Naxalism | Maoism | Human Rights Abuses

Moles of Emancipation- Towards Closure of Naxal Movement

“All societies end up wearing masks.” ― Jean Baudrillard, America “Philosophy leads to death, sociology leads to suicide.” ― Jean Baudrillard

“Violent Ideology leads to closure of exit points”. -Niraj

There was euphoria among naxal ideologues

in 2

!-". They were

expecting to do a Nepal o#er India. $m%oldened with their success in %ringing the go#ernment for tal&s in '.(.) the leadership miscalculated strength of their myopic #ision. No #iolent ideology has any chance to flourish in an open society. The mo#ement is on #erge of total annihilation after the latest round of carrot and stic& policy %eing pursued %y the go#ernment. *ince there is an international understanding to nip the nonstate actors indulging in the #iolent resistance against the *tate actors) there is going to %e little noise of human rights or other state actors ta&ing up the issue . +ith the monsoon expected to downpour in ,ay--une) the upper hand which the *tate enjoys for last one and half years) will help the *ecurity forces to continue to hold the area and further decimate the few thousand cadres of the ,aoists. Naxalism is on its way to felo-de-se. The .uestions are %eing raiesed o#er the leadership and strategic lacuna among the naxal. +hen the world across) there are spontaneous out%urst against corruption) war crimes) dictatorship) economic exploitation)/ and the spring %ree0e is %lowing in unanticipated places li&e Tunisia) $gypt) 1angladesh/ how has the naxal leadership lost the touch of the pulse of the people 2 It is clear indictment of their ideology %y the new generation.

Violence of any colour) state or non-state ) is not tolera%le to the new generation. The ideology which anticipated #ictory of the gun o#er the spirit of the nation stands dissipated of any historic energy. The e#olution of guerilla war into positional war appears to ha#e reached a dead end where all exit routes are closed. The leadership has foreseen the fin de si3cle. Naxalism as expression of discontent against socio-economic disparityt started in the year 4567 from Naxal%ari in +est 1engal. The term Naxalites comes from Naxal%ari) where a section of 8(, led %y 8haru ,ajumdar) 9anu *anyal) :am (ra%ha# *ingh and -angal *anthal) - ( Inspector initiated a #iolent uprising in 4567. ;n ,ay 4<) 4567) the *iliguri 9ishan *a%ha) of which -angal *anthal was the president) forcefully redistri%utd land to the landless. =nder the leadership of 8haru ,a0umdar) the 8(I>,?@) was founded to spearhead the mo#ement aimed at a *pring Thunder with spontaneous mass upsurge all o#er India that would create a Ali%erated 0oneA. ;n 'pril 22) 45< ) the 8ommunist (arty of India (eopleAs +ar) &nown as 9ondapalli *eetharamaiah. 8(I >,?@ (+B >4576@ >,arxist-?eninist@ and 8(I >,?@ (=

(eopleAs +ar Broup >(+B@ was founded %y

>45< @ together merged to form 8(I >,?@ (+ >455<@. 8(I >,aoist@ was formed after merger of 8(I>,?@>(+@ with ,88 >4565@ which itself had entered into #arious mergers with groups li&e :88I>,@ in (unja%) on *ept. 24st 2 !. $stimates suggest that there are 7)C a 2") weapons for 4 )" armed cadres nationwide) and -strong peopleDs militia) with " )

mem%ers in #illage-le#el units. The ,aoists ha#e three pronged strategy in armed re%ellion--- guerilla war) mo%ile war and then positional war.

(ositional war is the final stage and a &ind of con#entional war waged face to face with the enemy) from fixed positions either to capture or to retain territoryE institutions. The 8(I>,aoist@ now claim to %e engaged in the second *tage warfare against Indian state. The ferocity of their expansion caused consternation in the esta%lishment. 1y 2 <) it was termed as the ) “the greatest threat to our internal security” !.

%y none other than the Indian (rime ,inister. The data discloses how the ratio of security forces and naxals &illed is in fa#our of naxals since 2 +hile security forces &illed 46 2 naxals since 2 ! when the ('

go#ernment came into power) the num%er of security forces &illed %y naxals ha#e grown to 4744.This num%er is now approaching the num%er of Indian soldiers &illed during 4574 war against (a&istan. It is the ferocity of war that the Indian go#ernment is seriously pursuing the Indian 'rmy and 'ir Force to assist them in reclaiming the territory from naxals. The news of I'F officials lea#ing %ehind damaged ,i helicopter along with machine gun and wounded security personnel has highlighted the crisis in which the highly moti#ated naxals are a%le to stri&e at the might of Indian go#ernment with impunity while the security forces seem to %e running out of moti#ation.

Deaths related to Maoist violence during last two phases
(eriod 45<5-2 2 2 2 2 C ! 4 8i#ilians 4)64 C<2 !4 !66 *ecurity forces !C2 4 4 " 4 Insurgents 4 4!4 246 <7 7 Total per period C !5 62C 7C4 6"C

2 " 2 6 2 7 2 < 2 5 2 4 2 44 2 42 Total From 2 ! onwards---

"2! "24 !6 C55 "<6 74C 27" C 6)"<< " !!

4"C 4"7 2C6 224 C47 2<" 42< 44! 2C22 4744

22" 27! 4!4 24! 247 474 455 7! 252C 46 2

5 2 5"2 <C7 <C! 442 4465 6 2 !<< 44<CC <C"7

Rural development Ministry is operating Integrated Area Programme in 82 districts now.

Tackling Naxalism

The go#ernment has got serious with the pro%lem . It has %anned the ,aoists under =nlawful 'cti#ities (re#ention 'ct >='('@) 4567 amended in 2 !. The go#ernment has also constituted a Tas& force that comprise of Nodal officers from the Naxal affected areas and officers from the I1) **1 and the 8:(F. There is also a 8oordination 8entre that was set up in 455< headed %y the =nion home minister with 8hief *ecretaries and GB(s of the Naxal affected areas for the coordination of steps ta&en to control Naxal acti#ities. The go#ernment has laid down a clear plan to tac&le the left wing extremism. It has formulated a two pronged strategy to sol#e the pro%lem of Naxalism. This two pronged strategy of the 8entral Bo#ernment translates into the "Clear, Hold, Develop approach to tackle Naxalism H. Now this two pronged 8arrot and the *tic& approach which has %een under de#elopment o#er the last few years) has ac.uired a %road outline) structure and purpose.

4. ?aw and ;rder approach>stick)- Operation Green direct operations after elections

unt !OG " and it#s in 2 4!.

coming successors I which will climax with the entry of the Indian 'rmy in

2. *ocial Integrationa 'pproach>carrot @-Integrated Action Plan (IAP ) (rime ,inisterAs :ural Ge#elopment Fellowship *cheme >(,:GF*@ and other related schemes aimed to puncture the :ing of Fire in the <2 most %ac&ward districts encircling the 1astar-9an&er region) the hu% of naxal military strength .

!aw and "rder approac#

"peration $reen %unt

Breen Junt %egan in -uly 2

5)with joint operation in which the central

8o1:' force and state police %attled Naxal forces in Gantewada. The go#ernment anticipated that %efore the monsoon arri#es next year) they would ha#e cleared the area and hold it for the next monsoon. Its difficult to launch 8;IN>8ounterinsurgency operations during monsoons in the forest and hilly tracts@. 1ut) the forces suffered casualty when 8:(F had to suffer hea#y losses in 'pril) 2 4 in 1astar. The naxals held upper hand and the go#ernment had to wait for next winter to %rea& the ice. In the meantime) the go#ernment decided to pursue the strategy of neutrali0ing top leadership through %etter intelligence sharing. ,any of the central 8ommittee mem%ers were either arrested or &illed.

CPI-MAOIST POLITBURO & CENTRAL COMMITTEE MEMBERS Killed, Arrested & Surrendered

RANK NAME

STATUS

DATE

PLACE

1 Sushil Roy 2

Politburo member

Arrested & in Jail Arrested & in Jail

May 2005

Hooghly, West engal

Politburo !arayan Sanyal alias !a"een member

January 2, Rai$ur, 200# %hhattisgarh

Prasad alias i&oy 'ada ( Sande Ra&amouli %entral )illed %ommittee member June 22, 200* 'harma"aram rail+ay station in Ananta$ur distri,t-

.

%entral Arrested %ommittee )rishnan Srini"asan alias /ishnu alias /i&ay alias Sreedhar alias member She0ar 2an0a Pa$i Reddy

August 11, Mumbai 200*

5

%entral Surrendered 3ebruary %ommittee 2, 2004 member

Andhra Pradesh 5be6ore the State Home Minister )Jana Reddy in the Hyderabad Se,retariat7 Mumbai, Maharashtra 'hanbad 'istri,t Jhar0hand

#

%entral 'ied 9o6 %ommittee ,erebral Anuradha member malaria: 8handyalias !armada aliasRama Pramod Misra aliasMadan&i Politburo member Politburo member Arrested & in Jail Arrested & in Jail

A$ril 12, 2004 May 11, 2004

*

4 Amitabha ag,hi aliasAnil 1 )obad 8handy alias)amal alias A;ad 10 a,,ha Prasad Singh

August 2., Ran,hi, 2001 Jhar0hand Se$tember hi0a&i %ama 21, 2001 Pla,e in South 'elhi 3ebruary 1, 2010 July 2, 2010 )an$ur, <ttar Pradesh !ear Joga$ur in the Adilabad 'istri,t = Andhra Pradesh Jhar0hand 56rom <$$er 8hat area o6 o0aro 'istri,t7 ihar 56rom 8anesh >ola under arsoi

Politburo Arrested & & %entral in Jail %ommittee member Politburo member Arrested & in Jail

11 %heru0uri Ra&0umaralias A;ad

Politburo )illed & %entral %ommittee member

12 J- !arsimha Reddyalias Jam$anna

%entral Arrested & %ommittee in Jail member

August 4, 2010

1( /aranasi Subramanyam

%entral Arrested & %ommittee in Jail member

A$ril 21, 2011

Poli,e Station in )atihar 'istri,t 7 1. Pulendu Mu0her&ee %entral Arrested & %ommittee in Jail member A$ril 21, 2011 ihar 56rom 8anesh >ola under arsoi Poli,e Station in )atihar 'istri,t7 ihar 56rom 8anesh >ola under arsoi Poli,e Station in )atihar 'istri,t7 8aya, ihar @n )ushaboni 6orest in Jhargram in West Midna$ore 'istri,t = West engal !ot s$e,i6ie

15 /i&ay )umar Arya

%entral Arrested & %ommittee in Jail member

A$ril 21, 2011

1# Jagdish ?ada" aliasJagdish Master, A0hilesh&i aliasPrabhat&i 1* Mallo&ula )otes+ara Rao alias )ishan&i

Politburo member Politburo member

Arrested & in Jail )illed

June 12, 2011 !o"ember 2., 2011

14 Rohit alias Mohit

%entral Arrested %ommittee member

!ot s$e,i6ied

The deployment of ;BJ has also %een influenced %y the *ri ?an&an militaryAs total annihilation of the Tamil Tigers in $elam +ar which ended in ,ay 2 5. The go#ernment also follows the 1ritish strategy of counter insurgency in ,alaya and influenced %y Fran& 9itsonDs approach of 8ounter-insurgency and adopted the grid approach for area domination. Now) ;peration Breen Junt is focussed on 7< I'( districts spread across 5 states identified %y the go#ernment and co#ered under the *:$ scheme. These districts form a ring in central India and are the most affected %y ,aoist Insurgency. ;BJ aims to clear these areas of ,aoists and then launch de#elopmental acti#ities through I'( directly monitored %y the (lanning 8ommission.

,ap showing the first 6 I'( districts. The :ing of Fire in 8entral India is now spread across 7< districts in 5 states.
The Ringof Fire

Rural development Ministry Map of IAP Districts

The &ey strategy of ;BJ remains to first %rea& the contiguous ring and then %ox the ,aoists into areas isolating them from their comrades in other districts. This will lead to the fragmentation of the ,aoist controlled areas and cause complications to the ,aoist leadership in the long run. ,oreo#er all across this area) helipads ha#e %een %uilt from as far as *on%hadra and ,alda so that effecti#e air power can %e used against the naxals and to deter them from expanding out. Indian 'rmy announced plans to purchase an

additional " Israeli made drones) at a cost of =*G 22 million >B1( 4C6 million@) to augment its existing fleet of 42. ='Vs are increasingly used in operations.

Ten

1attalions

of

*peciali0ed

Force

trained

and

e.uipped

for

counterinsurgency and jungle-warfare operations) named as 8ommando 1attalions for :esolute 'ction >8o1:'@ ha#e %een raised as a part of the 8entral :eser#e (olice Force >8:(F@ during the period from 2 *tates. Now) Indian 'rmy which had %een refusing to %e drawn into anti-naxal operations) is learnt to ha#e came out with an assessment saying it needs 6") troops to fight Naxals. The Indian 'rmy has already completed 'rmy (ersonnel at itAs newly ac.uired training from now in 'nti-,aoist operations. the training of at-least " deployed some years <- 5 to 2 4 -44. These 8o1:' 1ns. ha#e %een deployed in the ?+$ affected

%ases in 1astar) 8hhattisgarh. These trained personnel will e#entually %e seperate 'ir-+ing for 'nti-,aoist operations has %een planned and will %e gi#en shape this year. In all li&elihood) 'rmy will %e pushed into operations after next general elections) whatsoe#er %e the ruling alliance. (lans ha#e %een set in motion for the formation of three to four speciali0ed 'nti-,aoist 8entres at critically important locations at inter-state %oundaries which will %e e.uipped with fi#e helicopters each and would %e manned %y the 8:(F and the pilots would %e called from the 'rmyE1*FE'ir Force. $xser#icemen ha#e also %een called for the formation of an auxiliary force

which will primarily %e super#ising the wor& of detecting mines and explosi#es laid %y Naxalites. 'round !)< joined the fight and an expected ") ex-ser#icemen ha#e already are expected to join. The go#ernment

of 8hhattisgarh started the 8ounter Terrorism and -ungle +arfare 8ollege in 9an&er imparts training to counter the well trained and moti#ated guerrilla force of the Naxals) where police personnel are gi#en rigorous training in guerrilla warfare and are made to li#e in the open and taught how to li#e off the land. 'n 'rmy 8antonment is %eing set up in 1ilaspur for decimating area domination of naxals in the forests of 8hhatisgarh. 'rmy is also procuring < separate ,i-47 helicopter aimed in using in internal operations. *ince 8:(F is the main force used against the naxals) the 8:(F ha#e %een pro#ided with a separate ='V wing with 4 mini ='Vs. 8:(F now has own intelligence set up inaugurated in 2 42 with head.uarters at Burgaon. 4 %attalions of speciali0ed 8o1:' commandos are the main mo%ile force of the 8:(F. 't present C6 %attalions of 8entral (ara ,ilitary Forces are already deployed in Naxalite affected area. &ocial Integration approac#
.

The go#ernment started the 1ac&ward Gistricts initiati#e in 2

C-2

! and

the 1ac&ward :egions Brant Fund >1:BF@ under which "" of the worst affected areas in 5 states were to %e pro#ided with funds to the tune of :s. 2!7" crores to tac&le the pro%lem of Naxalism. 'round 2" districts ha#e %een included the 1:BF scheme to accelerate socio-economic de#elopment in these districts . The schemes could not %e implemented.

1ut) I'( (roject has seen good response. an additional allocation of :s C") 8rore for the I'( districts o#er the next three years has %een sought. The (lanning 8ommission monitored de#elopment programme for I'(>Integrated 'ction (lan@ districts is the most am%itious progaramme . The go#ernment is also recruiting youth from these districts to assist the local 8ollector in administering with as high as :s.6 per month emoluments. =nder (, :ural de#elopment Fellowship) 4"6 talented and committed young professionals ha#e %een selected to recei#e the training. The students in the far flung areas are %eing pro#ided schooling in residential schools. The go#ernment wants to recruit the %est youth from these areas so that they do not join the naxalites. The num%er of I'( districts now stands at <2) after more districts were added this year. In all li&elihood) the success of I'( as well as the dominance of security forces will not let naxals sur#i#e %eyond this ,onsoon. +hen the next general elections occur in 2 4!) the naxals will lose any space for impacting political e.uations. Naxals tried to decimate local culture) nati#e languages of the indigenous people. The *tate is emulating their strategy. *tate and Naxals are caught in the mirror trap. 1oth heap ignominy upon the general populace) %oth are &illing languages and cultures and fields and forests. +hen the *tate usurps the #iolent ideology) the fangs of giant 8o%ra %ecome too poisonous for the moles of ideology. Naxals are rudimentary rodents of political philosophy. The *tate is moulting its serpentine co#er. 1oth create holes in our pu%lic sphere. +ill a gigantic Necroplis emerge2 e#er

Various schemes launched ha#e %een launched %y the go#ernment li&e the (radhan ,antri Bram *ada& Kojana >(,B*K@ which offers tremendous opportunities for rural road connecti#ity. For certain districts affected %y Naxalism which ha#e a population of " and a%o#e in plain areas and 2" and a%o#e in tri%al areas C years perspecti#e plans are %eing formulated to co#er all ha%itations. The National :ural $mployment Buarantee (rogramme >N:$B(@ is %eing implemented in CC districts affected %y Naxalism so as to uni#ersali0e the demand-dri#en programme for wageemployment. ;ther schemes which are in addition to the a%o#e mentioned

schemes are 1harat Nirman) National :ural Jealth mission >N:J,@) *ar#a *hi&sha '%hiyan >**'@) Integrated 8hild Ge#elopment *er#ices >I8G*@ and other income generating and social security schemes of the ,inistry of :ural Ge#elopment) 'griculture) (anchayati :aj and Tri%al affairs. The central go#ernment will also pro#ide 4 percent assistance in the formation of 'shram schools and hostels for girls and %oys in tri%al areas. Then there is *urrender cum reha%ilitation (olicy under which the amount ha#e %een recently hi&ed. *tates li&e -har&hand and ;rissa ha#e offered huge incenti#es to the Naxals who surrender themsel#es. Further) the go#ernment has offered cash e.ui#alent to the price of the weapon surrendered. They will pro#ide them with life insurance co#er) #ocational training) agricultural land) health and children. T#e !aws Made '( t#e $overnment :eha%ilitation and :esettlement (olicy) 2 Forest :ights 'ct) 2 forest :ights@ 'ct 2 6 6 6 7 educational facilities for their

The *cheduled Tri%e and ;ther Traditional Forest dwellers >:ecognition of 8hhattisgarh *pecial (u%lic *ecurities 'ct) 2

1ut)the go#ernment has not included in laws pro#ision that in the forest act that only forest dwelling tri%es and scheduled tri%es should %e allowed to use the produce of the forest. (roper guarding of financial institutions sanctioning loans to these tri%es should %e ensured which will help these tri%es to reali0e that the go#ernment is with them. The 8entral go#ernment should form a separate ministry which will underta&e the de#elopment of the areas affected %y the Naxal acti#ities.

Naxal situationin 2012(Institutefor ConflictManagement)

Maoist affected districts in India based on 2011 data.

Naxal affected Districts ( As of 2005)

Maoist strategy
1. No belief in parliamentary democracy. 2. Want to usher the New Democratic Revolution (NDR). 3. To capture political power by overthrowing the democratically established Govt. through protracted mass armed struggle. 4. To build up bases in rural and remote areas which will eventually be transformed into guerilla zone and later into liberated areas. 5. To expand the liberated areas in order to encircle urban areas to facilitate seizing of power.

The strategic intent of LWE :
– Instigate revolution to overthrow “state” through violence a protracted people’s war – expected to achieve by 1975 but raised flag post to 2016

PoliticalStrategy

1. To join and exploit any controversial issue in order to destabilize/expose Govt. 2. Opportunistic intervention in electoral politics against the ruling party 3. To deter investment and development in some interior and other areas which are also rich in vital resources. 4. Land to the tiller, providing employment, poverty alleviation & now mining rights et 5. Discouraging Police from discharging their legitimate duties by aggressive militant demonstrations, dharnas, threats, attacks, etc. 6. Liaison with international front organizations on issues of “human rights”

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