# ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG11

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Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 11 CONNECTION DESIGN: STATIC LOADING

Lecture 11.3.2: Connections with Preloaded Bolts
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE: Introduction to the design of connections using preloaded bolts in shear and/or tension. PREREQUISITES: Lecture 1B.1: Process of Design Lecture 2.4: Steel Grades and Qualities Lectures 3.2: Erection Lecture 11.1.1: Connections in Buildings RELATED LECTURES: Lectures 11.3: Other lectures on Bolted Connections Lectures 11.4: Analysis of Connections Lecture 12.6: Fatigue Behaviour of Bolted Connections SUMMARY: The basic principles of connection design using high-strength preloaded bolts (HSFG bolts) are established. The load transmission is described for both shear connections and tension connections. The influence of the preload and the tightening of the bolts are considered.

NOTATION
As Stress area [mm2] Nominal diameter of the bolt (shank) [mm] do Diameter of a hole [mm] Fv Shear force [N] Ft Tensile force [N] Fp Preloading force of a bolt [N] Fs Slip resistance of a preloaded bolt [N] Ma Applied torque [Nmm] k Coefficient of friction between mating surfaces [-] 4 Rotation [degrees] P Slip factor [-] n Number of friction faces [-] Jms Partial safety factors for a slip resistant bolt [-]

1. INTRODUCTION

http://www.fgg.uni-lj.si/kmk/ESDEP/master/wg11/l0320.htm

25/9/2013

si/kmk/ESDEP/master/wg11/l0320.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG11] Page 4 of 12 The relation between the various forces can be illustrated by the "force triangle" in Figure 4. Further explanation is provided in Chapter 17 of Reference 1 and in Reference 2. In Figure 4(b). Any external tension will increase the bending in the plate increasing both Fc and 'Fb. contact is limited to the edges of the bolted connection. In Figure 4(a) contact is limited to the central region of the bolted connection.htm 25/9/2013 .fgg.uni-lj. There is no increase in bolt force until separation occurs. http://www.

ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG11] Page 5 of 12 The percentage of the force which is transmitted by an increase in the force in the bolts and the other part which reduces the clamping forces between the plates depends on the elastic behaviour of the connection (see Figure 3).fgg. 4.htm 25/9/2013 . the location of the contact pressure produced by tightening of the bolts is of crucial importance with regard to bolt fatigue (see Figure 4). TIGHTENING BOLTS Three methods of tightening are available: http://www. or near. The stress induced in the bolts by the pretensioning is at. As where As is the tensile stress area of the bolt (see Lecture 11. Since the elastic behaviour is the same.1) and fub the nominal ultimate stress of the bolt.Cd = 0. high tensile steel bolts (usually grade 10.3.7 fub .uni-lj. 3.si/kmk/ESDEP/master/wg11/l0320. the proof stress. PRELOAD IN BOLTS In order to make practical use of the friction effect.9) are used so that an adequate clamping force can be obtained with reasonably sized bolts. The design preloading force of a bolt is given by: Fp.

and partly . If the geometry of the screw head and the coefficient of friction between the various mating surfaces were known.12 and 0. Therefore. for case of the use of the thread lubricant molybdenum sulphide k = 0.htm 25/9/2013 . If it is applied. The torque applied to the nut (or the head) is used partly to overcome friction between the nut and the surface against which it rotates.si/kmk/ESDEP/master/wg11/l0320. Torque method For this method of tightening a calibrated torque wrench is required which may be hand operated or.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG11] Page 6 of 12 a. slightly oiled the ECCS recommendations [3] give k = 0. It may be concluded from the above that the scatter in the preloads obtained will be large (Figure 5). The uncertainties concerning distribution of contact pressures. If the coefficient k appears to be very low.to drive the threads up the helix. then the desired preload will not be obtained.14. power operated. there is a danger that the bolt will break.20. the torque method is not recommended by the ECCS [3] and Eurocode 3 [4]. for bolts of larger diameters. then it is recommended that tests are carried out before erection.delivered condition. do not justify the use of anything other than a simple rule such as: Ma = k d Fp (1) where: Ma is the applied torque (Nmm) d is the bolt diameter (mm) Fp is the preload in the bolt (N) k is the coefficient of friction between mating surfaces In practice k values have been measured for new bolts which vary between 0. it would be possible to estimate the tension induced by a given torque. Special devices are available ("bolt force metre") to measure the bolt force as a function of the torque Ma. The tightening can be achieved in two ways as follows: http://www. overcoming the friction between the mating screw surfaces and the resolved component of the axial force.approximately half . If k is unexpectedly large.18 and. Turn-of-nut method This method is based on a predetermined rotation of the nut.uni-lj. b. For the as . and the variabilities of coefficients of friction in practice.fgg.

si/kmk/ESDEP/master/wg11/l0320. the bolt is first tightened until the plies of the joint achieve a snug fit (when the percussion wrench goes over to hammering).uni-lj. It should be remembered that the ductility of the bolt largely depends on the length of the threaded portion.htm 25/9/2013 . The contact surfaces must fit snugly before the bolts are tightened.fgg. while a large reserve exists before rupture occurs. http://www. • using a percussion wrench. after which the nut is further turned by the amount: 4 = 90q + 6 t + d (2) where: 4 is the rotation in degrees 6 t is the total thickness of connected parts in mm d is the bolt diameter in mm.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG11] Page 7 of 12 • the bolt is first made "hand tight" and then turned further by a specified amount. The shank tension is then comparatively insensitive to variation in the nut rotation. Care must be taken with short bolts which have only a small amount of thread in the grip (5 threads is a minimum). The purpose of this method is to rotate the nut sufficiently to take the bolt well into the plastic state (Figure 6a).