.2 The UNAIDS Strategy The UNAIDS strategy envisions defeating HIV/AIDS by implementing plans that combine prevention, treatment and behavioural change activities so as to achieve:

(i)

Zero percent (0 %) new infections

The target can be realised by improving programmes that provide services, supplies, information, education and communication on HIV prevention so as to achieve a 0% rate of new infections from heterosexual or homosexual relationships, mother to child transmission, blood transfusions and substance abuse.

55

(ii)

Zero percent (0 %) AIDS related deaths

To achieve the target, it is imperative to ensure the availability of information, provision of quality health care and access to treatment of HIV/AIDS. so as to reduce to 0% the number of AIDS related deaths. (iii) Zero percent (0 %) discrimination

Remove systemic, cultural, discriminatory, stigmatic aspects that affect the ability of different groups to secure their human rights and have equal access and opportunities to information, services, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS so as to reduce to 0% the prevalence of HIV/AIDS discrimination.

5.3 TACAIDS Gender Operational Plan for HIV and AIDS 2008 2012 TACAIDS Gender Operational Plan for HIV and AIDS 2008 2012, proposes different programmes and activities that can be undertaken in order to develop gender sensitive preventive, treatment and behavioural change programmes. It also highlights gender based behavioural, structural and biomedical issues that contribute to the prevalence of HIV infections. They include rape, transactional sex; transgenerational sex, widow inheritance, female genital mutilation and circumcision using unstrealised equipment and male chauvinism. These are manifestations of Gender Based Violence (GBV), gender inequality and harmful social practices. For example, male circumcision can reduce the rate of HIV infections by 50% 60%. As

indicated earlier, only 70% of Tanzanian men are circumcised. Presently, there is an ongoing campaign for promoting male circumcision as an HIV/AIDS preventive initiative in regions where circumcision is not practiced and where there is a high rate of HIV infections. Iringa Region, which has the highest national rate of HIV infection at 15.7% is a case in point. A high male circumcision area like Pemba, has the lowest infection rate of 0.3%.

As an extreme case of GBV, rape is not only a crime against humanity but also a deterrent to HIV prevention and treatment. In Tanzania, the law requires a rape victim to present Police Form 3 (PF 3) as a prerequisite to receiving medical treatment. Quite often, at the Police Station, the victim may report the trauma to an officer who may not be gender sensitive. This may be humiliating and intimidating. Coupled with the stigma associated with rape, it may 56

discourage the victim from seeking justice and treatment. Besides suffering silently, rape victims who are HIV+ infect others wilfully as an act of revenge. In the light of this and related experiences, the Gender Operational Plan for HIV and AIDS 2008 2012, provides inputs on how to improve the strategies for handling GBV cases.

5.4 Workplace HIV/AIDS Programmes HIV/AIDS is not only a health and workplace issue but also a development challenge as it affects adversely productivity and working morale. To reverse these and related challenges, it is essential to introduce workplace HIV/AIDS programmes. The cost of such programmes is not as high as that recruiting new staff to replace those succumbing to the pandemic. Criteria of best practice HIV/AIDS programme at workplace include: (i) HIV/AIDS Policy which sensitises workers on the pandemic; prohibits discrimination and addresses prevention and post infection needs. (ii) Work place safety a healthy and safe working environment to prevent transmission of HIV/AIDS. (iii) HIV/AIDS Programme focusing on prevention and care initiatives, with adequate financial and logistical resources, monitoring and evaluation framework. (iv) HIV/AIDS related training offered regularly and provision of information and data which address issues of concern at the workplace. (v) (vi) Outreach services through family days and sports bonanza. Information Education and Communication materials designed to promote Behaviour Change Communication (BCC). (vii) Availability of support Services particularly VCT, treatment centres and home based care.

Activity Study carefully, criteria of best practice HIV/AIDS Programme. Assess the prospects and challenges of setting up such a Programme.

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SECTION

6
Sexuality Education and Prevention of HIV and AIDS
6.1 What is sexuality education? Sexuality education seeks to assist young people to acquire a positive view of sexuality, provide them with information and skills about taking care of their sexual health, and to help them acquire skills to make rational decisions now and in the future (Bogaart, 2012). A comprehensive sexuality education programme includes information as well as an opportunity to explore attitudes and develop skills in such areas as human development, relationships, personal skills, sexual behaviour, sexual health, and society and culture. Comprehensive sexuality education enables choice and promotes safe, consensual sexual behaviour (Ibid).

Investment in adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights is a valuable step in achieving basic human rights and sustainable development. It is one of the best investments a nation can make. In fact, it strengthens the capacity of countries to fight poverty. World's governments have since 1995, agreed five times that comprehensive sexuality education and health services must be provided to young people. School-based sexuality and reproductive health education is even declared to be a mandatory part of primary and secondary school curricula worldwide to achieve the MDGs (UNESCO, 2009).

Evidence-based comprehensive sexuality education can play a crucial role in supporting young people in their (sexual) development, becoming responsible adults and active citizens; it helps decrease vulnerability to sexual and reproductive health problems, including HIV/AIDS; it is crucial for correcting ignorance and misconceptions about sexuality and reproduction. Sexuality education is effective in helping young people to choose for healthy lifestyles: delaying their sexual debut, safer sex and fewer partners (Ibid).

58

6.2 Results of comprehensive sexuality education Comprehensive education about sexuality is effective in delaying the onset of sexual intercourse, reducing the number of sexual partners, and increasing contraception and condom use among teens. Unlike what is often thought, comprehensive sexuality education does not increase the number of sexual partners among young people or increase any measure of sexual activity. Youth receiving comprehensive sexuality educationincluding information, skills and assertiveness to make safe decisions and have them respected, including to say no and delay sexual intercourse and to systematically protect themselves during intercourse are more likely to delay initiating sex and to use protection when they do have sex compared to youth who receive abstinence-only programs. It should, however, be stressed that comprehensive sexuality education has to be conceived within the broad context of the five aspects of human wellness namely physical wellness; social wellness; mental wellness; emotional wellness and spiritual wellness. Each aspect needs to be addressed as an integral part of the other aspects. Often, socially deviant behaviour and practices arise from the general practice of according priority to the physical, mental and emotional aspects while ignoring the social and spiritual aspects.

Openness about sexuality is a precondition to create a safe, non-judgmental and respectful environment in which people can enjoy their sexuality. Attention to the positive sides of sexuality, providing insight in one's own sexual development and achieving skills in communicating, are the factors which enable people to negotiate safe and consensual sexual behaviour. It also helps people to make their own choices, either to abstain or enjoy sexuality free of guilt, shame and regret. It contributes to gender equality, decreases stigma and discrimination and decreases sexual violence. As will be demonstrated later, acquisition of correct knowledge on sexuality and life skills is essential in empowering youth to protect themselves and others from HIV infection. However, it has been noted . . . History reveals that there is a lot of sexual harassment and bullying in HLIs which must be addressed to reduce new HIV infections and also to enable subjects of sexual abuse to fulfill their dreams of graduating with As and not with AIDS (URT, 2011).

59

SECTION

7
Behaviour Change to Mitigate the Impact of HIV and AIDS
7.1 Knowledge, Attitudinal and Skills Competencies As we shall elaborate later in Section 9, research evidence suggests that shifts in risk behaviour are unlikely if knowledge, attitudinal and skills based competency are not addressed. Besides knowledge, attitudinal and skills competencies, life skills are essential in engendering behaviour change. This is possible where an individual is aware of himself and his vulnerability to risk factors. Furthermore, the individual should value himself and live in order to achieve his goals. He should value others and be able to cope with stress and trauma. Finally, he should make informed decisions and be ready to face and accept the consequences. It is, therefore, obvious that in a situation where these factors are lacking, behaviour change cannot occur. Exposure to sexuality and reproductive health education before adolescence as was the case under indigenous education in pre colonial African societies, can play a decisive role in initiating a sustainable process of behaviour change to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS. The kind of sexuality education offered in primary and secondary schools is grossly limited. This is obvious from the fact that: Thousands of young school girls in primary and secondary schools drop out of school each year due to early pregnancies. Thousands of teachers and pupils are succumbing to new HIV infections each year. Hundreds of teachers and pupils are falling sick to AIDS opportunistic infections like acute malaria, diarrohea, skin cancer, respiratory tract diseases, pneumonia, TB, etc; and eventually die each year.

Teaching and learning standards in schools and colleges are deteriorating due to among other reasons poor teacher attendance caused by high HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality rates.

60

Most probably, the limitations of current practices in sexuality education arise from the fact that the negative aspects of sexuality are accorded greater attention than the positive aspects. In this way, adolescents tend to regard sexuality as a mystery to be explored discretely. Often, this is done in an environment rife with myths and misconceptions. Positive aspects of sexuality need to be emphasized in order to provide insight in ones sexual development and life skills for promoting gender equality, safe and consensual sexual behaviour. The young need to be taught that it is biologically and socially normal to develop and express sexual feelings as a girl or a boy upon maturity and attainment of sexually active age. It is wrong, illegal, immoral and even sinful to express and practice such feelings to minors (immature children who have not attained sexually active age) or people of the same sex. It should also be stressed that in the context of Tanzania, expression and practice of sexual feelings in a recognized union (traditionally, civil/ religious procedures) of a male and female couple, is the sexually assigned and accepted proper feminine and masculine behaviour. Pre material as well as extra marital sexual relations are forbidden as they are sexually deviant behaviours. Similar to homosexual relations, they erode the institution of marriage, which is the foundation of reproduction, the family and eventually a stable, civilized and prosperous society. Adolescents should, therefore, be taught to abstain from sexually deviant behaviours in order to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS and enhance their prospects for building stable and successful marriage relations in future.

HIV/AIDS Clubs need to organize activities which will enable their members to acquire these competencies. Such activities may assume the forms of sports and games, drama, debates and public lectures to be offered by role models in all walks of life religious leaders, politicians, academicians, entrepreneurs, artists, etc. As discussed below, besides sexuality education, exposure to communication and negotiating skills for assertiveness is also essential in promoting behaviour change.

61

7.2 Communication and Negotiating skills for Assertiveness

(i) Communication This is a process of transferring information from one entity to another whilst assertiveness is a form of communication in which needs or wishes are stated clearly with respect for oneself and the other person in the interaction. Combining the two together negotiation skills are then developed. The process involves two or more parties seeking to find common ground on an issue or issues of common interest in order to arrive at an acceptable agreement that is honoured by the parties concerned. In order to integrate negotiation skills in the teaching-learning process, the following elements among others, have to be highlighted: Methods of communication pros and cons for appropriateness Differences between talking and communicating Effects of words, voice and body language Emotionally intelligent communication Questioning and listening skills Saying "no" Effect of emotions on our ability to communicate

(ii) Assertiveness This is a form of behavior which demonstrates your self-respect and respect for others. As already hinted, the basis of assertiveness is a social context in which an individual is: Aware of himself and his vulnerability to risk factors. Value himself and live in order to achieve his goals. Value others. Able to cope with stress and trauma. Ready to make informed decisions, face and accept the consequences.

Assertiveness is not a behaviour or a personality; so people who are not naturally assertive can learn or taught to become so. Furthermore, assertiveness is not about getting your own way at all costs, or being more aggressive in the workplace. Somebody who benefit from training in

62

assertiveness may have a tendency to be passive or aggressive or a combination of the two. An important part of assertiveness is the way you behave towards yourself, so self-esteem and selfconfidence are also addressed in assertiveness. Sub-topics include: Being assertive with yourself Building self-esteem Body language and tone of voice Projecting an assertive image criticism and praise Saying no Apologizing Managing emotions

(iii) Negotiating skills Negotiating is a vital part of communicating, living and working together as well as a formal business skill. In most of the negotiating we do at work and in our personal lives, we need to achieve a win-win outcome, where both sides feel that agreement is to their benefit. The behaviours required to achieve a win-win and build good working relationships are practised in training in negotiating skills. The sub-topics include: Effective negotiating behaviours. Emotional intelligence in negotiation. Influencing styles and strategies. Using your power. Turning features into benefits. Negotiating with difficult people. Closing the negotiation.

Activity Discuss how communication and negotiating skills for assertiveness can mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS.

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8
Situational Analysis of HIV and AIDS
8.1 Situational Analysis of HIV/AIDS This is a form of research which is carried out in order to establish causes and impact of HIV and AIDS in a specific area. Such a study was carried out at the OUT in 2009 (OUT, 2010a). A two pronged approach is essential in a situational analysis. First, issues of concern that need to be addressed are identified. Secondly, the environment is scanned and assessed in order to establish the underlying causes for the issues of concern. With situational analysis, it is feasible to recommend, design and implement appropriate preventive and impact mitigation programmes to address issues of concern in the context of HIV and AIDS.

In the case of the OUT, the study had the following specific objectives (issues of concern): (i) Find out the nature and level of awareness on HIV/AIDS among staff, students and other community members. Assess the nature and magnitude of the impact of HIV/AIDS among the target groups. specified

(ii)

(iii) (iv)

Assess the perception, attitudes and practices of students and staff to HIV/AIDS. Establish the pattern and causes for cases of staff absenteeism from work, morbidity and mortality. Establish the predisposing factors to HIV/AIDS among students and staff sexual practices, excessive alcohol use, drug abuse, etc. such as

(v)

(vi)

Document specific measures adopted to enable the OUT Community address the HIV/AIDS pandemic and analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the same. Recommend practical intervention measures for addressing the HIV/ AIDS pandemic among staff and students including students counselling and guidance, gender awareness, integrity practices, training and use of counselors and peer educators.

(vii)

64

(viii)

Identify the role the OUT in addressing the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the

country.

Besides other findings, the study recommended for staff, students and community members to be assisted to carry out situational analysis by focusing on the following issues: Identification of the common/prevailing factors for HIV transmission in your

Zone/Region/Centre. Assessment of the impact, nature and level of HIV/AIDS awareness in your Region/ Centre. Documentation of what has been done in your Region/Centre to combat HIV/AIDS. Assessment of the effectiveness of the efforts made by the Region/Centre to combat HIV/AIDS and how they can be improved. Planning for modalities for improvement.

Consult the Essential Planning Package for Higher Learning Institutions in order to find out the kind of activities recommended to be employed to address issues arising from different thematic areas (Table below). Table 4: Proposed Activities to Address Specific Issues Thematic Area 1: Enabling environment S/N Issues 1.
Inadequate sharing of HIV and AIDS information between communities and institutions

Activities
Develop and Disseminate HIV and AIDS IEC materials Conduct Seminars/ Workshops to share relevant HIV and AIDS information Carry out Workshops/Seminars to raise awareness for VCT services Train staff, procure equipment for VCT Renovate rooms for VCT Mobilize the target groups to go for VCT services Expand Institutional VCTs to include communities Link Institutions to VCT

Target Group
Staff, Students, Communities

2.

Unrevealed health status of members in the communities as well as in institutions

Staff, Students, Communities

65

services

Thematic Area 2: Prevention 3.


Lack of workplace HIV and AIDS interventions to Identify and categorize sexual interactions among students, staff and communities Design and implement workplace programs to address identified risky interactions Reinforce regulations guiding staff and students ethics and conduct Provide education on PMTCT services Provide PMTCT services Develop referral mechanisms for PMTCT services Students, Staff and Communities

address sexual interactions between students, staff and communities

4.

Inadequate

coverage

of

Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission [PMTCT]

Students, Staff and Communities

Thematic Area 3: Care, Treatment and Support 5.


Inadequate care, treatment and support services Identify magnitude of the demand Plan for the provision of care, treatment and support services Mobilise for resources Provide care, treatment and support services Identify magnitude of the demand Plan for the provision of home based care Mobilise resources Provide home based care Identify institutional response to the impact Integrate the response in institutional planning Organise seminars/workshops to sensitise PLHIV on thei r needs and rights Disseminate IEC materials Staff, Students and Communities

6.

Lack of Home based Care [HBC] and support services

Staff, Students and Communities

Thematic Area 4: Impact Mitigation 7.


Lack of Institutional planning to respond to the impact of HIV and AIDS Limited empowerment to PLHIV to effectively respond to their needs and rights Staff and Students

8.

Staff, Students and Communities

66

Activity Study carefully the Report of the Situational Analysis of HIV and AIDS at the OUT, in order to familiarize yourself with its findings and recommendations. Do you find it necessary to carry out a similar study now?

SECTION

9
Life Skills
9.1 What are Life Skills? The Great Greek Philosopher, Socrates, is on record to have noted the need to know thyself (Module 7). Once you know yourself it is easier to learn and adopt life skills which are " the abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life" (WHO) (Ibid). Life skills have also been defined as a behaviour change or behaviour development approach designed to address a balance of three areas: knowledge, attitude and skills (UNICEF) (Ibid). The UNICEF definition is based on research evidence that suggests that shifts in risk behaviour are unlikely if knowledge, attitudinal and skills based competency are not addressed. Life skills are essentially those abilities that help promote mental well-being and competence in young people as they face the realities of life. They can be utilized in many content areas: prevention of drug use, sexual violence, teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS prevention and suicide prevention. They are also relevant in consumer education, environmental education, peace education or education for development, livelihood and income generation, among others. In short, life skills empower young people to take positive action to protect themselves and promote health and positive social relationships (Ibid).

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9.2 Core Life Skill Strategies and Techniques UNICEF, UNESCO and WHO have identified ten core life skill strategies and techniques as follows (Ibid): (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) Problem solving Critical thinking Effective communication skills Decision making Creative thinking Interpersonal relationship skills Self- awareness building skills Empathy Coping with stress Coping with emotions

Self-awareness, self-esteem and self-confidence are essential tools for understanding ones strengths and weaknesses. Consequently, the individual is able to discern available opportunities and prepare to face possible threats. This leads to the development of a social awareness of the concerns of ones family and society. Subsequently, it is possible to identify problems that arise within both the family and society.

With life skills, one is able to explore alternatives, weigh pros and cons and make rational decisions in solving each problem or issue as it arises. It also entails being able to establish productive interpersonal relationships with others. Below, we shall elaborate further these life skills under three categories: (i) (ii) (iii) Problem solving and critical thinking skills. Interpersonal/Communication skills. Coping and self management skills

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(i) Problem solving and critical thinking skills Besides being able to search for, collect and analyse information, the individual must also be skilled at evaluating the future consequences of their present actions and the actions of others. They need to be able to determine alternative solutions and to analyze the influence of their own values and the values of those around them.

(ii) Interpersonal/Communication skills Include verbal and non-verbal communication, active listening, and the ability to express feelings and give feed back. Also in this category, are negotiation/refusal skills and assertiveness skills that directly affect ones ability to manage conflict. Empathy, which is the ability to listen and understand others needs, is also a key interpersonal skill. Teamwork and the ability to cooperate include expressing respect for those around us. Development of this skill set enables the adolescent to be accepted in society. These skills result in the acceptance of social norms that provide the foundation for adult social behaviour. (iii) Coping and self - management skills Refer to skills to increase the internal locus of control, so that the individual believes that they can make a difference in the world and affect change. Self esteem, self-awareness, self-evaluation skills and the ability to set goals are also part of the more general category of self-management skills. Anger, grief and anxiety must all be dealt with, and the individual should learn to cope with loss or trauma. Stress and time management are key factors, as are positive thinking and relaxation techniques. 9.3 Outcomes of Life Skills-Based Education Programmes aimed at developing life skills have produced the following effects: lessened violent behaviour; increased pro -social behaviour and decreased negative, self-destructive behaviour; increased the ability to plan ahead and

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choose effective solutions to problems; improved self-image, self-awareness, social and emotional adjustment; increased acquisition of knowledge; improved classroom behaviour; gains in self control and handling of interpersonal problems and coping with anxiety; and improved constructive conflict resolution with peers, impulse control and popularity. Research studies have also shown that sex education based on life skills was more effective in bringing about changes in adolescent contraceptive use; delay in sexual debut; delay in the onset of alcohol and marijuana use and in developing attitudes and behaviour necessary for preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS.

SECTION

10
Research Agenda It is widely claimed that HIV and AIDS is an over - researched field. Is this true? Many people believe, however, that existing researches are limited in quality and scope. They mostly focus on sensitization and awareness creation. While life and physical sciences are forging ahead with deep seated research work in the epidemiology, clinical and nutrition aspects of HIV and AIDS, the social sciences are yet to make an impact in the area of behaviour change in the society. The Essential Minimum Planning Package for Higher Learning Institutions as well as the challenges of pursuing the three 0 rates by 2015 provide the basis for a comprehensive research agenda in HIV and AIDS in life, physical and social sciences.

Having studied these notes, can you identify areas in which our knowledge, experiences and skills need to be clarified or even enhanced through further research? Try to itemize carefully such areas, as shown below. (i) (ii) Which factors contribute to the high prevalence of HIV and AIDS in Iringa Region compared to other Regions in Tanzania? Why has the Mainland a higher HIV and AIDS prevalence than Zanzibar?

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(iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Activity

Which innovative Life Skills may be employed in order to mitigate HIV and AIDS in Tanzania? How can stress management be employed as a technique of curbing HIV and AIDS in Tanzania? What is the role of gender awareness in effective communication and negotiation skills for assertiveness to reduce HIV and AIDS prevalence in Tanzania? Awareness raising techniques to specific socio-economic groups for Voluntary Testing and Counselling (VTC) in HIV and AIDS in order to realize the three 0 rates. What are the legal implications of pursuing and realizing the three 0 rates by 2015?

Study the matrix on Essential Minimum Planning Package and identify areas where research is essential. Essential Minimum Planning Package for Higher Learning Institutions

Thematic Area1: Enabling Environment Tentative Activities S/N 1 Issues Differing levels of HIV and AIDS awareness between institutions and communities Interventions Advocacy on HIV and AIDS to institutions and communities Conduct study to identify knowledge gaps Disseminate the study findings Develop and carry out sensitization workshops for institutions and Communities Develop and Disseminate HIV and AIDS IEC materials Conduct study to identify existing relationships Disseminate the study findings Target Group Staff, Students, Communities

Undefined relationship between communities and the institutions i.e. family, sexual etc. Inadequate sharing of HIV and AIDS information between communities and

Research / Surveys

Staff, Students, Communities

Information, Education and Communication [IEC] materials

Develop and Disseminate HIV and AIDS IEC materials Conduct Seminars/ Workshops to share relevant HIV and AIDS

Staff, Students, Communities

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institutions

information

Unrevealed health status of members in the communities as well as in institutions

HIV and AIDS voluntary counselling and testing

Carry out Workshops/Seminars to raise awareness for VCT services Train staff, procure equipment for VCT Renovate rooms for VCT Mobilize the target groups to go for VCT services Expand Institutional VCTs to include communities Link Institutions to VCT services Conduct Situational analysis to identify risk factors and behaviours and conducts Mainstream HIV and AIDS into the institutional strategic plans Mobilize resources for implementing Strategic plans Print and distribute rules and regulations to staff and students Carry out regular workshops to sensitise the staff and the students on the Institution rules and regulations Develop mechanisms for tracking adherence to rules and regulations Enforce compliance to rules and regulations

Staff, Students, Communities

Lack of mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS issues in institutions and communities activities

Mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS in the institutions policies and development plans to cater for communities

Staff, Students, Communities

Non adherence to rules, regulations and ethics [e.g., ensuring professionalism on role modeling, emphasizing zero tolerance towards student sexual exploitation]

Reviewing, strengthening and enforcement of rules and regulations on staff and students relationships

Staff, Students

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Inefficient HIV and AIDS coordination

Improve HIV and AIDS Coordination

Limited commitment from the management and staff Lack of up-todate evidence based information on HIV and AIDS Absence/outdated HIV and AIDS policies and strategies

Lack of HIV and AIDS institutional database

Limited inclusion of HIV and AIDS issues in the students organizations constitutions Limited proactive students leadership on HIV and AIDS

Advocate for support from management and staff Regular review of HIV and AIDS Situational Analysis [SA] Improve institutional specific policies and strategies for guiding HIV and AIDS interventions Ensure existence of Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) that are sensitive to HIV and AIDS Students organizations Constitutions mainstream HIV and AIDS Students leaders take proactive roles with clarity and accountability on HIV and AIDS response Students

TASC Establish/strengthen Technical AIDS SubCommittees Develop and implement capacity building programs for TASC members Mobilize resources for implementing TASC plans Institution Incorporate the HIV and AIDS agenda in the management and other statutory meetings Institution Review and update existing SA Disseminate results of the SA Institution Develop/Review Institutional policies and strategies Disseminate updated policies and strategies

Procure and install EMIS software package Review existing EMIS and incorporate HIV and AIDS issues Build the capacity of the responsible staff for data management

Staff, Students

Review students organizations constitution to incorporate HIV and AIDS issues Sensitize students leadership to take up active roles in HIV and AIDS Carry out study visits for the students leaders Conduct

Students

Students

Limited

Students

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knowledge and support on Human rights by students organizations

Limited collaboration with media, sports and cultural institutions and other stakeholders in preparing and disseminating appropriate information on HIV and AIDS

Organizations to advocate for human rights including stigma and discrimination of all students, regardless of differences in gender, sexuality, ideology, religion, ethnicity, etc. Collaboration with media, sports and cultural Institutions and other stakeholders in preparing and disseminating appropriate information on the HIV and AIDS epidemic

workshops/seminars sessions on human rights

Lack of access and availability of HIV and AIDS key documents

Institutions to ensure accessibility of HIV and AIDS key documents

Limited HIV and

Institutions to

Identify suitable media, sports and cultural institutions to collaborate with Develop and conduct HIV and AIDS related programs [ bonanza, road shows, sports and other events] to sensitize staff and students Prepare periodic media/press statement/release to inform the public on HIV and AIDS interventions in the HLIs Follow-up and procure relevant key documents - policies, strategies and guidelines, both in hard and soft copies Disseminate key documents to Staff and Students Create/update webpage to cater for HIV and AIDS and link with National and International HIV and AIDS webpages/websites Establish and

Staff, Students

Staff and Students

Staff,

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AIDS forums

Inadequate support services for students and staff living with HIV and AIDS

support establishment of clubs/ societies [for drama, acting plays, debates, sports] to champion for HIV and AIDS and Gender issues Institutions to collaborate and support students and staff Living with HIV and AIDS

strengthen clubs/societies for HIV and AIDS and gender issues Create e-forum to discuss HIV and AIDS among members

Students and Communities

Design mechanism for identifying PLHIV and their needs Provide support to PLHIV in line with Institutional policy Provide counseling services

Students, Staff and Communities

Thematic Area 2: Prevention Limited HIV and Capacity 2 AIDS and sexual building for staff reproductive and students health knowledge Inadequate knowledge on Expand Knowledge on ABCDE

Abstinence, Be Faithful, Condom use, Disclosure and Empowerment [


ABCDE] principles within the institutions and communities Increased risk of infection among the most vulnerable groups in institutions and communities

Equip staff and students with HIV and AIDS knowledge including Sexual Reproductive Health Conduct focused awareness sessions on HIV and AIDS Conduct operational research on ABCDE Develop and disseminate IEC materials

Staff, Students

Students, Staff and Communities

Reduce risks of infection among the Vulnerable groups/populati on

Lack of workplace HIV and AIDS

Develop workplace

Identify and categorize vulnerable groups/populations and the respective risks Design and implement programs to address identified risks Identify and categorize sexual

Students, Staff and Communities

Students, Staff and

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interventions to address sexual interactions between students, staff and communities

interventions

Limited quality, Provision of STI gender responsive services and youth friendly Sexually Transmitted Infections [STI] services Less uptake of HIV testing and counselling services Inadequate coverage of Promote HIV and AIDS voluntary counselling and testing Expand PMTCT service coverage

Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission


[PMTCT] Inadequate supply, consistence and correct use of female and male condoms Condom Promotion, supply and use

Limited means of prevention of HIV transmission

Pre and Post exposure prophylaxis and

interactions among students, staff and communities Design and implement workplace programs to address identified risky interactions Reinforce regulations guiding staff and students ethics and conduct Provide Health education on STIs and HIV and AIDS Establish/Strengthen STI clinics Link students and staff with existing STI clinics Facilitate mobile VCT services around the HLI Train the health staff on VCT skills Provide education on PMTCT services Provide PMTCT services Develop referral mechanisms for PMTCT services Procure quality female and male condoms from reliable/appropriate sources Train staff and students on correct and consistent use of condoms Follow-up to ensure consistent and reliable supply of condoms Develop a system to protect personnel serving in health

Communities

Students, Staff and Communities

Students, Staff and Communities

Students, Staff and Communities

Students, Staff and Communities

Staff

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through exposure to contaminated body fluid and instruments

safe blood transfusion service

Lack of evidence based planning for new prevention strategies / interventions

Develop new prevention strategies based on evidence

Introduce /strengthen comprehensive HIV and AIDS prevention education programs. Limited HIV and Ensure AIDS information availability of and knowledge information and communication materials on HIV and AIDS HIV and AIDS and Mainstream HIV Develop life skills packages life skills not and AIDS and Train the teaching staff on mainstreamed in Life Skills the life skills and High Learning education into HIV and AIDS Institutions [HLIs] HLI curricula at Review HLI curricula to curricula all levels include Life skills and HIV and AIDS Limited current, Ensure Customise/Adapt accurate and availability of Behavior Change comprehensive current, Communication HIV and AIDS accurate and [BCC] programs and information on comprehensive materials behaviour choices information on Train the staff and behavior choices students on BCC to all staff and students Unsafe sex Ensure Promote use of practices for both availability of female and male

Lack of comprehensive HIV and AIDS prevention education programs

facilities and non health laboratories from accidental infections Provide protective gears Train the staff on occupational health hazards Carry out situational analysis Design program/strategy based on findings Disseminate and implement designed strategies Develop comprehensive HIV and AIDS prevention education program Develop and distribute IEC materials Develop and distribute IEC materials

Students, Staff and Communities

Students, Staff and Communities

Students, Staff and Communities

Staff and Students

Students, Staff and Communities

Students, Staff and

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staff and students

safe sex programs

Existence of sexual abuse among female students and operational staff

Lack of empowerment programs to address sexuality among staff and students

Existence of chauvinistic tendencies in HLIs

Involve students organizations and trade unions in designing and introducing HIV prevention programs and services which pay particular attention to the protection of female students and operational staff, since these have been identified as the most vulnerable socio-sexual categories to HIV infection Staff and Students organizations to facilitate programs for empowerment of students to communicate on matters related to sex and sexuality Eliminate chauvinistic tendencies inherent in HLIs

condoms Provide Life skills education for safe sex Develop IEC material for safe sex Sensitize staff and students on safer sexual practices Identify sexual abuse practices Involve students organizations and trade unions in designing appropriate measures to address sexual abuse practices Facilitate establishment of networks to empower females students against sexual abuse tendencies

Communities

Staff and Students

Develop programs for empowerment of students and staff to communicate clearly on matters related to sex and sexuality Implement programs for empowerment of students and staff

Staff and Students

Identify chauvinistic tendencies in HLIs Develop programs to address chauvinistic tendencies among students and staff Implement programs to

Staff and Students

78

Limited programs for peer education

Ensure availability of programs for peer education Free HLI from drug use and alcohol abuse

Drug use and alcoholism

address chauvinistic tendencies Develop and promote programs for peer education Implement programs for peer education Develop advocacy programs to address drug use and alcoholism in HLIs Implement programs for addressing drug use and alcoholism

Staff and Students

Staff and Students

Thematic Area 3: Care, Treatment and Support Inadequate care, Availability of Identify magnitude of treatment and care, treatment the demand support services and support Plan for the provision of services to the care, treatment and infected and support services most affected Mobilise for resources Provide care, treatment and support services Lack of Home Provision of Identify magnitude of based Care Home based the demand [HBC] and care Plan for the provision of support services home based care Mobilise resources Provide home based care Lack of Mechanism for Plan for the provision of mechanism for assessing home based care assessing treatment for Mobilise resources treatment for staff and Provide home based staff and students students care

Staff, Students and Communities

Staff, Students and Communities

Staff, Students and Communities

Thematic Area 4: Impact Mitigation 4 Limited Mechanism for mechanism for mitigating the impact HIV and AIDS mitigation for impacts to most vulnerable Vulnerable groups groups/populati /population on Lack of Strategic

Assess the strengths and weakness of existing mechanism Plan for the provision of home based care Mobilise resources Provide home based care Identify institutional

Staff, Students and Communitie s

Staff and

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Institutional planning to respond to the impact of HIV and AIDS Limited empowerment to PLHIV to effectively respond to their needs and rights Limited material and social support to infected and affected staff, students and communities

planning for affected students and staff Initiate programs to empower staff and students living with HIV and AIDS Provision of material and social support to infected and affected staff, students and communities

response to the impact Integrate the response in institutional planning Organise seminars/workshops to sensitise PLHIV on their needs and rights Disseminate IEC materials Identify needs Mobilise resources Provide material and social support

Students

Staff, Students and Communitie s

Staff, Students and Communitie s

Thematic Area 6: Monitoring and Evaluation 5 Lack of linkage Develop Establish Institutional of established mechanism to database national M&E link Institutional Link with TOMSHA framework HIV and AIDS information with the national M&E framework [Tanzania

Institution

Output Monitoring System for HIV and AIDS (TOMSHA)]


Thematic Area 5: Cross - Cutting Issues 6 Inadequate Mainstream inclusion of Gender in HIV gender issues in and AIDS HIV and AIDS programmes programmes

Conduct Situational analysis to identify areas of mainstreaming gender in HIV and AIDS programmes Mainstream gender in HIV and AIDS programmes Mobilize resources for implementing the

Institution

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programmes Limited dissemination of HIV and AIDS related research /survey results Dissemination of research/surve y results Identify areas for disseminating HIV and AIDS related research/survey results Disseminate HIV and AIDS related research/survey results Identify public services in which to include HIV and AIDS issues Include HIV and AIDS issues in identified public services Include and budget HIV and AIDS issues in institutional plans Implement institutional plans Institution

Inadequate inclusion of HIV and AIDS issues in public services

Mainstream HIV and AIDS in public services

Institution

Lack of institutional plan to implement HIV and AIDS programmes

Establish Institutional arrangement for implementation of HIV and AIDS programs

Institution

References AAU (2007), The HIV/AIDS Challenge in African Higher Education Institutions, AAU, Accra. ASAP/UNAIDS/TACAIDS (2008), The HIV Epidemic in Tanzania: Where Have We Come From,Where is it Going, and How are We Responding, Dar es Salaam,Tanzania. Chiduo, M. (2009), HIV/AIDS Peer Education and Life Skills, OUT Seminar Presentation, Dar es Salaam. Kibbassa, J. G. (2010), Trends and Current Status of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania, OUT Seminar Presentation, Dar es Salaam. M. Crew and C. Nzioka (n. d.), Module 4.6: The Higher Education Response to HIV and AIDS. Module 7: Life Skills in www.unodc.org/pdf visited on 14th January 2012

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OUT (2010a), HIV/AIDS Situational Analysis Report and Action Plan: 2010 2011. Final Report for Submission to Tanzania Commission for AIDS, (TACAIDS), OUT, Dar es Salaam. OUT (2010b), Rolling Strategic Plan 2011/12 2015/16, The Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam. OUT (2011), OUT Facts and Figures 2010/11 at a Glance, The Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam. R. Cameron Wolf, Linda A. Tawfik and Katherine C. Bond in Journal of Health Communications, Vol. 5, 2000. Shalina Mehta & Sunider K. Sodhi (2004), Myths, Efforts and Achievements, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. TACAIDS (2009), National Multisectoral HIV Prevention Strategy 2009 2012: Towards a Tanzania With No New HIV Infections, TACAIDS, Dar es Salaam. TACAIDS (2010), Gender Operational Plan for HIV Response in Mainland Tanzania (2010 2012), TACAIDS, Dar es Salaam. UNESCO (2009), International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education: Volume I: The Rationale for Sexuality Education, UNESCO, Paris. URT (2011), Essential HIV and AIDS Planning Package for Higher Learning Institutions, TACAIDS, Dar es Salaam. Yvonne Bogaart, Comprehensive Sexuality Education and Life Skills Training in visited on 14th January 2012. www.tanzania.go.tz/hivaids.html www.wpf.org

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Annex I: Regional HIV and AIDS Statistics: 2009 Region Adults and children living with HIV % Adult prevalence (1549 years) AIDS-related deaths among adults and children 1,300,000 24,000 260,000 36,000 1,400 58,000 12,000 76,000 8,500 26,000 1,800,000

Sub Saharan Africa Middle East and North Africa South and South East Asia East Asia Oceania Central and South America Caribbean Eastern Europe and Central Asia Western and Central Europe North America Total

22,500,000 460,000 4,100,000 770,000 57,000 1,400,000 240,000 1,400,000 820,000 1,500,000 33,300,000

5.0 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.5 1.0 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.8

Source: UNAIDS Report 2011

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Workshop Participants S/N Na me 1. Prof. E. Mbogo 2. Dr. P. Ngatuni 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Dr. Angaza Gimbi Dr. S. Waane Ms. B. M. Msangi Dr. Salum S. Mohamed Dr. E. S. P. Kigadye Mr. Jerome J. Chilumba Dr. T. M. Katunzi Mr. Albert Z. Memba Mr. Zacharia Regnard Mr. Alphonce Hume Ms. Betty Mntambo Mr. Mtete Leonard Ms. Peta Mhoma Ms. Prisca Mbezi Ms. Harrieth G. Mtae Ms. Wambuka Rangi Mr. Timothy Lyanga Mr. Rweyendera, G. Ngonge Mrs. Irene A. Tarimo Mr. Innocent Messo Mr. Mgumba P. Mgumba Dr. B. S. Komunte Dr. S. M. S. Massomo Mr. Elieza Y. Musana Ms. Anitha Kihiyo Mr. Cosmas B. F. Mnyanyi Mr. James C. Kalanje Mr. Keregero Keregero Ms. Regina Monyemangene Mr. Neville Z. Reuben Mr. Eliazary D. E. Nyagwaru Designation DFASS - Chair Ag DFBM V/Chair Ag DRPS HoD - FASS Rep. DFED HoD - FBM HoD - FSTES HoD - FED Ag HoD - FBM DC & M DoS Protocol Officer Staff, Morogoro Centre VP OUTSO, Morogoro Rep. HoD - FSTES Rep. HoD - FLAW Liaison Officer Staff, Morogoro Centre Rep. HoD FASS HoD - FED Rep. DFSTES Rep. HoD - ICE HoD - ICE Staff, Morogoro Centre DRC - Morogoro DRC - Mbeya Member - OUTSO Head - ASTU Ag HoD - FBM HoD - FLAW Rep. HoD - IET HIV/AIDS Coordinator Public Institutions Response Officer TACAIDS Accountant Email Address emmanuel.mbogo@out.ac.tz proches.ngatuni@out.ac.tz angaza.gimbi@out.ac.tz simon.waane@out.ac.tz bilhuda.msangi@out.ac.tz salum.mohamed@out.ac.tz emmanuel.kigadye@out.ac.tz jerome.chilumba@out.ac.tz tumainik7@gmail.com albert.memba@out.ac.tz dos@out.ac.tz alphonce.hume@out.ac.tz betty.mntambo@out.ac.tz 0755552317 peta.mhoma@out.ac.tz prisca.mbezi@out.ac.tz harrieth.mtae@out.ac.tz wambuka.rangi@out.ac.tz timothy.lyanga@out.ac.tz rweyendera.ngonge@out.ac.tz irene.tarimo@out.ac.tz innocent.messo@out.ac.tz paul.mgumba@out.ac.tz bibiana.komunte@out.ac.tz said.massomo@out.ac.tz yusuf.musana@out.ac.tz kihiyoanitha@yahoo.com cosmas.mnyanyi@out.ac.tz james.kalanje@out.ac.tz keregero.keregero@out.ac.tz regina.monyemangene@out.ac.tz neville.reuben@out.ac.tz enyagwaru@tacaids.go.tz

34.

Mr. Allen Mwangoka

allen.mwangoka@out.ac.tz

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The Open University of Tanzania P.O. Box 23409, Tel:255-022668992/2668820/2668445 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Fax: 255-022-2668835

Chuo Kikuu Huria cha Tanzania S.L.P. 23409, Simu: 255-022-2668445/2668960 Dar es Salaam Tanzania Fax: 255-022-2668835

MAINSTREAMING HIV/AIDS IN OUT CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH AGENDA, EDEMA CONFERENCE CENTRE, MOROGORO 11TH 14TH JANUARY 2012 CLOSING REMARKS BY THE DEPUTY VICE CHANCELLOR (ACADEMIC) PROF. ELIFAS T. BISANDA

Dear Moderator, Facilitators and Workshop Participants, It gives me very great pleasure to officiate the closing ceremony of this Workshop on Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in OUT Curriculum and Research Agenda. I understand that the main objective of the Workshop was to empower participants with knowledge and skills for mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in the University Curricula and Research Agenda, which is one of the targets of Strategic Objective No. 18 in the Institutional Strategic Rolling Plan 2008/09 2012/13. I am very hopeful that the knowledge and skills you have acquired in this area, will also enable you to address ably related issues like gender mainstreaming and UNAIDS three zeros, in the course of organizing and disseminating higher education in your respective areas of specialization. I wish to congratulate you for carrying out the task mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in the University Curricula and Research Agenda rigorously and seriously.

As hinted by the Vice Chancellor in his opening remarks, based on latest available data, the HIV prevalence is stabilising and even slightly decreasing in many parts of the country. Prevention efforts and the availability of effective treatment have reduced the impact of AIDS among the

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infected people. However, I wish to stress that we should not be complacent. There are still over 1.5 million Tanzanians infected with HIV and new infections are occurring in the country every day, including in Higher Learning Institutions, like the OUT. The occurrence of new HIV infections is very disturbing because almost the entire population is knowledgeable on HIV/AIDS and how to avoid infection. Meanwhile, over 400,000 reported episodes of sexually transmitted diseases are treated in health facilities in the country every year. Similarly, each year, the Ministry of Education reports on pregnancies among school girls as a major cause for school drop out. These and related incidences clearly indicate lack of significant behaviour change and hence seriousness in combating the epidemic, among Tanzanians. This situation calls for the intensification of comprehensive efforts to curb new HIV infections in our country. Mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS in the Institutional Curricula and Research Agenda is a modest attempt of the OUT to exploit its comparative advantages to contribute to such efforts. The HIV epidemic is a major threat to all efforts towards national development. Its impact causes widespread suffering among individuals, families and communities across the country.

The apparent complacency in the general public in the face of this disastrous epidemic is certainly a matter of serious concern which the OUT should not take lightly. After all, fighting the pandemic is one of the institutional functions. We need, therefore, to take deliberate and cost - effective measures to ensure that we put in place best practice workplace HIV/AIDS programme, whose features include:

(i)

Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in the Institutional core functions of knowledge creation, dissemination and provision of public service.

(ii)

HIV/AIDS Policy which sensitises workers on the pandemic; prohibits discrimination and addresses prevention and post infection needs.

(iii)

Promotion of work place safety a healthy and safe working environment which does not encourage transmission of HIV/AIDS.

(iv)

HIV/AIDS Programme focusing on prevention and care initiatives, with adequate monitoring and evaluation framework.

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(v)

HIV/AIDS related training offered regularly and provision of information and data which address issues of concern at the workplace.

(vi) (vii)

Outreach services through family days and sports bonanza. Information Education and Communication materials designed to promote Behaviour Change Communication (BCC).

(viii) Availability of support Services particularly VCT, treatment centres and home based care.

Finally, I wish to thank the Moderator, Mr. Nyagwaru from TACAIDS, for kindly agreeing to share his invaluable experiences with us in this Workshop. I wish also to express sincere gratitude to the SADC HIV and AIDS Project under the coordination of the National University of Lesotho, for funding the Workshop. I am certain that we will prove to them that we are worth their generosity by pursuing the objectives of the Workshop effectively and efficiently. Needless to add that the litmus test for this commitment, is to pursue relentlessly the dream of Tanzania free from HIV/AIDS infections, deaths, stigma and discrimination by 2015. Certainly, the initial step should start where we are at the OUT. I now have the honour of declaring this Workshop, formally closed. I thank you for your attention.

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6.0 PROGRAMME CONTENT/COURSE OUTLINES CERTIFICATE IN FOUNDATION COURSE (OFC)


6.1 OFC 007 : ENGLISH LANGUAGE 6.1.1 COURSE DESCRIPTION This course introduces to students the building blocks of English language which includes formation of English sentences, pronunciation of different English words, various ways of forming new words as well as the grammar of English language. The course also exposes students to writing creatively and artistically. 6.1.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After completion of this course, students are expected to; Pronounce English language words thoroughly use English language vocabulary and grammar appropriately write creatively by using English language classify the major classes of English language 6.1.3 EXPECTED OUTCOMES Ability to appropriately identify and use English Language Sounds; understanding of various ways of vocabulary expansion of the English language; Enhanced understanding and skills in creative writing and English grammar and use 6.1.4 COURSE CONTENTS o Sounds in the English language o Vowels, o compound, o short &week sounds; o consonants; Syllable & stress o Vocabulary expansion in the English language: o Borrowing, varieties of English language; o written & spoken English; o Word formation; o Creative writing: o Grammar & Usage: o major word classes, o nouns, concordial relations,

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o Sentence patterns and types. 6.1.5 REFERENCES o Atikinson, M. D. Kilby & I. Ropka, (1991). Language: An Introduction, Unwin Hyman: London. o Delobrovolsky, M., F. Katamba & W. OGrady, (1997). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. London: Longman. o Eloit, A. (1970) in Yule 1996. The study of language (2nd ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. o Gimson, A. C. (1991). Introduction to the Pronunciation of English, New York: Edward Arnold. o Huddleston, R. (1988). Grammar of English: An Outline, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. o Maghway, J. B. (1996). Linguistics and the Study of Language, Dar es Salaam: Open University of Tanzania. o Ndimele, O. M. (1993). An Advanced English Grammar & Usage, Nigeria: Budico Ltd. o OConnor, J. D. (1980). Better English Pronunciation. London: Longman. 6.2 KISWAHILI 6.2.1. COURSE DESCRIPTION Kozi hii imejikita zaidi kwenye kufafanua maana, pamoja na chimbuko la lugha ya Kiswahili. Vilevile kozi hii inamwonyesha mwanafunzi jinsi matumizi ya lugha ya Kiswahili yanavyobadilika, ikiwa ni pamoja na matumizi fasaha ya maneno ya lugha ya Kiwsahili. Mwisho, kozi hii inaelezea jinsi ya kutathmini fasihi ya lugha ya Kiswahili.

6.2.2. COURSE OBJECTIVES Baada ya kumaliza kozi hii, mwanafunzi anatazamiwa kuwa na uwezo wa; Kueleza maana ya lugha Kusimulia Historia ya Kiswahili Kutambua jinsi matumizi ya Kiswahili yanavyobadilika Kutumia maneno ya Kiswahili kwa ufasaha wa Kiswahili

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Kuthamini fasihi ya Kiswahili kwa jumla

6.2.3. EXPECTED OUTCOMES Uwezo wa kueleza lugha ni nini? Uwezo wa kusimulia historia ya Lugha ya Kiswahili, kutambua jinsi matumizi ya Kiswahili yanavyobadilika; Kutumia maneno ya Kiswahili kwa ufasaha; Kuthamini fasihi ya Kiswahili kwa ujumla 6.2.4 COURSE CONTENTS Maana ya Lugha, Historia Ya Kiswahili, Matumizi na Mabadiliko ya Kiswahili; fasihi kwa ujumla, Sarufi ya Kiswahili kwa ujumla. 6.2.5 REFERENCES o Grimes, B. (2000), Ethnologue 14th ed. Dallas.SIL. o Nkwera, Fr. F. V. (2003), Sarufi, Fasihi na Uandishi wa Vitabu, Sekondari na Vyuo, Creative Prints Ltd., Dar es Salaam. o Habwe, J na Karanja , P. ((2004) Misingi ya Sarufi ya Kiswahili o Bussman , H. (1996), Routedge Dictionary of language and linguistics o Nurse na Thomas Spear (1985), The Swahili: Reconstructing the History and Language of an African Society, in Clement Maganga (1997), OSW 102: Historia ya Kiswahili, Chuo Kikuu Huria cha Tanzania, Kitivo cha Sanaa na Sayansi za Jamii. o Masebo, J. A. Nyengwine, N. (2002), Nadharia ya Lugha ya Kiswahili, Kidato cha 5 na 6, Aroplus Industries Ltd., Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. o Nkwera, Fr. F. V. (2003), Sarufi, Fasihi na Uandishi wa Vitabu, Sekondari na Vyuo, Creative Prints Ltd. 6.3 ODC O09: -MATHEMATICS 6.3.1. COURSE DESCRIPTION The course is designed to provide general Mathematics knowledge. The course introduces to students among others: number systems, set theory, number sequences, limits of functions,

derivative of functions, indefinite and definite integrals, differential equations, vectors in two and three dimensions, systems of linear equations up to three variables and the Binomial Theorem. In each case; definitions, properties, associated functions and operations are covered. Illustrative examples are also given to enable the learner understand better the

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section involved. Activities in the form of self-test exercises are given at the end of each section.
6.3.2 GENERAL OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE

AT the end of the course students will be able to : Understand that mathematics is an orderly study of structures and patterns of abstract entities. Grasp the interrelationship that exist when studying the various topics in mathematics
Translate problems into mathematical equations and solve them.

Appreciate and apply the use of Mathematics in daily life, in Mathematics itself and other related subjects,
6.3.3 EXPECTED OUTCOMES Upon completion of the course students are expected to develop capacity to solve mathematical problems using technology where appropriate. On the other hand of the course students will

gain a sound knowledge and understanding of mathematics so as to prepare them for more advanced courses in mathematics and other related subjects.
o COURSE CONTENT THE NUMBER SYSTEM The Number System Order and Inequalities Solution of Inequalities Mathematical Induction SET THEORY Set theory Language of Sets Operations on sets Laws of Set Algebra

3.

SEQUENCE OF NUMBERS Series Progression LIMITS OF FUNCTIONS 91

4.

Definition of Function Limit of Function Continuity of Function THE DERVATIVE OF FUNCTION Derivative as a limit Derivative of Algebraic, exponential and Logarithmic functions The Chain rule Higher order Derivatives Application of Derivatives Rate of change, velocity,acceleration Relative Maximum/Minimum Sketch of graphs Newton Raphson method INTEGRATION Antiderivative as inverse of Derivative. Techniques of integration. Integral as area under the curve. Applications. 7. VECTORS IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS Addition. Subtraction. Multiplication by a scalar. Unit Vectors i,j,k decomposition, dot and cross products. Geometrical significance in two and three dimension. Scalar triple product, geometrical significance. Angle between two vectors. Equation of a line. Skew lines. Shortest distance between a point and a line. SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATION UP TO THREE VARIABLES Matrces (2x2). Inverse of a matrix. Determinants (2x2). Solution of System of linear equation using matrices and determinants. 92

1.

2.

BINOMIAL THEOREM Development from the Pascals triangle. Binomial theorem for positive integral Index. Use of binomial theorem for any index. PROBABILITY Probability experiment, Sample space and sample points. Events, Independence and mutual exclusive events. Probability of an event, permutations and combinations. Conditional probability. Binomial experiment. STATISTICS Data collection and Organization Representation of data: frequency tables, cumulative frequency, polygon, histogram. Measure of central tendency: mean, Median, Mode. Measure of dispersion : Range, Variance, Standard deviation. REFERENCES

3.

4.

J.K. Backhouse and S.P.T. Houldsworth. (2005); Pure Mathematics (Vol. 1). Twenty seventh Impression: Longman J.K. Backhouse, S.P.T. Houldsworth and B.E.D. Cooper. Revised by P.J. Horril. (1989); Pure Mathematics (Vol. 2) International Students Edition: Longman Lipschutz Seymour. (1966), Theory and Problems of Finite Mathematics. (Schaums Outline Series) SI (Metric) Edition: Mc Graw- Hill Book Company. Spiegel, Murray R. (1961), Theory and Problems of Statistics. (Schaums Outline Series) SI (Metric) Edition: Mc Graw- Hill Book Company. Ayres, Frank Jr. (1974), Theory and Problems of Matrices. (Schaums Outline Series). SI (Metric) Edition: Mc Graw- Hill Book Company. Spiegel, Murray R. (1963); Theory & Papers of Advanced Calculus. (Schaums Outline Series) SI (Metric) Edition Mc Graw- Hill Book Company

6.4. OFC 010: PHYSICS

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6.4.1. COURSE DESCRIPTION The course is designed to provide general physics knowledge. The course introduces to students the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. It also describes the forces exerted by a static (i.e. unchanging) electric field upon charged (electrostatics), as well as wave motions. It therefore equips the learners with the general understanding of theoretical aspects as well as basic practical skills of physics knowledge. 6.4.2. COURSE OBJECTIVES: On completion of this course the students will be able to: 1. Define various physics concepts such as Mechanics, Electrostatics, Electromagnetism, Self inductance ,Oscillations and waves 2. State and apply various laws in physics i.e. Newtons law of motion, Keplers Law and its application in planetary motion, Pascals Principle, Coulombs law. 3. Compute various quantities of energy e.g. the energy stored in capacitors, Compute power in alternating current circuits, energy stored in magnetic field, energy of simple harmonic motion. 4. Manipulate vectors, RC electric circuits and RL Electric Circuits

6.4.3. EXPECTED OUTCOMES Developed understanding of fundamental concepts in the physics discipline, Capacity to teach primary Science confidently, Ability to undertake further studies in the physics subject area

6.4.4 COURSE CONTENTS o Mechanics Measurement, Motion in one dimension, vectors, Newtons law of motion, Uniform circular motion,

o o o o o

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o the universe and gravitational force and fluids; o Electrostatics Electric charge and Coulombs law, the Electric field, Electric potential Energy, Electric potential, Capacitance, RC Electric circuits

o o o o o

o Electromagnetism o the magnetic Field, o the Faradays law of Electromagnetic induction, o Inductance and LR Electric Circuits o Oscillations and Waves o Oscillations, o Damped simple Harmonic Oscillations and Resonance, o wave motion 6.4.5 REFERENCES Breuer, H. (1975), Physics for Science Students. Prentice Hall, Inc Greene, E. S. (1962), Principles of Physics. Prentice Hall, Inc Hewitt, P. G. (1985), Conceptual Physics. Little: Brown & Company Schaum, D. et al. (1961), College Physics OFC 011: HISTORY 6.5.1. COURSE DESCRIPTIONS This course examines the meaning of history, It also emphasizes on various activities and interactions that happened in African history starting from the pre-history epoch. The course further explores the pre and post colonial African development both politically and economically.

6.5.2.COURSE OBJECTIVES After undertaking this course, students are expected to;

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Know the meaning of history Identify economic, technological and political developments in pre colonial Africa Distinguish historical events from pre- colonial era to post colonial era. Identify changes in human development in economic, political and social spheres.

6.5.3. EXPECTED OUTCOMES Ability to explain the concept of history and sources of history; Basic Knowledge of Africas pre colonial history; Capacity to analyze trans Atlantic slave trade and its impact; discuss imposition of colonial rule and African responses, colonial economy and colonial administration; Capacity to discuss African nationalist struggles and post independence developments 6.5.4. COURSE CONTENTS 1. Sources of History; 2. Sources and types of History; 3. African Prehistory; 4. Economic and technological development in pre colonial Africa; 5. Political developments in Pre-colonial Africa; 6. Africas Contact with outside world; 7. Colonial conquest and African reactions; 8. The colonial situation; 9. National struggles and decolonization; 10. Post Independence developments: 11. Political Sphere; 12. Post Independence developments: 13. Economic Sphere. 6.6 OFC 012: GEOGRAPHY 6.6.1 COURSE DESCRIPTIONS The course introduces to students the concept of Geography, examining the structure of the earth and various processes that result into different landforms on the earth. It further deals with different human activities on the earth, and how to read and interpret maps. 6.6.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES Students are expected at the end of this course to be able to; 5. define the concept of Geography 6. describe and analyze the structure and materials of the earth 96

7. Explain various forces that result into formation of landforms 8. categorize types of erosion and their effects on the earth 9. examine the relationship between human development and Geography 10. analyze geographical photographs and interpret maps 6.6.3 EXPECTED OUTCOMES Basic knowledge of geography and related disciplines; Capacity to explain processes and effects of weather and climatic changes; Capacity to explain and apply techniques of environmental conservations; Develop understanding of natural resources and their use; Ability to analyses issues of population and development; capacity to analyses and present geographical; Developed knowledge in topological map presentation 1. COURSE CONTENTS The discipline of Geography; Structure and materials of the earth; Internal geographical processes and land forms; External geographical processes Weathering and mass movement, Erosion and deposition); Study of soil; Human Geography; population and development; Agriculture; Exploitation of natural resources; Application of statistical data in geography; Presentation of geographical Data; Topographical, Map interpretation. 6.6.5 REFERENCES Barnaby, J.B. and Cleves, P.G (1983) Techniques and Field Work in Geography. London: UN Winhyman Ltd Bowen, A. and Pallister, J. (2001) A2 Geography.Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publisher Bunnet, R.B. (1990) Physical Geography in Diagrams for Africa. (8th Edition).Hong Kong: Longman group Ltd Dura, S.E (1990) Map reading and Photo Interpretation. Dar es Salaam: ILM Publishers Ltd

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Fellman, J.D. (1999) Human Geography: Landscapes of Human activities. (6th Edition).McGrawHill Companies, Inc Lines, C., Bowlwell, L. and Smith, A. F. (1996). A Level Geography. London: Letts Educational. MacMaster, D.N. (1978). Map Reading for East Africa: New Metric Addition. Tanzania: Longman Tanzania Ltd Nicola, A., Lomas, S., Nagle, G., Thomson, L and Thomson, P. (2000). A2 Geography. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publisher URT (1997). Agricultural and Livestock Policy. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, January. URT (1998). The National Poverty Eradication Strategy. Dar es Salaam: Govt Printer. White, H., Kllick, T., Kayizi-Mugerwa, S. and Savage (eds) (2001).African Poverty at Millenium: causes, Complexities and Challenges.Washinton D.C: The World Bank Young, A. (1989). Agro Forestry for Soil Conservation. Wallingford: CAB International

6.7 OFC 013: BIOLOGY 6.7.1 COURSE DESCRIPTION This course examines the concept of cell in Biology and its related characteristics. The course also deals with the aspect of classification of different organisms, as well as their physiological trends. It further deals with the inter relationship among organisms (ecology) and looks at how traits are passed down from one generation to another, through the genes. Finally, the course exposes different practical skills to students. 6.7.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES At the end of the course students should be able to; 1. Identify the types of cells and their common properties 2. Describe the necessity of naming and arranging organisms into groups 3. Explain types of foods and physiological processes in both plants sand animals 4. Explain the concepts and relationship between ecosystem and biosphere 5. Know the concepts of genetics and other terminologies used in genetics 6. Describe the concept of evolution, occurrence of evolution and mechanism of evolution 7. Practice the use of microscope, procedures in dissection and drawing. 6.7.3 EXPECTED OUTCOMES

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Developed understanding of the main concepts used in life science; Enhanced knowledge in Cell Biology, Classification, General Physiology, Ecology , Genetics and Evolution; Enhanced practical Skills in the field of life science; Capacity to confidently teach life science in primary schools; A solid a foundation for undertaking further studies in Biology discipline.

6.7.4 COURSE CONTENTS 6 Cell Biology Cell concept, cell structure, cell inclusion and components protein synthesis and cell division); 7 Classification The concept of classification, systematic as science of diversity of life, development and use of keys, classification systems, binomial system of naming organisms, and modern systematic 8 General Physiology Nutrition, respiration, excretion, coordination, transport, Movement, Enzymes Ecology Concept of Ecology, methods of studying ecology, pyramid of biomass, Ecosystems, community Ecology succession, Energy flow and cycling of nutrients 10 Genetics concept of genetics,

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Mendelian Principles of classification, monohybrids and dihybrids, Sex linkages, gene interaction and gene pool 11 Evolution concept of evolution, Evidence of evolution i.e. Biogeography; Biochemistry; comparative morphology and physiology; Mechanisms of evolution: Darwinism; Lamarckism; NeoDarwinism; gradual changes, Microevolution: geographical and reproductive isolation, species formation, Macroevolution: the rise of vertebrates 12 Practical Skills Use and handling of microscopes, general procedures in dissection and drawing, interpretation of graphs, diagrams and photographs

6.7.6 REFERENCES o Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis and Martin Raff. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. (4th Edition). N. Y. Academic Press. o Raven, P. H. and Johnson, G. B. (1999). Biology (5th Edition). WCB/McGraw Hill companies. o Goodman, S.T (1997). Medical Cell Biology. Garland Publishing o http://www.biology.Arizona.edu o http://www.cell-biology.org o Polard, T. D.; Earnshaw, W. C. (2003). Cell Biology. (Updated Edition): with student consult Access. o Brooks, D. R. and McLennan D. A. (1991). Ecology and Behaviour. New York: University of Chicago Press. o Eldridge, N. and Cracraft, J. (1980). Phylogenetic patterns and the Evolutionary Process. USA: Columbia University Press. o Harvey, P. H. and Pagel, M. D. (1991). The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press

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o Maddison, W.P and Maddison, D. R (1992) Analysis of Phylogeny and Character evolution. Version 3.0 Sinauer Associates. MA: Sunderland o Swofford, D. L. (1991) Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP), Version 3.0s.IL: IllinoisNatural history Survey o Oram, R.F. et al (1994). Biology of Living Systems. McGraw Hill Publishing Company 6.8 OFC 014: BUSINESS MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS 6.8.1 COURSE DESCRIPTION The objective of this course is to give a thorough grounding in basic Mathematics and Statistical techniques to students in Foundation Course who are aspiring to pursue degree programs in business, economics and other related programmes or disciplines. Students should note that a student who is knowledgeable in business mathematics and statistics will experience less difficulty in studying the programmes mentioned above. Therefore, this particular unit is basically one of the course that are aimed to prepare them for admission to the Open University of Tanzania in Business Studies degree programmes for which you would have not otherwise qualified. 6.8.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES The objectives of the course are to: Prepared students for the admission to the Open University of Tanzania particularly in the fields of Economics and business studies. Provides students with basic knowledge on the concepts. Principles and the application of mathematics and statistics in Economics and Business studies. Identify students aptitudes and interest for slotting them to specific courses of the degree program

6.8.3 EXPECTED OUTCOMES Developed understanding of various Business Mathematics basic concepts underlying the

set theory, Relation and Functions, Sequence and series, Algebra and their equations, capacity to explain logarithms and its usefulness in mathematics; Ability to analyse issues of Differential and integral calculus; Ability to analyse issues of statistics and its

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applications in business studies; and developed knowledge in linear regression and correlation analysis

6.8.4 COURSE CONTENT PART I: MATHEMATICS Elementary properties of sets Union, intersection, complement, subset, empty and universal sets. Venn diagrams. Cardinality of a set. Elementary functions Domain and range of a function. Linear functions. Gradient and the different forms of the equation of a line. Graphs Indices Idea of negative and rational indices. Logarithm to any base. Logarithms to solve indical equations. Logarithmic and semi logarithmic graphs. Sequences and series The sigma notation. Arithmetic and Geometric progressions. Elements Of Choice and Chance The Binomial theorem mainly for positive indices. Pascals Triangle. Inequalities Linear in one and two variables. Simple linear programming problems. Use of modulus

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Differential Calculus Graphs and derivatives of algebraic, exponential Differentiation of sum, product and quotient. Chain rule for composite functions. Application to maxima. Minima, inflexion, sketch graphs. Small increments.

and

logarithmic

functions.

Integral Calculus Intergration as the limit of a sum. Approximate evaluation of integrals by the trapezium rule. Integration as the inverse of differentiation. Application to areas. Standard techniques of simultaneous linear equations in 2 and 3 variables. PART II STATISTICS 1.0 Introduction Need and objectives of a statistical investigation. Application to social sciences. Uses and abuses of statistics. Collection of Data Various aspects to be considered for collecting data. Population and sample. Sampling vs complete enumeration. Schedules and questionnaires. Scrutiny data. T anzania official statistics. Frequence of distributions. Range and class intervals. Appropriate choice of class intervals. Open classes at ends. Rounding errors. Frequency diagrams-frequency diagrams-frequency polygon, histogram and ogives. Various frequency curves with examples. Presentation of Data Various types of tabular and graphical presentation of data Summary measures

2.0

3.0

4.0

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Measures of central tendency for grouped and ungrouped data with special emphasis on mean, Medias and mode. A brief discussion of geometric and harmonic means and quartiles, deciles and fractiles in general. Examples, measure of dispersion: Absolute dispersion. Range, mean deviation, standard deviation and variance, quartile deviation, etc. Relative dispersion- coefficient of variation. Moments. Measure of skewness and kurtosis. 5.0 Bivariate Data Examples and use of bevariate data. Preparation of two-way frequency tables. Scatter diagram. Interpretation of the extremalvalues of the correlation coefficient. Concept of correlation between two characteristics. Measure of correlation. Correlation coefficient and correlation ratio. Limits for correlation coefficient. Concept of simple linear regression and fitting best straight line for the data.

6.9 OFC 015: BUSINESS STUDIES AND ECONOMICS 6.9.1 COURSE DISCRIPTION Business Studies and Economics Foundation course programe intends to introduce students to the basic elements of business studies, economic and accounting to Prepare them for respective undergraduate degree programmes. 6.9.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. Introduce to students the general principles of business studies 2. To provide a basic foundation to enable students to cope with various degree courses offered in the Business Studies Programme. 3. to introduce or expose students to the rudimentary knowledge of Economics. 4. To impart economics skills required in understanding the day to day economic issues 5. To create a basis for pursuing Economics and Commerce subjects at undergraduate levels with less difficulties.

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6.9.3 EXPECTED OUTCOMES Developed understanding of the main concepts of business, business risk and classification of business activities; Enhanced knowledge in various form of business organization; Sound knowledge for differentiating between internal and external trade; building a strong foundation upon the promotion tools used in modern business.

6.9.4 COURSE CONTENT PART I INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS STUDIES 1. Introduction to Business - Scarcity and choice - Economic systems - Meaning of production - The History of world commerce - Why study commerce - The history of commerce in Tanzania 2. Organization of Production Defining of production Types of goods Factors of production 3. Business Organization 1. Business Units (types) 2. Size of Business Unit 3. Private and public enterprises 4. Limited liability 4. Internal Trade Definition Retail Whole sale 5. Foreign Trade: Definition Advantages and disadvantages Important process Export process Trade restrictions

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6.

7.

Banking (i) Definition (ii) Types of banks (iii) Functions of commercial banks (accounts and services) (iv) Functions of central bank Insurance: o Definition o Functions o Principles of insurance Transportation and communication Transport: -definition - importance - modes Communication: - definition - types - importance Warehousing - definition - importance - types Promotion o o o o o

8.

9.

10.

Definition of promotion Promotional tools Definition of advertising Purpose of advertising Advantages and disadvantages of advertising

PART II

INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS

Lecture 1: Introduction to Economics Understanding the concept of Economics Economic resources and scarcity Unlimited wants Choice and opportunity cost

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Economic questions faced by any society Economic systems Micro vs Marco economics References: 1. Lipsey et. al (1995) Positive Economics 8th edition. Oxford University Press. 2. Livingstone & Ord(1991) Economic for Eastern Africa Heinemann Kenya Ltd Lecture 2: Price Mechanism Demand analysis Supply analysis The concept of the market Price determination & market equilibrium Demand and supply elasticity

References: 1. Lipsey et.al (1995) -Positive Economics 8th edition Oxford University Press 2. Livingstone & Ord (1991)-Economics for Eastern Africa Heineman Kenya Ltd Lecture 4: Market structure Characteristics of perfect competition Characteristics of Monopoly Characteristics of Monopolistic Competition Characteristics of Oligopoly Reference: 1. Lipsey et.al. - Positive Economics 8th Edition. 1995Oxford University Press. 2. Livingstone & Ord -Economics for Eastern Africa (1991)Heinamann Kenya Ltd.

Lecture 5:

National Income i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. The concept of national income GNP vs GDP Measurement of national income Income approach Expenditure approach Output approach Usefulness of national income

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Reference: 1. Lipsey et. al. -Positive Economics 8th Edition. 1995Oxford University Press. 2. Livingstone & Ord -Economic for Eastern Africa (1991)Heinamann Kenya Ltd Lecture 6: 1.0.1 1.0.2 1.0.3 1.0.4 1.0.5 1.0.6 Money and Financial Institutions What is money Functions of money Forms of money Central banking vs commercial banking Other financial institutions, leasing and community banks Microfinance institutions

Reference 1. Lipsey et. al -Positive Economics 8th Edition. 1995 Oxford Univeristy Press. 2. Livingstone & Ord -Economic s for Eastern Africa (1991)Heinamann Kenya Ltd.

Lecture 7:

International Trade and Balance of payments What is international trade Benefits of international trade Law of comparative advantage The concept of Balance of payments.

References: 1. Lipsey et. Al -Positive Economics 8th Edition. 1995 Oxford University Press. 2. Livingstone & Ord -Economics for Eastern Africa (1991)Heinamann Kenya Ltd.

Lecture 8:

Government and the economy Government expenditure Government revenue Budget deficit/surplus

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Reference 1. 2. Lipsey et. al -Positive Economics 8th Edition. 1995Oxford university Press. Livingstone & Ord -Economics for Eastern Africa (1991)Heinamann Kenya Ltd.

6.10 OFC 016: CHEMISTRY 6.10.1. COURSE DESCRIPTION This course is designed to equip students with basic knowledge and skills in chemistry (both theoretical aspects as well as basic practical skills) important for a science teacher. 6.10.2. COURSE OBJECTIVES: On completion of this course the students should be able to: 1. Define various chemistry concepts such as an atom, atomic number, isotopes, quantum numbers, electronic configuration, chemical bonding, hybridization, molecularity, catalysis, solubility, hydrocarbons, and apply etc 2. State and apply various laws in chemistry such as Boyles law, Charles law, Avogadro law, Daltons gas laws, Grahams aw of diffusion, modern periodic law, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle, Pauls Exclusion principle 3. Do various chemistry calculations 4. Apply knowledge and skills in proper use and management of the environment 6.10.3. EXPECTED OUTCOMES Developed understanding of various chemistry concepts e.g. atoms, atomic number, isotopes, quantum numbers, electronic configuration, chemical bonding, hybridization, molecular, catalysis, solubility, hydrocarbons, and apply etc Capacity to State and apply various laws and principles in chemistry. Ability to do various chemistry calculations. Apply knowledge and skills in proper use and management of the environment 6.10.4. COURSE CONTENTS General and Physical Chemistry Atomic structure, Modern Quantum Theory of Atoms, Bonding, Radioactivity, The gas Laws, Energetic, Chemical Equilibrium; 109

Chemical kinetics Oxidation-Reduction and electrochemistry, Electrolytes in solution, Acids, bases and salts, Solubility and solubility production

Inorganic chemistry The Modern periodic table, The chemistry of selected Elements, Transition elements Organic Chemistry Occurrence of Organic Compounds, Hydrocarbons, Alkenes, Alkynes, Benzene and its Homologues, Derivatives of Hydrocarbons, Halogen derivatives, Hydroxyl compounds; Carbonyl compounds, Carboxylic acids, Esters, Amides, Amines, Polymers 6.10.5. REFERENCES Boikess, R.S, Breslauer, K and Eldeson, E(1986) Elements of Chemistry: General, Organic and Biological. London:Hodders and Stoughton Carey, F.A (2000) Organic Chemistry. 4th Edition. Boston: McGraw Hill Denbigh, K (1997). The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium. 4th Edition. UK:Cambridge University Press Ddungu, M.L.M., Mihingo, J.B.A, Mkayula L.L, Mkwizu, A.B.S and Schiess, M (1998). Physical Chemistry for A Level and 1st year undergraduate. Students Volume 1. Dar es salaam: Tanzania Publishing House Hill G. (2002) Chemistry Counts. 3rd Edition. London: Hodder and Stoughton

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McMurry, J. and Castellion, M. E. (1999) Fundamentals of general, Organic and Biological Chemistry 3rd Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall 6.11. OFC 017 COMMUNICAION AND STUDY SKILLS 6.11. 1. COURSE DISCRIPTION This is a one unit course which introduces students into different aspects of communication, basing on the major communication skills (Listening, speaking, writing and reading). It also gives students the basic writing strategies as well as exposing them to various sources of information. In addition, the course concentrates on the English language grammar which is so crucial to any English language user.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. COURSE OBJECTIVES The objectives of this course are to enable primary school teachers to: delineate the essential elements of communication communicate effectively using the four skills of language identify and use various sources of information analyze and use English language grammar 2. EXPECTED OUTCOMES At the end of the course students are expected to have: developed understanding of essential elements of communication; enhanced skills in listening, reading and writing; ability to effectively use modern learning facilities and sources of information (e.g internet, library, radio, Newspapers etc.); and capacity to understand and use correct English language grammar for effective communication 3. COURSE CONTENT: 1. Meaning and aspects of communication; 2. Essential communication skills 3. Listening, 4. Reading & writing, 5. Mechanics of writing 6. Punctuations 7. Sources of information (eg internet, library, radio, Newspapers etc.); 8. English language grammar.

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6.11.5. REFERENCES: 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 About the Web: http://www.about-the-web.com Argyle, M. (1990). Bodily Communication (2nd edition). New York: International Universities Press. AARP Learn the Internet: http://www. ivpl.org/Basic-internet.html Carey, C. (1996) Listening is a Skills, New York: Hayward Publishing. Connor, U. (1984). A Study of Cohesion and Coherence in English as a Second Language in Papers in Linguistics Vol. 17, pp.301-316) Day, S. (1989). Reading and the Writing Process. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company Hatch, Evelyn. (1994). Discourse and language education. New York: Cambridge University Press. Lovingston, Drs, Sharon and Glen. (2004). How to Use Body language. Psy Thech Inc. Mehrabian, A. (1992).Nonverbal Communication (2nd edition). Chicago: Aldine Atherton. Troyka, L. Q. (1987). Handbook for Writers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Zandvoot, R. W. (1962). Handbook of English Grammar. London: Longmans Green and Co. Limited

6.12

OFC 018: DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

6.12.1 COURSE DESCRIPTION This course concentrates on the issues that most human beings experience in life. These are developmental, environmental, political, economical, cultural, technological and current affairs that emanate from daily human activities and interactions. It course aims at equipping the students with basic knowledge on socio-economic development issues. 6.12.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. To enable the learner to develop a critical and analytical framework about the society and development. 2. To enable the learner to explain the process of change and development in society 3. To introduce the learner to the interrelationships between socio economic development and population

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6.12.3 EXPECTED OUTCOMES Developed understanding of the interrelationships between socioeconomic development and population. Enhanced knowledge in the process of of change and development in the society; and develop critical and analyitical framework about the society and development. Through this course students are expected to be able to: o o o o Explain socio-economic development theories The learner develop critical and analytical framework about society and development Identify interrelationships between socio-economic development and population Explain current social, economic and political phenomena

6.12.4 COURSE CONTENTS PART I CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL FORMATION This part will deal with the concepts of social formations important in the understanding of the development of societies. These include: 1. Social formation 2. Mode of production 3. Productive forces 4. Relations of production 5. Instruments of labour 6. Labour 7. Surplus/surplus value 8. Division of labour 9. Class/social class Examples of different social formations will also feature here. PART II THEORIES OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT A number of theories have been arrived at in the quest to analyze social development. 1 2 3 4 This part will features theories such as; Traditional theories based on idealism Political economy theory Other newly emerging theories such as gender, democratization, globalization, to mention but a few

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PART III SOCIAL AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN AFRICA This part will trace the social and political developments in Africa 1. Prior to colonial invasion 2. During colonial era 3. The period of struggle for independence 4. Independence and formation of nation states 5. Emerging nation states 6. State democracy and development PART IV POVERTY AND ENVIRONMENT This part will focus on the close interrelationship between poverty. Population and environment. Of interest, this part will also deal with 1. Absolute poverty. 2. Relative povery. 3. The indicators of poverty 4. The myth of the three worlds 5. Poverty reducation/alleviation strategies PART V POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT Here issues of defining development, including sustainable development will be dealt with. Population and how it impacts upon development will also be discussed here. Other issues will include 1. Theories of population 2. Relationship between population and development 3. Population as an obstacle to development 4. Population as a factor for development. REFERENCES Marx, Karl. 1971. Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Tr. S. W. Ryanzanskaya, edited by M. Dobb. London: Lawrence & Whishart. George Dalton (February 1961). "Economic theory and primitive society". American Anthropologist, LXIII, no. 1, 125. Wallerstein, I (1980.) The Modern World-System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600-1750. New York: Academic Press.

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Palma, G. (1978); ..Dependency: A Formal Theory of Underdevelopment or Methodology for the analysis of concrete situation of underdevelopment. In third world development, 6, 1978 Rodney, W. (1976) How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Dar-es-Salaam: TPH, Szentes, T. (1971), The Political Economy of Underdevelopment, Budapest: Akadenia Kindo Onimode, B. (1988), A Political Economy of the African Crisis, London: Zed Books Cliffe, L., (ed), (1967); One-party Democracy: The 1965 Tanzania General Election. Mpangala, G.P. (1992); The Crisis of African Democracy as underlying Factor for the Multi-party movement in Africa. In Hunter J. and C. Lombard (eds) (1992); Multi-party Democracy, Civil Society and Economic Transformation in Southern Africa. Slcar, R., (1991); African Politics and Problems in Development. Tordoff, W., (1992); Government and Politics in Africa. Gould, G., (2005); The Politics of Poverty Reduction Strategies. Hakikazi, (2005); Growing out of Poverty. A Plain language guide to Tanzanias National Strategy for growth and reduction of poverty (NSGRP). URT (1998); The national Poverty Eradication Strategy. Vice presidents office, Dar es salaam, Tanzania. URT (2005); Poverty and Human Development Report. UN (2001); United Nations Development Assistance Framework: Tanzania, 2002-2006. Bagachwa eds (1994); Poverty Alleviation in Tanzania Shah, A. (2002); Causes of Poverty. From http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Poverty.asp Newman, J.L., Matzke, G.E., (1984); Population, Patterns, Dynamics and Prospects. Englewood Cliff, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Cliffe, L., (ed), (1967); One-party Democracy: The 1965 Tanzania General Election.

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Newman, J.L., Matzke, G.E., (1984); Population, Patterns, Dynamics and Prospects. Englewood Cliff, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

6.0 PROGRAMME CONTENT CERTIFICATE COURSE IN DISTANCE EDUCATION (OCC) 6.1 OCC 001: INTRODUCTION TO DISTANCE EDUCATION

6.1. 1.Course Description This is a one unit course which introduces students into the origins and development of distance education as a teaching and learning methodology; its use and impact in different countries, both developed and developing. Similarly, the Course explores the scope of education and training programmes in distance education. 6.1.2. Course Objectives At the end of this course learners will be to be able to: i) Explain the origins and development of distance education as a teaching and learning methodology. (ii) Describe the extent of the use and impact of distance education in the provision of education and training opportunities in different countries. (iii)Describe characteristics of distance learners and their motivational orientations. (iv)Advise on how distance learning may be improved for efficient and effective impact, particularly in developing countries in general and Tanzania in particular. 6.1.3. Expected Outcomes At the end of the course learners are expected to have: acquired a fair grasp of the origins and development of distance education; an assessment of its impact on the provision of education and training opportunities; a description of profiles of distance learners and their motivational orientations, and ability to plan and design efficient and effective distance education programmes. 6.1.4. Course Content: 1. 2. 3. 4. Origins and Development of Distance Education. The Scope of Distance Education. Distance Learners. Distance Learning in Developing Countries.

6.1.5. References:

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"Distance Education Studies in Eastern and Southern Africa (DESESA) Project, Tanzania National Research Team Report", Dar es Salaam. Chale, E.M (1983) "Teaching and Training in Tanzania" Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of London Institute of Education. Ibid (1996) " Policies, Planning and Management of Distance Education Institutions in Tanzania" in Huria Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Volume I No.1 Coombs, P and Ahmed, M (1974) Attacking Rural Poverty: How NonFormal Education Can Help, Johns Hopkins Univeristy Press, Baltimore. Erdos, R (1967) Teaching by Correspondence, Longmans, London. Holmberg, B (1988) Perspectives of Research on Distance Education, ZIFF, Hagen. Institute of Adult Education (1970) "NCI Plan of Operations for the First Five Years" International Extension College (lEC) and University of London (1991) The Development of Distance Education, London. Inquai, S and Thomas, J H (1992) Report on a Short-Term Planning Consultancy to the South African Extension Unit (SAEU) on Behalf of the Commonwealth Secretariat 22/July13/August, 1992, International Extension College, London. Kabwasa, A and Kaunda, M M (Eds) (1973) Correspondence Education in Africa, Longmans, London. Kilato, N (1997) "Factors Influencing Women Enrolment in Distance Education: A case Study of the Open University of Tanzania" Unpublished MA Dissertation, University of Dar es salaam. Ligate, N E (1994) "Distance Education in Tanzania: State of the Art and Some Recommendations in Addressing Future National and Sub-Regional Needs", Paper Presented at the UNESCO Sub-Regional Seminar on Distance Education, Dar es Salaam. Mackenzie, 0 and Christensen, E.L (Eds) (1971) The Changing World of Correspondence Study, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. Mahlck, Land Temu, E. B.(1989)" Distance Version College Trained Primary School Teachers: A Case Study From Tanzania," International Institute for Educational Planning, Paris. Masumbu, F.H (1997) "Trends of Distance Education in Malawi," Paper Presented at the National Forum on Distance Education, Dar es salaam. 117

Bisimba, H. K (1994)

Matshazi, M. J. (1992) "Human Aspects of Distance Teaching Technology," Paper Presented at the Workshop on Distance Education Technology for Educational Accessibility, Harare, Zimbabwe Ministry of Education (1990) Report of the Committee on the Establishment of an Open Univeristy in Tanzania, Government Printer, Dar es Salaam. Ministry of Education and Culture (1998) Status Report on District Based Support to Primary Education (DBSPE) Dar es Salaam. 68 Murphy, P & Zhiri, A (Eds) (1992) Distance Education in Anglophone Africa: Experience with Secondary Education and Teacher Training, The World Bank, Washington DC. NCI (1990) "Annual Report of the National Correspondence Institution Dar es Salaam. OUT (1997) Newsletter, Issue No. 21 Ibid (1998) Newsletter, Issue No. 22 Perraton, H (1982) "The National Correspondence College and Its Costs", International Extension College, Cambridge. SAEU (1993) "Tutors, and Learners ' Workshop Materials", Dar es Salaam. Ibid (1994) Newsletter, Issue NO.1 Siaciwena, R.C (1981) "Secondary Education by Correspondence in Zambia. The Role of the National Correspondence College" in Zambia Educational Review 3: 1.

6.2 OCC 002: DISTANCE EDUCATION MEDIA 6.2.1 Course Description Distance Education Media is a one unit course that introduces learners to a description of media employed in instructional delivery and their features; generations of distance education models; media selection and combination, and an appropriate distance education model for developing countries. 6.2.2 Objectives At the end of this course learners will be to be able to: (i) Identify distance education media and explain their characteristic features. (ii) Define generations of distance education models. (iii) Relate distance education programmes to appropriate generations of distance education models. (iv) Explain factors influencing decisions on media selection in distance education.

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(v) Advise on media combination in a distance education programme in order to improve the process of materials delivery and students' learning. (vi) Outline characteristic features of developing countries. (vii) Recommend an appropriate distance education model for developing countries. (viii) Carry out the basic functions in developing printed, recorded and broadcast course materials.

6.2.3 Expected Outcomes: After studying this course students are expected to be able to offer a comprehensive and fair description of media employed in instructional delivery and their features; generations of distance education models; media selection and combination, and an appropriate distance education model for developing countries. They should also be able to develop printed, recorded and broadcast course materials. 6.2.4. Course Content 1. Distance Education Media and their Features. 2. Evolution of Distance Education Media. 3. Media Combination. 4. Appropriate Distance Education Model for Developing Countries. 5. Course Development. 6.2.4 References

Bates, A.W. (1990), Application of New Technologies (Including Computers) in Distance Education: Implications for the Training of Distance Educators, in Jenkins, J (Ed), Perspectives on Distance Education, Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver. Fagerlind, I. and Saha L. (1980), Education and National Development, Pergamon Press, Oxford Fletcher, R (1976), Evolutionary and Developmental Sociology in Rex, J (Ed), Approaches to Sociology, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. Garforth, C (1992), Communication Through the Media in International Extension College and University of London, Adult Learning and Communication in Distance Education, London. Illich, I (1971) Deschooling Society, Calder and Broyars, London. Jenkins, J (1981), Materials for Learning: How to Teach Adults at a Distance, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London Ibid (1985) Course Development, International Extension College, London Laaser, W (1987) Course Development: From Planning to Print Paper Presented at the Workshop on Materials Design, University of Nairobi. Matiru, I. B. and Gachuhi, D (1987) Active Learning, Paper Presented at the Workshop on Materials Design, University of Nairobi.

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Rowntree, D (1990), Teaching Through Sef Instruction: How to Develop Open Learning Materials, Kogan Page, London. Thomas, J (1991) Media Patterns and Combinations) in International Extension Colllege and University of London, The Development of Distance Education, London. Yates, C (1993) Information Technology in Distance Education in International Extension College and University of London, The Management and Organization of Distance Education, London

6.3

OCC 003: STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION Course Description The course introduces learners to the need, nature and content of support services provided to distance education students; factors which determine provision and application of support services; print as a lead medium in distance education, and recommended standards for course tutoring in the specific areas of marking, commenting and record keeping. As provision of support services is both an indispensable and a costly activity in distance education, the course provides knowledge and skills on costing in distance education in order to ensure efficient and effective management of support services.

6.3.1

6.3.2 Course Objectives The course aims at enabling learners to: (i) List down support services provided to distance education students. (ii) Explain the need for and extent to which support services can be provided to distance education students. (iii) Organise tutorial sessions. (iv) Set standards for course tutors in marking, commenting, tutoring and record-keeping. (v) Calculate costs in distance education.

6.3.3

Expected Outcomes After completing this course students will have acquired sufficient knowledge on the need, nature and content of support services provided to distance education students; factors which determine provision and application of support services; print as a lead medium in distance education, and recommended standards for course tutoring in the specific areas of marking, commenting and record keeping. They should also carry out costing tasks in distance education in order to ensure efficient and effective management of support services.

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6.3.4.

Course Content 1. Student Support Services in Distance Education. 2. Distance Education Tutorials. 3. Psychology and human development; 4. Emotions and personality; 5. Psychological intervention mechanisms used to address learners special needs

6.3.5. References Beyth-Maron, R. Ellis, and Ganor, M (1988), "Tutor and Course Coordinator Hierarchical Relationship and Mutual Perceptions" in D. Sewart and J S Daniel (Eds) Developing Distance Education, Oslo, ICDE. Brookfield, D (1986) Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning, Open University Press, Milton Keynes. Commonwealth of Learning and the International Extension College (1997)" Leamer Support in Distance Education Trainers' Kit", Vancouver. Erdos, R (1967) Teaching by Correspondence, Longmans, London. Hancock, G F (1997) "Students Support," Paper Presented at the Malawi Distance Education Review Workshop, Lilongwe. Holmberg, B (1977) Distance Education: A Survey Bibliography, Kogan Page, London. Ibid (1985) Status and Trends of Distance Education, Kogan Page, London. Keegan, D (1986) The Foundation of Distance Education, Crom Helm, London. Lewis, R (1984) "How to Tutor and Support Learners" in Open Learning Guide 3, Council of Educational Technology, London. Ligate, N E (1997) "Essence of Tutor-Marked Assignments (TMAs) in Distance Education", Paper Presented at the Seminar on Marking of Assignments, Tests for Distance Learners, Open University of Tanzania, 22-23 May, 1997. Nyirenda, J (1989) "Organisation of Distance Education at the University of Zambia. An Analysis of the Practice "in Distance Education, Vo1.1 0 No.1. Ntirukigwa, E (1980) "The Role of Distance Education in In-service Teacher Education and Training", Paper Presented at the NCI Annual Tutors Conference, Dar es Salaam. Orivel, F (1987) Analysing Costs in Distance Education Systems: A Methodological Approach, lREDU, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon. Perraton, H (1984) Training Teachers at a Distance, Commonwealth Secretariat, London.

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Reuben, N Z (1996) "The Dilemma of Students' Support Services in Distance Education" in Manohar, K M (Ed) Distance Education Theory and Practice Curriculum Planning and Course Develop ment, Open .Learning Society, Hyderabad. Rumble, G (1991) "Economics of Distance Education" In International Extension College (lEC) and Univeristy of London, The Development of Distance Education, London. SAEU (1993) "Teaching Strategies in Distance Education (Marking, Commenting and Tutoring)", Workshop Guide. Sewart, D (1993) "Student Support Systems in Distance Education" in Open Learning, Vo1.8 No.3. Siaciwena, R M C (1996) "An Evaluation of Tutor-Marked Assignments at the University of Zambia" in Huria Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Volume I No. I. 6.4 6.4.1 OCC 004: DISTANCE EDUCATION MANAGEMENT Course Description The course aims at assisting learners to understand and follow recommended procedures in the process of setting up a distance education system in order to address identified educational and training needs. Furthermore, the course exposes learners to specific management knowledge and skills for print, broadcast, recorded, ICTs and face to face support media. Finally, the course discusses the unique role and importance of carrying out regularly research and evaluation in distance education. 6.4.2 Objectives At the end of this course you should be able to:

(i) Outline and explain management issues in distance education. (ii) Design a distance education system. (iii) Identify distinct features in managing print, broadcast, recorded and occasional face to face programmes. (iv) Carry out evaluation and other research tasks in distance education. 6.4.3 Expected Outcome After completing the course, learners are expected to identify and follow systematically, recommended procedures in designing and setting up a distance education system in order to address identified educational and training needs; demonstrate mastery and ability to apply specific management knowledge and skills for managing print, broadcast, recorded, ICTs and face to face support media. They should also be able to carry out regularly research and evaluation in distance education.

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6.4.4

Course Content 1. Establishing a Distance Education System. 2. Management Issues in Distance Education. 3. Management of Media. 4. Evaluation and Research in Distance Education. References

6.4.5

Calvert, J and Warr, D (1991) "Research and Evaluation in Distance Education" in University of London and International Extension College, Development of Distance Education, London. Chale, E M ( 1996) "Policies, Planning and Management of Distance Education Institutions in Tanzania" in Huria Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. I, No.1. Commonwealth of Learning (COL) and International Extension College (IEC) (1997) "Leamer Support in Distance Education Trainer's Kit Pilot Version" (Mimeo). Guy, R (1990) "Research and Distance Education in Third World Contexts" in Evans, T (Ed) Research in Distance Education, Institute of Distance Education, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. Holt, D.M. (1985) "Critical Issues in Evaluating Learning Material" in Open Campus, No. 11. Jenkins, J (1993) "Developing Texts" in University of London and International Extension College, The Management and Organisation of Distance Education, London. Meed, J (1993) "Editing" in Ibid Mitton, R (1982) Practical Research in Distance Teaching: A Handbook for Developing Countries, International Extension College, Cambridge. Mmari, G R V (1996) "Managing Distance Education into the 21 st Century Beyond Conventional Boundaries" Paper Presented at the Distance Education Association of Tanzania (DEATA) Inaugural Workshop, Dar es Salaam. Parer, M(1993) "Managing Course Development" in University of London and International Extension College, op.cit. SAEU (1990) Annual Report of the Activities of the South African Extension Unit 1989/90, Dar es Salaam. Seligman, D (1993) "Managing Educational Television and Video" in University of London and International Extension College, op.cit. Thomas, J (1993) "Managing Radio and Audio" in Ibid.

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PROGRAMME CONTENT/COURSE OUTLINES CYP DIPLOMA 6.1 Module 1: Learning Processes 6.1.1 Introduction

The ability to learn is the most marked trait of human beings as it takes place throughout life in different ways and in different contexts. Its almost impossible to stop people learning, in some form or other, all the time. This is very useful for youth development workers. Learning is a powerful tool that we can use deliberately to improve knowledge and enhance skills. If you can direct learning along appropriate channels, then you will accelerate the process and help young people to develop very rapidly. The aim of this module is to introduce students to the ideas and practices of learning that are relevant to youth development work. 6.1.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: explain the ideas and practices of learning that are relevant to youth development work. describe the role of youth development workers as educators, know different theories of learning and their influences. know different ways in which people learn and know the factors that inhibit or facilitate learning, practise experiential learning as a method that is appropriate to youth development workers, examine appropriate strategies for face-to face work with young people and adults. 6.1.3 Module learning outcomes 6.1,3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module they should be able to: identify and discuss key theories of learning outline the principles of adult learning and the characteristics of adult learners give an overview of important psychological and philosophical principles relevant to education for all and youth development work describe the characteristics of informal education and apply this knowledge to youth development work, identify factors that help and factors that hinder peoples learning, particularly in informal settings explain what is meant by experiential learning.

6.1.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module they should be able to: describe their own and other peoples learning style(s) and mode of intelligence, devise effective strategies for learning with a range of individuals and groups in youth development work, make use of the techniques of informal and experiential learning in youth development work enable other people to make use of these techniques in youth development work. 6.1.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into seven units. Unit 1 What is learning? This unit offers students with the opportunity to explore what learning is. It introduces them to the main theories of learning and describes how learning takes place.

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Unit 2 How adults learn This unit will help students to understand how adults learn and the factors that have to be considered when dealing with adult learners. Unit 3 Education for all This unit focuses on describing some of the philosophical and psychological aspects of learning that support the principle of equal education for all. Students will also learn about the role of the facilitator and youth development worker in adult learning. Unit 4 Informal education In this unit students will learn about different learning settings, focusing on informal learning. They will also look at the agents of learning and how informal learning can take place in formal institutions. Unit 5: What helps and what hinders learning? While the first four units focus more on the positive aspects of learning, this unit introduces students to some of the factors that can either help or hinder learning. They will learn how to cope with and manage these factors, which can be environmental or personal. Unit 6: Learning styles In this unit students will be introduced to different modes of intelligence and different learning and training styles, and to the importance of adapting learning methods to suit them. Unit 7: Facilitating adult learning In this unit students will learn about the crucial importance of learners participating in all aspects of planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adult learning programmes. They will also explore strategies for adult learning.

6.1.5 REFERENCES Freire, P. (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Penguin Whitehead A. N. (1929 ) The Aims of Education and other essays, Macmillan, New York

6.2 MODULE 2: Young People and Society 6.2.1 Introduction This module is designed to help students understand some of the theoretical background of youth development work, so that they can relate what they are doing to the social context in which they are working as young people and have roles and responsibilities. These responsibilities are different in each society, yet particular aspects are common across most societies. This module examines: how young people are seen in various societies, and from different sociological perspectives the range of definitions of youth, adolescence and family along with the problems and issues facing young people and the societies in which they live. 6.2.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: describe the range of definitions of youth, adolescence and family

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explain how young people are seen in various societies, and from different sociological perspectives know the problems and issues facing young people and the societies in which they live. 6.2.3 Module learning outcomes . 6.2.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module, they should be able to: describe the experience of growing up as a young woman or as a young man, and the different perceptions held by young people and adults outline and give a critique of different theories of adolescence analyse the position of young people in the society discuss the influence of family, peers and community on individuals and groups know the range of social contexts as they relate to young people in their region compare the ways in which different social and cultural traditions treat young people. 6.2.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module, they should also be able to: work in a way that is sensitive to social and cultural traditions identify situations in which they need to adapt your practice to take account of different social and cultural traditions communicate the knowledge to young people and adults in a way that is accessible to them. 6.2.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into four units. Unit 1: Ways of seeing young people This unit will help students to define key concepts and to examine three approaches to the study of society. They will also look at the ways in which different cultures perceive young people. Unit 2: Adolescence In this unit, students will look at the concept of adolescence and how it varies in different cultures. Unit 3: Young people and the family In this unit, students will examine types of families and the roles and responsibilities of family members, including young people. Unit 4: Young people and social issues In this unit, students will look at some of the ways in which a society deals with its young people. They will also analyse important issues that are affecting todays youth.

6.2.5 REFERENCES NSO National Statistics Office 1991, Vanuatu national population census May 1989: Main report, Vanuatu National Statistics Office, Port Vila. 1996, Small Business and Informal Sector Surveys 1995, Vanuatu National Statistics Office, Port Vila. 1999a, 1999 Vanuatu national population and housing census: Main report, Vanuatu National Statistics Office, Port Vila.

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1999b, Vanuatu Household Income and Expenditure Survey Tabulation Report, Vanuatu National Statistics Office, Port Vila. 2000, Vanuatu 2000 labour market survey report, Vanuatu National Statistics Office, Port Vila. 6.3 MODULE 3: Principles and Practice of Youth Development Work. 6.3.1 Introduction This module is designed to introduce students to a range of different approaches to working with young people. This will enable students to develop their insight and skill by allowing them to draw on a rich frame of reference. This module will cover six broad areas: History and traditions of youth development work, Models and approaches to youth development work, The practical settings of youth development work, Face-to-face practical skills when working with groups and Individuals. 6.3.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: explain about the history and traditions of youth development work, know the models and approaches to youth development work, know the practical settings of youth development work, practise Face-to-face skills when working with groups and Individuals, know the role of youth development workers, have the professional conduct. 6.3.3 Module learning outcomes . 6.3.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module they should be able to: briefly describe, in their own words, the history and position of youth development work in the Commonwealth and in their country, explain the important factors that have affected youth development work and that influence current trends, delineate the professional role of the youth worker, describe how inequality affects different groups of young people and discuss the role of youth development work in intervention, highlight the importance of CYPs work, in particular its mission statements, how it is organised and its priority areas of work, describe how young people can act as agents of change.

6.3.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module they should be able to: demonstrate how certain projects have empowered young people and contributed to community and/or national development, analyse their own youth work practice in terms of the history of this sort of work in their country, work effectively with young people and adults in enabling them to improve the quality of their lives,

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address professional dilemmas in youth development work and in particular prioritise the use of time and resources, deal effectively with a range of types of oppression encountered in your work.

6.3.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into six units. Unit 1: Youth development work: history andtraditions This unit introduces students to the history and traditions of youth development work. Unit 2: Youth development work; models and approaches This unit introduces four important models of youth development work. Unit 3: Youth work practice This unit introduces the various kinds of youth development work that are practised. Unit 4: Face-to-face skills In this unit, students will learn techniques of working with young people individually and in groups. Unit 5: Social change or social control This unit examines the role of youth development workers. Unit 6: Professional conduct In this unit, students will examine their own principles and practice as a youth development worker.

6.3. 5 REFERENCES Islam, N. (1999) Reflections on democracy and development in Bangladesh, Journal of Bangladesh Studies, December,http://www.aedsb.org/JBS1art1.doc. Shishu Adhikar Sangjog (2001) Child rights: Reality and challenges, the British Council, Dhaka.

6.4 MODULE 4: Working With People in Their Communities 6.4.1 Introduction In this module, students will explore what is currently understood about the most appropriate knowledge and skills required for working successfully with young people in groups and reflect on the successes and difficulties. Students will study how other people have worked in communities and the theories about their work. Students will learn about community development work plans, and how to make it and implement them. 6.4.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: study how other people have worked in communities, and their theories about their work. explore the theory and practice of community development,

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learn about community development work plans, and how to make and implement them. examine the characteristics of an effective group leader. 6.4.3 Module learning outcomes 6.4.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module they should be able to: recognise several useful models for analysing human behaviour and individual differences identify the nature of group dynamics and the roles adopted by individuals in groups acknowledge your own preferred roles within group situations be familiar with key concepts in community development. 6.4.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module they should be able to: work effectively as a member of a group take on a variety of roles in a group, including leadership and advocacy know how to develop your own skills in facilitating a group use the techniques of community development create effective planning strategies and develop community profiles, social community personal plans promote the participation of young women and men in community activities 6.4,5 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into four units: Unit 1: Working with young people In this unit, students will be introduced to the different concepts associated with community, community development and community work. Unit 2: Getting going in the community This unit looks at the process of entering the community and the agency. It addresses the importance of planning students work and provides guidelines for developing community profiles as well as work plans. Unit 3: Worker roles and methods In this unit, students will examine and discuss the various roles played by the community worker. You will also look at forms of participation, as well as techniques that may be used to promote participation when working with a community or group. In addition, you will explore the stages in the development of groups and identify some activities that may be used to promote good group processes. Unit 4: Moving to the next stage This unit provides you with a brief introduction to social planning and its main elements, then goes on to focus on using networks and partnerships in your work. Finally, you will reflect on the issues that are involved in the processes of ending your involvement in a programme / project. 6.4.5 REFERENCES CYP/UNICEF (2003) Booklet 1: Participation in the Second Decade of Life. What and Why, Commonwealth Secretariat, London.

plans and

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Dominelli, L. (1990) Women and Community Action, Venture Press, Birmingham. Ekins, P. and Max-Neef, M. (2000) Real-life Economics: Understanding Wealth Creation, Routledge, London and New York. Available as an ebookat http://www.ebookmall.com/ebook/93819-ebook.htm. Gilchrist A. (2004) The Well-Connected Community A networking approach to community development, The Policy Press, Bristol. Gittel, R. and Vidal, A. (1998) Community Organizing: Building Social Capital as a Development Strategy, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA. Harris, V. (ed.) (2001) Community Work Skills Manual, Association of Community Workers (ACW), Newcastle, UK. Hart, R. (1997) Childrens Participation: The theory and practice of involving young citizens in community development and environmental care, Earthscan, London. Hawtin, M., Hughes, G. and Percy-Smith, J. (1994) CommunityProfiling: Auditing Social Needs, Open University Press, Buckingham. Henderson, P. and Thomas. D.N. (2002) Skills in Neighbourhood Work, 3rd edition, Routledge, London. Hope, A. and Timmel, S. (1995) Training for Transformation: A Handbook for Community Workers, Vols. 1, 2, 3 and 4, 2nd edition, Intermediate Technology Publications, London. Jaques, D. (2000) Learning in Groups, 3rd edition, Kogan Page, London. Jeffs, T. and Smith, M.K. (1999) Informal Education, Education Now, Ticknall, Derbyshire. Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, F.P. (2002) Joining Together, 8th edition, Allyn and Bacon, Needham Heights, MA (see particularly the chapter entitled Leadership). Kindervatter S. (1983) Women Working Together for Personal, Economic and Community Development, OEF International, Washington, DC. Kretzmann, J.P, and McKnight, J.L. (1993) Building Communities from the Inside Out, ACTA Publications, Evanston, IL. Osei-Hwedie, K., Mwansa, L.K. and Mufune, P. (eds.) (1990) Youth and Community Work Practice: Methods, Techniques and Skills, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. Popple, K. (1995) Analysing Community Work, Open University Press, Buckingham. Richardson, L.D. and Wolfe, M. (eds.) (2001) Principles and Practice of Informal Education, Routledge, London. Rpke, I (2005) Consumption in Ecological Economics, entry prepared for the Online Encyclopaedia of Ecological Economics (OEEE), http://www.ecoeco.org/publica/encyc.htm. Rothman, J. (ed.) (1995) Strategies of Community Intervention: Macro Practice, 5th edition, F. E. Peacock Publishers Inc., Itasca, IL. Rubin, H.J. and Rubin, F. (2001) Community Organizing and Development, 3rd edition, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Srinivasan, Lyra (1993) Tools for Community Participation: A Manual for Training Trainers in Participatory Techniques, PROWESS/UNDP, New York. Twelvetrees, A. (2001), Community Work, 3rd edition, Macmillan/ BASW, London. Vella, Jane (1989) Learning to Teach: Training of trainers for community development, Save the Children and OEF International, Washington, DC. Websites Standing Conference for Community Development: http://www.comm-dev.co.uk Community Development Journal: http://www.cdj.oupjournals.org DAWN Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era. This network of women scholars and activists from the South is committed to economic justice, gender justice and democracy: http://www.dawn.org.fj Information on participatory methods and a wide range of links to other websites dealing with participation in the context of integrated conservation and development:

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http://www.iapad.org International Association for Community Development includes a wide range of links with other websites. http://www.iacdglobal.org Infed (informal education) a vast resource that includes valuable material on youth work and community development: http://www.infed.org.uk 6.5 MODULE 5: Gender and Development 6.5.1 Introduction This module explores the theory and practice of how to ensure equal outcomes for young Women and young men. It examines a range of theories and approaches in different development and feminist traditions, and explores the implications for youth development work. It looks at the development issues that affect men and women, and the ways these issues may affect them differently. It examines the concept of gender and development and how this can be applied in projects and practical work. 6.5.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After completion of this course, students are expected to; Explores the theory and practice of how to ensure equal outcomes for young women and young men. examines a range of theories and approaches in different development and feminist traditions, looks at the development issues that affect men and women, examines the concept of gender and development and how this can be applied in projects and practical work. ensure that youth development work and policy, planning and evaluation processes are gendersensitive. 6.5.3 Module learning outcomes6.5.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module they should be able to: discuss a range of gender and feminist theories and approaches within different political, social and cultural traditions give examples of ways in which inequality between women and men manifests itself in the social structure and in social relationships explain the role of gender in development describe the implications of gender issues for the practice of youth development work critically assess current youth services of which they have experience in the light of their learning in this module. 6.5.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module they should be able to: intervene effectively in a range of youth work situations in relation to gender issues construct informal education programmes that focus on gender issues work with both mixed and single sex groups on gender issues make changes in agencies policies and programmes to achieve equality of outcomes for young women and young men.

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6.5.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into five units. Unit 1: Gender issues in youth development work This unit explores the development issues that affect women and men. It examines issues such as life expectancy, population, education, health and youth unemployment. It explains the concept of gender and its use as an analytical tool, and introduces the male marginalisation debate. Unit 2: Inequality and discrimination This unit, looks at the nature of the social and economic differences between men and women and the problems caused by their unequal access to resources. It examines the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) as an approach to tackling inequality and discrimination. Unit 3: The role of gender in development This unit, examines the concept of gender and development (GAD) and theories about womens role in development. It discusses how the concept of gender can be used as a tool in development work. Unit 4: Creating gender awareness This unit focuses on the importance of gender awareness when planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating development projects. It looks at the use of GAD tools in projects. Unit 5: Feminist Theories This unit examines a number of feminist theories including theories developed by women in Western industrialised countries, by black women in industrialised countries and by women in the developing world. It is highlighting the differences between these theories and their implications. The unit ends with activities to devise informal education activities to raise awareness of gender issues among young people. 6.5.5 References Bellamy, C (2003) The State of the Worlds Children 2004: Girls, Education and Development, UNICEF, New York. Bledsoe, C and Cohen, C (eds) (1993) Social Dynamics of Adolescent Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa, National Academic Press, Washington DC. Commonwealth Secretariat (2002) Gender Mainstreaming in HIV/AIDS: Taking a Multisectoral Approach, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. Commonwealth Secretariat (2001) Gender and Relationships: A practical action guide for young people, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. Commonwealth Secretariat and Commonwealth of Learning (2004) The GMS Toolkit: An Integrated Resource for Implementing the Gender Management System Series, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. Gender cide Watch http://www.gendercide.org/case_infanticide.html. Gittings, J (2002) Growing Sex Imbalance Shocks China, The Guardian, 13 May. Jackson, C (2006) Lads and Ladettes in School: Gender and a Fear of Failure, Open University Press, Maidenhead. Moran, C (2006) How can we cure sexism? Limit the supply of women, The Times (UK) 3 April. UNAIDS (2004) Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2004: 4th Global Report, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva. UNAIDS/WHO (2006) AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2006, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS/ World Health Organization, Geneva.

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UNESCO (2005) EFA Global Monitoring Report 2006: Literacy for Life, UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (1995) Educating Girls and Women in Africa, UNESCO, Paris. UNFPA (2004) State of the Worlds Population 2005, United Nations Population Fund, New York. United Nations (2005) World Youth Report 2005, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York. United Nations (2000) The Worlds Women 2000: Trends and Statistics, United Nations, New York. United Nations (1995) The Worlds Women 1995: Trends and Statistics, United Nations, New York. 6.6 MODULE 6: Commonwealth Values 6.6.1 Introduction This module has two goals. The first is to introduce students to a set of values that have come to underpin the Commonwealth human rights, equity, democracy, pluralism, citizenship, participation and empowerment. This module will help students to develop their understanding of the specific ideas that underpin these terms. The second goal is to introduce students to the Commonwealth as an international organisation: how it evolved, how it is structured, and what it is trying to achieve. 6.6.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: understand the meaning of the Commonwealth human rights, equity, democracy pluralism, citizenship, participation and empowerment in the context of youth development work, understand the Commonwealth as an international organization made up of voluntary association of sovereign, independent states, understand how it was evolved, how it is structured, and what it is trying to achieve. understand the Commonwealth is a political and cultural organisation which is guided by a philosophy based on certain key values and principles. 6.6.3 Module learning outcomes 6.6.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module they should be able to: describe the origins of the Commonwealth, and key events in its history since formation demonstrate a clear understanding of Commonwealth values and principles, and provide examples of how they are put into practice. explain elements of democratic theory and human rights philosophy and practice, and identify the mechanisms through which different rights are protected in democratic systems, give examples of how to apply these principles in your work with young women and men, describe the value of the diverse cultures and traditions embraced by the Commonwealth. 6.6.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module they should be able to: undertake activities to help young people understand the principles that underpin Commonwealth values develop programmes of activity which enable young people to acquire skills and experience in citizenship, and effective participation in public affairs operate different styles of democratic and participatory decision making, in particular consensual styles. As further outcomes, when students have completed this module, they will have undergone a

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process of examining and clarifying their own values. They may also experience certain positive changes in their attitudes. feel positively about cultural diversity and see diversity as something to be celebrated, rather than ignored or feared, develop the ability to accept that your perspectives need not always be the correct ones have an attitude of openness: to search for ways and means to promote and cross-fertilise the values you see among different individuals and sub-groups. be honest with yourself, and able to work to ensure that there is no gap between what you preach and what you practice. be aware of any clarifications in your values and to reflect on them. 6.6.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into four units. Unit 1: Introducing Commonwealth values and structures This unit explores the origins and evolution of the Commonwealth and examines Commonwealth principles and values. It looks at the impact of these values both for the Commonwealth as an association, and also for the global community. This unit also explores how these values are put into practice through the work of the Commonwealth. It introduces the concepts of consensus decision-making, co-operation and consultation, which form the heart of how the Commonwealth works. These processes will be discussed with reference to the structure of the Commonwealth, and the operation of the Heads of Government Meetings and the Secretariat. The latter part of this Unit relates citizenship to Commonwealth values. Unit 2: Human Rights: universal values This unit introduces human rights both as a philosophy and in practice. It outlines different categories of human rights and discusses a number of important international human rights instruments, including the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights and key Commonwealth human rights documents. Unit 3: Democratic values and structures This unit presents democracy both as a style of government and a set of values including pluralism and diversity, citizenship and respect for human rights. The issue of rights versus responsibilities is debated. Democracy as a style of government is explained, and several of the ways the Commonwealth Secretariat supports democratic cultures in member countries are examined. Finally, three different styles of decisionmaking are outlined. Unit 4: Commonwealth values and youth development The final unit in this module explores participation and empowerment and discusses how these can be facilitated in decision making. Barriers to participation in group projects are examined, and working with democratic styles of leadership, in particular through consensus, is suggested as a way to encourage youth empowerment. 6.6.5 REFERENCES Commonwealth Secretariat (1995) Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme on the Harare Declaration, available from the Templates section of the Secretariat website at: www.thecommonwealth.org (Accessed 23/2/07.) Commonwealth Secretariat (2002) C21 Citizens: Young People in a Changing Commonwealth, August 2002

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Gastil, J. (1993) Democracy in Small Groups: Participation, Decision Making and Communication, New Society Publishers, Philadelphia Jagan, C. (1997) The West on Trial My Fight for Guyanas Freedom (new edition) Hansib Publishing (Caribbean) Ltd Lukes, S. (1974) Power: a Radical View, Macmillan Merrifield, J. (2001) Learning Citizenship, Occasional Paper No.1 from the Citizens and Governance Programme, Commonwealth Foundation, January 2001 Ntsebeza, L. (2003) Democracy in South Africas Countryside: Is there a role for traditional authorities? http://www.interfund.org.za/pdffiles/vol4_one/democracy%20in%2 0SAs%20countryside.pdf Sen, A. (n.d.) Democracy as a Universal Value, Journal of Democracy, Volume 10 (3) pp. 317 World Commission on Culture and Development (1995) Our Creative Diversity: The Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development, UNESCO, Paris 6.7 MODULE 7: Management Skills. 6.7.1 Introduction Welcome to Module 7 Management Skills. This module focuses on the full range of management roles and tasks that students, as youth development workers, may need to perform and about which they will need to know. The module is exploring the concept of management and the theories thereby informing the practices of management. It then focuses on showing you how students can manage both the resources and the staff they are responsible for in order to complete the tasks they need to manage, and it also guides them through the management of organisational development and change. 6.7.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: explore the concept of the theories and the practices of management. Show how the Commonwealth youths can manage both the resources in order to complete the tasks they need to manage, and it also guides them through the management of organisational development and understand the key management processes 6.7.3 Module learning outcomes 6.7.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module they should be able to: demonstrate awareness and commitment to the management tasks that are important in the delivery of youth development work identify and discuss the key theories, approaches and styles that inform the practice of contemporary management, particularly in the not-for-profit sector outline key areas and processes of management, such as organisational change, staff development, monitoring of expenditure and budgetary control, project management, critical path analysis and management of information and communication technology relate theories and approaches of management to the principles and practice of youth development work, in order to ensure that their management style is appropriate distinguish the roles and organisational characteristics of non governmental organisations (NGOs) and non-NGOs.

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6.7.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module they should be able to: manage a discrete project from inception to completion within an agreed time-scale supervise and support a team of volunteer and/or paid staff work within the principles of financial accountability, including budgeting and financial management contribute effectively to job, organisational and personal development work collaboratively with other agencies produce basic business written communication products such as reports, letters of complaint and memoranda. . 6.7.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into seven units. Unit 1: Management an overview This unit examines the key principles of management, some of the key management theories and different management styles. You will look at management processes and the various roles that managers play, and put these in a youth work context. Special emphasis is placed on participation. Unit 2: Managing in the not-for-profit sector This unit discusses development and the role of the not-for-profit sector, its characteristics and the concept of voluntarism. The unit ends by looking at the particular characteristics of NGOs, relating these to management issues and then exploring issues around the monitoring and control of NGOs. Unit 3: Managing work Unit 3 examines skills-oriented aspects of management. The unit discusses the nine critical management skills and how it can manage the time and work. Unit 4: Managing youth development work Unit 4 explores the management tasks and roles of a typical youth development worker and provides guidelines on how to carry out these tasks and roles in the work. This unit also focuses on the practical skills that is used in day-to-day management, including project management systems, critical path analysis and budgeting.

Unit 5: Managing human resources Unit 5 explores issues related to the management of staff. It also examines the critical management tools that will help both manager and staff to work effectively.

Unit 6: Managing organisational change This unit discusses the need for organisational change and examines types and dimensions of change, as well as the process. It also highlights two main approaches to change and explores problems that youth work organisations experience both in the developing and the developed world and suggests strategies you can use for tackling those problems, including action learning.

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6.7.5 REFERENCES References Arnove, R.F. (1982) Philanthropy and cultural imperialism, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. Cassen, R. and Associates (1982) Does aid work? Clarendon Press, Oxford. Clark, J. (1991) Democratizing Development, Earthscan, London. Gorman, R.F. (1984) Private voluntary organisations as agents of development. Westview Press, Colorado. Korten, D.C. and Klauss, R. (1984) People-centred development, Kumarian Press, Connecticut. Tendler, J. (1982) Programme evaluation discussion paper no. 12, US Agency for International Development, Washington. Van der Kooy, R.J.W. (1990) Development in Southern Africa, Programme for development research. Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria. 6.8 MODULE 8: Project Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation 6.8.1 Introduction This module introduces students to the practices that have built up around the design and management of projects. What is presented here will give you a general overview of project work which will help students develop the knowledge and skills necessary to plan, design, implement, monitor and evaluate projects in youth in development programme. 6.8.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After completion of this course, students are expected to; solve very specific project problems learn certain techniques to ensure project quality. develop the knowledge in the management of projects learn on how to plan, design, implement, monitor and evaluate projects of youth in development programme. decide whether a project could address a particular issue or set of circumstances identify and analyse the projects context, draft and design a project based upon situational analysis, develop a logical framework for managing the project, the writing of project documents, including proposals for accessing funding organize and implement project activities, monitor and evaluate projects in relation to plans for project implementation 6.8.3 Module learning outcomes 6.8.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module they should be able to: identify activities involved in project planning, monitoring and evaluation, describe procedures of situational and stakeholder analysis, outline the process of preparing a monitoring and evaluation procedure, write a proposal for funding, including logframes. 6.8.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module they should be able to:

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identify activities involved in project planning, monitoring and evaluation, conduct situational analysis, conduct stakeholder analysis, plan projects on the basis of a logical framework, prepare a detailed project proposal with clear aims and objectives and realistic methods of achieving them write and present proposals for funding from different sources create systems for monitoring and evaluating projects. 6.8.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into six units. Unit 1: Introduction to project planning This unit gives an overview of the different tasks that are involved in the design, development and implementation of a project. It starts by defining what a project is and goes on to identify some of the stages and processes and also the kinds of people who might be involved. Unit 2: Situational and stakeholder analysis Unit 2 examines the tasks that surround the first steps in designing and developing a project plan. It looks at the methods known as situational and stakeholder analysis, and the various tools and techniques involved, including Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Unit 3: The logframe While various methods of structuring project plans and documentation have been developed over the last decade or so, it has become increasingly clear that a method such as logframe analysis is crucial to ensuring that projects can be properly designed and implemented. Unit 4: Preparing project proposals This unit looks at the issues to consider in developing project documentation and how to develop a project proposal step-by-step. It stresses the importance of documentation, not only for planning but also to ensure successful implementation. Unit 5: Organising for implementation Here we examine the important area of how to organise a project for implementation. We discuss different project infrastructures and effective group structures. Unit 5 ends by discussing the important issue of personal accountability. Unit 6: Monitoring and evaluation Unit 6 explains the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) process. It suggests guidelines and systems for effective problem-solving and ways to devise corrective measures when monitoring reveals discrepancies. This unit also explores the important area of evaluating projects and includes a step-by-step guide to the evaluation process.

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6.8.5 REFERENCES IFAD, A Guide for Project M&E., International Fund for Agricultural Development. Available from IFADs publications section at: www.ifad.org/evaluation/guide/ The Office of Learning Technologies, Human Resource Development, Canada (2003) 6.9 MODULE 9: Policy Planning and Implementation 6.9.1 Introduction This module will enable students to develop the skills required to investigate, analyse and influence the policy-making processes that shape welfare services, particularly those that directly affect the quality of young peoples lives. It will focus in particular on the nature and scope of youth policy the common themes that underpin national youth policies and the characteristic tensions within such policies. The relationship between youth policies and the wider policy environment will be considered. The module will also look at the criteria for success or failure of youth policies and the evaluation of their outcomes. 6.9.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: acquire skills required to investigate, analyse and influence the policy-making processes that shape welfare services, understand the nature and scope of youth policy learn about the criteria for success or failure of youth policies and the evaluation of their outcomes. 6.9.3 Module learning outcomes 6.9.3.1 Knowledge When you have worked through this module you should be able to: describe the origins, history and development of youth policies in at least two countries in your region compare and evaluate the similarities and differences between these two countries in regards to youth policies, outline the main themes that underpin the formulation, development and implementation of youth policies, demonstrate a broad awareness of the impact of youth policies on youth development work, evaluate the effectiveness of youth policies. 6.9.3.2 Skills When students have completed this module, they should also have acquired the following skills. They should be able to: contribute to the strategic development of agencies in the youth development field through youth policy development, evaluate the success of such policies through, for example, the use of performance indicators, establish and/or work within partnerships created to achieve key objectives of youth policy at local level, influence policy-making processes in a way that is appropriate to their role.

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6.9.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into six units. Unit 1: What is policy? Unit 1 provides you with the background and underpinning knowledge students need to be able to work through the rest of the units. In this unit they will gain an understanding of what policies are, how they are formulated and why they are necessary. An understanding of the nature of policy should help them to contribute effectively towards formulating the kinds of policies that will positively affect young people in the organisations and communities in which they work or live. Unit 2: Defining social / welfare policy Unit 2 explores definitions of social / welfare policy and explores their relationships with other areas of public policy, particularly that of economic policy. Students will examine the impact that social policies have on social and community development, especially in the area of youth development. This unit will also introducethem to some theories of social policy so that they can understand how certain social policies evolved and developed, especially in their own country. Unit 3: What are welfare services? This unit will focus on welfare policy and services and attempt to explain the difference between welfare policy and social policy. It will also look at the origins of welfare services and the changes of outlook and attitude towards them that have occurred in recent times. Unit 4: Nature and scope of youth policy Unit 4 looks at the nature of youth policies, focusing particularly on their essential qualities. Students will examine the key elements that youth policies from different countries have in common and look at their similarities and differences. Unit 5: Youth policy and the wider policy environment This unit will introduce students to the main elements of a youth policy and how such policies fit into the wider policy environment. They will also learn about the tools used for assessing policies. The purpose of this unit is to help students understand the importance of youth policy in the overall national development efforts of a country. Unit 6: Success and failure In this unit, students will review the elements of a successful policy so as to enable them to examine and assess the ability of your countrys national youth policy to successfully meet the needs of young women and men in your country. This table shows which units cover the different module learning outcomes. 6.9.5 REFERENCES Commonwealth Youth Programme (2000) Youth Policy 2000. Formulating and Implementing National Youth Policies A Commonwealth Handbook, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. Kenyon P. and White S. (1996) National Youth Policies: A collection of Transparencies, IDEAS, Western Australia

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6.10 MODULE 10: Conflict Resolution Strategies and Skills 6.10.1 Introduction This module has been designed to help students understand the nature of conflict and its effects on people in a range of contexts, both at an individual and at a group level. It looks at the processes involved in behaviour that occurs between different groups, called inter-group behaviour, and its potential impact on group members. This module will make students be familiar with techniques designed to facilitate the resolution of conflict, which will improve their ability to work effectively with and through conflict as conflict can lead to both positive and negative outcomes, depending on how it is handled. Throughout the module, students will draw on practical examples from within the Commonwealth that illuminate the theory and practice of mediation and negotiation. 6.10.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: identify a conflict situation and intervene appropriately to control it, assist in resolving young peoples problems and conflicts, understand the nature of conflict and its effects on people in a range of contexts, both at an individual and at a group level, learn techniques designed to facilitate the resolution of conflict, learn the theory and practice of mediation and negotiation, identifying the causes and consequences of conflict. 6.10.3 Module learning outcomes 6.10.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module, they should be able to: identify examples of conflict in the region where they live, understand their origins and describe the course the conflicts have taken recognise the different approaches that have been used in resolving conflict, and the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches apply the insights gained from studying conflict situations to the kinds of conflict that are encountered in youth development work outline the principles and practice of conflict resolution identify inter-group conflict and its underlying causes. 6.10.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module, they should be able to: recognise the existence of pre-conflict and conflict situations when they are encountered in different youth and development settings, apply the theory you have studied to the analysis of conflict situations and assist others to do the same, employ negotiation and mediation skills in bringing together conflicting groups or individuals, consider strategies to resolve conflict when agreement cannot be reached by consensus.

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6.10.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into four units: Unit 1: What is conflict? In this unit students will learn about some of the key theories related to conflict and distinguish between functional and dysfunctional conflict. Unit 2: The conflict process This unit aims to increase students awareness of the sources of conflict and the conflict process. They will learn about the different ways that people deal with conflict. Unit 3: Resolving conflict In this unit, students will learn about techniques designed to resolve conflict between individuals and within groups. Unit 4: Inter-group conflict This unit examines conflict resolution in an inter-group context, and looks at methods for successfully managing inter-group relations. 6.10.5 REFERENCES Hogg, M. and Abrams, D. (eds) (2001) Intergroup Relations: Key Readings in Social Psychology, Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia, PA. Robbins, S., Waters-Marsh, T., Cacioppe, R. and Millett, B. (1994) Organisational Behaviour: Concepts, Controversies, and Applications, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Conflict Research Consortium (2006) http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/index_orig.html (article summary on the internet. 6.11 MODULE 11: Promoting Enterprise and Economic Development 6.11.1 Introduction The purpose of this module is to explore some of the development possibilities of the links between youth work and contemporary economic change. This module describes the skills needed to promote self employment among young women and young men, including the principles of setting up micro-enterprises. Students will explore how aspects of informal education can help young people to develop enterprise skills and undertake enterprise projects 6.11.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: learn about the enterprise and small business which seem to be entering a new phase of development. understanding of the nature of market forces. describe the skills needed to promote self employment explore how aspects of informal education can help young people to develop learn about enterprise skills and undertake enterprise projects

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6.11.3 Module learning outcomes 6.11.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module, they should be able to: identify the different factors that shape and influence current economic development, particularly at a local level, explain the connections between economic development and youth development work, use experiential learning strategies to develop youth enterprise skills, with the aim of promoting local economic development, access the available opportunities for self-employment and identify which agencies support young men and women for this purpose. 6.11.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module, they should also be able to: devise and deliver programmes of informal education for young people to acquire enterprise skills, support young women and young men in setting up small business projects, assist young women and young men to secure resources (grants, credit, specialist expertise, support services etc.) to establish and operate small business projects, contribute entrepreneurial expertise in the development of local economic strategies establish networks with different agencies in this field. 6.11.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into five units. Unit 1: Enterprise and economic development This unit explores some of the theories behind enterprise establishment in developing countries. It gives an overview of global economic developments and their effects on youth enterprise at the local level. Unit 2: Small and informal enterprises This unit looks at enterprise at the local level. It discusses the role of small enterprise and entrepreneurs in developing communities. Unit 2 also examines the changing relationship between public policy and the informal sector of the economy in developing countries. Unit 3: Youth and enterprise This unit takes a practical approach. It examines the barriers in the way of enterprise development at a social and personal level. Checklists and practical activities are provided to help youth develop skills and confidence in creative thinking and risk-taking important elements in enterprise. Unit 4: Planning a micro-enterprise This unit gives detailed guidelines on how to plan and operate a micro-enterprise in the informal sector. It explores the process via an extended case study.

Unit 5: Setting up and operating a small business This unit provides the practical tools required to start up and operate a small formal business enterprise in a local community. It takes the form of a training programme, providing a step-by-step approach to training others to acquire these skills.

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6.11.5 REFERENCES AusAid: http://www.ausaid.gov.au/makediff/whatis.cfm Communicating Development Research. (2007): http://www.id21.org/DfID: http://www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/ Department for International Development (UK). Retrieved August 18, 2006, from: http://www.dfid.gov.uk/casestudies/files/tradematters/obstacles.asp Khouri, R. (2001) Small firms in the age of globalisation. Daily Star Nathanael, G. (2005) Measuring the impact of microfinance: taking stock of what we know, from: http://www.grameenfoundation.org/pubdownload/~pubid=29 Ryan, C. (2006) Youth enterprise and sustainable development Strategic paper for the 6th Commonwealth Youth Ministers Meeting,Commonwealth Secretariat. South Commission. (1990) The Challenge to the South: The Report of the South Commission. Oxford University Press . Todaro, M. P. (1997) Economic Development, Longman. UNDP Commission on the Private Sector and Development (2004). Retrieved from: http://www.undp.org/cpsd/report/index.html Van Rensburg, P. (1978) The Serowe brigades: Alternative education in Botswana. Macmillan, for the Bernard van Leer Foundation. Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. Retrieved http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_development 13 July, 2007 from

6.12 MODULE 12: Youth and Health 6.12.1 Introduction This module starts by defining youth in the context of health. Students also look at some of the contemporary health issues that affect young people, such as nutrition and diet, sexual and reproductive health and drug abuse. Students will look at the differences between the principles of youth development work and those of health professionals and educators, and explore the need for appropriate alliances with health agencies and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The module also looks at how to enable practitioners to recognise the different roles they have, and how to foster effective working relationships. 6.12.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: know that: youth development workers have a key role to play in delivering a holistic services, study about the contemporary health issues that affect young people, such as nutrition and diet, sexual and reproductive health and drug abuse, look at the differences between the principles of youth development work and those of health professionals and educators, explore the need for appropriate alliances with health agencies and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), Looks at how to enable practitioners to recognise the different roles they have, and how to foster effective working relationships.

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6.12.3 Module learning outcomes 6.12.3.1 Knowledge When students have worked through this module, they should be able to: identify the major health issues affecting young people, outline health promotion strategies (particularly preventative strategies), describe the specific role of youth development work in health promotion, describe the roles of other agencies in this field. 6.12.3.2 Skills When you have worked through this module, you should also be able to: acquire appropriate techniques to respond to health issues raised in the course of your youth development work, develop specific programmes of health promotion, use the distinctive methodology of youth development work within the environment of a primary health care agency, work within complex partnerships created to achieve key objectives in the field of health promotion. 6.12.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into six units. Unit 1: Defining youth and health In this unit students will review different approaches to defining youth and examine health-related issues that affect young people and where in the health system youth development workers can most effectively work. The unit also describes the physical and emotional changes that occur during adolescence and reproductive anatomy and physiology.

Unit 2: Involving young people This unit discusses the importance of youth participation in planning and implementing health programmes, the skills young people need to participate and how youth development workers can promote effective programmes. Unit 3: Nutrition This unit will provide students with valuable information about nutrition and diet, for their own understanding and for then to refer to and use in any health prevention or promotion activities that they might wish to facilitate or get involved in.

Unit 4: Sexual and reproductive health This unit discusses health issues such as contraception and abortion. In this unit students will recognise the value of family planning and some of the dangers traditional, cultural practices sometimes cause to the sexual and reproductive health of young people, especially youngv women. Unit 5: STDs and HIV/AIDS

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In this unit students will gain essential knowledge about sexually transmitted (STD) and HIV infections, prevention and counselling. They will also explore the psychological and social issues involved in STDs and HIV/AIDS and identify some of the root causes of the increasing rates of infection and the specific impact on young people. In addition you will learn about approaches to living positively with HIV/AIDS. Unit 6 Mental health and drug abuse In this unit students will learn about why young people use drugs, the health risks associated with drug abuse and how best to intervene. 6.12.5 REFERENCES Amos, A. (1990) How women are targeted by the tobacco industry, in World Health Statistics Quarterly, World Health Organisation, WHO, Geneva. Commonwealth Youth Programme (1995) Youth Health Analysis and Action. Commonwealth Secretariat, London. McKeown, T. and Lowe, C. R. (1974) An Introduction to Social Medicine (2nd edn.) Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. Smyke, P. (1993) Women and Health, Zed Books Ltd., London. Vickers, J. (1991) Women and the World Economic Crisis, Zed Books Ltd., London. World Health Organisation (1978) The International Conference on Primary Health Care., WHO Document 22. Alma Ata, USSR 6-12 September, 1978. Available from: http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf

6.13 MODULE 13: Sustainable Development and Environmental Issues 6.13.1 Introduction The purpose of this module is to increase students knowledge of the sustainable development and environmental issues that affect youth around the world provide them with the skills that will enable them to contribute to positive change in the present state of the environment so as to enable them to lead and support group activities that will help to promote environmentally sustainable development. 6.13.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES After the completion of this course, students are expected to: understand the sustainable development and environmental issues that affect youth around the world, learn various skills that will enable youth to contribute to positive change in the present state of the environment, enable youth to lead and support group activities that will help to promote environmentally sustainable development,

6.13.3 Module learning outcomes 6.13.3.1 Knowledge

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When students have worked through this module they should be able to: outline key concepts related to the natural environment and its associated problems, identify key social, economic and political factors contributing to environmental problems, explain the concept of sustainable development, describe various approaches to environmental protection and sustainable development around the world, evaluate the opportunities and practical approaches provided by a range of agencies. 6.13.3.2 Skills When students have worked through this module they should be able to: lead activities with groups of young people to develop their knowledge and understanding of environmental and sustainable development issues, work with a youth group to design and undertake an environmental/ sustainable developmentrelated project, design a project that gives clear expression to the principles of sustainable development, evaluate projects in terms of their contribution to sustainable development. 6.13.4 COURSE CONTENT This module is divided into four units: Unit 1: Understanding our environment This unit aims to increase student awareness of key concepts related to our natural environment and its associated problems. Unit 2: The social environment and the natural environment In this unit, students will learn about our social environment and its relationship to the natural environment. They will examine some of the socio-economic and political issues that underlie environmental problems. Unit 3: What is sustainable development? In this unit, students will learn about the global call for the need to integrate the issue of the environment with issues of development and the principles of sustainable development. They will also learn about the opportunities for young people to participate in sustainable development activities. Unit 4: Action for sustainable development This unit further examines the meaning of sustainable development in practical activities and projects. 6.13.5 REFERENCES Adds, J. et al (1997) The Organism and the Environment, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, Australia. Aiken, Robert, S. et al (1992) Vanishing Rainforests, the Ecological Transition, Oxford University Press, New York. Barbier, Edward (1992) Community-Based Development in Africa, in Swanson, T. and Barbier, E. (eds.), Economies of the Wild, Island Press, Washington, DC. Beckett, B. S. (1986) Biology: A modern introduction, GCSE edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Beller, W. S. (1986) Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable Development and Environmental Management of Small Islands, 37 November, Humacao, Puerto Rico.

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Berry, R. (1993) Environmental Dilemmas, Ethics and Decisions, Chapman and Hall, UK. Campbell, N.A. and Reece, J.B. (2005) Biology, 7th edition, Pearson/ Benjamin Cummings, New York. Caribbean Conservation Association (1993) Fact Sheet, 4 April, Barbados. Caribbean Conservation Association (1994) Caribbean Conservation News, JuneSeptember, Barbados. Caribbean Conservation Association (1994) Caribbean Conservation News, December, Barbados. Caribbean Conservation Association (1995) Caribbean Conservation News, Issue 1, Barbados. Carson, R. (1962) Silent Spring, Haughton Mifflin, New York. Chambers, R. (1983) Rural Development: Putting the Last First, Pearson Education Limited, Essex. Commonwealth Secretariat (1992) Commonwealth Currents, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. Constanza, N.B.G. (1992) Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management, Island Press, Washington, DC. Dixon, J. (1988) Economic Analysis of the Environmental Impacts of Development Projects, Earthscan, London. Environmental and Coastal Resources Project (ENCORE) (1993) Annual Report, Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, St. Lucia. Gilpin, A. (1996) Dictionary of Environment and Sustainable Development, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Girvan, N. and Simmons, D. A. (1991) Caribbean Ecology and Economics, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Mona andCaribbean Conservation Association, Barbados. Glasson, J, Therivel, R. and Chadwick, R. (1994) Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment, 2nd edition, UCL Press Limited, London. Gribbin, J. (2004) Deep Simplicity, Penguin, London. Griffith, M. and Persaud, B. (1995) Economic Policy and the Environment: The Caribbean Experience, Centre for Environment and Development, University of the West Indies, Jamaica. Gupta, A. (1988) Ecology and Development in the Third World, Routledge, UK. Hanner, S. (1992) Population and the Environment from African Development Review, A Journal of African Development Bank for theStudy and Analysis of Development Issues in Africa, Special Issue on Population Growth and Sustainable Development in Africa, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 118164. Houghton, J. (2004) Global Warming, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. IUCN/UNEP/WWF (1980) The World Conservation Strategy, IUCN, UNEP and WWF, Gland, Switzerland. IUCN/UNEP/WWF (1991) Caring for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable Living, Gland, Switzerland and Earthscan, London. Lele, S.M. (1991) Sustainable development: a critical review, World Development, Vol. 19. No. 6, pp. 607621. Lovelock, J. (2005) Gaia: Medicine for an Ailing Planet, Gaia Books, London. Lovelock, J. (2006) The Revenge of Gaia, Penguin Books, London. Jackson, A. and Jackson, J. (2000) Environmental Science: the natural environment and human impacts, Pearson Education, Harlow. Marval (1994) Journeys, Issue 5, AprilMay, Barbados. JECO (1997) LEcologiste, Vol. 1. No. 1, March, Grenada. McGuffie, K. and Henderson-Sellers, A. (2005) A Climate-Modelling Primer, Wiley, Chichester. Meadows, D. (1989) Harvesting One Hundredfold: Key Concepts and Case Studies in Environmental Education, United Nations Environment Programme, Kenya. Meadows, D. H. et al (1992) Beyond the Limits, Earthscan, London. Middleton, N. (1995) The Global Casino: An Introduction to Environmental Issues, Edward Arnold, UK. Pearce, D. W., Barbier E. and Markandya A. (1990) Sustainable Development: Economics and Environment in the Third World, Edward Elgar and Earthscan, London. Rees, M. (2003) Our Final Century, Heinemann, London. Reid, J. C. et al (1994) Strategies for National Sustainable Development: A Handbook for Planning and Implementation, Earthscan, London.

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Reti, J. (n.d.) Youth and Environment: A South Pacific Perspective, CYP Report of the Second Regional Youth Caucus, Apia, Western Samoa. Schumacher, E. F. (1973) Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered, Harper and Row, New York. Sharma, N. (ed.) (1992) Managing the Worlds Forests: Looking for Balance Between Conservation and Development, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, IA. Snyder, J. et al (nd) Rainbow Reports Education Pack, World Wildlife Fund, UK. South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP) and the Asian Development Bank (nd) Environment and Development: A PacificIsland Perspective.The 1996 G roller Multimedia Encyclopedia, G roller Electronic Publishing Inc., USA. UNESCO-UNEP (1983) Glossary of Environmental Education Terms, UNESCO, Paris. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) The Brundtland Commission Report Our Common Future, Oxford University Press, Oxford. World Wildlife Fund for Nature, WWF News, Winter 1994/95, UK. Wright, R T. (2002) Environmental Science: Toward a sustainable future, 8th edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Websites National reports by member States to the Commission on Sustainable Development. Also 2002 Country Profiles and 2002 National Assessment Reports prepared for the Johannesburg World Summit, as well as 1997 Country Profiles prepared for the Five-Year Review of the Earth Summit. www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/natlinfo.htm. Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and the Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/agenda21/index.htm. Accounts of the activities of energy companies www.worldenergysource.com U. S. Environmental Protection Agency www.epa.gov/globalwarming/ Global Warming International Center (GWIC), an international body disseminating information on global warming science and policy. www.globalwarming.net

6.0

PROGRAMME CONTENT ORDINARY DIPLOMA IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND OPEN LEARNING (ODDEOL) Unit 1: ODC 020: Foundations, Achievements and Limitations of Education

6.1

6.1. 1.Course Description The Course introduces the Programme, the context of distance education and open learning; explore the foundations of education including the meaning, types, philosophical underpinnings, its contribution, achievements and limitations to the development of society. 149

6.1.2. Course Objectives (i) Identify the Scope of the Programme (ii) Identify the purpose and major objectives of the Diploma in ODL Programme (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Understand the direction and structure of the programme Explain the meaning, types and purposes of Education Analyse the connection between education and development. Outline and describe the achievements and limitations of education Analyse factors, which limit the potential of education as an agent of change and development in the society. (viii) Propose appropriate measures for enhancing the potential of education as an agent of change and development. (ix) Identify the philosophies underlying the purpose and structure of education.

6.1.3. Expected Outcomes At the end of the course, learners will be able to: (i) Make analytical assessment of the distance education and open learning systems and identify issues relevant for application in education and training. (ii) Determine the most appropriate distance education and open learning teaching methods and techniques to employ at any level of the education system. (iii) Use distance education and open learning techniques in learning and teaching processes. 6.1.4. Course Content: (i) An Overview on the Diploma in Distance Education and Open Learning Programme (ii) Foundations, Achievements and Limitations of Education (iii) Foundations of Education (iv) Historical Development of Education (v) Philosophies of Education and their Classification (vi) Education and Development

150

(vii) The Role and Functions of Education 6.1.5. References: Fagelind, I and Saha, L.J.(1989), Education and National Development, Pergamon Press, Oxford University of London and International Extension College (1991a), Course 1: Education and Development, Block A, Units 1 &3, London. Oxenham, J (Eds) (1984), Education Versus Qualification, George Allen & Unwin, London Lwaitama, A. F., Mtalo, E. G. and Mboma, L (1999), The Multidimensional Crisis of Education in Tanzania: Debate and Action, University of Dar es Salaam Convocation, Dar es Salaam. Mwanahewa, S. A(1997), Philosophy of Education: Foundations of Education (PS III B), Makerere University, Kampala 6.2 Unit 2: ODC 021: Rise and Development of Distance Education and Open Learning 6.2.1 Course Description Besides defining basic terms in distance education and open learning, the Course explores the historical background to the rise and development of distance education and open learning in the World in general and in developing countries in particular. Furthermore, the Course rationalises the adoption of distance education and open learning as a delivery mode of educational and training programmes. 6.2.2 Objectives At the end of this course learners will be to be able to: (i) Define and use correctly terms like correspondence education, home study, independent learning, distance teaching, distance learning, distance education, open learning, etc. (ii) Discuss the historical background to the rise and development of distance education and open learning. (iii) Explain the rise and development of distance education and open learning in developing countries in general and Tanzania in particular. (iv) Provide a justification for the adoption of distance education and open learning as a delivery mode of educational and training programmes.

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6.2.3 Expected Outcomes: (i) Learners will be able to make analytical assessment of the distance education and open learning systems and identify issues relevant for application in education and training. Learners will be capable of determining the most appropriate distance education and open learning teaching methods and techniques at any level of the education system. Learners will be capable of using distance education and open learning techniques in learning and teaching processes.

(ii)

(iii)

6.2.4. Course Content 0.0 Introduction 1.0 Definition of Terms 2.0 Distance Education and Open Learning: An Historical Perspective 3.0 Rise and Development of Distance Education and Open Learning in Developing Countries 4.0 Justification for Adopting Distance Education and Open Learning in Developing Countries. 5.0 Summary and Conclusion. 6.2.4 References

Bell, R. and Tight, M. (1993). Open Universities: A British tradition? Buckingham, England: The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press. Edstrm, L., Erdos, R. and Prosser, R. (1970). Mass education: Studies in Adult Education and Teaching by Correspondence in Some Developing Countries. New York, NY: Africana Publishing Company. Evans, T. and Nation, D. (1996). Educational futures: globalization, educational technology and lifelong learning. In Evans, T. & Nation, D. (Eds.). Opening Education: Policies and Practices from Open and Distance Education. London: Routledge.

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Freeman, A. (1993). The traveling schools of New South Wales from 1908-1949. Education in Rural Australia, 3 (1): 7-18. International Extension College & University of London, Institute of Education (1991 (c)) External Diploma in Distance Education Course 2: The Development of Distance Education: A Reader, London-Chapter13.

Jenkins, J and Koul, B.N. (Eds) (1991) Distance Education: A Review. International Extension College and Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi & Cambridge, Chapters 1, 4&5.

Kett, J. (1994). The pursuit of knowledge under difficulties: From self-improvement to adult education in America, 1750-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

OUT&SAEU (1998) Certificate Course in Distance Education (OCC) Module 1, (OCC 001) Introduction to Distance Education, Dar es Salaam

Perraton, H. (Ed.) (1982). Alternative routes to formal education: Distance teaching for school equivalency. A Word Bank Research Publication. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press

6.3 Unit 3: ODC 022: Philosophy and Scope of Distance Education and Open Learning

6.3.1

Course Description The Course explores philosophies/theories underlying the organization and use of distance education and open learning as a delivery mode for educational and training programmes. Furthermore, it outlines the scope of distance education and open learning programmes and ideal conditions for effective and successful distance education and open learning programmes

153

6.3.2

Course Objectives The course aims at enabling learners to: Mention the reasons underlying the adoption of distance education and open learning as a delivery mode for educational and training programmes. (ii) Discuss the theories underlying the organization and use of distance education and open learning programmes. (iii) Outline the scope of distance education and open learning programmes. (iv) Identify ideal conditions for effective and successful distance education and open learning programmes.

(i)

6.3.3

Expected Outcomes At the end of the programme learners would be able to: (i) Make analytical assessment of the scope of distance education and open learning systems and identify issues relevant for application in education and training. (ii) Determine the most appropriate distance education and open learning teaching methods and techniques at any level of the education system. (iii) Apply appropriate distance education and open learning philosophy/theory in promoting relevant learning and teaching processes.

6.3.4. 0.0 1.0 2.0

Course Content Introduction The Need for Distance Education and Open Learning Introduction to Philosophy and the Need for a Philosophy of Distance Education and Open Learning. 3.0 4.0 5.0 Philosophical Underpinnings of Distance Education and Open Learning Conditions for Successful Distance Education and Open Learning Programmes Summary and Conclusion.

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6.3.5.

References Jenkins, J. & Koul, B. N. (1991) Distance Education: A Review, IGNOU & IEC, New Delhi & Cambridge IEC (1991) Course 2: The Development of Distance Education: A Reader, University of London Institute of Education, London Nyerere, Julius K. (1976) Declaration of Dar es Salaam: Liberated Man. The Purpose of Development in Convergence Vol. IX, No. 4 Young, M. et al (1991) Distance Teaching in the Third World: The Lion and the Clockwork Mouse International Extension College, Cambridge. Lewis, RC (1988) The Open School in Paine, N. (Ed) (1988) Open Learning in Transition: An Agenda for Action Cambridge, National Extension College Rossetti, A (1988) Open Learning and the Youth Training Scheme: A Competence Based Approach in Ibid. Rumble, G. (1991) Open Learning, Distance Learning, and the Misuse of Language in IEC (1991) op.cit. Manpower Services Commission (1984) A New Training Initiative, p.7 as cited in Ibid. Escolet, M. (1980) Adverse Factors in the Development of an Open University in Latin America in Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 17 (4). Sewart, D. (1988) How Student Centred is the Open University in Paine, (N. (Ed) (1988)

op.cit.
Tait, A. (1988) Democracy in Distance Education and the Role of Tutorial and Counseling Services in Journal of Distance Education, 3 (1). Nyirenda, S. and Ishumi, A. (2004) (Eds) Philosophy of Education, Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam University Press. Dodds, T. (1983) Administration of Distance Teaching Institution: A Manual International Extension, College, Cambridge.

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6.3

Unit 4: ODC 023: CASE STUDIES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND OPEN LEARNING

6.4.1

Course Description The Course introduces learners to cases of distance education and open learning programmes in professional training, school, tertiary and higher education. It classifies distance education and open learning programmes in terms of institutional mode, programme specialization and performance. Furthermore, the Course highlights useful lessons to be learnt from the experiences of successful distance education and open learning programmes in planning for effective programmes in developing countries.

6.4.2 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Objectives At the end of this course you should be able to: Familiarise learners with cases of distance education and open learning programmes in professional training, school, tertiary and higher education. Classify distance education and open learning programmes in terms of institutional mode, programme specialization and performance. Account for performance variation among similar distance education and open learning programmes. Highlight useful lessons to be learnt from the experiences of successful distance education and open learning programmes in planning for effective programmes in developing countries. Advise from specific experiences on how to set up, organize and manage effectively distance education and open learning programmes. Expected Outcomes At the end of the programme learners would be able to: (i) Make analytical assessment of cases in distance education and open learning systems and identify issues relevant for application in distance education and

(v)

6.4.3

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(ii) (iii)

training in Tanzania or in any other developing country. Determine the most appropriate distance education and open learning institutional mode and techniques at any level of the education system. Advise on appropriate distance education and open learning techniques in learning and teaching processes.

6.4.4

Course Content Section I: Case Studies on Tertiary and Higher Education Section II: Case Studies on School/Secondary Education Section III: Case Studies on Professional Training

6.4.4 References Walter Perry, The genesis of the first open university Keith Harry, The Open University, United Kingdom P. Satyanarayana and B. N. Koul, The Allama Iqbal Open University G. Dhanarajan, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Waldi Kamhawi, The Al Quds Open University Project, in Prospects, Vol. XVIII, No.2, 1988 Zhao Yuhui, China: its distance higher education system, in Prospects, Vol. XVIII, No.2, 1988 Richard M.C. Siaciwena, The external degree programme at the University of Zambia Gordon Knight, Distance education in mathematics David Warr, Malawi College of Distance Education Ligate, N., j.Sifuba, E. Chilala and N. Z. Reuben, Factors Accounting for Success in the Management of Distance Education Programmes in Low Technology Countries: The Case of the South African Extension Unit (SAEU) B. S. M. Gatawa, The Zimbabwe Integrated National Teacher Education Course, Zimbabwe Onkar Singh Dewal, Open School, India Janet Jenkins, Radio Language Arts Project, Kenya E.B.Temu, Teacher Education by Open and Distance Learning: Experiences and Lessons of the 1970s and Prospects of MOECs Current Teacher Education and Professional Development Initiatives Allan F. Harshfield, Minorities, United States of America

6.5 Unit 5: ODC 024 COMMUNICATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND OPEN LEARNING (ODL) 6.5.1. Course Description 6.5.2. Course Objectives

157

Explain the concept of communication as used in ODL State when one may conclude that communication has taken place in ODL Identify, list and employ some models of communication in ODL List and be able to identify and the main features of communication in ODL Identify and list different media used for communication in ODL and State the criteria used to select appropriate and practical media for use in ODL.

6.5.3. Expected Outcomes At the end of the programme learners would have acquired (i) Principles of distance education and open learning curriculum design and innovations, distance education and open learning techniques that are academically sound, learner friendly and gender sensitive. (ii) Techniques of using distance education and open learning in learning and teaching. (iii) Communication techniques of learning through ODL (iv) Entrepreneurial and vocational skills for promoting independent and self instructional learning.

6.5.4.

Course Content (i) Introduction (ii) Defining Major Concepts Used in this Course (iii) Communication in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) (iv) Features of Communication in Distance Education and Open Learning (ODL) (v) Media Selection in ODL (vi) Communication and ODL Sub - Systems

6.5.5.

References Bates, T. (2003). Theory and practice in the uses of technology in distance education. I.

Forester, B. L. Bower, L. W. Watson. ASHE Reader Distance education teaching and learning in high education, pp.109-121. Boston, Pearson Custom Publishing. Rumble, G. & Latchem, C. (2004). Organizational models for open and distance learning H. Perraton & H. Lentel (Eds.). Policy for open and distance learning pp. 118-140. London Commonwealth of Learning (COL) Routledgefalmer.

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Mushi, H. M. K. (2004). Discursive Representations of potentials and challenges in the adoption of new information communication technologies (NICTs) in distance education in subSahara Africa. Pennsylvania State University. Dissertation presented as partial fulfillment of a DED program. Robinson, B. & Latchem, C. (2003). Open and distance teacher education Uses and models. B. Robinson & C. Latchem (Eds.) Teacher education through open and distance learning, pp 28-47. Belanger, F, Jordan, H. (2000). Evaluation and Implementation of Distance Learning Technologies, Tools and Techniques. Hershey, Idea Group Publishing. Luke, R., Clift, W. J., & Tower, G. M. (Eds.) (1994). Victoria, University of South Australia and Deakin University. Moon, B. & Robinson, B. (2003). Open and distance learning for initial teacher training. B. Robinson & C. Latchem (Eds.) Teacher education through open and distance learning, pp. 72-90. Commonwealth of Learning (COL). Moore & Kearsly (1996). Distance Education. A Systems View. London. Wadsworth Publishing Company. Thompson, M. M. (2002). Distance Learners in Distance Education. L. Foster, B. L. Bower, & L.W. Watson, ASHE Reader. Distance Education. Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, pp. 62-70 USA. Perason Custom Publishing. King, B. (2000). Managing institutional change and the pressure for new approaches to teaching and learning. V. Jakupec & J. Garrick. Flexible learning, human resource and organizational development. Putting theory to work. Pp 107-129). Vrasidas & McIsaac (2000). 6.6 Unit 6: ODC 025: DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN PRINT

6.6.1.

Course Description The Course provides an historical overview and justification on the use of print medium in distance education and open learning, identifies and distinguishes characteristic features of different forms of print medium employed in distance education and open learning. Furthermore, the Course discusses the process of developing institutional 159

materials in print including; Planning, Programming, Developing the Unit, Editing, Pretesting and Printing 6.6.2. Course Objectives o Provide an historical overview and justification on the use of print medium in distance education and open learning o Identify different forms and the use of the print medium used distance and open learning o Distinguish between course outlines, compendia, study guides and course manuals in distance and open learning o Present the process of developing institutional materials in print including: Planning, Programming, Developing the unit; Editing, Pre-testing and Printing o Developing sample instructional materials in print 6.6.3. Expected Outcomes
At the end of the programme learners would have acquired (i) Principles of distance education and open learning curriculum design and development of study materials in print medium. (ii) Distance education and open learning print techniques that are academically sound, learner friendly and gender sensitive. (iii) Techniques of using print instructional materials in distance education and open learning. (iv) Techniques of learning through the print medium in ODL (v) Entrepreneurial and vocational skills for promoting independent and self instructional learning.

6.6.4. Course Content o An historical overview and justification on the use of print medium in distance education and open learning o Different forms and the use of the print medium used distance and open learning o Distinction between course outlines, compendia, study guides and course manuals in distance and open learning o Process of developing institutional materials in print including: Planning,

Programming, Developing the unit; Editing, Pre-testing and Printing 160

o Developing sample instructional materials in print

6.6.5. References King, B. (2000). Managing Institutional Change and the Pressure for New Approaches to Teaching and Learning. V. Jakupec & J. Garrick. Flexible Learning, Human Resource and Organizational

Development. Putting Theory to Work, pp 107-129). Hirumi, A. (2002). Chronicling the Challenges of Web-basing a Degree Program: A Systems

Perspective. L. Foster, B. L. Bower, & L. W. Watson (Eds.). ASHE Reader. Distance education: Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, pp. 186-202. London. Pearson Custom Publishing. Rumble, G. & Latchem, C. (2004). Organizational Models for Open and Distance Learning. H. Perraton & H. Lentell (Eds.). Policy for Open and Distance Learning, pp. 118-140. London.

Commonwealth of Learning (COL) Routledgefalmer.

Unit 7: ODC 026: BROADCAST AND RECORDED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

6.7.1. Course Description The Course provides an historical overview on the use and justification for using broadcast and recorded instructional materials in distance education and open learning. Besides identifying and distinguishing broadcast and recorded instructional materials form other instructional materials in distance education and open learning, it discusses the process of developing broadcast and recorded instructional materials. Finally, the Course explores conditions for effective use of broadcast and recorded instructional materials in distance education and open learning. 6.7.2. Course Objectives (i) Identify and distinguish broadcast and recorded instructional materials from other distance education and open learning instructional materials.

161

(ii)

Provide an historical overview on the use and justification for using broadcast and recorded instructional materials in distance education and open learning.

(iii)

Discuss the process of developing broadcast and recorded instructional materials in terms of: Planning Production Monitoring Evaluation

(iv) (v)

Develop broadcast and recorded instructional materials. Advise on the use and justification for using broadcast and recorded instructional materials in distance education and open learning.

6.7.3

Expected Outcomes
At the end of the programme learners would have acquired (i) Principles of distance education and open learning curriculum design and development of study materials in broadcast and recorded media. (ii) Distance education and open learning broadcast and recorded techniques that are academically sound, learner friendly and gender sensitive. (iii) Techniques of using broadcast and recorded instructional materials in distance education and open learning in learning and teaching. (iv) Techniques of learning through broadcast and recorded instructional materials in ODL (v) Entrepreneurial and vocational skills for promoting independent and self instructional learning.

162

6.7.4

Course Content

(i) Identification and Distinction of Broadcast and Recorded instructional Materials from Other Distance Education and Open Learning Instructional Materials. (ii) An Historical Overview on the Adoption of Broadcast and Recorded Instructional Materials in Distance Education and Open Learning. (iii) Justification for Using Broadcast and Recorded Instructional Materials in Distance Education and Open Learning. (iv) The Process of Developing Broadcast and Recorded Instructional Materials: (a) Planning (b) Production (c) Monitoring (d) Evaluation (v) Developing Broadcast and Recorded Instructional Materials for Different Categories of ODL Learners (vi) Advise on Ideal Conditions for Using Broadcast and Recorded Instructional Materials in Distance Education and Open Learning. 6.7. 5. References

163

Bates, A.W (1981), The Planning and Management of Audio Visual Media in Distance and Open Learning Institutions, International Institute for Education Planning, Paris. Ibid (1984), Broadcasting in Education: An Evaluation, Croom Hale, London. Ibid (1990), Media and Technology in European Distance Education, Open University, Milton Keynes Ibid (1995), Technology, Open Learning and Distance Education, Routledge, London. Thomas, J (1991), Media patterns and combination, Unit 7, Course 2 and Ibid (1994), Managing radio and audio, Unit 7, Course 4, in University of London/ International Extension College, External Diploma/MA in Distance Education, London. Banerjee, S (1977), Audio Cassettes: The User Medium, UNESCO, Paris. Hancory, A (Ed) (1976), Producing for Educational Mass Media, UNESCO, Paris. Rwambiwa, J.P (1992), Improving the Quality of Distance Education with Audio Cassettes and Visual Aids, Paper Presented at the AADE Workshop, Harare. Steyn, P.J.N (1992), Educational Technology, the Radio and the University of South Africa, Paper Presented at the AADE Workshop, Harare.

6.8 Unit 8: ODC 027: 6.8.1. Course Description

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)

The Course defines and identifies technologies which constitute ICTs; provides an historical overview and justification for employing ICTs in distance education and open learning, and discusses how ICTs are employed in the provision of different social services in general and in Distance Education and Open Learning in particular.

6.8.2. Course Objectives i.)

Define the meaning of Information and Technologies (ICTs) in general and specific terms, Identify the technologies which constitute ICTs

Communication

ii.) iii.)

Explain how ICTs are employed in general and how are they used in Distance Education and Open Learning in particular, Provide an historical overview and justification for employing ICTs in distance education and open learning. Analyse the potential for employing ICTs in distance education and open learning programmes in developing countries,

iv.)

v.)

164

vi.)

Discuss the process of developing instructional materials through ICTs. Describe ICTs used by the Visually challenged people.

vii.) 6.8.3.

Expected Outcomes
At the end of the programme learners would have acquired (i) Principles of distance education and open learning curriculum design and development of ICTs study materials. (ii) Knowledge and skills for using ICTs techniques in Distance education and open learning that are academically sound, learner friendly and gender sensitive. (iii) Techniques of using ICTs instructional materials in distance education and open learning in learning and teaching. (iv) Techniques of learning through ICTs instructional materials in ODL (v) Entrepreneurial and vocational skills for promoting independent and self instructional learning.

6.8.4.

Course Content

Lecture One: The Concept of ICTs. Lecture Two: Types of ICTs. 2.1. Types 2.1.1. Computers 2.1.2. Handheld and palm computers 2.1.3. Computer-based and Internet-based technologies

165

Lecture Three: Historical Overview and Justification for the Use of ICTs in Distance Education and Open Learning 3.1. Historical development of ICTs in education 3.2. Justification for the use of ICTs in distance education and open learning Lecture Four: The Potential Benefits of ICTs 4.1. Science and Technology 4.2. Potential benefits of ICTs 4.3. ICT resource centers Lecture Five: The Uses of ICTs in Distance Education and Open Learning 5.1. General uses 5.2. The use of ICTs in Distance Education and Open Learning Lecture Six: ICTs for visually challenged students. 6.1. ICTs for students with disabilities 6.2. ICTs for visually challenged students Lecture Seven: ICTs for developing instructional materials. 7.1. Capacity of ICTs in education 7.2. ICTs for developing instructional materials for distance education 7.3. Computer applications for developing instructional materials 7.4. Devices for developing instructional materials Lecture Eight: Resources from websites. 8.1. Reading resources 8.2. Downloading reading resources from websites.

6.8.5.

References

2000 School on line: www.schoolonline.org) Barker, J. and Turker, R. N. (1990). The Interactive Learning Revolution: Multimedia in Education and Training. New York: Nichols Publishing. Davies, W. J. K.(1989). Open and Flexible Learning Centres. London; National Council for Educational Technology. Feldman, S., McELroy, J. E and LaCour, N. (2000). Distance education: Guidelines for good practice. Gilbert, S. W. (1995). Technology and Change in Higher Education: Symptoms Htt://bridge.anglia.ac.uk./htbin/notes (Web Site search) and Suggestions.

Guile, D. (1998). Perspective on Education Policy: Information and Communication Technology and Education. London: Institute of Education: University of London. Grimes, G. (1993). Going the distance education with technology. Happy 100th Anniversary to distance education.

166

Kaye, A.(1995). Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, in N. Heap, et.al. (Eds.) Information Technology and Society. London; The Open University. Legge, K. et. al. (Eds.) (1991). NCCBLACKWELL Ltd. Case Studies in Information Technology: People and Organisations. Oxford:

Mason, R. (1995). Information Technology and Learning; in N. Heap, et.al. (Eds.) Information Technology and Society. London; The Open University. Mason, R. (1995). Educational Value of ISDN; in N. Heap, et.al. (Eds.) Information Technology and Society. London; The Open University. Miyasato, E. (1998). Setting the stage for dynamic use of distance learning technologies in education. Retrieved on 1st December, 2008 from http://www.prel.hawaii.edu Open University of Tanzania, OUT Prospectus 2000. Tapscott, D. and Custon, A. (1993) Paradigm Shift: The New Promise of Information Technology. New York: McGraww Hill, Inc. Taylor, J. and Laurillard, D. (1995). Supporting Resource Based Learning ; in N. Heap, et.al. (Eds.) Information Technology and Society. London; The Open University. University of Dar-es-Salaam. UDSM Prospectus 1998/99; Research and Publications Section 1998.

Wymer. I. K. The Open University and Adult Studies: A Movement towards Social Education. U.K: Ivor K. Wymer. (undated pamphlet)

6.9

Unit 9: ODC 028: NATURE AND ESSENCE OF STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND OPEN LEARNING

6.9.1 Course Description The Course defines student support services, explains the importance of student support services and analyses cost - factor in the provision of student support services. On the basis of this analysis, the Course proceeds to discuss ways of providing student support services costeffectively; provision of support services through Regional and Local Study Centres, besides providing a comparative study of Regional and Study Centres in different distance education and open learning institutions.

6.9.2.

Course Objectives

After studying this Module, learners should be able to: Define student support services. Explain the nature and importance of student support services.

167

Analyse the cost - factor in the provision of student support services. Discuss ways of providing student support services cost- effectively. Organise provision of support services through Regional and Local Study Centres. Analyse organization of Regional and Study Centres in different distance education and open learning institutions.

6.9.3.

Expected Outcomes
At the end of the programme: (i) Learners will be able to use techniques of student support services in distance education and open learning for enhancing interactive learning. (ii) Learners are capable of conducting research studies, identifying viable findings dissemination strategies, and developing feasible plans for improvement in distance education and open learning pedagogy and management. (iii) Learners are capable of learning through the distance education and open learning mode. (iv) Learners are able to effectively access and address educational and training needs of the marginalized groups, e.g. learners with disabilities, out of school youth, women, rural dwellers, nomadic groups, the poor, etc.

6.9.4. 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.9.5.

Course Content Introduction. What Are Student Support Services? Nature and Importance of Student Support Services. Cost-Factor in Providing Student Support Services. Organisation of Regional and Local Study Centres. Summary and Conclusion. References
(1974) (1986) : :

Berret, T. And Smith, R. Chaya-Ngam, Iam

Teaching Reading. Mass: Addison - Wesley Publishing


Company.

Distance Education in Thailand, Paper Presented at


the Regional Seminar in Distance Education, Bangkok, 26 Nov.-3 Dec. 1986

CoL/IEC

(1997)

Learner Support in Distance Education Trainers Kit, Vancouver.

168

Dhanarajan, G.

(1986)

Distance Education in Malaysia. Paper Presented at


the Regional Seminar in Distance Education, Bangkok, 26 No.-3 Dec. 1986

Duffy, G. et al Freeman, Richard

1987) (1982)

: :

Teaching Reading Skills as Strategies. In The Reading


Teacher Vol. 40:4, 414-418. Flexi Study in John S. Daniel, M.A. Stroud and J.R. Thompson (Eds) Learning at a Distance: A World Perspective. Edmonton, Athabasca University and International Council for Correspondence Education.

Holmberg, B. Holmberg, B

(1986) (1983)

Improving Study Skills for Distance Students. In Open


Learning Vol. 1:3 Guided Didactic Conversation in Distance Education in David Sewart, et al (Eds) Distance Education: International Perspectives Beckenham, Kent: Croom Helm

Kaye, and Rumble, (Ed). Koul, B.N. Lewis, Roger Mcharazo, Alli A.S.

(1981) (1987) (1984) (2000)

: : :

Distance Teaching for Higher and Adult Education. London, Croom Helm. A study of Dropouts: Implications for Administrative and Educational Strategies. An Unpublished paper. How to Tutor in an Open Learning System. C.E.T.
Distance Education Theories: Their Implications for Information Provision in Huria Journal of the Open University of Tanzania Volume III No.1.

Mitchell, D.C. Mitzel, H.E. Mood, T.A. Murugan, K.

91982) (1982) (1995) (1986)

: :

The Process of Learning. New York: John Wiley and


Sons.

Study Skill. In Encyclopaedia of Educational Research. Vol. IV, New York: The Free Press.
Distance Education An Annotated Bibliography. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited.

The rationale and processes of recreating subject textbooks for developing language competence and reading skills: A field study. CIEFL. Unpublished M.
litt. Dissertaion.

Nuttal, C. OUT/SAEU Perraton, Hilary Peters, O.

(19820) (1998) (1983) (1971)

Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. London: Heinemann Educational Books.


Module III (OCC 003) Student Support Services in Distance Education, Dar es Salaam.

The National Correspondence College of Zambia and its Costs, Combridge International Extension College.

Theoretical Aspects of Correspondence Instruction


in Mackenzie,O and Christensen, E.L.(Eds)The

169

Changing World of Correspondence Study, University Park, Pa: Pennsylvannia State University. Rowntree, D. Rubin, D. Sewart, D Smith, F. (1986) (1983) (1993) (1971) : : :

Learn how to study. London: MacDonal and Co.Ltd. Teaching Reading and Study skills in Content Areas. New York: CBS College Publishing.
Student Support Systems in Distance Education in Open learning Vol. 8, No. 3

Understanding Reading: A Psycholinguistic analysis of reading and learning to read. New York: Holt
Renehart and Winston.

Thorndike, E.L.

(1971)

Reading and Reasoning: A Study of Mistakes in Paragraph Reading. In Journal of Education


Psychology, 8:6, 324-322.

Yong, Tian

(1987)

Radio and Television Universities in China. Case study


prepared for the University of London Institute of Education, Department of International and Comparative Education and International Extension College Course. Distance Teaching in Developing Countries. 1987.

6.10 Unit 10: ODC 029:TUTORIAL SUPPORT, MARKING, AND COMMENTING 6.10.1 Course Description The Course discusses tutorial support as a basic support service offered to learners in distance education and open learning. It discusses different ways of providing tutorial support to ODL learners as well as the importance of setting, marking and providing relevant and constructive comments on learners assignments, tests, and examinations. Furthermore, the Course explains appropriate procedures for marking and commenting on distance and open learners assignments and tests. 6.10.2 1 Course Objectives The course aims at enabling students to: . Determine and express orally as well as through writing the need for providing tutorial support to ODL learners 2 3 Explain different ways of providing tutorial support to ODL learners Determine, select and apply appropriate ways of providing tutorial support to distance learners

170

Determine and discuss the importance of setting, marking and providing relevant and constructive comments on learners assignments, tests, and examinations in ODL situations

Determine and explain appropriate procedures for marking and commenting on distance and open learners assignments and tests.

6.10.3.

Expected Outcomes

At the end of the programme (i) Learners will be able to use techniques of tutorial support services in distance education and open learning for enhancing interactive learning. distance education and open learning pedagogy and management. (ii) Learners will be capable of learning through the distance education and open learning mode. (iii) Learners will be able to determine and explain appropriate procedures for marking and commenting on distance and open learners assignments and tests. (iv) Learners will be able to effectively access and address educational and training needs of the marginalized groups, e.g. learners with disabilities, out of school youth, women, rural dwellers, nomadic groups, the poor, etc.

6.10.4. Course Content Introduction Lecture One: What is Tutorial Support? Lecture Two: The Need for Providing Tutorial Support Lecture Three: Ways of Providing Tutorial Support Lecture Four: Recommended Ways of Tutorial Support Lecture Five: The Importance of Setting, Marking and Commenting in Distance Education and Open Learning Lecture Six: Recommended Procedures for Marking and Commenting in Distance Education and Open Learning

6.10.5.

References

Adey A. D., Gous, H.T., Heese, M., & Roux, A. L. (1992). Distance Education (Post Graduate Diploma in Tertiary Education). Pretoria. University of South Africa.

171

Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does. (2nd edition), Berkshire: Open University Press. Boud, D. (1988). Developing student autonomy in learning. London: Kogan Page.

Brown, S. & Glasner, A. (1999)(Eds.). Assessment matters in higher education: Choosing and using diverse approaches. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press. Brown, S. & Knight, P. (1994). Assessing learners in higher education. London: Kogan Page. Kleinschmidt, A. (1998). Virtual Tutoring in Distance Education An Approach of Centres for Distance Education for Students of the FernUniversitt Hagen. In ESC 89 Conference Proceedings, ed. By the European Association of Distance Teaching Universities, Heerlen 1999, pp. 29-32. Holmberg, B. (1995). Theory and Practice of Distance Education. London. Routledge. Magalhes, M. G, M, & Schiel, D. (1997). A Method for Evaluation of a Course Delivered via the Weld Wide Web in Brazil. The American Journal of Distance Education, pp. 64-70. The American Center for the study of Distance Education. The Pennsylvania State University. OUT (2007). Prospectus. Dar-es-salaam. The Open University of Tanzania. OUT (2007). Statement from the Dean Faculty of Education to the 2007 Intake and to Continuing Education Students. Dar-es-salaam. The Open University of Tanzania. Perez, M. M. (2001). The ITESM Virtual University: Towards a Transformation of Higher Education. F. T. Tshang & T. Della (Eds.) Access to Knowledge. New Information Technologies and the Emergency of the Virtual University. New York. ANU/The United Nations University and the Institute of Advanced Studies. Potter, C., & M. (2003). Training Non-formal, Community and Adult Educators. B. Robinson & C. Latchem (Eds.) Teacher Education through Open and Distance Learning, pp. 112-127. London. Commonwealth of Learning Barab, S. A., Makinster, J. G. & Scheckler, R. (2001). Designing System Dualities: Characterizing an Online Professional Development Community. F. T. Tshang & T. Della (Eds.) Access to Knowledge. New Information Technologies and the Emergency of the Virtual University, pp. 53-90. New York. ANU/The United Nations University and the Institute of Advanced Studies. UNISA (1996). Student Support Services At UNISA Learning Centres. Pretoria, Match 1996. An Information Manual. Szczypula, J., Tschang, T., Vikas, O. (2001). Reforming the Educational knowledge Base: Course Content and Skills in the Internet Age. F. T. Tshang & T. Della (Eds.) Access to Knowledge. New Information

172

Technologies and the Emergency of the Virtual University, pp. 93-125. New York. ANU/The United Nations University and the Institute of Advanced Studies. Thorpe, M. (2007). Assessment and Third generation distance education. Retrieved on 28th February, 2007 from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=cache:jGqdo5-xiew:iet.open.ac.uk/

6.11 Unit 11: ODC 030: COUNSELLING AND GUIDANCE SERVICES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND OPEN LEARNING

6.11.1 Course Description The Course defines concepts of counseling and guidance and elaborates roles of a counselor. Similarly, the counseling process and interviewing techniques are elaborated. Finally, the Course provides a detailed discussion on the various counseling approaches and services relevant to clients with social, psychological and physical problems in life in general and in distance education and open learning in particular. 6.11.2 Course Objectives After studying the Course, learners should be able to: (i) Define and apply in a distance education and open learning context terms like counseling, guidance, disability, handicap, etc. (ii) Explain the role of counseling and guidance in promoting quality distance education and open learning programmes. (iii) (iv) (v) Describe the counseling process and techniques. Analyses qualities of a good counselor as well as counseling and guidance case studies. Integrating counseling and guidance knowledge to problem- oriented or psycho-educational settings 6.11.3 Expected Outcomes

At the end of the programme, learners would be able to:

(i) (ii)

Formulate a guidance and counselling plans. Carry out duties and responsibilities of a Counsellor.

173

(iii) (iv)

Familiarizing with different guidance application Getting familiar with working settings

6.11.4

COURSE CONTENT

Part One: Nature of Guidance and Counseling Meaning of guidance and counseling and historical development Counseling as a professional field Characteristics or qualities of a good counselor Characteristics of guidance Part two: Types of counseling Part three: Counseling Interview Parts of counseling interview Types of counseling interview Drop in counseling interview Pre appointed counseling interview Follow up counseling interview Part four: categories of counseling Part five: Counseling techniques Client - centered technique Counselor - centered technique Eclectic technique Part six: Counseling skills Basic skills Supporting skills Part Seven: Special needs and Guidance and Counseling services Social problems Educational problems Vocational and career problems

174

Health and physical problems Part Eight: Roles of Guidance and Counseling in promoting Quality of Open Distance learning 6.11.5 References

Sima R.G.(2004), Concepts of Guidance and Cunselling, Paper Presented at the OUT In House Training , Dar es Salaam Muyinga, E.G.M. (2004), Counselling Distance Learners and Students with Special Learning Requirements, Paper Presented at the OUT In House Training, Dar es Salaam. Muyinga, E.G.M.(1999), Decentralisation of Counselling Services for Distance Learners of the Open University of Tanzania, DUP, Dar es Salaam Biswalo, P (1996), Introduction to Guidance in Diverse Africa Setting, DUP, Dar es Salaam. Wright B. and Wilknson (1990) The Scientific Practitioner in Practice. Clinical Psychology Form, 27 30 Carkhuff, B.R. and Klein et al (1987) The Art of Helping Sixth Edition Grealy, T (1998), Study of Psychology Problems Experienced by Visually Impaired People, MA Dissertation, University of Reading, UK. Gothard, W.P. (1998), Theories of Career Development and Models of Guidance, University of Reading Ivey, et al (1980), Counselling and Psychotherapy: Internal Skills Theory and Practice (2nd Edition), Prentice Hall, California Jones, R (1980 & 1996), Contemporary Educational Psychology, New York, Harper and Row. Kisanji, J (1993), Special Education Need in Education in World Year Book of Education, London, Kogan Page Mclean, P.A. and Hakistan, A.R. (1979), Clinical Depression: Comparative Efficacy of our Patient Treatment: Journal of Counselling and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 147. McLeod (1998), An Introduction to Counselling, 4th Edition, Buckingham, Open University Press, UK. Perry, Walter and Rumble, G.(1987), What Makes Good Distance Education Materials? A Short Guide to Distance Education, International Extension College, Cambridge. Reuben, N.Z. (1999), Dilemma of Students Learning Support in Distance Education and Open Learning: Some Further Thought, Huria, Journal of the Open University of Tanzania Rogers (1951) Counselling Psychotherapy, Cambridge, MA. Hongton Muffin. Tobin (1998), Assessing Visually Impaired Pupils: Issues and Needs in Even and V. Karma (Eds), Special Education Past, Present and Future, London Falmer Press WHO (1980 and 1997), Prevention of Blindness and Deafness. Report for Vision 2000 2020 The Right to Sight, Geneva

175

Schulz, P.P.J. (1976), Therapeutic Counselling in Rehabilitation Agency, in New Outlook for the blind in Tanzania Traxler, A.E. and Norla, R.D. (1957) Techniques of Guidance, New York Crow, L and Crow A. ( 1951), Introduction to Guidance, Principles and Practice, New York, American Book Company. BCP (2001), Training and Career in Counselling, BACP, UK.

6.12 Unit 12: ODC 031: ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT, LIBRARY SERVICES AND RECORD KEEPING 6.12.1 Course Description The Course explains organization and management of administrative support for distance learners; the need of providing library services to distance learners as well as the importance of an effective record keeping system in distance education and open learning. 6.12.2 Course Objectives The course will enable students to: a) Identify the activities which constitute administrative support in distance education and open learning. b) Organize and manage administrative support for distance learners. c) Explain the need of providing library services to distance learners. d) Organize and manage provision of library services to distance learners. e) Define records in distance education and open learning. f) Discuss the need and importance of an effective record keeping system in distance education and open learning. (g) Design and manage an effective record keeping system in distance open learning. 6.12.3. Expected Outcomes
At the end of the programme i. Learners will be able to use administrative support techniques of distance education and open learning for enhancing interactive learning.

education

and

176

ii. Learners will be capable of developing feasible plans for improving library services and record keeping in order to enhance distance education and open learning pedagogy and management. iii. Learners will be capable of learning through the distance education and open learning mode. iv. Learners will be able to effectively access and address educational and training needs of the marginalized groups, e.g. learners with disabilities, out of school youth, women, rural dwellers, nomadic groups, the poor, etc.

6.12.4. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

Course Content

The Module consists of the following six lectures:


Lecture 1: Administrative Support in Distance Education and Open Learning. Lecture 2: Library Services. Lecture 3: Record Keeping. Lecture 4: Setting and Managing an Effective Record Keeping System. Lecture 5: Filing and Indexing Systems. Lecture 6: Students Record Management at the OUT. References

6.12.5.

1. Aina, L. O. (2004) Library and information science text for Africa. Third world information series Ltd. Ibadan, Nigeria. 2. Athanas, P. (2004). The effects of tutors comments on students learning at the Open University of Tanzania. M.A. Education Dissertation. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (Unpublished) is available at the OUT Library. 3. Johnson, Mina M. and Kallaus, Norman F. (1987) Records Management, 4th edition. South-Western Publishing Co. Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

4. Library services to distance learners in the commonwealth: a reader (1997) edited by Elizabeth, F. Watson and Neela, Jangannathan. Vancouver: the Commonwealth of Learning. Vancouver, Canada

177

5. Muyinga, E.G.M. (1999) Decentralized Distance learners support. Convocation newsletter pp. 33-37. 6. Records and Archive Management Act no. 3 of 2002. URT-Government Printer. 7. Reuben, N. Z. (1999) Economics of students support services. Huria Journal of the Open University of Tanzania. Volume II No. 2 September, 1999. Inter-Press of Tanzania. Pp. 7-15. 8. Sukhder, S. (1988) Student Support and Counseling Services in Distance Teaching Programme: Indian Experience. International Council for Distance Education, Olso, Norway. 9. Armstrong, C.J. and Hartley, R.J. (1991). Online and CD ROM Database

Searching. 2nd ed. London: Mansell. Armstrong, C.J. and Large, Andrew (2001). Manual of Online Search Strategies. 3rd ed. 1. Large, Andrew et al. (1999). Information Seeking in the Online Age: Principles and Practice. London: Bowker Saur. 2. Notess, G. (2002). AllTheWeb does pdfs. http://www.

searchengineshowdown.com/newsarchive/000025. html (accessed 10.02.07). Search strategies on the Internet: general and specific 589 3. Notess, G. (2002). Search engine statistics: database overlap. (accessed

http://www.searchengineshowdown.com/ 10.02.07). 4. Notess, G. (2002). Search engine

stats/overlap.shtml

statistics:

freshness

showdown. (accessed

http://www.searchengineshowdown.com/ 10.02.07).

stats/freshness.shtml

5. Sherman, C. (2001). Search for the Invisible Web. The Guardian, Tuesday, February 6, 2007.

178

6.13 Unit 13: ODC 032: MANAGEMENT OF DISTANCE EDUCATION AND OPEN LEARNING SYSTEM

6.13.1 Course Description This course is designed to introduce learners to the knowledge and skills which are essential in managing Distance Education (DE) and Open Learning (OL). Distance Learning and Open

Learning together form what we call an education delivery mode which is quite different from the conventional system which we are used to. For this reason, the Course is devoted to ways,

strategies and techniques that are used to manage DE and OL.

6.13.2 Course Objectives At the end of this course, learners should be able to; Demonstrate knowledge and skills essential in managing Distance Education (DE) and Open Learning (OL) as specific modes of education delivery. Adopt appropriate strategies and techniques for managing effectively distance and open learning programmes.

Define correctly concepts of distance education and open learning in order to develop a common understanding of what is to be managed.

Analyse critically methods used to design distance and open learning programmes.

Discuss the theoretical frameworks of management as well as managerial skills required in distance education and open learning.

Identify management tasks and issues in distance education and open learning. Design, establish and manage effectively distance education and open learning programmes.

6.13.2

Expected Outcomes

At the end of the programme

179

i. ii.

iii. iv.

Learners will be able to use management techniques of distance education and open learning for enhancing interactive learning. Learners will be capable of conducting research studies, identifying viable findings dissemination strategies, and developing feasible plans for improvement in distance education and open learning pedagogy and management. Learners will be capable of learning through the distance education and open learning mode. Learners will be able to effectively access and address educational and training needs of the marginalized groups, e.g. learners with disabilities, out of school youth, women, rural dwellers, nomadic groups, the poor, etc.

6.13.3

COURSE CONTENT

Lecture One: Conceptualising Distance Education and Open Learning Lecture Two: Conditions and Factors for Establishing an Open Distance Learning (ODL) System Lecture Three: Designing and Implementing an Open Distance Learning Programme Lecture Four: Management Models that can be used in Managing the Open Distance Learning Organisations Lecture Five: Management Issues in Distance and Open Learning Lecture Six:Management for Success of Distance and Open Learning

6.13.5. REFERENCES

Burge, E. (1988), Beyond Andragogy: Some Explorations for Distance Learning Design. Journal of Distance Education, 3(1): 5 - 23

In

Evans, T. and Nation, D. (eds), (1989), Critical Reflections on Distance Education. Falmer Press. London.

Boud, D. (1988), Developing Students Autonomy in Learning. Kogan Page, London Rowntree, D. (1992), Exploring Open and Distance Learning. Kogan Page, London. 180

Rowntree, D. (1992), Exploring Open and Distance Learning. Kogan Page, London.(Unit 2 and 3). Morrison, T. R (1989), Beyond legitimacy: Facing the future in distance education in International Journal of Literacy Education Vol. 8 No. 1: 2 12 Wills, B. (Ed) (1994), Distance Education: Strategies and Tolls. Publications, Englewood Cliffs. Woody, A. (1986), Distance education in the United Kingdom in Open Learning, June 11 18 Zymelman, M. (1973), Financing and Efficiency in Education. Harvard University Press, Boston. Albrecht, R. and Bardsley, G. (1994), Strategic Planning and academic planning for Distance Education, in Willis, B. (Ed) Distance Education: Strategies and Tools. Englewood Cliffs. Munro, F. (1989), Choosing and using media, in Robinson, K. (Ed), Open and Distance Learning for Nurses. Longman, Harlow. ETP, Education Technology

Rowntree, D. (1885), developing Courses for Students. Paul Chapman, London.

Thorpe, M. (1988), Evaluating Open and Distance Learning. Longman, Harlow Cohen, M. and March, J. G. (1974), Leadership and Ambiguity. McGraw Hill, New York. Kandel, I. L. (1933), Comparative Education. Cambridge Riverside Press, London Mintzberg, N. (1989), Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organisations. Free Press, New York Evans, T. and Nation, D. (1989), (eds), Critical Reflection on Distance Education. Falmer Press, London. Morrison, T. R. (1989), Beyond legitimacy: Facing the future in distance education. International Journal of Life-Long Education. 8(1):1 10. Smith, P. and Kelly, M. (1987), (eds), Distance Education and the Mainstream. Croom Helm, London. In

181

Thompson, G. (1989), Provision of student support services in distance education: Do we know what they need? in Sweet, R. (Ed), Post-Secondary Distance Education in Canada. Athabasca University and CSSE, Athabasca.

6.14. Unit 14: ODC 033: RESEARCH AND EVALUATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND OPEN LEARNING

6.14.1 Course Description The Course is designed to enable learners appreciate the need and importance of research and evaluation in ODL, discuss different research and evaluation approaches and carry out research and evaluation tasks in order to address specific problems in ODL. 6.14.2. Course Objectives At the end of this course, learners will be able to:

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

Define and apply correctly the terms research and evaluation. Identify research and evaluation problem areas in ODL. Explain the need and importance of research and evaluation in ODL. Discuss different research and evaluation approaches. Explain procedures for carrying out research and evaluation in ODL. Carry out research and evaluation tasks in order to address specific problems in ODL. Expected Outcomes
At the end of the programme (i) Learners will be able to use research and evaluation techniques of distance education and open learning for enhancing interactive learning. (ii) Learners will be capable of conducting research studies, identifying viable findings dissemination strategies, and developing feasible plans for improvement in distance education and open learning pedagogy and management. (iii) Learners will be capable of learning through the distance education and open learning mode. (iv) Learners will be able to effectively use research findings in accessing and addressing educational and training needs of the marginalized groups,

6.14.3

182

e.g. learners with disabilities, out of school youth, women, rural dwellers, nomadic groups, the poor, etc.

6.14.4

Course Content

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Definition of terms. Research in ODL: Some of the Problem Areas. Strategies and Methods of Evaluation. Formulation of Research Problems in ODL. Data Collection, Analysis and Presentation of Findings
References

6.14.5.

IGNOU (1991) ES-325 Research Methods I IGNOU, New Delhi ------------------- Collection of Data 2 IGNOU, New Delhi ------------------- Research in Distance Education 4 IGNOU, New Delhi -------------------- ES-316 Educational Evaluation 4, IGNOU, New Delhi IGNOU (1991) ES-316 Evaluation in Distance Education 5, IGNOU, New Delhi Other works referred to include: IGNOU (1992) ES-325 Research for Distance Education (Blocks 1 4) School of Education, New Delhi. Chale, E.M. (1996) Policies, Planning and Management of Distance Education Institutions in Tanzania, Paper Presented at the DEATA Annual Workshop. Kameka, W. I (1996) Status and Trends of Distance Education in Tanzania, Paper presented at the DEATA Annual Workshop.

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Kothari, C.R. (1991) Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques, Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi.

6.15 Unit 15: ODC 034: SUSTAINABILITY OF DISTANCE AND OPEN LEARNING 6.15.1. 7.

EDUCATION

Course Description Besides defining the concept of sustainability, the Course explores the concern with sustainability of distance education and open learning programmes, identifies the challenges to sustainability of distance education and open learning programmes/institutions, and proposes strategies for sustaining distance education and open learning programmes/institutions.

7.15.1. Course Objectives This course aims at enabling students to: Define and explain the concept of sustainability Explain the rationale for the concern with sustainability of distance education and open learning programmes Identify the challenges to sustainability of distance education and open learning programmes/institutions Identify strategies for programmes/institutions Expected Outcomes
At the end of the programme learners will be able to: i) Learners will be able to use sustainable techniques of distance education and open learning for enhancing interactive learning. (ii) Learners will be capable of identifying viable strategies, and developing feasible plans for sustaining distance education and open learning pedagogy and management. (iii) Learners will be capable of learning through the distance education and open learning mode. Learners will be able to effectively use sustainable techniques in accessing and addressing (iv) educational and training needs of the marginalized groups, e.g. learners with disabilities, out of school youth, women, rural dwellers, nomadic groups, the poor, etc.

sustaining

distance

education

and

open

learning

6.15.3

184

6.15.4 Course Content Lecture One:The Concept and Rationale for Sustainability of Distance Education and Open Learning Lecture Two: Rationale for Concern with Sustainability of Distance Education and Open Learning Lecture Three:Challenges to Sustainability of Distance Education and Open Learning Lecture Four: Strategies for Sustainability of Distance Education and Open Learning Lecture Five: Institutional and Programme Related Strategies for Sustainability of ODL 6.15.5 References

Kilato, N. (1998) A Paradigm for Sustainable Distance Education Programmes in Tanzania in HURIA: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol.II No.I, September 1998. Okumbe , J. A. (2002) Human Resource Management in a Dynamic educational Institution: The Case Of Kenya in HURIA: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. IV No.I, November 2002.

Reuben, N.Z. (1998) The Role of the Distance Education Association of Tanzania in Promoting Sustainable Distance Education Programmes, in HURIA: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol.II No.I, September 1998. Rumble, G. (1992) The Management of Distance Learning System, Paris. UNESCO, IIEP. Bhalalusesa, E. P. (1999) What retains Learners in the Programme? Reflections from the Open University of Tanzania"' Papers in education and Development Journal of the Faculty of education of UDSM, No. 20, 1999.

Muganda C. K. (2001) "Globalization, the state and Contemporary Education Policy: Tanzania's experience " In HURIA Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. III No. 2, September, 2001.

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Muganda C. K. (2002) " Gender Equity in Education and Children at Risk: The Role of Distance and Open Learning" In HURIA Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. IV, No. 1, November, 2002 Rumble, G. (1992) The Management of Distance Learning System, Paris. UNESCO, IIEP.

Tanzania Gender Net work Programme (TGNP), (1999) Budgeting with a Gender Focus, Dar ES Salaam, TGNP. Babyegeya (2002) Teacher Education Reforms Initiatives in Tanzania: Responding to strategic Priorities of Primary education development Plan In HURIA Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. IV, No. 1, November, 2002

Kameka, N. I. (1998) "Challenges in Conducting Practical in Science through Distance Education: OUT Experience" in Huria Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. II No. 1, 1998. Mcharazo, A.A.S. (1999) "Distance Learning in the African Context: The Learning Resources Requirements of Learners at the Open University of Tanzania" Ph.D. thesis, Thames Valley University. Muganda C. K. (2001) "Globalization, the state and Contemporary Education Policy: Tanzania's experience " In HURIA Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. III No. 2, September, 2001. Muganda C. K. (2002) " Gender Equity in Education and Children at Risk: The Role of Distance and Open Learning" In HURIA Journal of the Open University of Tanzania, Vol. IV, No. 1, November, 2002 Muganda C. K. (2003) Open and Distance Learning and Quality Education For All in Developing Nations: Challenges and Prospects in OSAC Journal of Open Schooling, January 2003. Babyegeya, E. (2006) Assessment and Quality Assurance Procedures in Open and Distance Learning (ODL); The case of the Open University of Tanzania in JIPE: Journal of Issues and Practice in Education, VOL.1 No.1, June 2006.
186

Bagadanshwa, E.T.T. (2006) Technologies developed by Visually Impaired and Blind Peole in Tanzania to Access Information in JIPE: Journal of Issues and Practice in Education, VOL.1 No.1, June 2006.

Mbwette, T.S.A (2006) Higher education Institutional Reforms in Tanzania Prospects and Challenges in JIPE: Journal of Issues and Practice in Education, VOL.1 No.1, June 2006. Muganda C. K. (2003) Open and Distance Learning and Quality Education For All in Developing Nations: Challenges and Prospects in OSAC Journal of Open Schooling, January 2003. Muganda , C. K. (2006) Developing Knowledge Society in Developing Communities: Challenges and Prospects in JIPE: Journal of Issues and Practice in Education, VOL.1 No.1, June 2006.
6.16 Unit 16: INDEPENDENT STUDY 6.16.1 Course Description This Course is based on a description and analysis of Independent study. Its first Unit covers the definition of an independent study, a person or learner who participates in a programme; as well as some of the situational learning places for individuals taking an independent study. The second unit covers the procedures for carrying out and independent study, the steps to be undertaken by the students and the role the facilitators play in terms of assisting the learners in the process of independent study. In the third Unit, it discusses how independent study can enable the students to learn the ways and means on how to develop a Project/Research proposal. Finally, the Course covers a number of definitions of concepts, steps in developing a project or proposal as well as the actual skills on how to carry out and complete an Independent Study. 6.16.2 Course Objectives

Define several concepts in the content in the module. These include independent study, procedures, proposal, data collection, analysis and presentation. Identify and use skills of developing a research proposal in different communities and levels. Use a project in any village or community in Tanzania or elsewhere in developing a proposal for an independent study.

187

Demonstrate the many/different techniques in data collection, presentation and analysis. Justify the manner and skills necessary by distance learners to undertake independent study. Carry out an independent study in a relevant topic in distance education and open learning. Expected Outcomes
At the end of the programme learners should be able to: (i) Learners will be able to use independent study techniques of distance education and open learning for enhancing interactive learning. (ii) Learners will be capable of carrying out independent studies in order to identify viable strategies and develop feasible plans for improving distance education and open learning pedagogy and management. (iii) Learners will be capable of conducting independent studies through the distance education and open learning mode. (iv) Learners will be able to effectively use independent studies findings in accessing and addressing educational and training needs of the marginalized groups, e.g. learners with disabilities, out of school youth, women, rural dwellers, nomadic groups, the poor, etc.

6.16.3

6.16.4

Course Content

Module Overview Module Objectives Module Study Guide Lecture I: Distance Learners in Independent Study Lecture 2: Procedures in Carrying Out an Independent Study Lecture 3: Developing a Project/Research Proposal Lecture 4: How to Use a Project /Research Proposal Lecture 5: Data Collection, Analysis and Presentation of Findings Lecture 6: Summary and Conclusion 6.16.5 References

Alreck, P.L. and Settle, R.B. (2004). The Survey Research Handbook. New York: Mc Graw Hill. Ary,D., Jacobs,L.C., Rayavieh, A. (1985). Introduction to Research in Education.New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Breakwel et al. (eds)(2004). Research Methods in Psychology, London: SAGE Publications.

Bwatwa, Y.D.M. (2004, 2006). Revisions for Examination in Distance Education at

188

IEMS, Lesotho, and OUT, Tanzania. Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2000). Research Methods in Education (5th Ed.). London: Routledge Falmer. Delport, C.S.L., Fouche, C.B., and Strydom, H. (2002). Research at Grass Roots: For the Social Sciences and Human Service Professions (2nd Ed.). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers. Emory, C.W. (1976). Business Research Methods. Missouri. Richard Irwin Inc. Enon, J.C. (1998). Educational Research, Statistics and Measurement. Kampala: Makerere University Press. Gerring, J. (2001) Social Science Methodology, A critical Frame Work, Cambridge, CUP, 2001.

Hall, J. S. (2001). A Memorable Ending: Writing the Summary or Conclusion. Available online:http://findarticle.com/p/articles/mi_qa3976/is_2000110/ai_n8962546

Kerlinger, F., Fondations of Behavioural Research. New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc. 1973.

Kothari, C.R. (2003). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi. Wishwa Prakeshen. Krishnaswami, O.R. (2003). Methodology of Research in Social Sciences. New Delhi: Himalaya Publishing House. Independent study- Internship.htm Language Centre. Available online at http://www.languages.ait.ac.th/EL21CONC.HTM

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Leady, P.D. (1980). Practical Research: Planning and Design (2nd Ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Mushi, P.A.K. and Nyirenda, S. D. (1997) Psychology of Adult Learning, IEMS, National University of Lesotho, Lesotho

Newton, R.R., Rudestam, K.E. and Veroff, J. (1992). Surviving Your Dissertation: A Comprehensive Guide to Content and Process. California, Sage Publishers. Nhlapo, M et al (2003).Introduction to Literature, Module 3 for Diploma in Education (Primary), Lesotho College of Education, Maseru, Lesotho. Smith, M & Smith, G (1988). A Study Skills Handbook Helbourne, OUP. The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 35, No. 6 (Jun., 1964), pp. 335-338 doi:10.2307/1980163 How to write a Research Proposal available on line www.des.emory.edu/mfp/proposal.himl How to write a Research Proposal available on line at: www.meaning.ca.articles/writing_research_proposal Writing Research Proposal available on line at kalbin@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

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4.2

Programme Content

Diploma in Primary Teacher Education (DPTE)


4.3.1 ODC 040 COMMUNICATION AND STUDY SKILLS 4.3. 1.Course Description This is a one unit course which introduces students into different aspects of communication, basing on the major communication skills (listening, speaking, writing and reading). It also gives students the basic writing strategies as well as exposing them to various sources of information. In addition, the course concentrates on the English language grammar which is so crucial to any English language user. 3.1.2 Course Objectives The objectives of this course are to enable primary school teachers to: delineate the essential elements of communication communicate effectively using the four skills of language identify and use various sources of information analyze and use English language grammar Expected Outcomes At the end of the course students are expected to have: developed understanding of essential elements of communication; enhanced skills in listening, reading and writing; ability to effectively use modern learning facilities and sources of information (e.g. internet, library, radio, Newspapers etc.); and capacity to understand and use correct English language grammar for effective communication

3.1.3

3.1.4 Course Content: 5. Meaning and aspects of communication; 6. Essential communication skills a) Listening, b) Reading & writing, 7. Mechanics of writing a) Punctuations 8. Sources of information (e.g. internet, library, radio, Newspapers etc.); 9. English language grammar.

3.1.5. References: About the Web: http://www.about-the-web.com

191

Argyle, M. (1990). Bodily Communication (2nd edition). New York: International Universities Press. AARP Learn the Internet: http://www. ivpl.org/Basic-internet.html Carey, C. (1996) Listening is a Skills, New York: Hayward Publishing. Connor, U. (1984). A Study of Cohesion and Coherence in English as a Second Language in Papers in Linguistics Vol. 17, pp.301-316) Day, S. (1989). Reading and the Writing Process. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company Hatch, Evelyn. (1994). Discourse and language education. New York: Cambridge University Press. Lovingston, Drs, Sharon and Glen. (2004). How to Use Body language. Psy Thech Inc. Mehrabian, A. (1992).Nonverbal Communication (2nd edition). Chicago: Aldine Atherton. Troyka, L. Q. (1987). Handbook for Writers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Zandvoot, R. W. (1962). Handbook of English Grammar. London: Longmans Green and Co. Limited

6.2

ODC 042: INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS

3.2.1 Course Description Introduction to Educational Foundations is a one unit course that introduces students to four areas of educational foundations including: History of Education; Philosophy of Education; Sociology of Education and Comparative Education 3.2.2 Objectives At the end of this course students will be to be able to: Define and explain the concepts of History of Education, Philosophy of Education, Sociology of Education, Comparative Education Explain the importance of studying Foundations of Education to a Teacher Outline the origins and development of education in Tanzania from Ancient times to present. Identify different philosophies and philosophers that have influenced the education of Tanzania over time Explain the role of education in the society Identify the good practices in other peoples education systems and the strategies to improve their own practices as teachers and/or administrators of primary education

3.2.3 Expected Outcomes: After studying this course students are expected to have Developed understanding of the socio- historical foundations of education and the relationship between education and social economic and technological development; Capacity to use philosophy to understand and find

192

solutions to educational problems; Capacity to conduct analysis and learn from education systems of other societies. 3.2.4. Course Content 3.2.4.1 Topic 1: History of education focuses on: the meaning of education and other related concepts the importance of education in Development the development of education in Africa the development of education in Tanzania Topic 2: Philosophy of Education: Nature of Philosophy Philosophical Foundations of Education Selected philosophies and Education Great African Educational Philosophers/Thinkers 3.2.4.3 Topic 3: Sociology of Education: Nature of Sociology of Education Education and Socialization Deviant Behaviour in Schools The Teaching Profession Education and Social Change 3.2.4.4 Topic 4: Introduction to Comparative Education: Meaning, scope and importance of Comparative Education Factors that Influence Education Systems Education systems in selected countries International Education and the Future of Education 3.2.4.2 3.2.5 References Bennears, G. A., Otiende, J. E. & Boisvert, R. (eds.) (1988.) Theory and Practice of Education, Nairobi, East African Education Publishers. Hans N. (1976) Comparative Education, London, Routlege and Kegan Paul. ," Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation Nyerere, J. K. (1967) Education for Self-Reliance, Dar es Salaam, DUP Uganda, C.K. Foundations (2006), Achievements and Limitations of Education, (ODC 020), Dar es Salaam, OUT. Mwanahewa, S.A. (1999) Philosophy of Education (Foundations of education (PS111-B), Kampala, Makerere University Nyerere, J. K. (1967) Freedom and Development, Dar es Salaam, DUP. Odeat, c. F. (1997) Comparative Education, Kampala, Makerere University

193

3.3 3.3.1

ODC 043 INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL PYSCHOLOGY Course Description This course introduces the students to educational psychology which incorporates both psychology of teaching and psychology of learning. It also shows the relationship between psychology and human development. The course also deals with how physiological aspects impact teachers and learners emotion and personality. Course Objectives The course aims at enabling students to: Gain an understanding of general educational psychology Use principles of general educational psychology in explaining human development Explain how psychological aspects impact teachers\and learners emotions and personality Adapt current and effective theories and models of educational psychology in teaching and learning

3.3.2

3.3.3

Expected Outcomes After completing this course students will have: Developed understanding of educational psychology and its relevance to the teacher; Ability to adapt current and effective theories and models of educational psychology in teaching and learning, developed understanding of the implications of physical intellectual and emotional differences to teaching primary school children. course content 1. The Meaning of Educational Psychology; 2. Psychology of teaching and learning; 3. Psychology and human development; 4. Emotions and personality; 5. Psychological intervention mechanisms used to address learners special needs References Campbell, C. Y. (2002). Psychology. Chicago: Rand Mc Nally. Lahey, B. (1998). Psychology: An Introduction. New York: Mc Graw-Hill. Minett, P. (1999). Child Care and Development. London: John Murray Publishers. Mwamwenda, T. S. (1989). Educational Psychology: An African Perspective, Durban: Butterworth Publisher. Laley, B. (1998). Psychology: An Introduction. Boston: McGraw-Hill ODC 044: GENERAL TEACHING METHODS AND STRATEGIES Course Description

3.3.4.

3.3.5.

3.4 3.4.1

194

The course aims at assisting primary school teachers to develop pedagogical understanding and skills that are academically sound, child friendly and gender sensitive. It introduces the learners to conceptual issues of teaching, the relationship between teaching, knowledge and learning; teaching values and ethics as well as pedagogical issues including appropriate teaching strategies and tecnoques, scheme of work and lesson planning as well as Media applications and combinations for effective teaching and learning 3.4.2 Objectives At the end of this course you should be able to: Explain appropriate meaning of teaching and its related concepts Plan, organize and use appropriate teaching techniques Identify and use Open educational resources Select and apply appropriate media combination for effective teaching and learning Prepare a good scheme of work and lesson plan

3.4.2.1

Expected Outcomes After completing these course students are expected to have developed capacity to plan, organize and carry out teaching activities; Ability to critically analyze their roles, responsibilities as teachers; Enhanced skills to Identify and apply good practices in their own teaching context; and Capacity to select and apply appropriate media combination for effective teaching and learning

3.4.4

Course Content 5. Teachers And Teaching 6. Situations Determining Methods Of Teaching 7. Organization Of Contents 8. Planning Learning Tasks 9. Analytical Tools For Planning Learning Outcome 10. Training Pupils How To Learn 11. Contextualizing Subject Content 12. Teaching Techniques 13. Teaching Resources 10. Evaluation References Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia. 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation Mukwa, C. W. & Otieno-Jowi. (1988). Educational Communication and technology (Part 1). Nairobi: University of Nairobi. Mwanahewa, S. A. (1999). Philosophy of Education (Foundations of education PS111-B). Kampala: Makerere University

3.4.5

195

TESSA Materials LSK M3, Teacher Educator guide Jakupec, V & J. Garrick. Flexible learning, human resource and organizational development. Putting theory to work, (pp 107-129). Bower, & L. W. Watson (Eds.). ASHE Reader. Distance education: Teaching and learning in higher education, pp. 186-202. London: Pearson Custom Publishing.

www.tessafrica.net
3.5 ODC 045: MATHEMATICS TEACHING METHODS AND STRATEGIES

3.5.1. Course Description This course provides the learners with knowledge, skills and techniques for effective teaching and learning Basic Mathematics in Primary School level. Different teaching methods and strategies are discussed. The course is prepared in-line with the Numeracy syllabus for Primary Schools in Tanzania OER Materials from the Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA) programme are extensively used to develop capacity in activity-based teaching and learning of Mathematics. 3.5.2. Course Objectives Analyze the Tanzanian Primary School Numeracy syllabus, including clearly stating its goals, objectives and contents. Formulate instructional objectives, differentiating between the general and specific objectives and showing expected learning outcomes. Prepare Scheme of Work and Lesson Plan. Plan a lesson to meet pupils needs in developing their understanding of a specific concept. Select appropriate approach for teaching different skills/topics according to pupils level. Plan practical activities to enhance active classroom participation/interaction. Design and use suitable teaching-learning aids according to the pupils level and the topic. Develop and use different approaches to asses and evaluate pupils understanding and mastery of different concepts 3.5.3. Expected Outcomes Capacity to analyze primary school numeracy syllabus; Apply numeracy teaching methods, techniques and strategies appropriate for primary school learners; Able to effectively assess a numeracy lesson

3.5.4.

Course Content

196

Teaching of Mathematics in Primary Schools in Tanzania Analysis of primary school Mathematics syllabus; Approaches, methods and techniques of teaching Mathematics in primary school, Resources for effective teaching of Mathematics, Mathematics lesson planning and development, Teaching Some Selected Topics Teaching Arithmetic in Primary School Teaching Geometry in Primary School Teaching Algebra in Primary School Teaching Statistics in Primary School Testing and evaluation in Mathematics teaching 3.5.5. References Merttens, R. (1987). Teaching Primary Maths, Great Britain: Athenaeum Press Ltd. Brandes, D. and Ginnis, P. (1996). A Guide to Student-Centered Learning, Ellenborough House, Cheltenham UK: Stanley Thornes Publishers Ltd. Mooney, C., Briggs, M., Fletcher, M., and McCullouch, J. (2001). Primary Mathematics: Teaching Theory and Practice Learning, Great Britain: Southernhay East, Ltd. Murphy and Moon, B. (Eds). (1989). Developments in Learning and Assessment, Gateshead, Great Britain: Athenaeum Press Ltd. Bentley, T. (1998), Learning Beyond the Classroom. New York: Routledge.

www.tessafrica.net
3.6 3.6.1. ODC 046: LITERACY TEACHING METHODS AND STRATEGIES Course Description Literacy is the ability to read, spell and to communicate through written language. This course concentrates on the relationship between language and communication, together with the strategies and techniques of teaching language skills. In addition, the course also deals with how to assess the development of language skills. Course Objectives This course is expected to; enable student teacher identify different techniques of teaching language in primary schools equip student teacher with new ways or techniques of teaching language in primary schools introduce to student teachers aspects of communication skills expose students teachers to fundamental of language introduce student teachers ways which children learn other languages besides their mother-tongues

3.6.2.

197

3.6.3.

Expected Outcomes Understanding and explaining the concepts of language and communication; understand and apply effective way of teaching languages in primary schools; capacity to use TESSA and other OERs in teaching languages to Primary School children

3.6.4. Course Content 1. Concepts of language and communication, 2. Strategies of teaching language skill such as Listening, 3. Speaking, 4. Reading and writing; 5. Analysis of Primary school language syllabus structure, 6. Learning other languages; 7. Planning and developing a language lesson, 8. Assessment of language skills 3.6.5. References Brumfit, C.J. (1985). Language and Literature Teaching: From Practice to Principle, Pergamon Press. Mbunda, F.L. (1976).Mwalimu wa Lugha. Dar es Salaam: Dar es Salaam Press. Mhina, G. A. and Kiimbila, J. J. (1971).Mwalimu wa Kiswahili. Chuo cha Uchunguzi wa Lugha ya Kiswahili. Msokile, M. (1992). Kunga za Fasihi na Lugha.Dar es Salaa: Educational Publishers and Distributors Ltd. URT, (2005). English Language Syllabus for Primary Schools. Ministry of Education and Culture. URT, (2005) Muhtasari wa Kiswahili kwa Shule za Msingi. Wizara ya Elimu na Utamaduni.

3.7

ODC 047: SCIENCE TEACHING METHODS AND STRATEGIES

3.7.1. Course Description This course is designed to respond to the need of professional development of primary schools science teachers. This course introduces the learners to the teaching and learning of science at the primary school level. It also equips students with various teaching and learning strategies and techniques for teaching science subjects in primary schools. 3.7.2. Course Objectives The course is designed to enable students to: Effectively grasp scientific concepts, describe concepts, relate scientific concepts to the real world. Effectively facilitate their pupils in acquisition and application of science and technology in their daily life 198

Develop pupils interest in understanding and using scientific knowledge and skills in solving various problems. Facilitate pupils in learning and applying scientific process of investigation 3.7.3 Expected Outcomes After completing this course students are expected to have developed Understanding of the concepts of science and science teaching; ability to apply teaching methods, techniques and strategies appropriate for primary school science; capacity to use OERs (e.g. TESSA) in teaching Primary School Science topics; develop science teaching resources, design and plan a science lesson; ability to assess science skills. 3.7.4 Course Content 1. Concept of science and science teaching; 2. Analysis of primary school science syllabus; 3. Primary school science teaching and learning strategies, 4. Science teaching and learning materials and activities, 5. Planning and designing a primary school science lesson, 6. Organization and management of science classroom; 7. Assessment of scientific skills and competences 8. Assessment and evaluation of science teaching and learning

3.7. 5. References Ashworth, A.E (1982), Testing for Continuous Assessment. A Handbook for Teachers in schools and Colleges. London: Evans Brother Limited. Hestenes, D (1987), Toward a modeling theory of Physics instruction, Amer.J.Phys.,55,440-54 Kizlik, B., (2007), Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation in Education. Available online at http://www.adprima.com/measurement.htm OUT (1998), OED 214: Test and Measurement. Dar es Salaam: The Open University of Tanzania. TEP course materials. URT (2005), Muhtasari wa Sayansi kwa shule za Msingi, Dar es Salaam: TIR.

3.8

ODC 048 SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHING METHODS AND STRATEGIES

3.8.1. Course Description In this course students are introduced to activity-based approach to teaching and learning social studies at primary school level. Different teaching and learning strategies that can be used in social studies are discussed. The course also deals with the aspects of lesson planning, assessment and evaluation for social studies. 3.8.2. Course Objectives At the end of the course, students are able to; describe the concept of social studies

199

analyze the primary school social studies syllabus Identify teaching and learning strategies appropriate for social studies lessons plan, assess and evaluate social studies lessons 3.8.3. Expected Outcomes After studying this course students are expected to have developed ability to select and apply teaching methods, techniques and strategies appropriate for primary school Social studies; capacity to use OERs (e.g. TESSA Programme Materials) in teaching Primary School Social studies topics; Design and plan a social studies lesson; Ability to assess and evaluate a social studies lesson Course Content 1. The scope of social studies; 2. Analysis of primary school social studies syllabus; 3. Social studies teaching and learning techniques 4. Resources for effective teaching and learning of social studies 5. Planning and designing a primary school social studies lesson; 6. Assessment and evaluation of a social studies lesson References Mtana, N., Mtavangu, A., & Kauky, A. (Eds) (2003). Ufundishaji Unaozingatia Ujenzi Wa Maana. Morogoro: Morogoro Teachers College. Babyegeya, E. B.N. K. (1996). OED 204: History Methods: Dar es salaam: The Open University of Tanzania. Ndunguru, S (2002). OED 211: Geography Methods: Dar es salaam: The Open University of Tanzania Sigalla, R. J. (2003). OED 210: Curriculum Development: Dar es salaam: The Open University of Tanzania www.TESSAprogramme.website

3.8.4.

3.8.5.

3.9 3.9.1

ODC 049 TEACHING PRACTICE Course Description This course exposes students to their practical experiences as teachers in the primary schools. It focuses on the implementation and experimentation with the principles and methods of teaching acquired so far. The course will also focus on the teaching of specific subjects at a basic level.

3.9.2.

Course Objectives Upon completion of the course, the students should be able to;

200

apply the gathered practical experiences with teaching in primary schools apply the principles of teaching and methods used in relation specific situations of teaching Teach contents of their respective subjects at a basic level.

3.9.3.

Expected Outcomes Practical demonstration of Teaching ability; improved capacity in lesson preparations; Enhanced practical skills in content presentation and classroom management; use of appropriate teaching techniques; ability to evaluate a lesson and plan for improvement Course Content 1. Practical demonstration of application of knowledge on scheme of work and lesson planning; 2. Lesson preparation; 3. Organization of content, 4. Classroom organization; 5. Application of interactive techniques; 6. Mastery of subject matter; 7. Lesson evaluation; 8. Teacher personality and mannerism

3.9.4.

3.9.5.

References Open University of Tanzania (2002) Teaching Practice Regulation and Procedures (2nd Ed.)

www.tessafrica.net
3.10 3.10.1 ODC 050: Introduction to Special Needs Education Course Description In this course issues relevant to the success of students with special needs are discussed. The course closely examines specific characteristics and particular needs of learners with disabilities and explores educational strategies that have been designed to accommodate a variety of their exceptionalities. Furthermore, the course introduces practical aspects of Special Needs Education, Course Objectives The course aims at enabling students to: . Adapt, accommodate, and modify the curricula, pedagogy and overall expectations in order to effectively meet the needs of the exceptional learners within the confines of the regular classroom

3.10.2

201

Identify and Adapt current and effective practices in the delivery of education within inclusive classes Adapt appropriate technology in the classroom; particularly as it pertains to the exceptional learner design and employ tests in diagnosing and programming for learning and behavioural exceptionalities Analyse the management and the financial aspects of special education in Tanzania 3.10.3. Expected Outcomes Appropriate conceptualization of special education; Ability to analyze management and financial issues of special needs education; Ability to apply appropriate strategies and techniques for implementing inclusive education Course Content Concept and history of special need education; Special needs education in Tanzania; Management, administration and financing of Special needs education; Nature and types of disabilities; Inclusive education References Bagandaishwa, E.T.T. (1997). Coordination of Education Services for Visually Impaired and Blind people in Tanzania, PHD Thesis; University of Manchester. Mmbaga, D. R (2002) The inclusive education in Tanzania. Dream or Reality. Sweden: Stockholm University. Mnyanyi, C.B.F (2005). Conception Of Learning Among Girls With And Without Visual Impairment, Vasa Abo kademi University.( Unpublished, M.Ed Dissertation) Possi, M.K. (1999) Culture and disability: Superstitious behavior towards people with disabilities in Coastal Tanzania. African Journal of Special needs education. 1:22-35. Possi, M.K (1999) Special pupils in education reform; Papers in Education 20, Dar es Salaam: DUP. Rogers, J. (1993). The inclusion revolution Phi Delta Kappa Research Bulletin, 11 (4)

3.10.4.

3.10.5.

3.11 3.11.1

ODC O51-SCHOOLS ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT Course Description This course introduces the students to the meaning of administration as it is used in organizations including schools. It explores the nature of schools as organization. Major tasks of educational administration and management of change and resources are identified and discussed. Course Objectives 202

3.11.2

At the end of this course, students should be able to; identify and analyze the organizational structure of schools describe the major differences between schools and other organizations analyze the mission of educational administration examine the effect of physical and financial resources to administration outline major task areas of educational administration describe how culture in organizations is developed outline various approaches to management of organizational change manage various educational resources 3.11.3 Expected Outcomes Develop understanding of a school as an organization, explain the differences between schools and other organizations, analyze factors affecting educational administration, understand administrative tasks and processes, enhance skills in managing change, develop knowledge and skills of managing conflicts, prepare financial statements and manage human resources.

3.11.4 COURSE CONTENT School as an Organization Purpose of Educational Administration Factors Affecting Educational Administration The Task of Educational Administration The Administrative Process Organizational Culture Management of Change Administration of A Primary School Inspection and Evaluation of Educational Programmers Management of Resources 3.11.4 References Handy, C. (1984). Looking Schools as Organizations. London: Longman Campbell, R. F. and Ramseyer, J.A (1955). The Dynamics of School Community. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Hoy, W.K. and Miskel, C. G (1996). Educational Administration. Theory, research, practice. New York: Mc Grw-Hill. Kimbrough, R. B and Nunney, M Y (1988). Educational Administration: An Introduction. London: MacMillan Owens, R. G. (1998). Organizational Behaviors in Education. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Stesrns, H. S (1955). Community Relations and the Public Schools. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. 3.12 ODC O52 INTRODUCTIONS TO RESEARCH IN EDUCATION

203

3.12.1

Course Description This course introduces students to the nature of educational research. It aims at developing the skills in writing a research proposal, for conducting research and how to write research reports. The course further guides students on the use of research for teaching, learning and the school and school management. Course Objectives The course will enable students to: Define research and its related concepts write research proposal and research reports conduct research, use research in the teaching and learning process use research in school management

3.12.2

3.12.3.

Expected Outcomes Upon completion of the course, the students expected to have developed Understanding of research and its procedures from proposal writing up to report writing. Capacity to conduct and use research in the learning environment

3.12.4.

Course Contents nature of education research need for research and evaluation in education the research proposal literature review research methods data organization and analysis research report writing References Leedy, P. D. (1980). Practical Research, New York: Macmillan Walter, R.B. (1992). Research in Education. New York: Longman Miles, M B and Huberman, A.M (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis, London:Soge Publications Cohen, L (1980). Research Methods in Education. London:Routledge

3.12.5.

3.13 3.13.1

ODC O53 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT-LIFE IN THE CLASSROOM Course Description 204

This course introduces a discussion on how to organize content and learning experiences for effective learning. It also introduces the discussion on the concept of thinking and how higher order thinking skills can be enhanced among the learners. The course also helps learners develop competencies which will help them cope up with diverse teaching and learning situations 3.13.2 Course Objectives At the end of this course, students should be able to; Identify various tools for classroom management Develop teacher characteristics for effective classroom Management Create physical environment that facilitate learning Use available conditions to achieve maximum learning Acknowledge similarities and differences among pupils in the class Identify pupils shortcomings and potentials Use counseling as a tool for creating environments for effective learning Use teaching ethics and values for effective classroom management 3.13.2 Expected Outcomes Ability to reflect on their own practices and make improvement; Capacity to organize and contextualize content for meaningful learning; Developed skills of planning and designing learning tasks Effective use of reinforcement Recognize the significance of classroom environment for effective teaching/learning process use communication as a tool of classroom management COURSE CONTENT Discipline Roles of a teacher Appearance and mannerisms of a teacher Classroom organization Examination invigilation Communication in the classroom Pupils individual differences Use of reinforcement and punishment Counseling Ethics and values of teaching REFERENCES Popham,W.J (1999) Classroom assessment: what teachers need to know :London: Allyn and Bacon. Harlen.w.(1997).The Teaching of Science in Primary Schools .Great Britain David Fulton Bublishers

3.13.3

3.13.4

205

TEP (2003) Complied Text With A Guide to Reading for Module Three. Prepared at Morogoro Teachers College Marton , F, et al (1997).The Experience of Learning Implication for Teaching and studying in Higher Education ,Edinburgh. Fisher,R. (1995) Teaching Children to Learn. UK: Basil Blackwell. Fisher,R. (1995) Teaching Children to Think UK: Basil Blackwell. Kasambira, K.P. (1993) Lesson Planning and Class Management. England: Longman.

3.14. ODC 054 PRIMARY EDUCATION CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT & INNOVATION 3.14.1 Course Description This course introduces primary school teachers to the concept of curriculum development and other related concepts. The course describes how and what approaches are used in primary school curriculum development processes as well as appropriate ways to translate syllabuses into schemes of work and later into lesson plans for effective learning. It also discusses some innovations in educational practices which include microteaching, team teaching and introduction of cross-cutting issues into a curriculum. 3.14.2. Course Objectives At the end of this course, you are expected to be able to: describe the meaning of curriculum and curriculum development state behavioural objectives and organise lessons that help to meet the objectives write appropriate schemes of work and respective lesson plans discuss and apply different methods of assessment and their influence on teaching and learning identify influences on curriculum and curriculum innovations Expected Outcomes Understanding of curriculum development; Capacity to translate curriculum into scheme of work and lesson plans; Ability to formulate behavioural objectives, ability to evaluate instruction, capacity to influence and implement curriculum innovations Course Content 1. The concept of Curriculum, 2. Influences on curriculum; 3. Elements of curriculum; 4. Primary School Curriculum Development and implementation; 5. Curriculum innovation process and strategies; 6. Curriculum monitoring, Assessment and Evaluation 7. curriculum and cross-cutting issues.

3.14.3

3.14.4

3.14.5.

References

206

1. The following resources are suggested as reference: 2. Marsh, C. J and Willis, G (1995) Curriculum: Alternatives Approaches, on gong issues. (2nd edition). Columbus Ohio 3. Nacino-Brown R., Oke, F. E. and Desmond P. Brown, (1982) Curriculum and Instruction. An Introduction to Methods of Teaching. Macmillan Education Ltd 4. Mtana, N., Mtavangu, A., & Kauky, A. Eds (2003) Ufundishaji unaozingatia Ujenzi wa maana. Morogoro Teachers College, Morogoro 5. Mtana, N., Mhando, E., & Hjlund, G. Eds (2004) Teaching and learning in primary education in Tanzania. Morogoro Teachers College. Morogoro. 6. Popham, W.J. (1999) Classroom assessment: What teachers need to know (2nd edition). Allyn and Bacon, London 7. Wiggins, G. (1998) Educative assessment: Designing assessment to inform and improve student performance. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco

3.15 3.15.1.

ODC O55-MATHEMATICS Course Description This course is designed to strengthen skills necessary for the teaching of Basic Mathematics at the primary school level. At the same time, the course offers a strong mathematical foundation for further advancement in the subject. The main aim is to provide those fundamentals of basic mathematics, which are necessary to develop mathematics as a unified body of knowledge. General Objectives This course aims at enabling students to: Perform operations with fractions and decimals, and write numbers in scientific notations Solve percent, ratios and proportions problems Translate word problems into mathematical equations and solve simple linear and simultaneous equations Find perimeters, areas and volumes of different figured and apply Pythagoras theorem in solving problems Present set by using different description methods, state and apply laws of algebra of sets, draw Venn diagrams and apply them in solving set problems Present numerical data and analyze them statistically

3.15.3

Expected Outcomes

Upon completion of the course students are expected have developed capacity to perform basic computations and solve relevant, multi-step mathematical problems using technology where appropriate. Ability to perform operations with fractions and decimals, and write numbers in scientific notations; Solve
207

percent, ratios and proportions problems; Translate word problems into mathematical equations and solve simple linear and simultaneous equations; Find perimeters, areas and volumes of different figured and apply Pythagoras theorem in solving problems.
3.15.4 Course Content 1. Arithmetic Fractions and decimals; Scientific notations; Ratios and Proportions; Percentages; Sequences and Series 2. Basic Algebra Introduction to algebra, Translation of word problems into mathematical equations, Find the solution sets of some simple open sentences, Equations with one variable, Simultaneous equations, Linear equations 3. Geometry a) Perimeters and Circumferences, Areas, Volumes of solids, Angles and Triangles, Pythagoras Theorem; 4. Set theory Set presentation and notation, Universal sets and complement sets, Operations with sets, Laws of algebra of sets; 5. Elementary Statistics a) Collection of data, b) Presentation of statistical data, c) Measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode), d) Standard Deviation

3.15.4

References

208

Setek, W. M. (1989). Fundamental of Mathematics. New York: McMillan Publishing Company. Nathan, R. and Moshi, A. M. (1993). Set Theory Advanced Level Mathematics Vol. 1, IVST Book Series, Dar es Salaam: Dar Es Salaam University Press Murray, R. S. and Boxer, R. W. (1972). Schaums Outline Series, Theory and Problems of Statistics. UK: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Ott, L. and Mendenhall, W. (1990). Understanding Statistics. Boston: PWS-Kent.

3.16 3.16.1

ODC 056: ENGLISH LANGUAGE Course Description This course introduces to students the building blocks of English language which includes formation of English sentences, pronunciation of different English words, various ways of forming new words as well as the grammar of English language. The course also exposes students to writing creatively and artistically. Course Objectives After completion of this course, students are expected to; Pronounce English language words thoroughly use English language vocabulary and grammar appropriately write creatively by using English language classify the major classes of English language

3.16.2

3.16.3

Expected Outcomes Ability to appropriately identify and use English Language Sounds; understanding of various ways of vocabulary expansion of the English language; Enhanced understanding and skills in creative writing and English grammar and use Course Content Sounds in the English language Vowels, compound, short &week sounds; consonants; Syllable & stress Vocabulary expansion in the English language: Borrowing, varieties of English language; written & spoken English; Word formation; Creative writing: Grammar & Usage: major word classes, nouns, Concordia relations, 209

3.16.4

Sentence patterns and types. 3.16.5 References Atikinson, M. D. Kilby & I. Ropka, (1991). Language: An Introduction, Unwin Hyman: London. Delobrovolsky, M., F. Katamba & W. OGrady, (1997). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. London: Longman. Eloit, A. (1970) in Yule 1996. The study of language (2nd Ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gimson, A. C. (1991). Introduction to the Pronunciation of English, New York: Edward Arnold. Huddleston, R. (1988). Grammar of English: An Outline, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Maghway, J. B. (1996). Linguistics and the Study of Language, Dar es Salaam: Open University of Tanzania. Ndimele, O. M. (1993). An Advanced English Grammar & Usage, Nigeria: Budico Ltd. OConnor, J. D. (1980). Better English Pronunciation. London: Longman.

3.17. 3.17.1.

ODC 057: KISWAHILI Course Description Kozi hii imejikita zaidi kwenye kufafanua maana, pamoja na chimbuko la lugha ya Kiswahili. Vilevile kozi hii inamwonyesha mwanafunzi jinsi matumizi ya lugha ya Kiswahili yanavyobadilika, ikiwa ni pamoja na matumizi fasaha ya maneno ya lugha ya Kiwsahili. Mwisho, kozi hii inaelezea jinsi ya kutathmini fasihi ya lugha ya Kiswahili.

3.17.2.

Course Objectives Baada ya kumaliza kozi hii, mwanafunzi anatazamiwa kuwa na uwezo wa; Kueleza maana ya lugha Kusimulia Historia ya Kiswahili Kutambua jinsi matumizi ya Kiswahili yanavyobadilika Kutumia maneno ya Kiswahili kwa ufasaha wa Kiswahili Kuthamini fasihi ya Kiswahili kwa jumla

3.17.3.

Expected Outcomes
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Uwezo wa kueleza lugha ni nini? Uwezo wa kusimulia historia ya Lugha ya Kiswahili, kutambua jinsi matumizi ya Kiswahili yanavyobadilika; Kutumia maneno ya Kiswahili kwa ufasaha; Kuthamini fasihi ya Kiswahili kwa ujumla 3.17.4 Course Content Maana ya Lugha, Historia Ya Kiswahili, Matumizi na Mabadiliko ya Kiswahili; fasihi kwa ujumla, Sarufi ya Kiswahili kwa ujumla.

3.17.4 References Grimes, B. (2000), Ethnologue 14th ed. Dallas.SIL. Nkwera, Fr. F. V. (2003), Sarufi, Fasihi na Uandishi wa Vitabu, Sekondari na Vyuo, Creative Prints Ltd., Dar es Salaam. Habwe, J na Karanja , P. ((2004) Misingi ya Sarufi ya Kiswahili Bussman , H. (1996), Routedge Dictionary of language and linguistics Nurse na Thomas Spear (1985), The Swahili: Reconstructing the History and Language of an African Society, in Clement Maganga (1997), OSW 102: Historia ya Kiswahili, Chuo Kikuu Huria cha Tanzania, Kitivo cha Sanaa na Sayansi za Jamii.

Masebo, J. A. Nyengwine, N. (2002), Nadharia ya Lugha ya Kiswahili, Kidato cha 5 na 6, Aroplus Industries Ltd., Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nkwera, Fr. F. V. (2003), Sarufi, Fasihi na Uandishi wa Vitabu, Sekondari na Vyuo,
Creative Prints Ltd.

3.18. 3.18.1.

ODC 058 PHYSICS Course Description The course is designed to provide general physics knowledge. The course introduces to students the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. It also describes the forces exerted by a static (i.e. unchanging) electric field upon charged (electrostatics), as well as wave motions. It therefore equips the learners with the general understanding of theoretical aspects as well as basic practical skills of physics knowledge. Course Objectives On completion of this course the students will be able to: Define various physics concepts such as Mechanics, Electrostatics, Electromagnetism, Self inductance ,Oscillations and waves State and apply various laws in physics i.e. Newtons law of motion, Keplers Law and its application in planetary motion, Pascals Principle, Coulombs law.

3.18.2.

211

Compute various quantities of energy e.g. the energy stored in capacitors, Compute power in alternating current circuits, energy stored in magnetic field, energy of simple harmonic motion. Manipulate vectors, RC electric circuits and RL Electric Circuits

3.18.3.

Expected Outcomes Developed understanding of fundamental concepts in the physics discipline, Capacity to teach primary Science confidently, Ability to undertake further studies in the physics subject area

3.18.4

Course Content Mechanics Measurement, Motion in one dimension, vectors, Newtons law of motion, Uniform circular motion, the universe and gravitational force and fluids; Electrostatics Electric charge and Coulombs law, the Electric field, Electric potential Energy, Electric potential, Capacitance, RC Electric circuits Electromagnetism the magnetic Field, the Faradays law of Electromagnetic induction, Inductance and LR Electric Circuits Oscillations and Waves Oscillations, Damped simple Harmonic Oscillations and Resonance, wave motion

3.18.5

References Breuer, H. (1975), Physics for Science Students. Prentice Hall, Inc Greene, E. S. (1962), Principles of Physics. Prentice Hall, Inc Hewitt, P. G. (1985), Conceptual Physics. Little: Brown & Company 212

Schaum, D. et al. (1961), College Physics 3.19 3.19.1 ODC 059: BIOLOGY Course Description This course examines the concept of cell in Biology and its related characteristics. The course also deals with the aspect of classification of different organisms, as well as their physiological trends. It further deals with the inter relationship among organisms (ecology) and looks at how traits are passed down from one generation to another, through the genes. Finally, the course exposes different practical skills to students. Course Objectives At the end of the course students should be able to; Identify the types of cells and their common properties Describe the necessity of naming and arranging organisms into groups Explain types of foods and physiological processes in both plants sand animals Explain the concepts and relationship between ecosystem and biosphere Know the concepts of genetics and other terminologies used in genetics Describe the concept of evolution, occurrence of evolution and mechanism of evolution Practice the use of microscope, procedures in dissection and drawing. Expected Outcomes Developed understanding of the main concepts used in life science; Enhanced knowledge in Cell Biology, Classification, General Physiology, Ecology , Genetics and Evolution; Enhanced practical Skills in the field of life science; Capacity to confidently teach life science in primary schools; A solid a foundation for undertaking further studies in Biology discipline. 3.19.4 COURSE CONTENT Cell Biology Cell concept, cell structure, cell inclusion and components protein synthesis and cell division); Classification The concept of classification, systematic as science of diversity of life, development and use of keys, classification systems, binomial system of naming organisms, and modern systematic General Physiology Nutrition, 213

3.19.2

3.19.3

respiration, excretion, coordination, transport, Movement, Enzymes Ecology Concept of Ecology, methods of studying ecology, pyramid of biomass, Ecosystems, community Ecology succession, Energy flow and cycling of nutrients Genetics concept of genetics, Mendelian Principles of classification, monohybrids and dihybrids, Sex linkages, gene interaction and gene pool Evolution concept of evolution, Evidence of evolution i.e. Biogeography; Biochemistry; comparative morphology and physiology; Mechanisms of evolution: Darwinism; Lamarckism; Neo-Darwinism; gradual changes, Microevolution: geographical and reproductive isolation, species formation, Macroevolution: the rise of vertebrates Practical Skills Use and handling of microscopes, general procedures in dissection and drawing, interpretation of graphs, diagrams and photographs 3.19.5 References Alberts B., Johnson A., Lewis J. and Raff M. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. (4th Edition). N. Y. Academic Press. Raven, P. H. and Johnson, G. B. (1999). Biology (5th Edition). WCB/McGraw Hill companies. Goodman, S.T (1997). Medical Cell Biology. Garland Publishing http://www.biology.Arizona.edu http://www.cell-biology.org

214

Polard, T. D.; Earnshaw, W. C. (2003). Cell Biology. (Updated Edition): with student consult Access. Brooks, D. R. and McLennan D. A. (1991). Ecology and Behaviour. New York: University of Chicago Press. Eldridge, N. and Cracraft, J. (1980). Phylogenetic patterns and the Evolutionary Process. USA: Columbia University Press. Harvey, P. H. and Pagel, M. D. (1991). The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press Maddison, W.P and Maddison, D. R (1992) Analysis of Phylogeny and Character evolution. Version 3.0 Sinauer Associates. MA: Sunderland Swofford, D. L. (1991) Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP), Version 3.0s.IL: IllinoisNatural history Survey Oram, R.F. et al (1994). Biology of Living Systems. McGraw Hill Publishing Company

3.20 3.20.1.

ODC 060: CHEMISTRY Course Description This course is designed to equip students with basic knowledge and skills in chemistry (both theoretical aspects as well as basic practical skills) important for a science teacher. Course Objectives On completion of this course the students should be able to: Define various chemistry concepts such as an atoms, atomic number, isotopes, quantum numbers, electronic configuration, chemical bonding, hybridization, molecular, catalysis, solubility, hydrocarbons, and apply etc State and apply various laws in chemistry such as Boyles law, Charles law, Avogadro law, Daltons gas laws, Grahams aw of diffusion, modern periodic law, Heisenbergs uncertainty principle, Pauls Exclusion principle Do various chemistry calculations Apply knowledge and skills in proper use and management of the environment

3.20.2.

3.20.3.

Expected Outcomes Developed understanding of various chemistry concepts e.g. atoms, atomic number, isotopes, quantum numbers, electronic configuration, chemical bonding, hybridization, molecular, catalysis, solubility, hydrocarbons, and apply etc Capacity to State and apply various laws and principles in chemistry. Ability to do various chemistry calculations, apply knowledge and skills in proper use and management of the environment

3.20.4.

Course Content General and Physical Chemistry 215

Atomic structure, Modern Quantum Theory of Atoms, Bonding, Radioactivity, The gas Laws, Energetic, Chemical Equilibrium; Chemical kinetics Oxidation-Reduction and electrochemistry, Electrolytes in solution, Acids, bases and salts, Solubility and solubility production Inorganic chemistry The Modern periodic table, The chemistry of selected Elements, Transition elements Organic Chemistry Occurrence of Organic Compounds, Hydrocarbons, Alkenes, Alkynes, Benzene and its Homologues, Derivatives of Hydrocarbons, Halogen derivatives, Hydroxyl compounds; Carbonyl compounds, Carboxylic acids, Esters, Amides, Amines, Polymers 3.20.5. References Boikess, R.S, Breslauer, K and Eldeson, E(1986) Elements of Chemistry: General, Organic and Biological. London:Hodders and Stoughton Carey, F.A (2000) Organic Chemistry. 4th Edition. Boston: McGraw Hill Denbigh, K (1997). The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium. 4th Edition. UK:Cambridge University Press Ddungu, M.L.M., Mihingo, J.B.A, Mkayula L.L, Mkwizu, A.B.S and Schiess, M (1998). Physical Chemistry for A Level and 1st year undergraduate. Students Volume 1. Dar es salaam: Tanzania Publishing House Hill G. (2002) Chemistry Counts. 3rd Edition. London: Hodder and Stoughton McMurry, J. and Castellion, M. E. (1999) Fundamentals of general, Organic and Biological Chemistry 3rd Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall ODC 061: Geography

3.21

216

3.21.1

Course Descriptions The course introduces to students the concept of Geography, examining the structure of the earth and various processes that result into different landforms on the earth. It further deals with different human activities on the earth, and how to read and interpret maps. Course Objectives Students are expected at the end of this course to be able to; define the concept of Geography describe and analyze the structure and materials of the earth Explain various forces that result into formation of landforms categorize types of erosion and their effects on the earth examine the relationship between human development and Geography analyze geographical photographs and interpret maps Expected Outcomes Basic knowledge of geography and related disciplines; Capacity to explain processes and effects of weather and climatic changes; Capacity to explain and apply techniques of environmental conservations; Develop understanding of natural resources and their use; Ability to analyses issues of population and development; capacity to analyses and present geographical; Developed knowledge in topological map presentation

3.21.2

3.21.3

3.21.4

Course Content 1) The discipline of Geography; 2) Structure and materials of the earth; 3) Internal geographical processes and land forms; 4) External geographical processes 5) Weathering and mass movement, 6) Erosion and deposition); 7) Study of soil; 8) Human Geography; 9) Population and development; 10)Agriculture; Exploitation of natural resources; 11)Application of statistical data in geography; 12)Presentation of geographical Data; 13)Topographical, 14)Map interpretation. 217

3.21.5

References Barnaby, J.B. and Cleves, P.G (1983) Techniques and Field Work in Geography. London: UN Winhyman Ltd Bowen, A. and Pallister, J. (2001) A2 Geography.Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publisher Bunnet, R.B. (1990) Physical Geography in Diagrams for Africa. (8th Edition).Hong Kong: Longman group Ltd Dura, S.E (1990) Map reading and Photo Interpretation. Dar es Salaam: ILM Publishers Ltd Fellman, J.D. (1999) Human Geography: Landscapes of Human activities. (6th Edition).McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Lines, C., Bowlwell, L. and Smith, A. F. (1996). A Level Geography. London: Letts Educational. MacMaster, D.N. (1978). Map Reading for East Africa: New Metric Addition. Tanzania: Longman Tanzania Ltd Nicola, A., Lomas, S., Nagle, G., Thomson, L and Thomson, P. (2000). A2 Geography. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publisher URT (1997). Agricultural and Livestock Policy. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, January. URT (1998). The National Poverty Eradication Strategy. Dar es Salaam: Govt Printer. White, H., Kllick, T., Kayizi-Mugerwa, S. and Savage (eds) (2001).African Poverty at Millenium: causes, Complexities and Challenges.Washinton D.C: The World Bank Young, A. (1989). Agro Forestry for Soil Conservation. Wallingford: CAB International

3.22. 3.22.1.

ODC062: History Course Descriptions This course examines the meaning of history, It also emphasizes on various activities and interactions that happened in African history starting from the pre-history epoch. The course further explores the pre and post colonial African development both politically and economically. Course Objectives After undertaking this course, students are expected to; Know the meaning of history Identify economic, technological and political developments in pre colonial Africa Distinguish historical events from pre- colonial era to post colonial era. Identify changes in human development in economic, political and social spheres.

3.22.2.

218

3.22.3.

Expected Outcomes Ability to explain the concept of history and sources of history; Basic Knowledge of Africas pre colonial history; Capacity to analyze trans Atlantic slave trade and its impact; discuss imposition of colonial rule and African responses, colonial economy and colonial administration; Capacity to discuss African nationalist struggles and post independence developments

3.22.4.

Course Content 1. Sources of History; 2. Sources and types of History; 3. African Prehistory; 4. Economic and technological development in pre colonial Africa; 5. Political developments in Pre-colonial Africa; 6. Africas Contact with outside world; 7. Colonial conquest and African reactions; 8. The colonial situation; 9. National struggles and decolonization; 10. Post Independence developments: 11. Political Sphere; 12. Post Independence developments: 13. Economic Sphere.

3.22.5

References Bohanan P and Curtin P (1988) Africa and Africans, Illinois Waveland Press Inc. Fage J.D. and Tordolf W.(2002), A History of Africa, London, Routledge Illiffe J. (1995), African: The History of A continent, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Mazrui A and Wondji C. (1993), General History of Africa Vol. VIII Africa since 1935, UNESCO. Oliver R. (1991), The African Experience, Major Themes in African History from the Earliest Times to the Present, New York, Icon Editions. Shillington K. (1995), History of Africa, London, Macmillan Education Ltd.

3.23. 3.23.1

ODC 063: General Studies Course Description This course concentrates on the issues that most human beings experience in life. These are developmental, environmental, political, economical, cultural, technological and current affairs that emanate from daily human activities and interactions. It highlights on the gender issues and human reproductive health

219

3.23.2

Course Objectives Through this course students are expected to be able to: Explain development concepts Identify issues of development including environmental, technological and gender issues Explain social, economic and political phenomena develop interest in current affairs Identify practical interventions for healthy living

3.23.3

Expected Outcomes Developed understanding development and related concepts; Developed understanding of issues of social, economic and technological development; Capacity to analyze issues of environment, gender and health in development, Ability to identify and apply practical interventions for development at various levels; developed interest in current affairs

3.23.4

Course Content 1. Development and related concepts; 2. issues of social, economic and technological development; 3. Our environmental conservation; 4. Gender balance in education; 5. Reproductive health; 6. current affairs References Tanzania Journal of Development Studies (2003), Vol. 4 No. 1, institute of Development Studies, University of Dar es Salaam Commonwealth Youth Programme (2001), Module 12, Youth and Health; Commonwealth Secretariat London Tanzania Journal of Development Studies (2003), Vol. 4 No. 2, institute of Development Studies, University of Dar es Salaam Visvanathan, N, et. al. (2006), The Women, Gender and Development, University Press, London. Sweetman, C. (2004), Gender, Development and Diversity, Oxfarm Information Press, GB, UK Sweetman, C. (1999), Gender in Development Organizations, Oxfarm Information Press, GB, UK Westendorff, D and Eade, D. (2002), Development and Cities: A Development in Practice Reader, Oxfarm Information Press, GB, UK

323.5

3.24

ODC 064: Vocational Skills Teaching Methods And Strategies

220

3.24.1

Course Description This course concentrates on examining the primary school vocational skills syllabus and the teaching strategies for vocational skills at this level (primary). It also exposes to students the resources which are effective for teaching vocational skills in primary schools. The course, in addition, looks on the testing and evaluation procedure of vocational skills. Course Objectives After undertaking this course, students are expected to be able to; analyze primary school vocational skills syllabus demonstrate approaches, methods, techniques and strategies for teaching vocation skills identify and use apply resources of teaching vocation skills develop, test and evaluate vocation skills Expected Outcomes Capacity to analyze primary school Vocational Skills syllabus; Ability to apply teaching methods, techniques and strategies appropriate for primary school learners; Able to effectively assess Vocational Skills lesson, Techniques of learning through ODL Entrepreneurial and vocational skills for promoting education for self reliance. Course Content Analysis of primary school Vocational Skills syllabus; Approaches, methods and techniques of Teaching Vocational and in primary school, Resources for effective teaching of Vocational Skills, Vocational Skills lesson development, Testing and evaluation in Vocational Skills teaching.

Entrepreneurial skills

Reference TESSA Materials Social Studies & Art Module 3 TESSA: Key resources Kasambira, K. P. (1993). Lesson Planning and Class Management. England: Longman

www.tessafrica.net
3.25. 3.25.1 ODC 041: Introduction to ICT Course Description This course is designed to provide students with the basic technical knowledge and skills necessary for various computer applications in education, business and other areas where computer is widely applied. The course has considered widely used applications such as

221

Word Processing, Electronic Spreadsheets, Presentation packages, Data Management, as well as Internet use and applications. The course covers some concepts of Computer and Information Technology including Computer history, hardware (computer system, monitor, peripherals and accessories). Users are introduced to operating systems such as Microsoft DOS and Microsoft Windows XP to allow them get started in using computer comfortably. 3.25.2 Course Objectives On completion of the course, students will be able to: Describe the physical construction and logical operation of the computer, Explain the evolution of the computers, Identify the most appropriate computer for their needs, Understand Applications software for Word processing, Electronic Spreadsheets and Database applications software. use Internet in various Applications especially Electronic Communications, Finding and searching Information, Browsing and Electronic Commerce. 3.25.3 Expected Outcomes On completing this course the students will: be computer literate; have acquired knowledge and techniques of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for self, independent and distance learning; develop capacity to identify Internet Dangers and their possible solutions; Course Content Introduction to Computers, Introduction to Windows XP, Introduction to Microsoft Word 2003, Introduction to Microsoft Excel 2003, Introduction to Microsoft Access 2003, Using the Internet and Introduction to Electronic Mail.

3.25.4.

Reference
Angell D., Heslop B.& Kent P. (2003), Word 2003 Bible, ISBN: 9780764539718, A Little History of the World Wide Web. W3C. 29 May 2002. http://www.w3.org/History.html Conner-Sax, K. & Krol, E. (1999) The Whole Internet the next generation, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc, California, Dobson R. (2003), Programming Microsoft Office Access 2003 ISBN 9780735619425, Google Help. 2002. http://www.google.com/help/basics.html

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Levine,J.R., Baroudi, C., Levine Young, M., (2002) Internet for Dummies, ISBN: 0-76450894-6, Microsoft Office Word 2003 Step by Step Guide ,Online Training Solutions Inc, ISBN 9780735615236 Microsoft Office Word 2003 (English); Step by Step, Microsoft Pr, ISBN: 9780735615236,

Microsoft Access 2003 Reference Guide, (2004) Ohio University;


Neely M, (1999) Complete Beginner's Guide to the Internet, Trafalgar Square, ISBN: 1873668627 Nickerson R.C. (2000) Business and Information Systems (2nd ed), Prentice Hall, ISBN 0130894966 Schwimmer, B.(1996) Anthropology on the Internet Volume 37, Number 3, p. 561 Stair R,&. Reynolds G, (2005). Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition, Course Technology, ISBN: 0619064919 Walkenbach J. and Banfield, C. Excel 2003 for Dummies Quick Reference, Understanding the World Wide Web. August 2001. University at Albany Libraries.

http:/library.albany.edu/internet/ww

6.21 6.21.1

ODC 061: GEOGRAPHY Course Descriptions The course introduces to students the concept of Geography, examining the structure of the earth and various processes that result into different landforms on the earth. It further deals with different human activities on the earth, and how to read and interpret maps.

6.21.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES Students are expected at the end of this course to be able to; define the concept of Geography describe and analyze the structure and materials of the earth Explain various forces that result into formation of landforms categorize types of erosion and their effects on the earth examine the relationship between human development and Geography analyze geographical photographs and interpret maps

OMES Basic knowledge of geography and related disciplines; Capacity to explain processes and effects of weather and climatic changes; Capacity to explain and apply techniques of environmental conservations; Develop understanding of natural resources and their use; 223

Ability to analyses issues of population and development; capacity to analyses and present geographical; Developed knowledge in topological map presentation

NTS The discipline of Geography; Structure and materials of the earth; Internal geographical processes and land forms; External geographical processes Weathering and mass movement, Erosion and deposition); Study of soil; Human Geography; population and development; Agriculture; Exploitation of natural resources; Application of statistical data in geography; Presentation of geographical Data; Topographical, Map interpretation. 6.21.5 REFERENCES Barnaby, J.B. and Cleves, P.G (1983) Techniques and Field Work in Geography. London: UN Winhyman Ltd Bowen, A. and Pallister, J. (2001) A2 Geography.Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publisher Bunnet, R.B. (1990) Physical Geography in Diagrams for Africa. (8th Edition).Hong Kong: Longman group Ltd Dura, S.E (1990) Map reading and Photo Interpretation. Dar es Salaam: ILM Publishers Ltd Fellman, J.D. (1999) Human Geography: Landscapes of Human activities. (6th Edition).McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Lines, C., Bowlwell, L. and Smith, A. F. (1996). A Level Geography. London: Letts Educational. MacMaster, D.N. (1978). Map Reading for East Africa: New Metric Addition. Tanzania: Longman Tanzania Ltd Nicola, A., Lomas, S., Nagle, G., Thomson, L and Thomson, P. (2000). A2 Geography. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publisher URT (1997). Agricultural and Livestock Policy. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, January. URT (1998). The National Poverty Eradication Strategy. Dar es Salaam: Govt Printer. White, H., Kllick, T., Kayizi-Mugerwa, S. and Savage (eds) (2001).African Poverty at Millenium: causes, Complexities and Challenges.Washinton D.C: The World Bank Young, A. (1989). Agro Forestry for Soil Conservation. Wallingford: CAB International

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ODC062: HISTORY 6.22.1. COURSE DESCRIPTIONS This course examines the meaning of history,. It also emphasizes on various activities and interactions that happened in African history starting from the pre-history epoch. The course further explores the pre and post colonial African development both politically and economically. 6.22.2.COURSE OBJECTIVES After undertaking this course, students are expected to; Know the meaning of history Identify economic, technological and political developments in pre colonial Africa Distinguish historical events from pre- colonial era to post colonial era. Identify changes in human development in economic, political and social spheres. 6.22.3. EXPECTED OUTCOMES

Ability to explain the concept of history and sources of history; Basic Knowledge of Africas pre colonial history; Capacity to analyze trans Atlantic slave trade and its impact; discuss imposition of colonial rule and African responses, colonial economy and colonial administration; Capacity to discuss African nationalist struggles and post independence developments 6.22.4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. COURSE CONTENT Sources of History; Sources and types of History; African Prehistory; Economic and technological development in pre colonial Africa; Political developments in Pre-colonial Africa; Africas Contact with outside world; Colonial conquest and African reactions; The colonial situation; National struggles and decolonization; Post Independence developments: Political Sphere; Post Independence developments: Economic Sphere.

6.23. ODC 063: GENERAL STUDIES 6.23.1 COURSE DESCRIPTION

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This course concentrates on the issues that most human beings experience in life. These are developmental, environmental, political, economical, cultural, technological and current affairs that emanate from daily human activities and interactions. It highlights on the gender issues and human reproductive health 6.23.2 COURSE OBJECTIVES Through this course students are expected to be able to: Explain development concepts Identify issues of development including environmental, technological and gender issues Explain social, economic and political phenomena develop interest in current affairs Identify practical interventions for healthy living

6.23.3 EXPECTED OUTCOMES Developed understanding development and related concepts; Developed understanding of issues of social, economic and technological development; Capacity to analyze issues of environment, gender and health in development, Ability to identify and apply practical interventions for development at various levels; developed interest in current affairs 6.23.4 COURSE CONTENT Development and related concepts; issues of social, economic and technological development; Our environmental conservation; Gender balance in education; Reproductive health; current affairs 6.23.5 REFERENCES Tanzania Journal of Development Studies (2003), Vol. 4 No. 1, institute of Development Studies, University of Dar es Salaam Commonwealth Youth Programme (2001), Module 12, Youth and Health; Commonwealth Secretariat London Tanzania Journal of Development Studies (2003), Vol. 4 No. 2, institute of Development Studies, University of Dar es Salaam Visvanathan, N, et. al. (2006), The Women, Gender and Development, University Press, London. Sweetman, C. (2004), Gender, Development and Diversity, Oxfarm Information Press, GB, UK Sweetman, C. (1999), Gender in Development Organizations, Oxfarm Information Press, GB, UK

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Westendorff, D and Eade, D. (2002), Development and Cities: A Development in Practice Reader, Oxfarm Information Press, GB, UK

6.24 ODC 064: VOCATIONAL SKILLS TEACHING METHODS AND STRATEGIES COURSE DESCRIPTION This course concentrates on examining the primary school vocational skills syllabus and the teaching strategies for vocational skills at this level (primary). It also exposes to students the resources which are effective for teaching vocational skills in primary schools. The course, in addition, looks on the testing and evaluation procedure of vocational skills. COURSE OBJECTIVES After undertaking this course, students are expected to be able to; analyze primary school vocational skills syllabus demonstrate approaches, methods, techniques and strategies for teaching vocation skills identify and use apply resources of teaching vocation skills develop, test and evaluate vocation skills

TED OUTCOMES Capacity to analyze primary school Vocational Skills syllabus; Ability to apply teaching methods, techniques and strategies appropriate for primary school learners; Able to effectively assess Vocational Skills lesson, Techniques of learning through ODL Entrepreneurial and vocational skills for promoting education for self reliance.

ONTENTS Analysis of primary school Vocational Skills syllabus; Approaches, methods and techniques of Teaching Vocational and primary school, Resources for effective teaching of Vocational Skills, Vocational Skills lesson development, Testing and evaluation in Vocational Skills teaching.

Entrepreneurial skills in

ENCE TESSA Materials Social Studies & Art Module 3 TESSA: Key resources Kasambira, K. P. (1993). Lesson Planning and Class Management. England: Longman

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www.tessafrica.net

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