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Geometric Modelling

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Geometric Modelling

This manual is protected by copyright laws. No part of it may be translated, copied or reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from SOFiSTiK AG. SOFiSTiK reserves the right to modify or to release new editions of this manual. The manual and the program have been thoroughly checked for errors. However, SOFiSTiK does not claim that either one is completely error free. Errors and omissions are corrected as soon as they are detected. The user of the program is solely responsible for the applications. We strongly encourage the user to test the correctness of all calculations at least by random sampling.

Geometric Modelling

1 2 2.1. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.3. 2.3.1. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 3 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.6.1. 3.6.2. 3.6.3. 3.6.4. 3.6.5. 3.6.6. 3.7. 3.7.1. 3.7.2. 3.8. 3.9. 3.10. 3.11. 3.12. 4 4.1. 4.2. 4.3.

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11 21 21 22 23 24 25 26 26 27 27 28 31 31 31 31 32 34 37 38 310 311 312 313 314 315 315 316 318 319 320 321 324 41 41 42 44

General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theoretical background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordinate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curves and alignment axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alignment axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Freeform curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regions and geometric surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotational and sweep surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mesh generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General program control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Input language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remarks for the conversion from SOFiMSHB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Input records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SYST Global system definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CTRL Control of analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis and generation of structural model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometry healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meshing control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Element generation and boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mesh decomposition and bandwidth optimization . . . . . . . . . Warnings and error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRP Group control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary group number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMPO Import of data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPO ANSI export of data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ECHO Control of output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COOR User defined coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XSUB Extraction of subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of geometric elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Input records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAX Geometric curve or axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAXA Axis plan view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

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4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. 4.8. 4.9. 4.10. 4.11. 4.12. 4.13. 4.14.

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47 48 410 412 413 416 417 419 420 422 423 51 51 53 57 514 518 519 524 525 527 528 529 530 532 533 538 540 542 544 545 546 547 549 550

GAXH Axis heights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAXB Straights and circular arcs in 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAXC 3D curve point data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAXN Knot value of a NURBScurve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAXP Axis placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAXS Secondary axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAXV Variables along axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAR Geometric surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GARA Plane, rotational and sweep surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GARC Coons surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GARS Area by points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 Definition of structural elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1. Input Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2. SPT Structural point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3. SPTP Structural point properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4. SPTS Spring element at point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5. SPTH Halfspace pile at point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6. SLN Structural line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7. SLNB Straights and circular arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8. SLNP 3D curve point data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9. SLNN Knot value of a NURBScurve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10. SLNS Supports and kinematic couplings on a SLN . . . . . . . . 5.10.1. Supports and coupling conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10.2. Elastic beddings and spring elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10.3. Interfaceelements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11. SAR Structural area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.12. SARB Structural area boundaries and constraints . . . . . . . . . 5.13. SARR Rotational and sweep surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.14. SARP 3D Surface data point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.15. SARN Knot value of a NURBS surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.16. SARC CoonsPatch surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.17. SVO Structural volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.18. SVOS Structrual volume faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.19. GUID Globally Unique Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.20. BBOX Bounding box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Geometric Modelling

1 General.

SOFiMSHC

SOFiMSHC is a tool for creating and processing geometric models and finite element structures. SOFiMSHC can be used as standalone program within Teddy and is integrated as geometry processing module in the SOFiSTiK programs SOFiPLUS, Extensions for Revit and Rhinoceros Interface. Basis and starting point of SOFiMSHC is an abstract structural model similar to a CAD model which includes all relevant geometric and structural information necessary for describing a calculation model. After this model is read from database or entered by the user via CADINP, SOFiMSHC analyzes and processes it and creates as result a finite element mesh consisting of beam, area and/or volume elements. In addition to classical building structures, SOFiMSHC also provides a rich set of input facilities for the definition of alignment axes and bridge systems. SOFiMSHC basically differentiates between geometric entities carrying geometry related data and structural elements containing all further information needed for definining a calculation model. As for the geometric entities following types are supported: Geometric axes: straight lines circles and circular arcs in space alignment axes for road design defined separately in plan view and elevation polygonal lines cubically interpolating splines Hermite interpolation with defined tangents arbitrary NURBS curves (Non Uniform Rational BSplines) Geometric surfaces: flat surfaces surfaces of revolution sweep surfaces bicubically interpolating surfaces arbitrary NURBS surfaces The basic geometric elements are usually defined independently from the overall structural model and should be used in as comprehensive units as possible. A bridge with multiple spans, for example, can be defined with one single axis along its whole length. The individual spans and all additional superstructures,

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however, are modeled with structural elements which inherit their geometry from the underlying axis definition. Once the geometry is changed the structural system will be automatically readjusted. The static system itself with all mutual topological relationships comprises the following set of basic structural elements: Structural Points are defined at a specific position in space and may have Column Heads, Punching periphery and haunches assigned as structural properties. Structural Lines connect two structural points and may have a geometric curve assigned. Structural data includes supports and section definitions, for example. Structural Regions are defined by a closed set of inner and outer boundary curves and may also have a geometric surface description assigned. Structural properties contain thickness, element formulation etc. Structural Volumes are defined by a set of enclosing structural regions and can be meshed either unstructured with tetrahedral elements or structured by extrusion or rotation with hexahedral elements. A number of possibilities are provided within the SOFiSTiK program environment, to access and define the input of SOFiMSHC: Definition using CADINPASCIIFiles (Teddy + SOFiMSHC) Input of structural systems using SOFiPLUS (AutoCAD) Transfer of models from Autodesk Revit Structural (SOFiSTiK Extensions for Revit) Modeling in McNeel Rhinoceros (SOFiSTiK Rhinoceros Interface) Interface to the CDBASE for third party developers and for the import of building information models (e.g. IFC). SOFiMSHC is both used as standalone batch program and as backend module in the above mentioned CADprograms. It contains interfaces to meshgenerators from the University of Munich (DOMESH) and the University of Linz (NETGEN) and to meshpartitioning software (METIS).

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2

2.1.

SOFiMSHC

Theoretical background

Coordinate systems

Global as well as local coordinate systems are described in SOFiMSHC as cartesian righthanded system XYZ. Rotations are applied in a mathematical positive sense. Within record SYST a global gravity direction can be specified at parameter GDIR. This global gravity or downward direction affects the default orientation of loads, supports and other geometric attributes of structural items within the model if not specified differently at the respective location.

Y X Z Phi

If the observer is looking from the birds eye view he will believe to see a right or left handed 2D coordinate system depending on the orientation of the vertical axis . We use the designation of the first and the second horizontal axis in the counter clock wise orientation. Each geometric or structural object in SOFiMSHC possesses a local orientation or a local coordinate system, which affects the direction of loads, crosssections or support conditions: Points, for example, have a local coordinate system which defines primarily the local direction of supports and kinematic couplings. If no coordinate system is given explicitly the local zdirection defaults to the globally defined gravity direction or, if the point lies within a region or on a structural line, to the local coordinate system defined there. For structural lines, up to three different local coordinate systems can be identified. A first coordinate system is related to the underlying geometric curve and is primarily used to define the orientation of circular arcs or alignment axes. On the structural line, an independant coordinate system can be defined which sets the orientation of crosssections and beam elements. A third coordinate system may be specified in order to set the local direction of supports, springs or kinematic couplings connected to a

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line. If one of the three mentioned directions is not explicitly set by the user, it defaults to the previously defined system. If no coordinate system is defined at all, the global gravity direction is used. The local coordinate system of a structural line is normally specified by the user by setting the direction of the local zaxis. As the local xaxis always points into the direction of the curve tangent, the local yaxis is defined automatically. Geometric surfaces and structural regions have a local coordinate system assigned which normally varies within the surface for curved shapes. The zaxis of the coordinate system always remains perpendicular on the surface. The coordinate system of a structural region defines, for example, the clockorder of outer boundary edges and the local orientation of the quadrilateral finite elements created on the surface. For volumes there might be a direction of orthotopic material properties, but there is no local coordinate system. However all surfaces describing the volume will have a unique interior and exterior side. Thus a separating surface between two volumes will have a different orientation for the two cases.

2.2.

Curves in SOFiMSHC are defined as parameter curves in three dimensional space. Parameter curves are basically defined by a local parameter s which runs along the curve from its start to its endpoint. A curve function c(s) maps this local parameter s to global xyzcoordinates and therefore describes the curve in space when s is changed from smin to smax:

(1)

Apart from its shape other parameters might also be specified along a given curve as a function of s, like for example the orientation, the size or the shape of varying crosssections. SOFiMSHC also allows to define socalled secondary lines, which are connected to a basis curve and whose distance is defined as a function of s.

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2.2.1. Alignment axes

SOFiMSHC

As a special type of curve SOFiMSHC allows to define alignment axes as primarily used in road and railway design. These curves typically consist of a sequence of straights and circular arcs with transition elements in between. In order to avoid sudden changes in curvature transition curves (or easement curves) are placed between sections with different radii providing a gradual change of curvature from one section to another. Depending on the characteristics of the curvature gradient different types of transition elements can be identified: Clothoid: Curvature varies linearly with distance s along the track

( s) + 1 + s + s2 r(s) RL A

BlossCurve: Curvature varies cubically with distance s

2 3 (s) + 1 + 3s 2 * 2s 2 r(s) RL RL

(2)

(3)

Cosinusoidal transition curve:

(4)

1 * cos(ps) L ( s) + 1 + 2 R r(s)

(5)

Above formulas apply for a transition curve of length L which starts from curvature=0 (straight axis) to a circular arc with radius R (curvature = 1/R). For transitions between sections with different radii (e.g. reversing clothoid, egg shaped clothoid), they have to be modified accordingly. SOFiMSHC supports all variants. The definition of alignment axes in SOFiMSHC is carried out separately in plan view and elevation. In plan view, sections consisting of straights, circular arcs and transition curves are combined into a sequence defining a twodimensional curve in x,ycoordinates. The elevation of the curve can be defined independently from the plan view by setting height values and elevation radii. Curvatures in the elevation are applied as parabolas.

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The following two pictures show an alignment axis in ground view and elevation. The axis consists in the ground view of a circular arc segment and a reversing clothoid with a start radius of RA = 100m and an end radius RE = +50m. In the elevation view the curve is rounded off parabolically with a radius of 100m.

2.2.2.

Freeform curves

For defining freeform curves SOFiMSHC provides an implementaton of NURBS based on the openNURBS library. NURBS (NonUniform Rational BSplines) comprise a special class of curves widely used in computer aided design or computer graphics for modelling curves and surfaces of arbitrary shapes. Mathematically, they consist of piecewise rational polynomials of a given order which are connected together under consideration of certain continuity conditions (e.g. tangentially continuous, curvature continuous). Due to their construction using rational polynomials, NURBS are also capable of representing circles, ellipses or hyperbolas mathematically exact. A definition of NURBScurves basically involves the following set of properties and elements:

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SOFiMSHC

Degree The degree decribes the highest polynomial exponent of the NURBS basis functions. Degree 1 is called linear, degree 2 quadratic, 3 cubic etc. A cubic degree is generally sufficient, but curves with degrees up to 32 may be defined and used. Control points Control points are the basic construction points of a NURBS curve or surface. With exception of the first and the last point they are not necessarily located directly on the curve but will stay close to it. Since NURBS curves are constructed using piecewise polynomials, the position of a single control point only changes the shape of its adjacent basis polynoms. This socalled local property of Nurbs in contrast to pure polynomial curves allows to modify a curve locally without affecting the whole shape of the curve. In addition to its xyzcoordinates a control points may also have a weight assigned. By changing the controlpoint weights to values <> 1.0 the basis functions convert to rational polynoms which offers the possibility to model also circular arcs, hyperbolas or ellipses with NURBS. Knots Basically, a single knotvalue defines the location on a curve where two Nurbs basis functions are connected. For a given NURBS curve with N control points they are usually stored internally as monotone list of size (degree+N1). The knotvector may be defined by the user in order to set the local curve parametrisation explicitly. In general cases however there is no need to define the knots by the user as SOFiMSHC creates an appropriate distribution automatically. Knots can also be defined repeatedly at the same location. This knot multiplicity changes the default transition condition at the interface between two basis functions such that also kinks and even jumps could be modeled within one single curve.

2.3.

SOFiMSHC supports different types of geometric surfaces which can be referenced in order to describe the shape of a structural region which is to be meshed. If no geometry is defined explicitly, SOFiMSHC tries to create the shape of a surface from its boundary description. This works, of course, for all plane surfaces and normally also for curved shapes with a less complex boundary description (e.g. four boundary edges in a rectangular like pattern). For complex shapes

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2.3.1.

The general idea of these type of surfaces is that a surface is defined by moving an arbitrary curve in space. In case of a surface of revolution a curve c(v) is rotated around a straight axis. The parametric description of the surface s(u,v) is given by

s(u, v) + M(v)c(u)

(6)

where the matrix M(v) defines rotation around an arbitrary axis in space. The parameter v denotes the rotation angle in radians. A sweep surface is defined by moving a curve c(u) along a traction curve t(v). The general form of a sweep surface s(u,v) is given by

(7)

The curve c(u) may also be rotated by M(v) within the local coordinate system of the traction curve after moving it along t. In most cases however, c(v) is only translated along t(v) without rotation. The rotation matrix M defaults to the unitymatrix then.

2.4.

Structural elements

As previously mentioned SOFiMSHC basically distinguishes between geometric entities and structural objects. Geometric elements primarily define the shape and the position of objects in space. Structural objects are referencing the shape of the geometry elements and furthermore contain all relevant structural information together with necessary mutual topological relationships. The structural model within SOFiMSHC corresponds to a classical BRep (boundary representation) data model which can be found in a similar form in other common CADsystems. Brep models describe objects in space by describing the boundary of the objects. Structural lines, for example, are bounded by their endpoints and structural regions are bounded by a closed sequence of structural edges. Structural regions may also have internal boundaries forming openings inside the region.

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2.5. Mesh generation

SOFiMSHC

The 2Dmesh generation is based on the work by Rank et al. for unstructured mesh generation for pure quadrilateral meshes. [1]. The first step is to generate a triangular mesh which is then divided into a quadrilateral mesh. This is the reason why along all edges the number of sections will be even. However there are specific macros for supports like columns modifying the basic generated mesh in a post processing step. The 3Dmesh generation is either done as a structured mapped mesh generation based on the surfaces generated before, or a unstructured mesh generation for pure Tetrahedron meshes. This is adopted from a mesh generator developed at the University of Linz [2]. As the quality of Tetrahedron is significantly less than that of Hexahedron we have to generate a more dense element mesh. Both methods may be mixed within one system.

2.6.

[1]

Literature

E. Rank, M. Rcker, M. Schweingruber (1994) Automatische Generierung von FiniteElementNetzen Bauingenieur Heft 10, 1994 Joachim Schberl (1997) NETGEN An advancing front 2D/3Dmesh generator based on abstract rules. Comput.Visual.Sci, 1:4152, 1997. Software available under the LesserGnuPublicLicence (LGPL) Karypis,G. , Kumar,V. (1997) A Fast and High Quality Multilevel Scheme for Partitioning Irregular Graphs. http://www.cs.umn.edu/~karypis Farin, G. (1996) Curves and Surfaces for ComputerAided Geometric Design Academic Press, San Diego Rank, E., Halfmann, A., Rcker, M., Katz, C., Gebhard, S. (2000) Integrierte Modellierungs und Berechnungssoftware fr den konstruktiven Ingenieurbau: Systemarchitektur und Netzgenerierung Bauingenieur 75, pp 6066, Springer Verlag Berlin Piegl,L., Tiller,W. (1997) The NURBS Book, Monographs in Visual Communication Springer, Berlin

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

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2.7.

Limitations

Number of nodes : Largest node number : Largest element number: Structural points SPT Structural lines SLN Structural regions SAR Structural volumes SVO 9 999 999 9 999 999 9 999 999 99 999 99 999 99 999 99 999

Basically, the numbers of structural elements should not be selected with a unreasonably high value. The program needs to allocate unnecessary amounts of memory, which might increase the overall running time of the program. Attention should be paid to the fact that only numbers below 1 Mio can be entered and accessed within CADINP. This means that even though element numbers above 1 Mio can be created in SOFiMSHC, these elements cannot be accessed from CADINP in order to set additional properties or apply loads etc. Thus, the group divisor setting the base number of the elements created within a group should be set to a reasonably small value.

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3

3.1.

SOFiMSHC

Input language

The input in SOFiMSHC is generally carried out in CADINP language. More information on this can be found in the general SOFiSTiK manual FEA / STRUCTURAL Installation and Basics.

3.2.

Units

SOFiSTiK programs offer the possibility to carry out all input and output of data in engineering units. A number of unit sets are provided for this purpose, which are preset according to the design code used in the given project. This default can additionally be changed for each program run separately using the keyword PAGE. More information about unit sets can be found in the general SOFiSTiK manual, section Units. The description of the input values in this manual will always contain the unit, in which a given record is expected to be given. It shows also, if the input record follows a predefined unit set. Three categories of units are distinguished: m Fixed unit. Input is always required in the specified unit. [mm] Explicit unit. Input defaults to the specified unit. Alternatively, an explicit assignment of a related unit is possible (eg. 2.5[m] ). [mm]1011 Implicit unit. Implicit units are categorised semantically and denoted by a corresponding identity number (shown in green). Valid categories referring to the unit length are, for example, geodetic elevation, section length and thickness. The default unit for each category is defined by the currently active (design code specific) unit set. This input default can be overridden as described above. The specified unit in square brackets corresponds to the default for unit set 5 (Eurocodes, NORM UNIT 5).

3.3.

As of version 2012, the previous mesh generator SOFiMSHB will be entirely replaced by SOFiMSHC. Following remarks may help to convert old data sets:

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Compared to SOFiMSHB, SOFiMSHC provides considerable more capabilities for modeling structural systems. Especially due to the fact, that structural elements will be intersected and joined automatically in SOFiMSHC, there is no need to model adjacencies between elements explicitly any more. Structural elements can be defined in independent units, which simplifies modification and extension of given data sets considerably. In general it is therefor recommended to revise old data sets and to adapt them to the new concept of SOFiMSHC. The syntax of the input records for structural elements in SOFiMSHC is similar to those of SOFiMSHB. In order to convert a given input to a SOFiMSHC data set, it is therefore often sufficient to replace the record names in the text file as follows: GPT > SPT GLN > SLN GAR > SAR (analogue GARB > SARB) GVO > SVO (analogue GVOS > SVOS) In the case that couplings and elastic beddings have been defined they must be revised manually however, since their definition has been changed and enhanced within SOFiMSHC. The finite element model created with SOFiMSHB can basically also be exported into a SOFiMSHA data set, which can be read in with the most current version in any case. In the case that none of the above approaches has been successful, at least this might be a way to reuse already existing databases.

3.4.

Record SYST GRP CTRL IMPO EXPO ECHO

Input records

Items TYPE T13 NO OPT OPT OPT OPT GDIV T21 REF VAL FROM VAL VAL GDIR T22 BASE V2 PASS TO FIX T23 TITL V3 PASS XREF T31 V4 YREF T32 ZREF T33 T11 T12

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Record COOR XSUB Items TYPE T13 TYP ID T21 FIXA IDP T22 FIXL S T23 FIXM X CD Y Z

SOFiMSHC

T11 T12

Records HEAD, END and PAGE are described in the general manual SOFiSTiK: Basics.

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3.5.

Item

Description

SYST

Unit Default

TYPE

SPAC

3D spatial structures

LIT

GIRD

SOFiSTiK YXplane accord. DIN 1080: FRAM Plane frame PAIN Plane strain planar system PESS Plane stress planar system AXIA Axial symmetric system (X is rotation axis) GIRD Plane girder or plate bending PGIR Prestressed plate system International XYplane WFRA Plane frame WPAI Plane strain planar system WPES Plane stress planar system WAXI Axial symmetric system (X is rotation axis) SLAB Plane girder or plate bending PSLA Prestressed plate system INIT REST Keep existing system type Keep structural system

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Item Description

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Unit Default

GDIV GDIR FIX XREF YREF ZREF T11 T21 T31 ... T33

Group divisior Direction of gravity load XX, YY, ZZ, NEGX, NEGY or NEGZ Global default constraints Origin of coordinate system in WCS

LIT LIT m m m

Transformation matrix WCS > UCS Default: T11 T12 T13 1.0 0.0 0.0 T21 T22 T23 = 0.0 1.0 0.0 T31 T32 T33 0.0 0.0 1.0

This record defines the type of the analytical model used for the given system. With the exception of TYPE REST, all structural elements will be deleted and the system will be reinitialized. An input of SYST REST keeps the system type along with all structural elements of a previous SOFiMSHCrun. Existing finite elements will be deleted in any case. The user coordinate system (UCS) in SOFiSTiK is always defined as a right handed coordinate system, which can be linked to a global project coordinate system using a reference point and a transformation matrix. Since SOFiSTiK works in the mkssystem, the transformation matrix can be employed for connecting a mm based CADsystems, for example. For planar systems there are different conventions about the orientation of the global X,Y and Z axis. German Design Codes (e.g. DIN 1080) usually request that the global Z axis has to be aligned downwards into gravity direction (i.e. GDIR POSZ). On the other hand, in an international setting often classical coordinate systems are used with the Z axis pointing upwards (i.e. GDIR NEGZ). You may select your convention freely. Similar applies for planar 2D systems. Systems of type FRAM, PAIN, PESS, AXIA, GRID or PGIR are systems where the global Zaxis is directed into viewing direction whereas for WFRA, WPAI, WPES, WAXI, SLAB or PSLA the zaxis will be aligned towards the observer. In the case of planar systems like FRAM/GIRD only half of the global unknowns are activated during analysis such that either outofplane or inplanedeformations and stressresultants will be suppressed. Therefore, beams with principal

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axes different to the axes of the global coordinate system can be analyzed only in three dimensions. The group divisor GDIV sets the mode how element numbers are assigned to groups. Further information can be found in the description of record GRP. The default of 0 deactivates all group selection possibilities. The global gravity direction sets the default direction of, for example, loads, boundary conditions or sections. It will be also used to set the default viewing direction of graphical programs.

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SPT SPTP SLN SLNP SLNS SAR SARB SARS SVO SVOS

3.6.

Item

Description

CTRL

Unit Default

OPT

A literal from the following list: TOPO Topological decomposition ON OFF DEL GAXP SARB XFLG

TOLG Intersection tolerance NODE Start index of automatically assigned numbers DELN Deletion of unused elements HEAL Geometry healing JOIN DELO Start of mesh generation Mesh size Refinement at nodes Refinement at short edges Progression factor Local coordinate systems geom. tolerance detection of identical FEnodes Point support modelling Line support modelling Renumbering optimisation No of subdomains Controls meshpartitioning

MESH HMIN FINE EFAC PROG LOCA TOLN PSUP LSUP OPTI SUB PART

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Unit Default

WARN Suppress warning message VAL V2 V3 V4 Value of control Second value if needed Third value if needed Fourth value if needed

This record is used to set global program control options. They can be classified as follows:

3.6.1.

In a first processing step, SOFiMSHC reads in the model entered by the user or given by CAD and intersects all elements with each other in order to obtain a mechanically consistent structural system. The general behaviour during this process can be controlled using the following options. TOPO ON V2 Stores the input model entered by the user at the reference key given at parameter V2 and activates the analysis and intersection of the structural system. OFF Deactivates the import and analysis of the structural system entirely, even if meshing of the structure has been activated (CTRL MESH activates CTRL TOPO ON automatically). This setting is usually only needed for debugging purposes. The model must have been already imported and analyzed in a previous run. DEL V2 Deletes the structural elements stored at the given reference key. Under normal circumstances, the database will be properly initialized and structural elements deleted, when setting the system type internally (see SYST). Hence this option is usually only necessary in order to analyze failed program runs. GAXP V2 Controls the automatic generation of structural elements between placements on a geometric axis. Following options are possible (bit mask): +1: Generate structural points at placements +2: Generate structural lines beween placements

TOPO

TOPO

TOPO

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TOPO

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SARB V2 Controls the definition and processing of boundary edges of structural regions. Following options available (bitmask): +1: Boundary edges are always given in sorted order. Usually the case when importing from CAD and can be set to avoid unnecessary and extensive tests In some cases, especially when importing data from external CAD systems, the type of the boundary edges is not clearly specified. Following bitmask allows to control edges, which are internal to a region and which has not been explicitly defined as opening (SARB IN) or constraining edges (SARB CONS): +4: edges will be classified as boundary of an opening +8: edges will be classified as edges of a separate internal region +12: edges will be classified as constraining edges

TOPO

XFLG V2 This parameter controls the structural element intersection process on a global level. Following options (bitmask) are available: +1: Structural points, which have been defined explicitly by the user (i.e. both have been assigned a number) will not be merged, even if they are located at the same position in space In addition to that, the intersection of elements can also be controlled for each structural element individually. See parameter XFLG in records SPT, SLN and SAR, respectively.

TOLG

This parameter sets the tolerance used during intersection of structural elements. Elements (structural points, lines and areas) with a distance below the given tolerance will be merged. The tolerance can be given in absolute or relative lengths: TOLG>0: absolute length in m TOLG<0: relative factor which will be scaled by characteristic lengths of the model. Default setting is TOLG = 0.01

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NODE This parameter sets the start index for the numbers of automatically created structural elements and FEnodes. During analysis of the input model, new structural elements can be created, which will be assigned a number automatically. Especially when working with multiple SOFiMSHC input blocks within one project, it is recommended to set this parameter to a higher value in order to separate automatically assigned from explicitly defined numbers. DELN Deletion of unused structural points and lines. Basically, SOFiMSHC deletes structural points and lines which are not connected with the model and which have no stiffness properties: 0: Unused structural points and lines will not be deleted 1: Unused structural points and lines will be deleted (default)

3.6.2.

Geometry healing

Models from external CADsystems or files often exhibit geometric inconsistencies resulting in failed meshing runs or poor element quality. SOFiMSHC provides a number of options for correction of geometry: HEAL JOIN V2[m] V3[deg] In some cases basically connected curve or line sequences will be exported from external systems fragmented into multiple short structural lines. A large number of such short structural lines might increase the number of elements in the resulting finite element mesh unnecessarily. This options allows to join adjacent structural lines of similar type to single edges. Two neighboring lines will be connected, if the following requirements are met: The length of the adjacent lines lies below the given parameter V2 The angle between the two lines is lower than V3 There is no other edge connected (no Yjoint) Boundary and crosssection properties do not change. DELO V2 This options deletes openings with a surface area below the given value V2.

HEAL

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3.6.3. Meshing control

SOFiMSHC

MESH This parameter activates the mesh generation for the defined model. Following options exist: 0 deactivate meshing 1 meshing of beam structures 2 meshing of beam and shell structures 3 meshing of beam, shell and/or volumes In addition to the basic options 13 one may add the following values: + 16 keep explicit old elements + 32 triangular elements only + 64 quadrilateral elements only + 96 mixed element shapes allowed + 128 disable dupl. run with background mesh + 256 postprocessing only (partitioning, optim.) A CTRL MESH automatically activates the topological analysis and intersection of structural elements (STEU TOPO 0) HMIN Parameter HMIN controls globally the element size of the resulting finite element mesh. It defines the maximum allowed length of a beam and/or the edge of a shell or volume element. Please note, that the mesh density defines only an upper bound for the element size. Local geometric features or other constraints might require a smaller element size. In addition to the global setting, the mesh size can be overwritten individually for single structural objects (structural points, lines, regions). This parameter controls the mesh density in the vicinity of short structural edges. In the neighborhood of short structural edges, whose length are below the global element size HMIN, the mesh density is reduced locally in order to avoid distorted quad elements with highly different edge lengths. The parameter describes the factor Local mesh size / Length of short edge Default setting is a factor of EFAC=1.40. For models containing many small edges, however, this setting might result in meshes with many local refinements, which increase the total number of elements considerably. In order to avoid the local refinements, this factor

EFAC

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should be increased with the disadvantage, that the element quality might be reduced. On the other hand, if a model contains relatively long and small structural areas, whose width lies below the global mesh density, it is recommended to deactivate this parameter entirely (EFAC = 0). This avoids the reduction of the mesh density to the ends of the areas which results in a more regular mesh. PROG This parameter defines the rate, how the mesh density is increased from a local refinement to the global part. It describes basically the maximum allowed ratio of the edge size between two adjacent quad elements. Standard setting is a progression factor of PROG = 1.5.

3.6.4.

LOCA

Controls the definition of the local coordinatesystem of beam elements. 0 = local zaxis points into gravity direction resp. the local yaxis into the first global horizontal axis if the former is not possible (i.e. beam axis parallel to gravity). User defined orientations are applied to the local yaxis. 1 = local zaxis points into gravity direction resp. into the first global horizontal axis if the former is not possible (i.e. beam axis parallel to gravity). User defined orientations are applied to the local zaxis. 2 = local zaxis points into global Z resp. into global X if the former is not possible (i.e. beam axis parallel to global Z). User defined orientations are applied to the local zaxis. (Default in Industry Foundation Classes, IFC) 3 = local zaxis points into global Z resp. into global Y if the former is not possible. User defined orientations are applied to the local yaxis (GENF).

TOLN

This parameter controls the detection of double finite element nodes. FEnodes whose distance lies below the given tolerance are intersected and replaced. The parameter is given as relative factor which will be scaled internally by model dimensions.

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PSUP

SOFiMSHC

controls the mesh generation for PointSupport (Bitpattern) 1= no special action 0 = generate 4 rectangular quad elements (default) 1 = increase thickness of elements at support 2 = cinematic constraints of mid points 4 = cinematic constraints of corner points 8 = additional centre node for constraints 16 = deactivate the correction of minimum mesh size controls the generation of boundary elements (= supporting lines) on structural lines: 0 = create boundary elements if the line has an elastic support or contains only a group nr > 0 without a section nr. 1 = create boundary elements also for structural lines with rigid support in gravity direction (default setting) 2 = create boundary elements if any type of support is given. 3 = create boundary elements for all edges. 415: reserved for internal tests. +16 = create elastic springs instead of boundary elements.

LSUP

3.6.5.

OPTI

SOFiMSHC optimizes the internal numbering of the created FE nodes in order to allow a efficient storage and solution of the resulting finite element equation system. This can be controled using the following options (bitmask): 0 = no reordering 1 = fast global reordering 2 = best global reordering 3 = best local and global reordering +16 use Metisrandom Matching (RM) +32 use HeavyEdge Matching (HEM) +48 use Sorted HEM +49 use for SparseSolver (default) The type of optimisation should be adapted to the equation solver to be used. An improper setting may have adverse effects. CTRL SOLV 1 options 1 to 3 CTRL SOLV 2 option 1 CTRL SOLV 3 options >16 (recomm. 49) CTRL SOLV 4 options >16 (recomm. 49)

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Option 2 should not be used for systems which decompose into several independant subsystems. SUB By setting the parameter SUB the mesh partitioning tool metis is requested to decompose the finite element mesh into the given number subdomains. Bitpattern to control partitioning 0 = use PMETIS or KMETIS (SUB>8) 1 = use KMETIS for mesh partioning 2 = use PMETIS for mesh partioning +16 = use Random Matching (RM) +32 = use HeavyEdge Matching (HEM) +48 = use Sorted HEM (Default) 256 = use reordered nodalBisection 257 = use group definitions

PART

3.6.6.

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See also: SYST

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3.7.

Item

Description

GRP

Unit Default

NO BASE TITL

Group number Base number for this group Title of the group

/LIT Lit32

! *

Element groups are an important aid for the definition of construction stages or the assignment of loads, for example. Structural lines, areas and volumes defined in SOFiMSC can be assigned to different groups. Thereby it must be distinguished between primary and secondary groups:

3.7.1.

The primary group number is uniquely defined for each element. Each group is associated with a range of element numbers which easily allows to reconstruct the group id from the element id. SOFiMSHC provides different methods for the assigment of element numbers to a group. The kind of assignment is specified by the group divisor GDIV in the main system record SYST. GDIV > 0 The group number of a single element is defined by the integer division of the element number by the group divisor. Example: Group number 0 1 2 2 Group divisor 1000 1000 1000 5 Element numbers 0 999 1000 1999 2000 2999 10 14

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GDIV=0 All groups must be assigned an individual base number in increasing order. An element number within one of the intervals defines the membership to the respective group. Example: Group Base Element number 0 1 199999 1 100000 100000199999 2 200000 200000249999 3 250000 250000259999 4 260000 from 260000 GDIV<0 The base values of all groups will be defined automatically after all elements have been generated. It is thus not any longer necessary to define base values individually. The value at GDIV<0 defines the lowest common multiple from which the element numbers of the next higher group will be assigned to. The current limit for elements within a group is set to 1 Million. For all cases, the maximum group number is 999. The base number and designation is identical for all elements within a group. Large element numbers will be splitted into its group and element part in print outputs in order to support better readability. It is therefor also recommended to use base numbers which are a multiple of 100, 1000 or 10 000.

3.7.2.

Secondary groups

In addition to their primary group number, elements can be assigned to any number of so called secondary groups. Secondary groups are labeled using a text string of maximum four characters (e.g. GR1). The assignment of elements to secondary groups is done separately after definition of the structural system. Subsequently to the definition of the secondary group using this record any number of selection records can be given. Following type of selections are possible: SLN NO SAR NO GUID ID BBOX selection of a structural line selection of a structural area selection using the Globally Unique Identifier of a structural element (usually defined in a CADsystem) selection using a rectangular bounding box.

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Example: GRP NO GR1 SLN NO 1,2,3 SAR NO 5 defines a secondary group labeled GR1, which contains all beam and area elements created on the structural lines 1, 2 and 3 and structural area 5. Apart from this selection mechanism, elements can also be assigned to a secondary group using attribute regions. For more information please see at the description of attribute regions at record SAR.

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3.8.

Item

Description

IMPO

Unit Default

OPT

Special options 0 no special options 1 convert xyz to yzx system 2 convert xyz to zxy system 4 Set origin pointer to elementno 8 Set origin pointer to elementno without group number 16 do not extrude support conditions 256 Use Group instead of geometry numbers for selections Name of a database Password of database

FROM PASS

Lit96 Lit16

With the record IMPO you may select for the 3Dextrusions the meshes to be used for the extrusion from a different database. This record may be defined only once and is then valid for all extrusions.

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3.9.

Item

Description

EXPO

Unit Default

OPT

Data to be exported GAX Geometric axis GAR Geometric surface RAW Basic structural model ID of axis, surface (optional) Name of a file to write to Password of database

LIT

RAW

VAL TO PASS

Using record EXPO geometric or structural elements within the database can be exported into an input file for SOFiMSHC. This can be useful when analyzing the data after an error occured or to make further use of the data in different settings. If an Identifier is given additionally at GAX or GAR, only the selected geometric axis or surface is exported to the file, otherwise all elements of the given type are exported. When using option RAW, an additional literal FULL may be added which allows to extend the export also to internally used datatypes. In this case for example, globally uniqe identifier (GUID) of the structural elements, which will be used for idenfication of structural objects in different CADsystems, will be exported to the input file. If no file name is specified the data will be exported to a file named project_MEX.dat. The units of the values will be set to the current setting of UNIE from record PAGE. The language of the new file will be the same as the current CADINP input file.

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3.10.

Item

Description

ECHO

Unit Default

OPT

A literal from the following list: MAT SECT GEOM NODE QUAD BRIC BEAM BOUN SYST STAT FULL Material data Section for beams Geometric items Generated nodes Generated quadrilaterals Generated volume elements Generated beam elements Generated elastic supports System summary Analysis statistics all the above options

LIT

FULL

VAL

Value of output option NO no output YES regular output FULL extensive output EXTR extreme output

LIT

FULL

The name (ECHO) of this record must be repeated every time the command is being used, otherwise it may be confused with other records with the same name.

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See also: GAXP SPT SLN SAR

SOFiMSHC

3.11.

Item

Description

COOR

Unit Default

TYPE

Type / reference of coordinate system WRLD: world coordinate system SPT: reference to structural point AXIS: reference to axis GAXP: reference to placement CYLI: cylindrical coordinate system SPHE: spherical coordinate system Number / ID of reference item ID of placement (Type GAXP) Parameter on axis (Typ AXIS, GAXP) Coordinate of origin (Type WRLD, CYLI, SPHE)

LIT

WRLD

This record sets a new reference coordinate system for position and direction input in SOFiMSHC. After setting the coordinate system, all succeding input of a position or a direction in any structural or geometrical record will be interpreted according to the given coordinate system. The coordinate system can be changed within a data record as often as desired. Setting COOR WRLD resets the coordinate system to the default, an euclidian coordinate system with origin at (0,0,0). Different types are provided to set the coordinate system:

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WRLD: world coordinate system This type defines an euclidian (orthogonal) coordinate system with origin given at X,Y,Z. The orientation of the coordinate system can be set using the paramters T11 to T23. They define the first local direction T1 (T11,T12,T13) and the second local direction T2 (T21,T22,T23) . The third direction is derived from the cross product of the first and second axis. In the case that the second direction is not orthogonal to the first, it will be orthogonalized. SPT: Reference to structural point By setting a structural point number at ID, the coordinate system will be moved to the local coordinate system of an already defined structural point. AXIS: Reference to structural line/axis at station S The coordinate system will be moved to the respective station S of an axis or a structural line and rotated according to the local coordinate system of the axis. The axis or structural line resp. is given at ID. It is also possible to reference secondary axes (e.g. ID A1.B). GAXP: Reference to placement The coordinate system is moved to the location of a placement, which has been defined using GAXP at an axis. The second and third direction of the coordinate system (local y and local z) will be aligned according to the cut plane of the placement (local z usually points into gravity direction). The axis is given at parameter ID. The placement can be identified by its parameter position at S or its identifier given at IDP. CYLI: Cylindrical coordinate system By indicating an origin at X,Y,Z and two direction vectors at T1 (T11,T12,T13) and T2 (T21,T22,T23), a cylindrical coordinate system can be defined. All succeding input of a position (X,Y,Z) or a direction (DX,DY,DZ) will be interpreted according to the following scheme: X: Y: Z: Radius (distance) from rotational axis Azimut angle in rotational plane Height along rotational axis

SHPE: Spherical coordinate system By indicating an origing at X,Y,Z and two direction vectors at T1 (T11,T12,T13) and T2 (T21,T22,T23), a spherical coordinate system can be defined.

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All succeding input of a position (X,Y,Z) or a direction (DX,DY,DZ) will be interpreted according to the following scheme: X: Y: Z: Radius (distance) from origin Azimut angle phi in equatorial plane Inclination from equatorial plane

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3.12.

Item

Description

XSUB

Unit Default

TYPE

Systemtype of Submodel SPAC spatial system SLAB 2D plate/girder system Type or factor of axial stiffnes Type or factor of lateral stiffness Type or factor of rotational stiffness Name of File to be created

Lit4

SPAC

This records allows to extract a partial system from a general structural model for a detailed analysis. The extracted model will be stored in a new database as planar slab or again as new spacial system, which can be then meshed and calculated in a separate independent project. In the case, that the partial model will be extracted as plate system (TYPE SLAB) all selected structural elements will be projected onto the xyplane at coordinate z=0.0. All structural elements connected to the partial model which will be cut during the extraction, like adjacent columns or walls, will be replaced by linear elastic spring elements or fixed supports approximating the stiffness at the connection. The generation of these boundary conditions can be controlled using the parameters FIXA to FIXM. The three parameters can be distinguished between axial, lateral and rotational stiffness components. FIXV: Control of axial stiffness The bedding component in axial direction of connected elements will be calculated as follows: Connected Structural line Structural area: ca = E*A/l ca = E*T/h

A denotes the cross section area and l the length of the connected structural line (e.g. column). For adjacent structural areas the linear elastic line

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bedding replacing the area will be calculated from the plate thickness and the average height. FIXH: Control of lateral stiffness The stiffness in transversal direction will be calculated under the assumption, that the connected building element has hinged support at the bottom: Structural line: Structural area: cl = 3 * E Iy / l3 (bzw. 3 * E Iz / l3) cl = 3 * E Iy / h3

For an adjacent structural line two spring elements will be created for the stiffness in the direction of the local y and zaxis of the cross section. For a connected structural region, the supported line will be fixed in longitudinal direction. FIXM: Control of rotational stiffness For the computation of the rotational stiffness, it is again assumed, that the connected building element has hinged support at the bottom: Structural line: Structural area: cr = 3 * E Iy / l2 (bzw. 3 * E Iz / l2) cr = 3 * E Iy / h2

In all three cases, a numerical value > 0.0 or one of the two literals FIX or FREE can be given at FIXA to FIXM. In the case, that a numerical value is given, it will be interpreted as factor multiplying the default stiffness values calculated as given above. The literal FIX creates a fixed support and the literal FREE releases the respective degrees of freedom entirely. The elements of the partial system are selected by entering subsequent records directly after XSUB: SLN: Selection of a structural line with number NO SAR: Selection of a structural region with number NO GUID: Selection using a Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) A GUID uniquely identifies a structural element and will be usually set when exporting the model from a CAD system (e.g. SOFiPLUS, Extensions for Revit). BBOX: Selection using a rectangular bounding box This option is especially suitable for selecting all structural elements on a specified floor level (e.g. BBOX z1 9.5 z2 10.5).

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The selection records given above can be defined in any number and any order.

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4 Definition of geometric elements.

SOFiMSHC

This chapter describes the definition of general geometrical elements like geometric axes or surfaces.

4.1.

Record GAX GAXA GAXH GAXB GAXC GAXN GAXP GAXS GAXV GAR GARA GARC GARS

Input records

Items NO TYPC S RA S R Z1 X ALFZ S ID ALF ID ID NO NO NZ NU0 ZUV4 M TYPE DEG X RE H XM X2 Y MUL IDS ALFX IDS NAME TYPE TYPE SMIN NU1 N ID2 TITL Y LA R YM Y2 Z DIV S ALFY GPT S DEGU GIDI SMAX NV0 X ID3 SX LE ZM Z2 W ID4 SY TYPS NX X3 NX ID5 L REF R SUR1 SUR2

NY Y3 NY

NZ Z3 NZ

X1 ALFX

Y1 ALFY

NX TITL XUV4

NY YUV4

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4.2.

Item

Description

GAX

Unit Default

ID TYPE

Axis identifier Type of axis DEL delete this entry NONE no specific type AXIS system axis (e.g. AA) BEAM axis of beam sequence LANE traffic lane TEND tendon axis Reserved for export of additional data Reserved for export of additional data Reserved for export of additional data Reserved for export of additional data Reference to a master axis Number of a geometric surface Number of a second geometric surface Type of curve to be generated Degree of spline curve (see GAXC) Designation of axis

Lit4 LIT

! LANE

ID2 ID3 ID4 ID5 REF SUR1 SUR2 TYPC DEGR TITL

1 * *

This record defines alignment axes for road design or arbitrary geometric curves which are generally idependent from structural elements. In SOFiMSHC, geometry axes represent mainly general data structures allowing to define fully parametrc input data sets. One important application area, for example, is bridge design, where all elements of a bridge can be defined relatively to this central axis. Once the geometry of the axis is changed, all dependent structures will be adapted automatically. In addtition, arbitrary variable distributions can be defined for a geometry axis, which can be used, for example, to describe varying sections, additional load lines or secondary girders. As axis identifier at ID only literals consisting of maximum four characters are allowed, for example GAX ID AX1.

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SOFiMSHC

For defining the geometry SOFiMSHC provides a number of possibilities (parameter TYPC). The geometry of an axis is defined by subsequent records of following types: AXIS (GAXA / GAXH) ARC (GAXB) POLY (GAXC) SPLI (GAXC) HINT (GAXC) NURB (GAXC / GAXN) Alignment axes in plan view and elevation Straight lines and circular arcs in 3D Polygonal line Cubic BSpline Interpolation HermiteInterpolation Arbitrary Freeform Curves (Bsplines, NURBS)

In addition to its geometric shape the following records allow to define additional dependant parameters and properties: GAXS GAXP GAXV Secondary axes Placements: special positions along an axis Definition of variables along an axis

Freeform curves of type GAXC can also be defined relatively to an other axis.If a previously defined curve is given at record REF, all following coordinates are interpreted relatively to the curve. This allows to define offset curves or to create an identical copy of an axis. It is also possible to project curves onto a surface or to create a curve by intersecting two arbitrary surfaces: If a single surface is given at SUR1, the curve will be projected onto the given surface. In the case that two surfaces are defined at SUR1 and SUR2, the generated curve is the intersection of the two given surfaces.

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4.3.

Item

Description

GAXA

Unit Default

S X Y SX SY L R RA RE LA LE TYPS

Station value Coordinates of startpoint / tangential intersection Direction of tangent Length of section Radius Radius of the axis at start Radius of the axis at end Length of first transition element or <0 for Clothoidal parameter (R*L=A2) Length of second transition element or <0 for Clothoidal parameter (R*L=A2) Type of transition curve

m m m m m m m m LIT

* * * * * * * R R * LA CLOT

Record GAXA defines sections of a setting out line in plan view for a preceeding axis GAX. SOFiMSHC provides two different possibilities of definition: Length based definition:

Using this mode, an axis always starts with a startpoint (station + coordinate) and a tangential direction, e.g. GAXA S 250.0 X 0 0 0 SX 1 0 0. Subsequently, single segments are defined with their length and possible start and end radius:

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GAXA L 50.0 RA 0.0 RE 200.0 GAXA L 50.0 R 200.0 GAXA L 50.0 RA 200.0 RE 0.0 GAXA L 50.0

SOFiMSHC

For segments with different radius between start and end, a transition curve is inserted. A radius with positive value cause a curvature to the righthand side, whilst a negative value a curvature to the lefthand side. Using the input above, for example, a sequence consisting of a transition element, a circular arc, a transition element and a straight segment at the end will be created. Tangentially based definition

Pi

PC

Pi1 RA

R RE

In this kind of input, the user defines the intersections of the curve tangents together with a curvature radius and different length parameters, for example: GAXA X 0.0 Y 0.0 GAXA X 30.0 Y 10.0 R 40.0 LA 10.0 LE 10.0. GAXA X 60.0 Y 0.0 Using this parameters SOFiMSHC inserts a curve sequence such, that its end points fits tangentially to the predefined polygon. For the parameter following possibilities exist: The minimum radius at R and the total length of the curve sequence is given at L. In this case, a curve sequence is inserted under consideration of the symmetry condition A1=A2. This is called a symmetric standard sequence. The minimum Radius R and the length of the two transition segments LA and LE are given. This case defines a so called asymmetric standard sequence. The length of the circular segment is calculated automatically. The user may also define a start radius RA and an end radius RE. In this

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case, the curve sequence does not any longer fit curvature continuously to the tangents. If no radius is given at all, a polygonal axis with kinks is created. In the case that the parameters of the transition elements define a shorter length than needed, a straight segment will be inserted before the standard curve sequence and the position of the tangent points will be adjusted accordingly. Instead of a Clothoid, also a cubic parabola (TYPS CUBI) (not recommended) or a Bloss Curve (TYPS BLOS) may be used as transition element. And finally, SOFiMSHC also allows to use sinusoidal (TYPS SIN) and cosinusoidal (TYPS COS) transition elements.

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See also: GAX GAXA GAXP GAXS GAXV

SOFiMSHC

4.4.

Item

Description

GAXH

Unit Default

S H R

m m

* * *

GAXH defines the elevation of an alignment axis defined previously at GAX. According to the convention used in road design positive height values will be placed in a direction opposite to the globally defined gravity direction (POSZ, NEGZ). Curvature radii will be applied as quadratic parabolas.

P2 P4 P1 R P3

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4.5.

Item

Description

GAXB

Unit Default

R XM YM ZM NX NY NZ X1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3 S1 S2

[m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001

0.0

Records of type GAXB can be used to define straight lines, circles and cicular arcs in space. Records of this type always refer to the most recently defined curve at GAX. Multiple segments are allowed to be entered in order to define polycurves. For the definition of a single segment following possibilities exist: A straight line is defined by its start and endpoint at (x1,y1,z1) and (x2,y2,z2). A full circle can be defined by its center (xm,ym,zm), the radius and the normal on the circular plane (nx,ny,nz). A circular arc can be defined by its start and endpoint at (x1,y1,z1) und (x2,y2,z2), a radius and the normal or by entering the start, the endpoint and the center.

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In addition, circular arcs can also be defined by entering three points on the arc. (x1,y1,z1) und (x2,y2,z2) describe the start and the endpoint, (x3,y3,z3) a third point on the arc. When multiple segments are defined, the transition between two segments should be modeled with continuous tangents. Kinks are possible but should be avoided as they can lead to incorrect or erroneous meshes. In order to define kinks it is better to define two curves with a structural point in between. Using the parameters S1 and S2 the chainage (or parametrisation) of the curve can be set explicitly. If nothing is given at S1 and/or S2 the parametrisation is defined according to the true (arc) length of the curve.

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4.6.

Item

Description

GAXC

Unit Default

X Y Z W S DX DY DZ NX NY NZ

3D coordinates

Weight of control point (NURBS) Station on point (for interpolation) Tangential direction (Type HINT)

The geometry of arbitrary freeform curves can be defined with this record by entering characteristic data points. Each record GAXC defines a single coordinate in 3D. The points always refer to the directly preceding geometry axis. The type and the degree of the curve is specified by the parameters TYPC and DEG within the main record GAX: POLY: Interpolation as polygonal sequence The given points will be connected to a polygonal line. SPLI: Spline interpolation The given datapoints will be interpolated using a cubic BSpline. The interpolation is carried out curvature continuous at the definition points (C2 continuity). The chainage (parametrisation) of the curve can be set explicitly at each datapoint using the parameter S. If no parameter values are given, SOFiMSHC assigns a parametrisation automatically. The end chainage corresponds to the geometric length of the axis in this case.

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HINT: Hermite interpolation The given datapoints will be interpolated using piecewise cubic BSpline segments. The interpolation is carried out tangentially continuous at the definition points (C1continuity). Using the parameters DX,DY,DZ, the tangential direction at certain points can be defined explicitly by the user. Similar to the spline interpolation, the parametrisation (chainage) along the curve can be set using the parameter S. NURB: NURBScurve A NURBS (Non Uniform Rational BSpline) curve can be defined by entering the euclidian coordinates of the controlpoints at X,Y,Z. If weights <> 1.0 are given, the input results in a true rational NURBS curve, which, for example, allows to describe also circle and ellipses. The degree of the NURBS curve can be set in record SLNN, when defining the knot vector. It is also possible to create curves relatively to an existing axis. If a reference axis REF is given in the main record GAX, the Xvalues are then interpreted as station value S on the reference axis and the values Y and Z as distances relatively to the local coordinate system of the referenced axis. The thus defined points are then interpolated by a cubic Bspline (TYPC SPLI). Contrary to secondary axes at GAXS, the reference is resolved explicitly, i.e. a new independent geometry is calculated based on the definition of the data points. At NX,NY,NZ a user defined orientation of the local zaxis can be set for each point on the curve independantly. This allows to define, for example, arbitrarily oriented crosssections along a curve or an axis. If no directions are given at all, the local zaxis is oriented towards the globally defined gravity direction.

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4.7.

Item

Description

GAXN

Unit Default

S MUL DEGR

! 1 1

Records of type GAXN are used to define the knot vector of NURBScurves or to explicitly set the parametrization of interpolation curves. For each knot value of a NURBS or parameter value a single record GAXN is to be entered which refers to the previously defined geometry axis at GAX. Multiple knotvalues (e.g. at the ends of a curve) can be entered in a single record using multiplicities > 1. Within the first record the polynomial degree of a NURBScurve can be set using parameter DEGR. When NURBScurves are defined in SOFiMSHC knot vectors must always be given with multiple knots at the ends (clamped ends) with a multiplicity equal to the degree of the curve. In the case that no knotvector is given by the user at all, a uniform distribution is assumed internally.

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See also: GAX GAXS GAXV

SOFiMSHC

4.8.

Item

Description

GAXP

Unit Default

ID IDS

S TYPE

Ident of primary axis Selection of secondary axes 0 = primary, AZ for secondary, * = all, + = only secondary axes Station value Type of placement as combination of S support J construction joint A startface E endface H horizontal connection Number of structural point to be created at the placement Group number of the following section Crosssection number of the subsequent section or number before and behind the placement given as Literal ncs1.ncs2 Identificator of placement additional explicit transverse offset additional explicit transverse offset Alignment about the global Z direction Skew about the local xaxis Skew about transverse yaxis Skew about vertical zaxis Cross fall to the right (+y) Cross fall to the left (y) Title of placement

Lit4 LIT

/Lit Lit8

/Lit

0 0

GAXP is used to define important sections and points, so called placements, along a geometry axis GAX at a specific station S. A placement can be defined exclusively for the main axis or for one of the secondary lines, but can also be assigned to all or all secondary lines simultaneously. A combination of literals (e.g.

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SJ) can be set at TYP for classification of the placement. In order to avoid ambiguous input it is recommended to enclose the literals in apostrophes. Based on the placement definitions SOFiMSHC can create a structural system consisting of beam elements along the axis. For each placement a structural point will be created on the axis whose node number can be set at SPT. In between structural lines will be created, which get the number of their preceding point assigned. The user may specify a group or section number for a specific placement on the axis which are then used for all subsequent beam elements created unless one of the number is changed. The generation of the structural elements basically starts at the first placement which has a crosssection number assigned and ends at the end of the axis or if a placement is of type E = endface. In order to facilitate the organization of point and group numbers the user may define offset numbers at secondary axes GAXS which are then used to set the respective group and points numbers of the placements on secondary lines. If no point number is given at a specific placement, SOFiMSHC assignes a number automatically starting from SPT=1000 in intervals of 100 along the axis. In order to prevent unintended interference of user defined and automatic numbers, it is recommended to set the start index of automatically assigned number in SOFiMSHC at parameter CTRL NODE from 1000 to a sufficiently higher value. A placement basically defines an infinite plane at a given station S perpendicular to the axis tangent. Structural points and other placement properties on secondary axes will then be created at the intersection of this plane with the axis. This infinite plane can be further rotated about the three local axis coordinates by setting ALFZ, ALFY and ALFX or may be aligned within the global XY coordinate plane by setting an angle at ALF = {1360 deg}.

S2 S1

ALF ALFZ

GAXS

S4 S3 GAXP GAXP

GAXP GAXP

Secondary axis relative to axis

When placements of type support, start or endface (Type S, A and E) are defined, an internal variable array S_XI() is automatically set up which provides the curve parameter S with respect to span lengths between supports. For ex-

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ample, S_XI(0) provides the Sparameter of the start face, S_XI(1) the location of the first support, S_XI(1.5) the mid of the first span and so on. Anstelle des Stationswertes S kann auch der Name einer Variablen als Literal eingegeben werden. In diesem Falle werden fr jede Sttzstelle der Variablen automatisch Placements vom angegeben Typ erzeugt. Instead of the station value S the user may also enter the name of a variable. In this case placements of the given type will be created for each basepoint of the variable. Further we have two values for the cross fall. The sign of the inclination is defined that an increase of height in the direction outward is positive,

INCR + * INCL

D z D z ; INCL + ) D y D y Y INCR Z

Inclination For using the inclination two variables #INCR and #INCL may be used (e.g. for a direction of an edge within a section). However, this variable contains not the tangent value, but the clockwise angle in radians about the Xaxis defined by the inclination. The value of 0 is the direction of the Yaxis to the right.

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4.9.

Item

Description

GAXS

Unit Default

Ident of Primary axis Ident of secondary axis (A to Z) offset for structural point numbers offset for group numbers of GAXP offset in transverse direction offset in vertical direction Designation of continuous beam

* 0 1 0 0.0 0.0

GAXS defines a secondary axis relatively to a primary axis. The distance may be defined either by a constant value in local y and zdirection or dependend on a axis variable specified with GAXV. It is further possible to specify an offset for point and group numbers used in GAXP placements.

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4.10.

Item

Description

GAXV

Unit Default

ID NAME S V DV TYPE

Id of axis Name of variable Value / formula for station Value / formula for Variable Value / formula for derivative of Variable Properties of data point POLY Value only D Inclination before D+ Inclination behind D* Inclination before and behind SPLI Intermediate spline point FUNC funktion

In SOFiMSHC an arbitrary number of additional variables can be defined along a geometry axis, which can be used, for example, to define varying cross sections or to describe the shape of a secondary axis. A variable distribution can be either defined by a number of base points and tangent directions which are interpolated or directly by entering a formula expression at V. Following example shows the definition of a quadratic parabola by three base points. The point in the middle is assigned a horizontal tangent and the type D*, which ensures that both sections on the left and the right hand side of the point are connected horizontally: GAXV AX1 NAME VAR2 S 0.0 V +3.0 GAXV AX1 NAME VAR2 S 25.0 V 7.0 DV 0.0 TYPE D* GAXV AX1 NAME VAR2 S 50.0 V +3.0 The same result could also be obtained by entering one single formula expression:

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LET#S_ACT 0 GAXV AX1 VAR2 S 0 V =#S_ACT*(#S_ACT50)/62.5+3 TYPE FUNC It is important to note, that the formula expression, which is to be evaluated dynamically, has to be specified within apostrophes and with a leading =. The expression is valid from the startparameter given at S (here: S=0.0) until the next base point of the variable or, if no additional record GAXV is given, until the end of the axis. The control variable must always be named by #S_ACT and must also be defined prior to its first usage.

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See also: GARA GARC GARS

SOFiMSHC

4.11.

Item

Description

GAR

Unit Default

NO TYPE

Area identifier Type of area DEL deletes given record Ruled surfaces PLAN planar surface ROTA surface of revolution SWEE sweep surface Coons Patches: BLIN bilinear Coons Patch COON bicubic Coons Patch Freeformsurface: SPLI bicubic interpolation of points NURB NURB control points Degree of Nurb in u direction Degree of Nurb in v direction Designation

Lit4 LIT

! *

Lit32

* *

This record GAR defines a raw geometric surface without any structural information. This surface can then be referenced as background geometry by a structural area SAR or can be used to create an intersection curve with another surface, for example. The type of the geometry to be created can be set at parameter TYPE. The geometry itself is then defined using one of the following records: GARA: Definition of rotational and sweepsurfaces (default: ROTA) GARC: Definition of socalled Coons Surfaces (default: BLIN) GARS: Definition of a freeform surface using interpolation points or NURBS control points (default: SPLI)

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4.12.

Item

Description

GARA

Unit Default

Ident of first generating axis Ident of second generating axis Reference point

Direction vector

Start parameter in meridian direc. (GID1) End parameter in meridian direction Start angle of rotation End angle of rotation Designation

Using this record GARA planar, rotational or sweepsurfaces can be defined: PLAN: Planar Surface A plane is defined by a point in space (X,Y,Z) and a normal vector (NX,NY,NZ). In order to avoid numerical problems, the dimensions of the plane should be restricted to the requred extensions using the parameters UMIN to VMAX. If no sizes are specified, a default size of 100 to +100m is set in both directions. ROTA: Surface of revolution A geometric curve GID1 is rotated about a straight axis in space. The rotation axis is defined by a point at X,Y,Z and a directionvector at NX,NY,NZ. The parameters UMIN and UMAX define the extends of the surface in meridian direction along the generating curve GID1. If nothing is given, the whole curve GID1 is taken. The extend of the rotation angle in degree is defined using the paramters VMIN and VMAX. If nothing is given, the parameters default to an angle from 0 to 180 degree.

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Important: In order to avoid ambiguity in numerical operations, surfaces of revolution should never be defined as closed surface with a rotation angle from eg. 0 to 360 degree. In these cases it is recommended to create two halfshells with angles from 0 to 180 degree and 0 to 180 degree respectively. SWEE: SweepSurface A curve GID1 is swept along a so called trajectory curve GID2. Instead of the trajectory curve, a direction vector can be given at NX,NY,NZ along which the generating curve GID1 is moved. The parameters UMIN and UMAX define the extend of the surface along the generating axis GID1. If nothing is given here, the whole curve is used. The parameters VMIN and VMAX define the range on the trajectory axes or the length on the directon vector respectively.

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4.13.

Item

Description

GARC

Unit Default

NU0 NU1 NV0 NV1 XUV1 YUV1 ZUV1 ... XUV4 YUV4 ZUV4

Axis for Coons Patch bei u=0.0 Axis for Coons Patch bei u=1.0 Axis for Coons Patch bei v=0.0 Axis for Coons Patch bei v=1.0 Twist (d2x/du/dv) at corner 1

GARC defines an area by four boundary curves, where an interpolation between opposite curves will take place. This may yield a C0continuity with a bilinear BLIN or a C1continuity with a bicubic blending function COON. For the latter we need not only properly defined local ycoordinate directions of the curves, but also the twist values at the corners of the patch. As the twist values are not derivable from the curves itself, the user may specify them explicitly. If not defined, the area will become flat at the corners. The curves may be longer than the patch region as long as the intersections may be calculated properly.

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See also: GAR

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4.14.

Item

Description

GARS

Unit Default

M N X Y Z W

Raster (1max) in local u direction Raster (1max) in local v direction Point coordinates

m m m

This record defines points on the surface or NURBS control points of a general freeform surface. The points must be given in a regular a m times n grid. Knots of a general NURBSsurface are also defined with this record in that way that only M or N is defined, then we have: Definition of number M, value X and multiplicity W for the u direction, definition of number N, value Y and multiplicity W for the v direction. Missing values will be interpolated.

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5 Definition of structural elements.

SOFiMSHC

This chapter describes the definition of structural elements. Structural elements define the calculation system and contain a geometrical description as well as structural information like crosssections, material or support conditions which are needed to set up the calculation model. SOFiMSHC supports structural points, structural lines, structural areas and structural volumes. The structural model can then be meshed to create a finite element model consisting of beam, shell and/or volume elements.

5.1.

Record SPT SPTP SPTS

Input Records

Items NO T TYPE NO GRP PRE NCS NO KR EYE X1 NX X S GRP CZZ X NX X REF MNO GAP L NPA DRX EZE Y1 NY Y MUL FIX DXX Y NY Y TYPE AR CRAC PSKN NPE DRY FIXA Z1 NZ Z DIV REFT DYY Z NZ REF CP YIEL LSKN REF DRZ FIXE X2 XM W DEG REF DZZ REF SX VAL CQ MUE MXSK FIX DROT FIMA Y2 YM NX CA BFIX NREF SY VALQ CM COH MXPF SDIV EXA FIME Z2 ZM NY CL FCTA FIX SZ VALM DX DIL GRP EYA XFLG R X3 NZ CD FCTE NCS EZA TITL Y3 NP EXE BX XFLG GRP DY BY TITL MNO DZ

SPTH SLN

Z3

CXX

CYY

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Record SAR Items NO NRA TY CHK4 TYPE CA TYPE UMIN TYPE S TYPE NO NAR PHI0 ZZ FIX QREF TXY CHK5 NL CL GID1 UMAX M T NU0 FIX ACT PHI NARA GRP KR TT CHK6 NP CD GID2 VMIN N DEGS NU1 MNO NO DPHI NARE MNO DRX CB CHK7 NA X VMAX X DEGT NV0 MRF T REF MNO MRF DRY CT TITL NE Y Y NV1 TYPE FAC0 DX

Geometric Modelling

NX DROT H1 MNO NX W

NY T H2 FIX NY T

NZ TX H3 DFIX NZ

TITL FAC1 DY

TFAC DZ

TFA1 XX

TREF YY

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See also: SPTP

SOFiMSHC

5.2.

Item

Description

SPT

Unit Default

NO X Y Z REF

Relative to / projection on PT, PCYL, PPOL AX, AXYZ, AXZX, AXXY AR, ARYZ, ARZX, ARXY Identifier of projection target Support condition Width of support / mesh in local x Width of support / mesh in local y Plate thickness if lying inside a SAR zaxis of the local coordinate system

* * * * * *

A structural point in SOFiMSHC is defined by its coordinates and a local coordinate system with local x, y and zaxis. If not otherwise specified, the coordinate system of the point aligned with its zaxis in gravity direction. In the case that no point number is given, a new point with a new number will be created only if there is no other point at the given XYZposition. Otherwise, the given properties will be merged with the existing point. One may also change the definition of an already existing point by entering a negative number at NO. The

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definition of a structural point may be enhanced by immediate consecutive property records of type SPTP and SPTS. Structural points can be projected onto an existing line/axis or a structural region by specifying one of the literals AX or AR at REF and the axis or region id at NREF. Specialized options (e.g. AXXY, ARXY) allow to restrict the projection to the global YZ, ZX or XYplane. For example, using REF AXXY GAX1 a structural point can be projected within plan view onto the the geometric axis GAX1. In addition to projection, structural points can also be created directly on the referenced line/axis or surface by specifying the local parameters at SX or SX and SY respectively. If also SY and SZ are given for a structural line, the point can be placed relatively to the line at SX with the given distance in Y and Zcoordinates. In all cases the local coordinate system of the structural point is set according to the coordinate system of the line or the structural region. Coordinates of a structural point can also be defined relatively to another point at NREF. The relative distance can be given in euclidian, cylindrical or spherical coordinates. Therefor, one of the following types can be set at REF: PT PCYL PPOL euclidian (rectangular) coordinatesystem X,Y,Z relative to the reference point cylindrical coordinate system X = radius, Y = rotation angle (deg) , Z = height polar coordinate system X = radius, Y = azimut (deg), Z = polar angle (deg)

Example: SPT 5 REF PT 101 X 10.0 creates a new point with number 5 at a xdistance of 10.0m relatively to point 101. The coordinates at XYZ are always defined relatively in the local coordinate system of the reference point. The new point will also get the coordinate system of the reference point. This option is especially useful to define single structural points relatively to another. Considerable more possibilities are provided by the special record COOR, which allows to define a user coordinate system for all geometry input. There also cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems can be defined. Support conditions can be defined at parameter FIX by combining one of the following standard literals (e.g. FIX PXPY):

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PX PY PZ MX MY MZ MB XP YP ZP PP XM YM ZM MM F = = = = = = = = = PY PX PX PX MY MX MX MX PP Clamped support of displacement in x Clamped support of displacement in y Clamped support of displacement in z Clamped support of rotation about x Clamped support of rotation about y Clamped support of rotation about z Clamped support of warping + + + + + + + + + PZ PZ PY PY + PZ MZ MZ MY MY + MZ + MB MM

SOFiMSHC

A preceding L switches to local directions for the following Literals, a G restores the global direction reference. If nothing is given, the support will be aligned according to global coordinate directions. If the literal at FIX contains the character sequence >, the following number refers to the number of a coupled point. In this case, the referenced node will be connected with the respective kinematic constraints. For example, a definition of PXPY>4 sets the displacements in X and Y direction of the current node to those of node number 4. Coupling of kinematic constraints can also be defined using additional point property records SPTP. In the respective section, the reader will also find a list of all possible coupling constraints as well as their kinematic dependencies. Option XFLG allows to prevent the automatic superposition of the given structural point with other structural elements. Following options are provided, which can also be combined: P The given structural point will not be replaced by other structural points. L The structural point will not subdivide other structural lines.

A The structural point will not be embedded within a structural region as constraining point.

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If this option is set, it overwrites the default setting where two points will not be replaced if both have been created explicitly (with a positive number). The option XFLG also applies to implicit points which had not been assigned a number.

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See also: SPT

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5.3.

Item

Description

SPTP

Unit Default

TYPE

Type of property SUPP Periphery of support (column head) VOUT Periphery of haunches PNCH Periphery of punching KPPX, KPPY etc. coupling condition (see explanation) Local dimensions only SUPP/VOUT/PNCH Reference to section number for SUPP/VOUT/PNCH coupled strutural point Property value (e.g. Plate thickness) Group number

LIT

X Y REF

[m]1001 [m]1001

0.0 0.0

VAL GRP

0.0 0

This record defines extended geometric properties or kinematic constraints or coupling conditions for a structural point. Geometric properties may be defined as a centred rectangle or as a general polygonal section by referencing a cross section in the database. A haunched region will be accounted for by a varying thickness for the generated mesh in the vicinity of the column head. In general there are multiple records of type SPTP are allowed for a single structural point. For defining kinematic coupling conditions between structural points at parameter TYPE a number of special literals are provided which allow to fix one or multiple degrees of freedom: KPX0 Coupling of xdisplacement only (ux = uxo) KPY0 Coupling of ydisplacement only (uy = uyo) KPZ0 Coupling of zdisplacement only (uz = uzo) KMX Coupling of rotation about the xaxis KMY Coupling of rotation about the yaxis KMZ Coupling of rotation about the zaxis (x = xo) (y = yo) (z = zo)

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The three conditions KPX0, KPY0 and KPZ0 however, do not satisfy mechanical equilibrium conditions as they do not consider the distance between the connected structural points. For this reason, additional literals are provided which account for the real distance between the points and which should be preferably used in most cases: KPPX Connection of x displacement only (see formula 1) KPPY Connection of y displacement only (see formula 2) KPPZ Connection of z displacement only (see formula 3) Couplings can also be defined in radial and tangential direction. Radial refers to the distance between the first and the connected point and tangential to all directions perpendicular: KPR KPT KMR KMT Coupling of displacements in radial direction (see formula 18) Coupling of displacements in tangential directions (see formula 19) Coupling of rotations about the radial direction (see formula 18) Coupling of rotations about all tangential directions (see formula 19)

A number of additional literals are provided which allow to define special boundary conditions or to define a combination of the above mentioned relations: KP = KPPX + KPPY + KPPZ describes mechanically a rigid connection with hinged conditions at the reference node = KP + KMX + KMY + KMZ describes mechanically a rigid connection with clamped support at the reference node = KP + KMT = KP + KMR

KF

KL KQ

KPEX Rotation about xaxis only (see formula 7 to 9) KPEY Rotation about yaxis only (see formula 10 to 12) KPEZ Rotation about zaxis only (see formula 13 to 15) KFEX Rotation about xaxis only (see formula 7 to 9) KFEY Rotation about yaxis only (see formula 10 to 12) KFEZ Rotation about zaxis only (see formula 13 to 15)

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SYM Symmetry conditions about the midperpendicular ANTI Antisymmetry conditions about the midperpendicular CYCL Cyclic symmetry conditions INTE Interpolation of displacements only INTF Interpolation of all deformations INTS Special form of the interpolation for mindlin plates The mathematical formulas mentioned previously which are used for the calculation of the coupled displacement conditions are listed at the end of this section. With the exception of KPX, KPY and KPZ all coupling conditions satisfy the mechanical equilibrium conditions by taking the real distances between the two connected points into account. Mechanically they act like infinitely stiff structural members and remain numerically stable when solving the finite element system. Their primary application area is the formulation of boundary conditions for plates and shells and the modelling of stiff structural parts. As the kinematic constraints describe linear relationships, they are not capable to account for geometrically nonlinear effects from second or third order theory. List of kinematic displacement relations of couplings conditions KPPX: KPPY: KPPZ: KP: KF additionally: ux = uxo + yo (z zo) zo (y yo) (1) (2) (3)

KPPX + KPPY + KPPZ

(8)

(9) (10)

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KFEY additionally: KPEZ: KFEZ additionally:

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y = yo ux = uxo zo (y yo) uy = uyo + zo (x xo) z = zo

(12) (13)

(14)

(15)

The conditions for fixed supports PR and PT and for coupling conditions KPR and KPT in radial and transversal directions respectively as well as their counterparts for moments are not explicitly but implicitly defined. The programs themselves create an appropriate explicit form. PR:

ut n = 0 ux dx + uy dy + uz dz = 0 un=0

ux + u y + uz dx dy dz

(16)

PT:

(17)

KPR:

(18)

KPT:

(uuo) n = 0

(u x * u xo)

dx

uy * uyo ( ) + uz * uzo dy dz

(19)

The symmetry and antisymmetry conditions are given in the following equations in vectorial form. A presentation by their components is not included here: SYM: ANTI:

ut n = uto n ut n = uto n

In case of mesh refinement or in cases of stiff crossgirders there may arise a need for nodes that lie between two others and depend on them. This kind of dependency can be described by means of interpolating couplings INT?. The following picture shows a mesh with a socalled hanging node which displacements can be calculated by interpolating the displacements of the two adjacent nodes:

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INTEcouplings The INTEcoupling is a constraint with special attributes. Herein, opposite to node to node couplings, one node (the middle node) is dependent on two other nodes. The displacements and rotations of the middle node are interpolated from the corresponding values of the adjacent nodes. u0 = u1 DD + u2 (1DD) When the deflections of the outer nodes are somehow prescribed, e.g. fixed or provided with a certain stiffness, the deflection of the middle node is prescribed in the same way too. The coupling is rigid only when both nodes can not displace relatively to each other. A rigid body with three nodes must be described by means of two KP/KF couplings; the INTEcoupling can not be used in that case. There are several variants of interpolation used by INTEcouplings, which are described in the following. INTE Displacements: Rotations: Application: INTF Displacements: Rotations: linearly interpolated not defined mesh refinements TALPA

Application:

linearly interpolated as in TYPE P torsion linearly interpolated, other rotations com puted from displacement differences divided by the respective node distances connection of beam elements onto disks stiff crossgirders between two supports

In the general threedimensional case, if one draws the lines connecting the two nodes in the initial undeformed as well as in their deformed state, two rotational components are defined exactly by the secant angles of those. The third yet undetermined rotational component has the direction of the connecting line (tor-

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sion), and it is normally interpolated. The general expression is very complicated; however, INTEcouplings parallel to the axes of coordinates can be expressed by much simpler expressions, e.g., X = 0. Y = d Z = 0. results in: x = D uz / d y = ym

z = D ux / d INTS Displacements: Rotations: Application: quadratically interpolated linearly interpolated mesh refinements of plates and shells

In mesh refinements of plates and shells there is a problem in coupling the translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Very poor elements function with a plain interpolation. Due to the peculiarities exhibited by the formulation of the SEPP/ ASEelements, even in its simplest form, the INTEconditions must be accordingly complicated. In case of regular elements by Kirchhoffs theory for example, a cubic interpolation of the displacements and two of the rotations must be employed. Mindlin elements also work with the socalled Kirchhoff constraints. In principle of course, translations and rotations are interpolated independently of one another, yet proper additional conditions are used to make sure that the shear force corresponds to the derivative of the moment. A quadratic distribution of the bending deflection along with a linear distribution of the rotations can be accomplished through the introduction of an additional translational degree of freedom at the middle of an elements side. This additional degree of freedom can be later eliminated. This method is also employed by V couplings. Although the formulation is consistent and leads to considerably better results than the older methods, it is not recommended unlimitedly. In particular, it should not be used with nonconforming elements. The application of INTE in the direct vicinity of singularities is generally not recommended.

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The support of the slab may be done by different approaches, which can be selected with the number of additional asterixes * at FIX and the CTRL option PSUP. no * ** *** Use the value of CTRL PSUP increase thickness for centre (CTRL PSUP 1) = monolithic support do not increase thickness for centre (CTRL PSUP 0) = hinged or elastic support add kinematic constraints (only for special purpose, CTRL PSUP 2 / 4)

The generation of such a mesh macro is currently only possible for supports within the slab and only if the central point is not to close to any other structural edge. If this is not the case, the point will become only a single node in the generated FEmesh. This behaviour may also be enforced with definition of CTRL PSUP 1.

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See also: SPT

Geometric Modelling

5.4.

Item

Description

SPTS

Unit

Default

NO REF TYPE

Spring number number of 2nd reference point Type / direction of spring CX, CY, CZ local X, Y, Z CXX, CYY, CZZ global X, Y, Z C explicit direction (DX, DY, DZ) or direction to reference point

_ LIT

stiffness in axial direction transversal stiffness rotational stiffness Xcomponent of explicit direction Ycomponent of explicit direction Zcomponent of explicit direction group number number of stressstrain curve / material reference area prestress force spring gap (slip) spring failure load spring yield load friction coefficient for lateral spring cohesion value for lateral spring dilatation value for lateral spring

0. 0. 0.

This record defines beddings or spring elements on a structural point. For a given structural point SPT multiple subsequent records of type SPTS can be entered allowing to create an arbitrary number of springs, which, for example, can be assigned to different groups. Spring elements can be defined as beddings to a fixed support or relatively to another structural point.

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The stiffness of a spring element can be basically defined with three parameters: CA to CM. The first parameter CA describes an axial stiffness along the principal direction of the spring. The second parameter CQ describes a stiffness component acting in the whole plane perpendicular to the axial direction. Mechanically, this stiffness corresponds to two identical axial springs lying orthogonal to each other within the plane. Since the direction of these springs inside the plane can be chosen arbitrarily, this component is also denoted as isotropic lateral spring stiffness. The third parameter CM describes the rotational stiffness about the principal spring axis. The axial and lateral spring stiffness as well as the nonlinear parameters CRAC, YIEL and COH are given as bedding stiffness per area (e.g. kN/m/m2). These stiffness values will be scaled by the given reference area AR, resulting in a spring element with point support stiffness (kN/m). If nothing is given for AR the stiffness values will be directly taken as point stiffness value. A spring can have a number and can be assigned to a group. If the identifier of a second structural point is given at REF the spring is created between the given and the referenced structural point. The direction of the spring can be defined as follows: Along the local coordinate system of the structural point Each structural point contains a local coordinate system, which can be set explicitly at the structural point record SPT. By setting CX, CY, or CZ at parameter TYPE, the spring can be aligned to one of this local coordinate directions. Along one of the global X,Y,Z coordinate axes If CXX, CYY or CZZ is given at TYPE, the spring is oriented, indepenently of the structural point, toward one of the global X, Y, or Z coordinate axes, respectively. Along an explicitly given direction vector at DX, DY, DZ A spring can also be aligned arbitrarily by setting a direction at DX, DY, DZ.

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Distance between point and reference point For a spring, connecting the point with a reference point, the direction to the reference point is taken as axial direction in the case, that no different settings have been given. In the case that no direction is given at all, the spring is aligned with the local zaxis of the structural point. Different stiffness values in lateral direction cannot be defined within one single record of type SPTP. However, multiple records can be given in order to create springs aligned perpendicular to each other. Using value lists, CADINP allows to handle this case efficiently. For example: SLNS TYPE CX,CY,CZ CP 1000.0, 2000.0, 3000.0 creates three orthogonal springs having each different stiffness values of 1000.0, 2000.0 and 3000.0, respectively. Using the parameter PRE, prestress can be activated within the spring. In its initial position at rest, the spring already exerts a force or a moment (if only CM is given) into or about its direction. Prestress for the lateral component CQ cannot be defined. At the parameters GAP, CRAC, YIEL, MUE, COH, DIL values like crack, yield load or friction coefficients can be given in order to activate nonlinear effects: Prestress: The failure and yield loads are shifted by the amount of the prestress. Gap: The spring transmits forces along its axis only after its deformation has exceeded the gap. Failure load: Upon reaching the failure load the spring fails in both the axial and the lateral direction. The failure load is always a tensile force or a positive moment. Yield load: Upon reaching the yield load, the deformation component of the spring increases in its direction, without a corresponding increase of the spring force.

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Friction coefficient: If a friction coefficient and/or a cohesion are input, the lateral spring can not sustain forces greater than: Friction_coeff. Compressive_force + Cohesion For large tension forces or a failed axial spring (CRAC) the lateral force acts only if 0.0 has been input for both the friction coefficient and the cohesion. General nonlinear effects can be defined by referencing an arbitrary stress strain curve or a nonlinear material at MNO. The number at MNO then references a work law or material which has been defined prior in AQUA. In the case that a material is being referenced, an influence area should be given at AR which scales the material bedding values accordingly in order to create the spring constants: CP CQ := := CbAR [kN/m = kN/m2m2/m] CqAR

In the case that a dilatation value (DIL) is defined, a displacement in the lateral direction will generate a component in the axial direction.

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See also: SPT

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5.5.

Item

Description

SPTH

Unit Default

Crosssection number Length of pile in gravity direction percentage of total pile load transfered by skin friction percentage of inactive skin length maximum load transferable by skin friction maximum load transferable in pile foot

0 0.0 50

This records defines properties of a halfspacepile connected to the previously given structural point. Information about the parameters can be found in the manual of HASE in record PILE.

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See also: SLNB SLNP SLNS SPT

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5.6.

Item

Description

SLN

Unit Default

NO NPA NPE REF FIX SDIV GRP STYP SNO NP KR DRX DRY DRZ DROT EXA EYA EZA EXE EYE EZE FIXA FIXE FIMA FIME XFLG TITL

Line number Point at start of line Point at end of line Reference to a geometry at GAX Boundary conditions along the line Mesh density for a subdivision Group number Element type, subdivision Number of cross section Number of bore / bedding profile Direction identifier or explicit direction vector of the local beam coordinate system Additional rotation about beam axis Eccentricity in global coordinates at start Eccentricity in global coordinates at end Hinge conditions at start Hinge conditions at end Hinge conditions at all interior starts Hinge conditions at all interior ends Prevent automatic intersection Title of Line

/LIT Lit16 [m]1001 LIT /Lit12 LIT deg [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 /Lit16 /Lit16 /Lit16 /Lit16 LIT Lit32

0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.

This record defines a structural line. Start and end points of the line may be specified explicitly by referencing structural points which have been previously defined at SPT or implicitly using subsequent geometry records of type SLNB / SLNP . In the latter case, it will be checked if a structural point already exists at

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the respective end coordinate of the line and creates one if not. If no number is given for the structural line at NR, a new number will be assigned automatically. By entering a negative number at NO the properties of a previously defined structrual line can be changed. For example: SLN 10 SNO 1 changes the crosssection number of line no 10. All other properties of the line remain unchanged. If an additional property record of type SLNS is given when a line is being changed, it will be added to all previously defined property records of the line. The geometry of a line can be described by adding subsequent records of type SLNB or SLNP. SLNB allows to define straight lines and circular arcs whereas SLNP is used to create freeform curves. A third possibility is to set the geometry by referencing a previously defined axis GAX at REF. If no geometry is defined at all, a straight line between start and endpoint is assumed. All beam elements which will be created along the structural line have a local coordinate system assigned whose local xaxis is always aligned parallel to the structural line. For curved edges this coordinate system may vary along the line. This local beamcoordinate system determines the orientation of cross sections and, if not otherwise specified at record SLNS, the direction of local supports and kinematic couplings. The orientation of the local zaxis perpendicular to the line can be specified using special literals at KR or directly by entering direction vector at DRX,DRY,DRZ. Following possibilities exist: Explicit direction vector at DRX,DRY,DRZ The entries DRX,DRY,DRZ define a direction vector according to which the local zaxis of the beam coordinate system is aligned. The local xaxis (= tangent) of the coordinate system remains always parallel to the structural line. Which of the two local directions y or z is aligned is basically determined by the global variable CTRL LOCA. If nothing is given, the local zaxis is used. Predefined directions using a literal at KR Instead of an explicit direction, the user may also enter one of the literals POSX, POSY, POSZ, NEGX, NEGY or NEGZ at KR in order to align the local xaxis with one of the given global directions. Moreover, the local xaxis may also be aligned within one of the global coordinate planes by entering:

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KR = XY, YX: align x within global XYplane in X resp. Ydirection KR = YZ, ZY: align x within global YZplane in Y resp. Zdirection KR = ZX, XZ: align x within global ZXplane in Z resp. Xdirection Align to other structural element KR {PT,LN,AR} NO Using this option, the local z (or y) axis of the beam elements along the structural line can be aligned towards another structural element. Following possibilities exist: KR PT: KR LN: KR AR: align towards a structural point align towards a structrual line align towards a structural area

The direction of each beam element is determined individually by calculating the projection onto the referenced structural item. If no projection exist, i.e. the distance is zero, the coordinate system of the referenced item is taken directly. additional rotation about beam axis at DROT By indicating an angle for DROT the local coordinate system will be additionally rotated about the beam axis. The angle is to be given in degrees. In order to define boundary or coupling conditions at FIX the same literals can be used as for the definition of boundary conditions on structural points at SPT. If the Literal at FIX contains the character string >, the following number is treated as the number of a reference line. Referenced lines will get the same number of subdivided elements whereas the pairwise corresponding nodes will be connected with kinematic constraints. An input PZ>4, for example, sets all nodal displacements in zdirection to those of reference line nr 4. For the definition of more advanced coupling and interface conditions a special record SLNS is provided, which may be used better. SDIV defines the maximum edgelength of beam or plane elements to be created along the structural line. If no mesh size is given at SDIV, the size of possibly connected structural regions or the global setting at CTRL HMIN is taken. A set of literals at parameter STYP allows to control the generation of beam elements and the intersection behaviour of the structural line:

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Type of beam elements to be generated: B = beam with reference axis (section at origin) N = centric beam (section at barycenter) T = truss element C = cable element Kind of subdivision applied: E = sudivide structural line in beam elements (Default) X = subdivide in elements without connecting the elements with a surrounding FEmesh Y = create one single element with beam sections Z = create one single element without beam sections If the type of beam element is set to trusselement (STYP T) SOFiMSHC automatically activates option Z = create one element without sections. In case of cable elements (STYP C) the intersection with other structural elements is prevented by default (see option XFLG) in addition. In both cases these default settings can be overwritten by the user if any other option is given at STYP. Beams with linearly varying sections can be defined by entering two section numbers separated by a dot at NCS (i.e. 1.2 ). The sections at internal element nodes have to be created by running AQUA afterwards with option INTE 0. Hinge conditions at the structural line can be specified for the start and the end point individually using FIXA and FIXE. In addition to that, the options FIMA, FIME allow to define hinge conditions at nodes created in the internal of the structural line (e.g. hinged chain). Following literals are possible: N,VY,VZ MT,MY,MZ MB PP MM normal, transversal forces moments warping = NVYVZ = MTMYMZMB

The literals always define the hinge condition which is to be released. They can also be arbitrarily combined (e.g. MYMZ), in order to release multiple degrees of freedom. If a number is given at FIXA to FIME nonlinear forcework laws can be referenced (see AQUA: record SFLA).

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Option XFLG allows to prevent the automatic intersection of the given structural line with other structural elements. As an example, it might be possible to define two parallel structural lines at the same position without having SOFiMSHC to replace one of the lines during the automatic intersection process. In detail, the following options, which can also be combined, are provided at XFLG: P The given structural line will no longer be subdivided by structural points. L The structural line will no longer be subdivided nor replaced by other structural lines. A The structural line will no longer be subdivided by crossing structural areas and will also not be embedded within a structural region as constraining line. Please note that the above mentioned options only apply to the internal of the structural line. They will not apply to the endpoints. In the case that the user also wants to prevent intersection at the endpoints, he has to create the endpoints with the respective settings explicitly.

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See also: SLN SPT

Geometric Modelling

5.7.

Item

Description

SLNB

Unit Default

X1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2 R NX NY NZ XM YM ZM X3 Y3 Z3

Coordinates of startpoint

Coordinates of endpoint

Coordinates of center

[m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001 [m]1001

Records of type SLNB can be used to define straight lines, circles and cicular arcs in space. Records of this type always refer to the most recently defined structural line at SLN. Multiple segments are allowed to be entered in order to define polycurves. For the definition of a single segment following possibilities exist: A straight line is defined by its start and endpoint at (x1,y1,z1) and (x2,y2,z2). A full circle can be defined by its center (xm,ym,zm), the radius and the normal on the circular plane (nx,ny,nz). A circular arc can be defined by its start and endpoint at (x1,y1,z1) und (x2,y2,z2), a radius and the normal or by entering the start, the endpoint and the center. In addition, circular arcs can also be defined by entering three points on the arc. (x1,y1,z1) und (x2,y2,z2) describe the start and the endpoint, (x3,y3,z3) a third point on the arc.

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See also: SLN SPT

SOFiMSHC

5.8.

Item

Description

SLNP

Unit Default

X Y Z W S DX DY DZ NX NY NZ TYPE

3D coordinates

Weight of control point (NURBS) Station on point (for interpolation) Tangential direction (Type HINT)

Type of curve

Structural lines with arbitrary freeform geometry can be defined with SLNP using characteristic data points. Each record SLNP defines one coordinate in 3D. They always refer to the previously defined structural line at SLN. Following types of curves are supported: POLY: Interpolation as polygonal sequence The given points will be interpolated as polygonal sequence. SPLI: Spline interpolation The given datapoints will be interpolated using a cubic BSpline. The interpolation is carried out curvature continuous at the definition points (C2 continuity). The parametrisation (chainage) of the curve can be set explicitly at each datapoint using the parameter S. If no parameter values are given, SOFiMSHC assigns a parametrisation automatically. For this, special techniques are applied which minimize possible oszillations between unequally distributed definition points.

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HINT: Hermite interpolation The given datapoints will be interpolated using piecewise cubic BSpline segments. The interpolation is carried out tangentially continuous at the definition points (C1continuity). Using the parameters DX,DY,DZ, the tangential direction at certain points can be defined explicitly by the user. Similar to the spline interpolation, the parametrisation (chainage) along the curve can be set using the parameter S. NURB: NURBScurve A NURBS (Non Uniform Rational BSpline) curve can be defined by entering the euclidian coordinates of the controlpoints at X,Y,Z. If weights <> 1.0 are given, the input results in a true rational NURBS curve, which, for example, allows to describe also circle and ellipses. The degree of the NURBS curve can be set in record SLNN, when defining the knot vector.

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See also: SLN SLNP

SOFiMSHC

5.9.

Item

Description

SLNN

Unit Default

S MUL DEGR

! 1 *

Records of type SLNN are used to define the knot vector of NURBScurves or to explicitly set the parametrization of interpolation curves. For each knot value of a NURBS or parameter value a single record SLNN is to be entered which refers to the previously defined structural line at SLN. Multiple knotvalues (e.g. at the ends of a curve) can be entered in a single record using multiplicities > 1. Within the first record the polynomial degree of a NURBScurve can be set using parameter DEGR. When NURBScurves are defined in SOFiMSHC knot vectors must always be given with multiple knots at the ends (clamped ends) with a multiplicity equal to the degree of the curve. In the case that no knotvector is given by the user, a uniform distribution is assumed internally. When defining interpolation curves, the local parameter values at each interpolation point can also be set explicitly using this record. This can be, for example, necessary when one wants to keep the parametrization between different curves consistent. In general cases however, it is better to not set these values always since SOFiMSHC optimizes the parametrization by default such that ozillations between the different interpolation points are minimized.

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See also: SLN SLNP

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5.10.

Item

Description

SLNS

Unit Default

Group number of the support Boundary / coupling conditions Type of support / bedding >FIX absolute >SPT relative to a point >SLN relative to a line +SAR, SAR, *SAR: interface element Number of referenced element Material number AUTO detect automatically Axial bedding Lateral (transversal) bedding Torsional bedding Direction specifier Explicit direction of support/bedding

Lit28 LIT

* >FIX

REF MNO

/LIT

Rotation about beam axis Distance to interface element (REFT SAR) Width of support Factor for beddings at start Factor for beddings at end

This record defines boundary conditions, elastic supports, kinematic couplings or special interface elements for the most recently defined structural line at SLN. For a given structural line, multiple records of type SLNS can be given, e.g. in order to define elastic boundary conditions and fixed supports along the line in parallel.

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5.10.1. Supports and coupling conditions

SOFiMSHC

Supports or coupling conditions along the structural line can be defined at parameter FIX where the following set of literals is possible: PX PY PZ MX MY MZ MB XP YP ZP PP XM YM ZM MM F = = = = = = = = = PY PX PX PX MY MX MX MX PP + + + + + + + + + Clamped support of displacement in x Clamped support of displacement in y Clamped support of displacement in z Clamped support of rotation about x Clamped support of rotation about y Clamped support of rotation about z Clamped support of warping PZ PZ PY PY + PZ MZ MZ MY MY + MZ + MB MM

The above given literals can be combined in order to fix multiple degrees of freedom (e.g. FIX PPMX). Local directions can be fixed by preceding a L (e.g. LPXPY). Additional information about setting support conditions can be found at record SPTP of the structural point. It is also possible to define multiple records of type SLNS for a single structural line. If there are multiple support and/or coupling conditions given, they will be superimposed accordingly. Local support conditions (e.g. LPZ) are primarily aligned according to the local coordinate system of the beam elements created along the structural line. This local orientation, however can also be set separately for this record using the parameters KR to DROT. The possibilities therefore are described in detail at record SLN. In case that a number is given at REF a kinematic coupling is created to the referenced element. All coupled degrees of freedom of the structural line are set equal to those of the reference element. A coupling condition can be defined to a structural point (REFT >SPT) or a structural line (REFT >SLN). In the latter case, both

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the given and the referenced line will be subdivided equally and the respective nodes will be connected with the given condition. Kinematic couplings of warping torsion (MB) between two structural lines are not allowed. Couplings between structural lines always satisfy the mechanical equilibrium conditions by taking the real distances between the referenced nodes into account. The displacement conditions are thus calculated by: PX: PY: PZ: ux = uxo + yo (z zo) zo (y yo)

Above literals correspond to the literals KPPX, KPPY, KPPZ for coupling displacement conditions between two structural points. Mechanically, a coupling of all displacements (FIX PP) acts like an infinitely stiff member with a rotational hinge in the coupled nodes. If also the rotations are fixed (FIX FF = PP + MM), it acts like a rigid connection with clamped support at both ends.

Instead of coupling or support conditions the given record also allows to create boundary elements with elastic bedding or spring elements along the given structural line by setting one of the parameters at CA to CD or a material number at MNO. In contrast to individual spring elements, a boundary element defines a continuous bedding along the line which interpolates the displacements between the finite element nodes. If only linear parameters are given, SOFiMSHC generates basically boundary elements. In case of nonlinear parameters (usually given by the material) or in case of coupled structural lines, spring elements will be created along the structural line. The generation of beddings and spring elements can be further controlled by setting the global parameter STEU LSUP. Basically, a spring or a boundary element can be assigned three parameters: axial (CA), lateral (CL) and/or rotational (CD) stiffness. These three parameters always refer to an explicit bedding or spring direction. An axial bedding acts radial into this direction, a lateral (or transversal) bedding in a plane perpendicular to it and a rotational bedding parameter creates a rotational stiffness around this direction. The bedding direction can be set by the user by specifying the parameters KR to DROT. If no direction is given, the spring or boundary elements will be aligned parallel to the structural line. SOFiMSHC provides following possibilities for setting directions of spring and boundary elements:

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Locally aligned KR LOCX, LOCY, LOCZ (only spring elements) Spring elements can be aligned according to one of the local coordinate directions of the structural line. Default setting is KR LOCX. In this case, the spring direction will be set parallel to the axis of the structural line. LOCY and LOCZ respectively allows to align the direction with one of the local coordinate axes perpendicular to the line. The local directions LOCY and LOCZ primarily refer to the local coordinate system (y or zaxis) of the beam elements created along the structural line. If no beam coordinate system is given (e.g. line is boundary of a structural region), the directions refer to the coordinate system of the structural line itself. Additional rotation about line axis DROT (only spring elements) In the case that an angle is given at DROT, the direction of spring elements will be additionally rotated about the axis of the structural line. Oriented globally KR POSX By setting one of the literals POSX, POSY, POSZ or NEGX, NEGY, NEGZ at KR, the direction of spring or boundary elements can be set according to one of the global coordinate axes X, Y or Z.. Explicit direction vector at DRX, DRY, DRZ A vector given at DRX, DRY, DRZ allows to align spring and boundary elements with an arbitrary global direction. Similar to coupling conditions, also linear or nonlinear bedding conditions can be defined between two structural lines, if the numer of a referenced line is given at parameter REF. In this case, the given and the referenced line will be subdivided with the same number of nodes and spring elements created in between. If no direction is given at KR to DROT, the direction of the spring elements is set to the direction between the referenced nodes. In the case that a material number is given at MNO, the spring constants will be calculated from the corresponding linear or nonlinear elasticity properties of the material. BFIX can be set to adapt the material parameters to the width of the support. A negative value at the bedding parameters CA to CD allows to further scale the values calculated from the material. If the literal AUTO is set, SOFiMSHC automatically determines the material number from the adjacent structural area.

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5.10.3. Interfaceelements

Geometric Modelling

The options {+*} SAR at REFT allow to create coupled interface elements along the given structural line automatically. Depending on the subtype at SAR, SOFiMSHC creates and sets of interface edges to one or both sides of the line and disconnects connected structural regions accordingly. The direction at DRX, DRY, DRZ or, if not given, the local zaxis of the structural line defines to which side connected lines and regions will be disconnected. Thereby three possibilities exist: +SAR: a single interface edge is created in positive zdirection SAR: a single interface edge is created in negative zdirection *SAR: two interface edges are created in both directions. If a distance is given at D a gap is created between the given and the interface line. SOFiMSHC creates spring elements between the coupled interface edges and assigns the linear bedding parameters given at CA to CD or possibly nonlinear parameters if given at the material. The direction of the spring elements is always aligned perpendicular to the coupled lines.

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See also: SARB SPT SLN

SOFiMSHC

5.11.

Item

Description

SAR

Unit Default

NO

Area number/ Type identifier PROP attribute region VOID opening Boundary condition within the area Group number of elements in area Material number of QUADs in area Material number of reinforcement Geometric reference on area SAR Vector defining the upward direction of the area Formulation of elements (Bitmask) 0 geometry only +1 plate action +2 membrane action +4 inplane bending Reference for elements CENT centered ABOV in negative z direction BELO in positive z direction Direction identifier or explicit direction vector of the local element coordinate system see remarks Rotation angle

/LIT

LIT8 LIT4

* 0 0 0 * * * 0/7

LIT

CENT

QREF

LIT/ [deg]

* 0.0

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Item Description

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Unit Default

T TX TY TXY TT CB CT MCTL

Constant thickness override [mm]1010 Orthotropic thickness [mm]1010 Othotropic thickness [mm]1010 Orthotropic thickness cross [mm]1010 Orthotropic thickness torsion [mm]1010 Factor (negative) or bedding modulus for [kN/m3]1097 normal subgrade bedding Factor (negative) or bedding modulus for [kN/m3]1097 transverse subgrade bedding Meshing control +1 create regular mesh if possible Mesh density: for the whole region at points inside the region Minimum thickness of elements within the structured boundary layer mesh defined with DFIX (> SARB) Disable automatic intersection Title of region

* T T T T 1 1 0

H1 H2 H3

XFLG TITL

LIT Lit32

The given record defines a structural area, a twodimensional arbitrarily shaped region which can be meshed with triangular or quadrilateral elements. If no identifier NO is given, SOFiMSHC assigns one automatically. A negative identifier changes the existing definition of a previously defined record. Two special literals (PROP, VOID) indicate that the record defines an attribute region or an opening instead of a regular area. These special type of regions can be placed arbitrarily within the model on top of other surfaces in order to change selected properties locally or to create openings. They will not be meshed for themself. SOFiMSHC intersects these regions geometrically with other structural regions and changes the given properties in the intersected part or cuts out an opening respectively. In addition to changing the properties the elements within an attribute region can also be assigned to a secondary group (see record GRP). For this the secondary group identifier, given as text string of at most four characters, has to be set at

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parameter GRP. In this case, all elements remain in the primary group defined for the original structural area and will be additionally assigned to the secondary group of the attribute region. The shape of a structural region is defined by its boundary and possibly a geometric surface description. A valid region requires at least one closed loop of outer boundary curves which are defined by following SARB records. Inner boundaries may be added to create openings. For more complex geometric shapes an additional surface definition is needed in order to describe the geometry inside the outer boundary. This geometry can be either defined by referencing a GAR record at REF or by adding succeding SARP records describing points on the surface. In most cases however, an explicit geometry is not necessary as SOFiMSHC determines it automatically on basis of the boundary description. The orientation of a structural region is basically defined by specifying a normal direction at NX,NY,NZ. This direction defines the local zaxis of all plane elements created on the structural region, which are oriented to the opposite side of the normal. It can be entered only approximately by the user, only specifying the side as SOFiMSHC calculates its exact direction according to the given geometry afterwards. The orientation of the elements within the structural region can be specified by different methods. By default, the local xaxis of the planeelements will be aligned: Explicit direction vector at DRX,DRY,DRZ A direction vector at DRX, DRY, DRZ defines a direction to which the local xaxis of all plane elements created on the structural region will be aligned. This direction must not be defined perpendicular to the surface, as no uniqe direction can be determined in this case then. By setting one of the literals RADI or TANG at KR it can be further specified which of the two local coordinate axes x or y is to be aligned. Predefined directions using a literal at KR Instead of an explicit direction, the user may also enter one of the literals POSX, POSY, POSZ, NEGX, NEGY or NEGZ at KR in order to align the local xaxis with one of the given global directions. Moreover, the local xaxis may also be aligned within one of the global coordinate planes by entering:

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KR = XY, YX: align x within global XYplane in X resp. Ydirection KR = YZ, ZY: align x within global YZplane in Y resp. Zdirection KR = ZX, XZ: align x within global ZXplane in Z resp. Xdirection Align to other structural element KR {PT,LN,AR} NO Using this option, the local z (or y) axis of the area elements on the structural region can be aligned towards another structural element. Following possibilities exist: KR PT: KR LN: KR AR: align towards a structural point align towards a structrual line align towards a structural area

The direction of each area element is determined individually by calculating the projection onto the referenced structural item. If no projection exist, i.e. the distance is zero, the coordinate system of the referenced item is taken directly. additional rotation about beam axis at DROT By setting an angle for DROT the local coordinate system of each plane element will be additionally rotated about its local zaxis. The thickness of the elements in a structural region can be defined by setting the parameter T. If no thickness is given, it will be set to a constant value of 1.0 m. In addition to a constant distribution of the thickness, SOFiMSHC also allows to define varying thicknesses within a region. Therefor two possibilities exist: Thickness at boundary edges in record SARB: By setting the thickness value at the outer boundary edges of a region, a varying thickness can be defined. Thickness at structural points within the region: For this, structural points with thickness properties (SPT ... T) can be defined within or on the boundary of the region in order to describe a variable thickness distribution. Since one of these points may be shared by multiple structural regions, the region thickness value at SAR must be set explicitly to T=0.0 in order to activate this setting. Only structural points with no additional geometric information like column sizes etc. will be considered in calculating the thickness distribution.

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In both cases a least square method is applied, which interpolates the thickness values at the support points or lines. In most cases this interpolation reduces to a planar distribution of the thickness values across the region, but may also be higher polynomial in the case that a higher number of support points is given. Different stiffnesses in different local directions can be defined by setting orthotroptic thickness values (TX, TY, TXY, TT). An average thickness T should be given which will is used for calculating masses etc. Meshing of the region can be controlled using a general parameter and different density values. By setting MCTL to 1 SOFiMSHC tries to create a regular mesh on structural regions with 4 boundary edges. The structured mesh is created as long as the ratio of edges and angles corresponds approximately to a rectangular shape. H1 changes the density of the mesh within the region to a value different to the global setting in CTRL HMIN. The value given at H1 defines the maximum length of an element edge. Additionally, H2 can be set to create refinements around structural points inside the region. Option XFLG allows to prevent the automatic intersection of the given structural region with other structural elements. The following options are provided, which can also be combined: P Structural points will no longer be automatically added as constraining points to the region. L Other structural lines will no longer be automatically added as constraining lines to the region. A The structural region will not be intersected with other structural regions. I.e. no intersection lines will be created automatically. Two structural regions can be placed parallel on top of each other without warning. Please note that the above mentioned options only apply to the internal of the structural region. They will not apply to edges and points on the boundary. In the case that the user also wants to prevent intersection on the boundary, he has to create the lines and points with the respective settings explicitly. Independantly from the settings in XFLG it will always be possible to add single structural points and lines as constraining points and lines explicitly to the region using the command SARB CONS. Contrary to the default behaviour of SOFiMSHC, this allows to add only a selection of structural elements as constraints to a region.

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See also: SAR SLN

Geometric Modelling

5.12.

Item

Description

SARB

Unit Default

TYPE

Type of boundary OUT outer boundary IN inner boundary CONS inner constraint Number of a geometric line Number of a geometric point number of start point number of end point Thickness of the area in this boundary Material number of the boundary Hinge condition of boundary Distance to boundary Axial bedding Lateral bedding Torsional bedding

LIT

OUT

0 0 * * * 0 0 0 0 0

This record describes one single edge of an outer or inner boundary of a preceding structural region defined at SAR. A valid structural region requires at least one closed loop of outer boundary edges but may also have a number of inner boundaries to describe openings or constraining edges. The edge can be given as reference to a structural line SLN or can be established directly by adding subsequent SLNB or SLNP records. In the case, that no outer boundary is explicitly given for a structural area, SOFiMSHC creates the edges on the boundary automatically on basis of the underlying geometric surface definition, if one exist. This option is especially helpful when defining rotational (SARR) and freeformsurfaces (SARP). The edges of the boundaries can be entered in any sequence and orientation. SOFiMSHC sorts and connects the edges, provided that common end points exist and a closed sequence of edges can be found.

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Additional point or line constraints in the interior of the domain may be defined for supports, columns or other selected points using TYPE CONS. As SOFiMSHC however, automatically incorporates points and lines lying inside a region as constraint, there is usually no need for this option. Only in cases, where the automatic detection fails, it can be useful to add points or lines as constraints explicitly. For boundary edges and constraining points a thickness may be set at T in order to define a varying thickness distribution over the structural region. The thickness is approximated between the given points and lines using a least squares method. Depending on the number of definition points linear and higher polynomial distributions of the thickness are possible. If the thickness is given at boundary edges, the general thickness of the region at SAR must be set explicitly to 0. Hinge and bedding conditions can be defined for outer and inner edges. Hinge conditions are defined at FIX, where the literals PX, PY, PZ, MX, MY, MZ which can also be combined are possible and which defines the respective local degree of freedom to be released. In order to define bedding conditions on the boundary, linear bedding constants can be given at CA, CL and CD for axial, transversal and rotational bedding or a material at MAT which allows to define also nonlinear conditions. When boundary conditions are defined, additional edges will be created in the interior of the region and connected with the respective boundary. If a distance is given at DFIX, these internal edges will be additionally set off with a small gap to the interior of the region.

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539

SOFiMSHC

See also: SAR

Geometric Modelling

5.13.

Item

Description

SARR

Unit Default

Type

Type of Structural surface geometry ROTA Surface of revolution SWEE Sweepsurface First generating curve Second generating curve Reference point

Lit4

ROTA

Direction vector

Start parameter in udirection End parameter in udirection Start parameter in vdirection End parameter in vdirection

/[deg] /[deg]

The given record SARR defines the geometry of rotational or sweepsurfaces. The record is a property record and refers to the directly preceding definition of a structural area SAR. Only one record SARR is allowed or each structural area. The following types of geometry can be described with this record: ROTA: Surface of revolution A given structural line or geometric curve GID1 is rotated about a straight axis in space. The rotation axis is defined by a point at X,Y,Z and a directionvector at NX,NY,NZ. The parameters UMIN and UMAX define the extends of the surface in meridian direction along the generating curve GID1. If nothing is given, the whole curve GID1 is taken. The extend of the rotation angle in degree is defined using the paramters

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VMIN and VMAX. If nothing is given, the parameters default to an angle from 0 to 180 degree. Important: In order to avoid ambiguity in numerical operations, surfaces of revolution should never be defined as closed surface with a rotation angle from eg. 0 to 360 degree. In these cases it is recommended to create two halfshells with angles from 0 to 180 degree and 0 to 180 degree respectively. SWEE: SweepSurface A structural line or geometric curve GID1 is swept along a so called trajectory curve GID2. Instead of the trajectory curve, a direction vector can be given at NX,NY,NZ along which the generating curve GID1 is moved. The parameters UMIN and UMAX define the extend of the surface along the trajectory curve GID2 or the direction vector, respectively. If nothing is given here, the whole curve or the length of the direction vector is used. The parameters VMIN and VMAX define the extend of the surface along the generating curve GID1. In general cases, there is no need to define the boundary edges of the structural area explicitly, when rotational or sweep surfaces are defined with this record. SOFiMSHC creates the edges automatically at the boundary of the geometry surface. Only in cases if openings or constraining edges should be defined or the boundary of the structural area does not coincide with the extends of the geometric surface, the boundary edges have to be defined explicitly using records of type SARB.

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SOFiMSHC

See also: SAR, SARN

Geometric Modelling

5.14.

Item

Description

SARP

Unit Default

TYPE M N X Y Z W T

Type of data point Position in udirection {1,...} Position in vdirection {1,...} Xcoordinate Ycoordinate Zcoordinate Weight of controlpoint (TYPE NURB) Thickness of plate at point (currently not supported)

! ! 0. 0. 0. 1.0

With records of type SARP an arbitrary freeform surface geometry can be defined for a preceding structural region at SAR. A single record SARP describes one point on the surface. The points will be usually given in a m x ngrid like pattern. Depending on the parameter TYPE, following types of surface geometries can be defined: SPLI: Bicubic interpolation The given data points will be interpolated by a bicubic spline surface. The points must be given in a m x ngrid like pattern. NURB: Nurbs surface The given data points correspond to the control points of a NURBS surface. The points must be given in a m x ngrid like pattern. In order to describe nonrational NURBSsurfaces (e.g. rotational or spherical surfaces), each point can also be assigned a weight W<>1.0. Additional information about the definition of NURBS curves and surfaces can be found in chapter 2 of this manual. In general cases, there is no need to define the boundary edges of the structural area explicitly, when a freeform surface geometry is defined with this record. SOFiMSHC creates the edges automatically at the boundary of the geometry surface. Only in cases if openings or constraining edges should be defined or the boundary of the structural area does not coincide with the extends of the geome-

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SOFiMSHC

tric surface, the boundary edges have to be defined explicitly using records of type SARB.

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SOFiMSHC

See also: SAR SARP

Geometric Modelling

5.15.

Item

Description

SARN

Unit Default

S T DEGS DEGT

Knot value in Sdirection Knot value in Tdirection Degree of surface in Sdirection Degree of surface in Tdirection

0. 0. 3 3

SLNN defines knot values of an arbitrary NURBS surface. A NURBS freeform surface contains two socalled knot vectors for each parameter direction. This record defines one single entry of these lists either for the Sdirection or the Tdirection of the parameter plane. The knotvalues of a direction must be given in ascending order. A detailed description of knotvectors of freeform curves and surfaces can be found in chapter 2 of this manual.

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Geometric Modelling

See also: SAR

SOFiMSHC

5.16.

Item

Description

SARC

Unit Default

TYPE

Lit

BLIN

SOFiMSHC allows to create curved structural areas only by definition of an outer boundary. In these cases if the user has not explicitly defined the geometry of the area (SARR, SARP) the surface geometry is interpolated from the pairwise opposite boundary curves (CoonsPatch or GordonSurfaces). With this record the type of this interpolation can be set: BLIN: bilinear interpolation The surface geometry is defined by linear interpolation of opposite boundary curves BCUB: bicubic interpolation A bicubic interpolation also considers the inclinations of the boundary cuves. This allows to define surfaces with smooth transitions between adjacent structural areas. SOFiMSHC automatically performs a linear interpolation of the boundary edges, if the edges are not lying within a plane and no surface geometry has been set explicitly. Thus, this record must only be given if a cubic interpolation is desired. In order to perform a CoonsPatch interpolation, at least three closed boundary edges must be given. If more than four edges are given, they will be joined conveniently.

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545

SOFiMSHC

See also: SVOS

Geometric Modelling

5.17.

Item

Description

SVO

Unit Default

NO

Volume number DEL delete all volumes Boundary condition within the volume Group number of volume elements Material number of volume elements Material number of reinforcement Type of Volume BRIC Solid Continua Elements BMAT Springelements from bedding MAT Springelements from material Title of volume

LIT LIT

* 0 0 0 BRIC

TITL

LIT32

This defines a volume. You may change an existing definition if you enter a negative value for NO. The geometry of the volume itself is defined via surfaces selected via SVOS. SVO can also define an elastic support or interface between two structural areas. This is accomplished by defining at TYPE a literal BMAT or MAT. In this case spring elements in the direction of extrusion will be generated instead of the standard 8 node solids. The mechanical properties of which are calculated from the adjacent QUADareas and either from the bedding constants defined for material MNO or the values of the elasticity and shear modulus and tensile and compressive strength defined with Material MNO and the real distance of the nodes along the extrusion direction. A definition of MRF allows the selection of an explicit forcedisplacement curve for nonlinear analysis.

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See also: SVO SPT SAR SARB CTRL

SOFiMSHC

5.18.

Item

Description

SVOS

Unit Default

NAR ACT

Number of the surface SAR Action of surface SURF general surface QGRP surface from QUAD elements EXTR extrusion of surface ROTA rotation of surface MESH mesh size for tetrahedron generation BGRP Extrusion of beams Number of a geometric line or axis or subdivision of a boundary layer Boundary layer thickness (SURF/QGRP) or extra thickness value for ROTA or explicit stepping for EXTR or value for mesh density for MESH Start scale factor for EXTR End scale factor for EXTR Scale factor for variable thickness End scale factor for variable thickness Reference value for variable thickness Rotational start angle for EXTR/ROTA Rotational end angle for EXTR/ROTA Increment of rotational angle for ROTA

LIT

! SURF

NO T

/LIT *

(!) 0.0

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SOFiMSHC

Item Description

Geometric Modelling

Unit Default

Reference SPT on surface Explicit extrusion / rotational axis if NO is not defined This definition is equivalent to an axis starting from point (xx,yy,zz) zu (xx+dx,yy+dy,zz+dz) Start surface number End surface number Materialnumber of boundary layer

* * * * * *

There are different possibilities to define a volume: Tetrahedral unstructured mesh of an arbitrary volume defined by the complete set of all surfaces. Any surface may have a boundary layer of moderate thickness T (must be smaller than mehs size in corners) which is subdivided in NR elements and may have assigned a different material numner MNO. Hexahedral structured mesh by extrusion of surfaces along a line or axis with number NO or an explicit value, applying a linear variant scaling and rotation along. A linear variation of a scaling and a rotation about the extruded line and a variable thickness can be applied in this case. The mesh size along the extrusion is given either through the available mesh partitioning or through the explicit default of an increment T. Hexahedral structured mesh by rotation of the surface about an axis in a specific angle area. When extruding a structural region into a hexahedral element mesh, the structural lines bounding the region will also be extruded to new structural regions with the same number on the outer sides of the volume. Attention should be paid, that these line numbers do not correspond to any other number of a structural region defined before. For TetraederVolumeGenerations it is possible to specify at SVOS the item T as thickness of a boundary layer, created by a parallel offset of the surface. With NO a subdivision of the boundary layer may be defined, with MNO the boundary layer will get this material number instead that of the volume.

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See also: SPT, SLN, SAR, SVO

SOFiMSHC

5.19.

Item

Description

GUID

Unit Default

ID

Lit

This record allows to assign a Globally Unique Identifier to a structural element. A Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) is a worldwide unique reference number usually stored as 128bit integer, which is primarily used for the unique identification of objects, when data is exchanged between different computer systems. It must be given at parameter ID as hexadecimal string, like for example: GUID ID 3F5A9ECC145B40939D16E6F48732F569. The GUID is a property record and must be given directly after the definition of the structural element at SPT, SLN, SAR or SVO. GUIDs will be assigned to all structural elements exported from SOFiPLUS or Autodesk Revit Structural. When describing the model using the CADINP language in text mode, it is usually not necessary to set a GUID.

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SOFiMSHC

See also: XSUB GRP

Geometric Modelling

5.20.

Item

Description

BBOX

Unit Default

Minimum coordinates

Maximum coordinates

This record defines as rectangular bounding box for the selection of structural elements. The record can be used for selecting the elements of a subsystem (see XSUB) or as secondary group (see GRP).

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Version 12.01

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