You are on page 1of 34

Seminar Report

Seminar Report

Submitted By: Name: Jaskaran Singh Roll No. : 146 !"1" Bran%h: &le%tri%al &ngg.

Submitted To: Dr. Subhash Chander Dubey #.$.D. &le%tri%al De't.

Dept. of EE

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

Seminar Re'ort $n Remote Control and the Te%hni(ues o) *+S

Dept. of EE

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

CERTIFICATE

Dept. of EE

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Dept. of EE

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

ABSTRACT
The study o) Remote Control and the Te%hni(ues o) *+S -*lobal +ositioning System. 'resents an introdu%tion to the /arious de/elo'ments in the )ield o) *+S and Remote Control )or the use in &le%tri%al &ngineering. 0t sho1s the use o) this te%hni(ue )or the Transmission 2ine +rote%tion by dete%ting the )aults and o'erating the relays. These relays are %ontrolled remotely and on%e the )ault is %leared3 they return to their normal 1orking. 0t )urther talks about the 4utomated 5ehi%les -dri/erless %ars.. The study sho1s ho1 these /ehi%les are o'erated and %ontrolled. 0t also deals 1ith /arious e(ui'ments ne%essary )or these %ars to be %ontrolled. The 'osition o) these /ehi%les is gi/en by the *+S and as su%h3 these %an be %ontrolled remotely )rom a %ontrol %entre.

Dept. of EE

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

CONTENTS

1 0ntrodu%tion 1 ! 4''li%ation in the )ield o) &le%tri%al &ngineering , , Transmission 2ine +rote%tion 6 4 Chara%teristi%s o) #igh 7re(uen%y Current Signals 8 4.1 Dete%tion o) )ault 'osition and )ault generated %urrent transients 4.! 7ault %urrent transient dete%tor 4., Signal +ro%essing 9nit 6 Basi% 'rin%i'les and relay design )or Transmission 2ine 1! +rote%tion 6.1 Basi% +rin%i'le 6.! Relay Design Dept. of EE
6

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report 6 4utomated 5ehi%les 6.1 0ntrodu%tion 6.! Des%ri'tion : Con%lusion !4 ; Re)eren%es !6

1:

Dept. of EE

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

List of figures
7ig. 1 < 4 sim'le Remote Control 7ig.! = 4''li%ations o) *+S 7ig. , = Relay System 7ig. 4 = Blo%k Diagram o) 4utomated 5ehi%le Control 7ig. 6 = Transient 7ault 7ig. 6 = +rote%tion Te%hni(ues 7ig. : = Blo%k diagram o) the high )re(uen%y )ault dete%tor unit. 7ig. ; = Simulated Transmission Net1ork 7ig. 8 = Blo%k Diagram o) Relay 9nit 7ig. 1" = 4utomated Car on Road 7ig. 11 = 2o%ating 5ehi%le using *+S 7ig. 1! = 5ehi%le 2o%ator System 7ig. 1, = 4utomated 5ehi%le Sensors

Dept. of EE

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

! INTROD"CTION
4 remote #ontro$ is a %om'onent o) an ele%troni%s de/i%e3 originally used )or o'erating the de/i%e 1irelessly )rom a short line<o)< sight distan%e. Remote %ontrol has %ontinually e/ol/ed and ad/an%ed o/er re%ent years to in%lude Bluetooth %onne%ti/ity3 motion sensor< enabled %a'abilities and /oi%e %ontrol. 0n terms o) &le%tri%al &ngineering3 remote %ontrol re)ers to %ontrol o) a system or a%ti/ity by a 'erson at a di))erent 'la%e3 usually by means o) radio or ultrasoni% signals or by ele%tri%al signals transmitted by 1ire.

7ig. 1 < 4 sim'le Remote Control

Dept. of EE

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

The G$o%a$ &ositioning S'stem -G&S. is a s'a%e<based satellite na/igation system that 'ro/ides lo%ation and time in)ormation in all 1eather %onditions3 any1here on or near the &arth 1here there is an unobstru%ted line o) sight to )our or more *+S satellites. The system 'ro/ides %riti%al %a'abilities to military3 %i/il and %ommer%ial users around the 1orld. 0t is maintained by the 9nited States go/ernment and is )reely a%%essible to anyone 1ith a *+S re%ei/er. 4 *+S re%ei/er %al%ulates its 'osition by 're%isely timing the signals sent by *+S satellites high abo/e the &arth. &a%h satellite %ontinually transmits messages that in%lude

the time the message 1as transmitted satellite 'osition at time o) message transmission

The re%ei/er uses the messages it re%ei/es to determine the transit time o) ea%h message and %om'utes the distan%e to ea%h satellite using the s'eed o) light. &a%h o) these distan%es and satellites> lo%ations de)ine a s'here. The re%ei/er is on the sur)a%e o) ea%h o) these s'heres 1hen the distan%es and the satellites> lo%ations are %orre%t. These distan%es and satellites> lo%ations are used to %om'ute the lo%ation o) the re%ei/er using the na/igation e(uations. This lo%ation is then dis'layed3 'erha's 1ith a mo/ing ma' dis'lay or latitude and longitude? ele/ation or altitude in)ormation may be in%luded3 based on height abo/e the geoid -e.g. &*@86.. @any *+S units sho1 deri/ed in)ormation su%h as dire%tion and s'eed3 %al%ulated )rom 'osition %hanges.

Dept. of EE

1"

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
7ig.! = 4''li%ations o) *+S

(! A&&LICATINS IN T)E FIELD OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


0n the )ield o) &le%tri%al &ngineering3 the remote %ontrol and the *+S ha/e a /ariety o) a''li%ations. Some o) these are listed belo1:

Transmission Line &rote#tion =

Aith the %ontinuous

de/elo'ment o) modern te%hnology3 'rote%tion relays ha/e ad/an%ed 1ith the de/elo'ment o) ele%trome%hani%al3 semi%ondu%tor3 integrated %ir%uits and mi%ro'ro%essor te%hnologies. 4lthough de%ades o) resear%h ha/e been 'ut in to the %ontinued de/elo'ment and 'er)e%tion o) the relay te%hnology3 many o) the basi% relaying 'rin%i'les o) 'rote%tion ha/e not been %hanged and are still 'laying a dominant role today.

Dept. of EE

11

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
7ig. , = Relay System

This is a ne1 te%hni(ue )or the 'rote%tion o) transmission systems by using the global 'ositioning system -*+S. and )ault generated transients. 0n this s%heme the relay %ontains a )ault transient dete%tion system together 1ith a %ommuni%ation unit3 1hi%h is %onne%ted to the 'o1er line through the high /oltage %ou'ling %a'a%itors o) the C5T. Relays are installed at ea%h busbar in a transmission net1ork. These dete%t the )ault generated high )re(uen%y /oltage transient signals and re%ord the time instant %orres'onding to 1hen the initial tra/eling 1a/e generated by the )ault arri/es at the busbar. The de%ision to tri' is based on the %om'onents as they 'ro'agate through the system. &Btensi/e simulation studies o) the te%hni(ue 1ere %arried out to eBamine the res'onse to di))erent 'o1er system and )ault %ondition. The %ommuni%ation unit is used to transmit and re%ei/e %oded digital signals o) the lo%al in)ormation to and )rom the asso%iated relays in the system. 4t ea%h substation 3 the relay determine the lo%ation o) the )ault by %om'aring the *+S time stay measured lo%ally 1ith those re%ei/ed )rom the adCa%ent substations3 eBtensi/e simulation studies 'resented here demonstrate )easibility o) the s%heme .

Dept. of EE

1!

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

(!

Automate* i n) or ma ti on ga t he re d ) ro m

+e,i#$es

T he

s ys te m

% o mb ine s

*o og le

St re e t

5 ie 1

1 it h

a rt i) i% ia l

intelligen%e so)t1are that %ombines in'ut )rom /ideo %ameras inside the %ar3 a 20D4R sensor on to' o) the /ehi%le3 radar sensors on the )ront o) the /ehi%le and a 'osition sensor atta%hed to one o) the rear 1heels that hel's lo%ate the %ar>s 'osition on the ma'.

7ig. 4 = Blo%k Diagram o) 4utomated 5ehi%le Control

Dept. of EE

1,

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

-! TRANSMISSION LINE &ROTECTION


0n %on/entional 'rote%tion s%heme3 the high )re(uen%y signals are %onsidered to be noise and )iltered out and as a result3 %onsiderable resear%h has been s'ent on the designing o) the )ilters3 'rote%tion s%hemes based on dete%tion o) )ault generated transient3 su%h as the Dultra high s'eed 'rote%tionE s%hemes are generally limited by the band 1idth o) transdu%ers used.

7ig. 6 = Transient 7ault

Dept. of EE

14

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

7ig. 6 = +rote%tion Te%hni(ues

0t is a%%e'ted ho1e/er that the )ault generated high )re(uen%y transient %om'onents %ontain a 1ealth o) in)ormation about the )ault ty'e3 lo%ation3 its dire%tions and duration. The use o) these high )re(uen%y transient signals enables the realiFation o) ne1 'rote%tion 'rin%i'les that %ould not be im'lemented using only 'o1er )re(uen%y signals. This has led to the de/elo'ment o) the 'ositional 'rote%tion.

The 'ositional 'rote%tion uses its asso%iated *+S s%heme to determine the instant 1hen it dete%ts the )ault generated high )re(uen%y transient signals and uses the 'o1er line %ommuni%ation system to %ommuni%ate this in)ormation to the relays at the other substations. By %om'aring the arri/al time o) the transient at di))erent 'oints in the

Dept. of EE

16

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
net1ork3 relay is able to identi)y 1here the )ault is on the system and 'in

'oint its lo%ation. The system %an also res'ond to the high )re(uen%y transient generated by s1it%h gear o'eration3 1hi%h 'ro/ides an immediate o''ortunity )or %om'rehensi/e sel) testing and %alibration %he%king. &le%tromagneti% transient 'rogram -&@T+. so)t1are has been used to simulate a model &#5 transmission system in order to eBamine the res'onse o) the 'rote%tion s%heme to a /ariety o) di))erent system and )ault %ondition. Results demonstrate that the 'ro'osed te%hni(ue o))er a /ery )ast relay res'onse and high a%%ura%y in )ault lo%ation. 0t has also been sho1n that the s%heme is immune to 'o1er )re(uen%y 'henomena 1hi%h %an a))e%t established ty'es o) relaying.

Dept. of EE

16

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

.! C)ARECTERSTICS OF )IG) FRE/"ENC0 C"RRENT SIGNALS

The theoreti%al as'e%ts o) the %hara%teristi%s o) the 'ro'agation o) high )re(uen%y signals on transmission lines ha/e been 1ell do%umented.

.!

Dete#tion of fau$t position an* fau$t generate* #urrent transients


Ahen a )ault o%%urs on a transmission line3 1ide band /oltages

and %urrent signals 'ro'agate a1ay )rom the )ault 'oint along the 'o1er %ondu%tors. 0n time3 these signals rea%h dis%ontinuities on the transmission line and some o) the signal is re)le%ted ba%k to1ards the )ault 'oint. The %hara%teristi%s o) these 1a/es are de'endent on se/eral )a%tors in%luding3 the )ault 'osition on the line3 )ault 'ath resistan%e and the %hara%teristi% im'edan%e o) the 'o1er %ondu%tors.

Dept. of EE

1:

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
#ere relays are lo%ated at all o) the substations in the 'o1er system and inde'endently monitor the 'o1er system. The )re(uen%y range o) interest )or monitoring these )ault generated high )re(uen%y signals is bet1een 4"<;" G#F and the signal 'ro%essing is designed as to

determine the arri/al o) a high )re(uen%y transient %hara%teristi% o) those generated by a )ault. 4t these )re(uen%ies3 bus bars are dominated by their %a'a%iti/e elements3 and as a result3 the in%oming high )re(uen%y %urrent signal is both in/erted and re)le%ted. 4 resisti/e )ault in their )re(uen%y range 1ill also re)le%t a %urrent 1a/e o) the o''osite 'olarity.

.!(

Fau$t #urrent transient *ete#tor


The 'ro'osed s%heme uses a s'e%ially designed transient %urrent

dete%tor )ed )rom the 'rimary CTs. This eBtra%ts are high )re(uen%y signals asso%iated 1ith the )ault generated %urrent transients. 4 sim'li)ied blo%k diagram o) the dete%tor arrangement is sho1n in the )igure. The %ir%uit %om'rises o) an analogue in'ut %ir%uit )or signal %onditioning and a digital %ir%uit )or determining the transients. The dete%tor is designed to interrogate signals in the range o) )re(uen%ies )rom 4"<;"G#F. analog %ir%uit a%ts as a band 'ass )ilter

Dept. of EE

1;

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
1hi%h eBtra%ts the band o) )ault generated transient %urrent signal )rom the line. 4s a result3 the res'onse o) the s%heme is not a))e%ted by the 'o1er )re(uen%y short %ir%uit band at the bus bar or the 're%ise %on)iguration o) the sour%e side net1orks.

.!- Signa$ &ro#essing "nit


@odel trans)ormation is em'loyed to de%ou'le the signal in to their res'e%ti/e aerial modes. The signal miBing %ir%uit re%ei/es the signal )rom the , 'hase CTs and %ontinues these to )orm mode! and mode, signals. There are )ilters to remo/e any s'urious noise. The out'uts o) the analog %ir%uit are then 'assed to the digital %ir%uit. The sam'ling )re(uen%y o) the analog to digital 4 D %on/erter is 1 @#F and the s'eed o) 'ro'agation o) the high )re(uen%y transient is similar to the s'eed o) light. The digital 'ro%essing in%ludes )ilters se(uen%e re%ording3 am'litude %om'arison3 %ounters and de%ision logi%.

Dept. of EE

18

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

7ig. : = Blo%k diagram o) the high )re(uen%y )ault dete%tor unit.

Dept. of EE

!"

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

1! BASIC &RINCI&LES AND RELA0 DESIGN FOR TRANSMISSION LINE &ROTECTION


4 short %ir%uit )ault on a 'o1er transmission line generates /oltages and %urrent signals o/er a 1ide )re(uen%y range. These signals 'ro'agate a1ay )rom the )ault 'oint in both dire%tions along the transmission system 1ith /elo%ity %lose to the s'eed o) light. 0t has been long re%ogniFed that the a%tual )aulted 'osition %ould be determined on line i) the transient signals %ould time tagged at key 'oints on the 'o1er system net1ork. The *+S3 1ith its ability to 'ro/ide syn%hroniFation 1ith an a%%ura%y o) mi%rose%ond o/er the 1ide area3 'ro/ides an ideal tool )or 'er)orming this time tagging o) the re%ei't o) )ault generated transients.

1!

Basi# &rin#ip$e
The basi% 'rin%i'le o) the te%hni(ue %an be demonstrated by

re)erring to the 4""G/3 &#5 transmission net1ork3 sho1n in )igure. Relays are installed at the bus bars +3 H3 R and S and are res'onsible )or the 'rote%tion o) the net1ork. 7or this 'a'er3 the study has been %on%entrated on the 'rote%tion o) the net1ork +HR and tri''ing o) the

Dept. of EE

!1

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
breakers asso%iated 1ith that net1ork3 high )re(uen%y signals are generated at the )ault 'oint and tra/el out1ard )rom that 'oint along the

net1ork %ondu%tors. 0n time they 1ill rea%h the monitored bus bar and be dete%ted by the relays %onne%ted to them. &a%h relay re%ords the arri/al instant o) the signal generated by the )ault. The relays then %ode this time in)ormation 1ith details o) their identi)i%ation and transmit this to their neighboring relays. 4ll relays are %ontinuously ready to re%ei/e the %oded massages send by other de/i%es. Data 'roto%ols are used to a/oid %on)li%t bet1een in)ormation sent by di))erent de/i%es along the same line. 7ollo1ing an e/ent3 the relays %om'are the )ault transient arri/al time re%orded at its sight 1ith those send by other relays .)rom this they determine 1hether the )ault is 1ith in the 'rote%ted Fone. 4''ro'riate tri''ing instru%tions are then send to the rele/ant lo%al %ir%uit breakers. The a%tual lo%ation 1here the )ault o%%urs %an be %learly identi)ied at ea%h relay lo%ation by this method.

Dept. of EE

!!

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
7ig. ; = Simulated Transmission Net1ork

1!(

Re$a' Design
4 sim'li)ied blo%k diagram o) the relay unit is sho1n in )ig. 8.

The transient dete%tor uni6t is %onne%ted to the line using three 'hase C5Ts. These are able to dete%t the )ault generated high )re(uen%y /oltage signals. The %ommuni%ation unit3 %ontaining a transmitter and a re%ei/er %ir%uits3 also uses the C5Ts together 1ith a hybrid unit to se'arate the transmitted and re%ei/ed transmitted signal. The transient dete%tor is res'onsible )or dete%ting the )ault generated )ast transient signals and re%ording the time tag obtained )rom the *+S %lo%k. The transmitter %ir%uit sends this time tag %orres'onding to the instant 1hen the transient is %a'tured3 to the re%ei/ers o) the other relays installed in/ol/ed in the net1ork s%heme. +re/ious resear%h has in/estigated the use o) digital )ilters to dete%t the high )re(uen%y signals generated by the )ault and had sho1n that the a%%ura%y o) )ault lo%ation 1as a )un%tion o) the sam'ling rate used to digitaliFe the measured signal. the a%%ura%y 1as dire%tly related

Dept. of EE

!,

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
to the sam'ling rate and higher the sam'ling rate 3 the more a%%urate the measurement. in this system it 1as there)ore 'ro'osed to use %ontinuous sam'ling. 0e an analog system and a 'ass band )ilter tuned to o'erate

bet1een 4" and ;" G#F. The 'rote%tion te%hni(ue is there)ore di/or%ed )rom the 'o1er system )re(uen%y.

7ig. 8 = Blo%k Diagram o) Relay 9nit

The %ommuni%ation link used in the s%heme modeled and sho1n in )ig. used 'o1er line %arrier te%hni(ues. 4lthough this has se/eral ad/antages3 other %ommuni%ation system %ould be used3 su%h as 'ilot 1ire3 o'ti%al )iber or mi%ro1a/e.

Dept. of EE

!4

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
The de%ision to tri' the lo%al breaker de'ends on the %om'arison bet1een the times measured by the *+S system at that lo%ation and those measured by other relays. 9nlike the %on/e%tional 'rote%tion s%heme3 1here ea%h relay asso%iates 1ith one %ir%uit breaker on that line se%tion3 the 'ro'osed relaying s%heme 1ill be res'onsible )or 'rote%tion o) se/eral lines %onne%ted to the bus bar 1here it is installed. 7or eg as

sho1n in )ig. the relay at bus bar DRE res'onsible )or the 'rote%tion o) both line se%tion3 %onne%ted to the busbar3 by %ontrolling both %ir%uit breakers CB<R+ and CB<RH. There)ore the te%hni(ue o))ers a net1ork 'rote%tion s%heme rather than one 1hi%h %on%entrates on s'e%i)i% units o) 'lant. This 'ro/ides se/eral te%hni%al ad/antages o/er %on/entional relaying.

Dept. of EE

!6

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

2! A"TOMATED +E)ICLES

2! Intro*u#tion3 The term embedded system is (uite a %om'leB one. Sim'ly it is a %ombination o) hard1are and so)t1are that )orms the %om'onent o) a larger system3 this in turn is 'rogrammed to 'er)orm a range o) dedi%ated )un%tions usually 1ith a minimal o'erator inter/ention. 0n embedded systems the hard1are is normally uni(ue to a gi/en a''li%ation3 %om'uter %hi's are embedded into the %ontrol ele%troni%s to manage the 'rodu%ts )un%tionality. &mbedded systems are ra'idly be%oming a %atalyst )or %hange in %om'uting data %ommuni%ations3 tele%ommuni%ations3 industrial %ontrol and entertainment se%tors. Ne1 inno/ati/e a''li%ations in these as 1ell as other areas su%h as home net1orking and %ar in)otainment 1ill roll out in the near )eature.

Dept. of EE

!6

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
Ae load the %ode o) our destination in the dashboard %om'uter and turn the %ar on3 1hile 1e remain seated %are)ree on the rear seats. Then its all the Cob o) the Iunkno1nJ to dri/e it on the roads3 bridges3 thought the baFaars3 'ast the %rossings to the destination3 1ithout getting %hallenged e/en on%e )or tra))i% rule /iolations. 4 )ully %om'uteriFed %ar %a'able o) doing almost e/erything a %ar lo/er 1ould 1ant to. 4lmost all automobiles 1ill intera%t 1ith %om'uter on dashboards. 7rom ordering 'iFFa to booking ti%kets at the nearest theatre3 things 1ould be as easy as gi/ing orders to your ser/ant. 4s a matter o) )a%t3 /ehi%les all o/er the 1orld are no1 )itted 1ith intelligent de/i%es that make the /ehi%les to res'ond to /arious

)a%tors =be it %limate %ontrol3 sudden a%%elerations or braking or e/en sel)<re'air o) modules. The )inger 'rint te%hnologies ha/e been introdu%ed to enter and start your %ar 1ith the tou%h o) a )inger. The )inger'rint3 1hi%h is a%ting as a key3 1ould trigger a %he%k o) the mirrors3 steering 1heel3 radio and tem'erature to ensure that they>re the 1ay you like them. The %on/enien%e o) )inger'rint re%ognition te%hnology %omes 1ith heightened se%urity. 9nlike 'ersonal identi)i%ation numbers3 'ass1ords and keys3 ea%h 'erson>s uni(ue )inger'rints %an>t be du'li%ated3 lost or )orgotten.

Dept. of EE

!:

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

7ig. 1" = 4utomated Car on Road

2!( Des#ription3 4s stated abo/e that a /ehi%le %an run by itsel) 1ithout the inter/ention o) human beings by the embedded intelligen%e in it. 7or this 'ur'ose *lobal +ositioning System -*.+.S. using satellites %an 'ro/ide 'ositioning in)ormation and 'ro/es to be a /ersatile all<time. 7or still higher a%%ura%y 1ide area di))erential *+S is used3 1hi%h

o))ers a robust system that readily deals 1ith sele%ti/e a/ailability errors and satellite %lo%k errors. The models )or *+S also in%lude aiding sensors3 e.g. dead re%koning3 radar and %amera. 4 %om'uter is sim'ly re(uired to )eed destination into a dashboard %om'uter. #ighly sensiti/e a%tuators simulate a human dri/er %om'letely and dire%t the /ehi%le on the road. The /ehi%le transmitter broad%asts its 'osition and /elo%ity to other immediate 'arti%i'ants )or %ollision<a/oidan%e and lane %hanging maneu/ers. 7or1ard and re/erse motions and u<turns are 're%isely a%hie/ed as 'er route guidan%e re(uirements. 7urthermore3 an a%%urate steering %ontrol is obtained using +ulse Code @odulation te%hni(ue and a%%eleration braking %ontrol is su%%ess)ully im'lemented using learning ada'ti/e system.

Dept. of EE

!;

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
The reliability3 e))i%ien%y and %ost e))e%ti/eness o) an autonomous /ehi%le de'end mainly on ho1 Cudi%iously its na/igation sensors3 'er%e'tion unit and %om'uter %ontrol is in%or'orated. The dri/erJs a%ti/ity is in)luen%ed by se/eral )a%tors that de'end on dri/er itsel) and is en/ironment su%h as tra))i% density3 tra))i% status3 time o) tra/el and 1eather. Thus the dri/ing a%ti/ity deals 1ith a %ombined dri/er /ehi%le<en/ironment system sho1n in )igure The /ehi%le is re(uired to blend its en/ironmental 'er%e'tion %a'abilities 1ith its intelligent %ontrols in order to a))e%t o'timal 'ath<'lanning strategies that not only a/oid obsta%les but also minimiFe %riteria su%h as time o) tra/el3 )uel %onsum'tion3 eB'osure to 'ollution danger3 et%. ho1e/er basi% dri/ing )un%tions %onsists o) lane<kee'ing3 sa)e distan%e maintenan%e3 timely lane %hanging and o/ertaking. The key to all these dri/ing tasks is %ollision a/oidan%e.

Dept. of EE

!8

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
7ig. 11 = 2o%ating 5ehi%le using *+S

The @aster Control Station -@CS. re%ei/es the 'ositioning in)ormation )rom the satellite by em'loying A4D*+S %on%e't. The @CS is linked to *+S instrumented 'osition lo%ation systems -+2S. installed on the autonomous /ehi%les through a data link sub system -D2S.. The D2S %an either use 5#7 or 9#7 or 2<band3 in%or'orating time di/ision multi'le a%%ess 'roto%ol to handle on the roads. 4 blo%k )or1ard error %orre%tion %ode is em'loyed to 'rote%t and maintain the message integrity. The desired destination and starting 'osition o) the /ehi%le together 1ith the time o) tra/el3 mani)est an o'timal route on the road net1ork. $n%e the /ehi%le %ommen%es the Courney the sensors

%ontinuously kee' tra%k o) the dire%tion and dis'la%ement o) the /ehi%le initial %alibration is a little %ru%ial )or dead re%koning 'er)orman%e? ho1e/er a )eedba%k %alibration indi%ated in )ig suggested obtaining distan%e a%%ura%y better than 88.8 'er%ent. The ne1 generation mi%ro'ro%essors 'romises )urther in%rease in system %a'abilities 1hile simultaneously shrinking both /olume and 'o1er %onsum'tion o) the autonomous /ehi%le embedded system. The digital road ma's3 a/ailable on CD<R$@Js ha/e substantially in%reased sa)ety o) automobiles. These ma's along 1ith *+S na/igation 'ro/ide a )easible solution to autonomous /ehi%le system.

Dept. of EE

,"

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
. The eB'ert system te%hnologies are integrated 1ith digital ma's along 1ith the CCD %amera images3 magneti% %om'ass3 and the *+S system3 )or obtaining a real time intelligent de%ision su''ort na/igation 'a%kage. The integration o) *+S and %ommuni%ation suggests an e))i%ient trans'ortation system )or in%reasing the road tra))i% sa)ety smooth dri/ing 1ithout tra))i% Cams and a %om)ortable dri/ing en/ironment. 7urthermore the autonomous /ehi%le relies on su%h intelligent system integration that leads to %om'lete %ollision )ree in time o) real time situation.

7ig. 1! = 5ehi%le 2o%ator System

The internal 'lat)orm and rate gyro and a%%elerometer 'a%kage kee's the /ehi%les %entral 'ro%essing unit -C+9. 1ell in)ormed about the in%remental %hanges in the /ehi%les 'arameters. The 1heel odometers 'ro/ide the /ehi%le tra/eling distan%es by multi'lying the number o) ele%troni%ally generated 'ulses by a %onstant3 de'ending u'on 1heel.

Dept. of EE

,1

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

7ig. 1, = 4utomated 5ehi%le Sensors

The in)ormation %on%erning de/iation )rom the road %enter is obtained by magneti% as 1ell as o'ti%al sensors3 and )ed to the C+9. The *+S re%ei/er u'dates the /ehi%les 'osition and /elo%ity to %entimeter de%imeter le/els as re(uired )or the lateral or longitudinal %ontrol a%tions. The autonomous /ehi%le embedded so)t1are mission )inally yields the estimates )or throttle and heading angle in%rements )or a sa)e and a%%ident )ree @aneu/er. The )ollo1ing )igure gi/es an indi%ation o) all the te%hnologies used in a %ar.

Dept. of EE

,!

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report

4! CONCL"SION
Aith the ad/an%ement in the )ield o) &le%tri%al &ngineering3 ne1 methods are being in/ented so as to ease the 1ay o) li)e. The re%ent de/elo'ments in the )ield o) Remote Control and *+S Te%hni(ues ha/e 'a/ed a 1ay )or a better )uture li)estyle. The use o) this te%hni(ue in transmission line 'rote%tion has redu%ed a lot o) burden )rom the shoulders o) the &ngineers. @oreo/er3 the )ault dete%tion system has 'layed a maCor role in )inding the a%%urate lo%ation o) the )ault 1ith the hel' o) *+S syn%hroniFing te%hni(ue. Not only this3 *+S has also 'layed a maCor role in the automation o) /ehi%les. Aith the hel' o) this3 road sa)ety %an im'ro/e a lot and the loss o) li/es due to road a%%idents 1ill redu%e. This 1ill also hel' in regulating the tra))i% and 1ill redu%e the %han%es o) a

Dept. of EE

,,

GCET Jammu

Seminar Report
tra))i% Cam. *oogle has already a''lied this te%hnology in many %ars and those are running on the roads sa)ely. The only a%%ident o) su%h a %ar o%%urred 1hen it sto''ed at a red light and 1as hit at the ba%k by another %ar. Thus3 it %an be %on%luded that the Remote Control and *+S Te%hni(ues are the )uture o) the 1orld and 1ill de)initely hel' in im'ro/ing li)estyle and redu%ing the loss o) li/es due to road a%%idents.

4! REFERENCES
o K H Bo * Aeller 7.T Dai and @ 4 red)ern D+ositional te%hni(ue )or 'o1er transmission linesE in 0+&C 88 'ro%eedings o) the international 'o1er engg %on)eren%e o +rote%ti/e relays a''li%ation guide: 42ST$@ T L D 'rote%tion and %ontrol ltd o R$B$T0C C4R: T$@ T &204S

Dept. of EE

,4

GCET Jammu