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analysis of column supported embankments

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End-bearing piles can be used to support highway embankments constructed over soft foundation materials. This method of support can reduce the potential for excessive deformations and failure during the undrained stage of construction when excess pore pressures are induced in the foundation materials by the embankment loading. This example presents a FLAC analysis of the initial (undrained) construction stage for a highway embankment built over soft saturated foundation clay and muck, using timber piles to support the embankment.* The piles extend through the soft materials and into underlying silty sands. The embankment includes foamed concrete engineered ll as part of the embankment materials. The light-weight foamed concrete is placed in lifts of approximately 0.6 m thickness. The rst lift is placed over a wire mesh directly in contact with the top of the timber piles. Earth ll and pavement material are placed as cover over the foamed concrete. The analysis also includes a trafc surcharge of 11,500 Pa (240 psf). Figure 5.1 shows a section view of the embankment and foundation materials. The groundwater surface is at the top of the foundation materials.

Figure 5.1

* This analysis is based on information provided by K. J. Kim of the North Carolina Department of Transportation on the design of a foamed concrete embankment supported on timber piles for the U.S. 64 widening project in Tyrrell County, North Carolina.

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The properties assumed for the foundation and embankment materials are listed in Tables 5.1 and 5.2. Note that both saturated and dry densities are shown for the foundation materials. The embankment materials are assumed to remain dry. The FLAC simulation is an undrained analysis using the groundwater conguration mode. Consequently, the drained material bulk modulus and strength properties and the dry mass densities are input for this calculation mode, because the effect of water is incorporated in the FLAC calculation. Table 5.1 Properties for Foundation Soils muck Saturated unit weight (N/m3 ) Porosity (%) Dry density (kg/m3 ) Drained Youngs modulus (MPa) Drained Poissons ratio Drained Bulk modulus (MPa) Shear modulus (MPa) Drained Cohesion (Pa) Drained Friction angle (degrees) Dilation angle (degrees) Horizontal permeability (m/day) Vertical permeability (m/day) Table 5.2 11,100 90 231 0.3 0.49 5.0 0.1 3500 0 0 0.003 0.001 very soft clay 13,560 80 582 0.5 0.45 1.67 0.17 5000 0 0 0.0003 0.0001 silty sand 18,840 30 1620 15.0 0.3 12.5 5.77 0 32 0 2.4 0.8

Properties for Embankment Materials foamed concrete earth ll 1920 30 10.0 0.3 8.33 3.85 2400 30 0 1.2 0.4

Dry density (kg/m3 ) Porosity (%) Drained Youngs modulus (MPa) Drained Poissons ratio Drained Bulk modulus (MPa) Shear modulus (MPa) Drained Cohesion (Pa) Drained Friction angle (degrees) Dilation angle (degrees) Horizontal permeability (m/day) Vertical permeability (m/day)

Treated timber piles are located on a 2.5 m by 2.5 m rectangular spacing beneath the embankment materials. The length of each pile is 12.8 m (42 ft), and the average pile diameter is 0.3048 m (12 in). The properties of the timber piles are listed in Table 5.3.

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Table 5.3

This analysis is performed as a parametric study to compare the deformation of an unsupported embankment to that of a pile-supported embankment. In both cases, we rst determine the initial equilibrium state of the saturated foundation soils. Then, for the unsupported case, we add the embankment materials and monitor the vertical displacement along the foundation surface directly beneath the embankment. For the pile-supported case, we install the timber piles and then add the layers of embankment materials while monitoring the vertical displacements in the same locations as those for the unsupported case. The model is created using FLAC s graphical interface, the GIIC. Upon entering the GIIC, the groundwater ow option and structural elements are activated in the Model Options dialog. The Save Project As menu item is then selected from the File menu in order to set up a project le to save the model state at various stages of the simulation. We click on ? in this menu dialog to select a directory in which to save the project le. A record of the FLAC commands used to create this model is saved after the analysis is complete, using the File / Export Record menu item. A listing of the record created for this model is given in Example 5.1. We generate the grid using the Build/Block tool to create a two block by two block grid. Then, we use the Alter/Shape tool to generate lines dening the excavation slope and the excavation and foundation material boundaries. The embankment is 3 m high and the pavement half-width is 12 m. The resulting grid is shown in Figure 5.2 and coincides with the half-section shown in Figure 5.1. The grid before alteration is saved as state P1.SAV, and after alteration as P2.SAV.

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JOB TITLE : .

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Figure 5.2

The different materials and their associated properties are assigned by group names using the Material/Assign tool. Three foundation soil groups are created: silty sand, very soft clay and muck. The embankment consists of four lifts of 0.6 m thick foamed concrete and the earth ll layer. The groups dened for the embankment and foundation materials are shown in Figure 5.3. The groundwater properties are assigned using the Material/GWProp tool. The model is saved at this stage as P3.SAV.

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Figure 5.3

After all the material groups are assigned, the foamed concrete lifts and earth ll groups are excavated using the Material/Cut&Fill tool. The initial stress state for the saturated foundation soils is then calculated. We use the ININV.FIS FISH function provided in the FISH Library (see ININV.FIS in Section 3 in the FISH volume). This function automatically calculates the pore pressures and total stresses that are compatible for a model containing a phreatic surface. The groundwater density and water bulk modulus are specied before applying this FISH function. We use the Settings/GW tool to set the groundwater density to 1000 kg/m3 and the groundwater bulk modulus to 10,000 Pa (to speed convergence to steady-state ow). We then use the Utility/FishLib tool to access the ININV.FIS FISH function. We enter the phreatic surface elevation (wth = 0) and the Ko ratios (k0x = 1.0 and k0z = 1.0) in the dialog, and press OK . The FISH function is called into FLAC and executed. The pore pressure distribution and total stress adjustment are then calculated automatically. We now solve for the new equilibrium state, using the Run/Solve tool and running in coupled mechanical-groundwater ow mode. The pore-pressure distribution is shown in Figure 5.4. The model is saved at this state as P4.SAV.

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Figure 5.4

The embankment construction is analyzed assuming undrained conditions. This is accomplished by setting the groundwater ow calculation mode off and increasing the water bulk modulus to approximate a nearly incompressible uid. We increase the water bulk modulus to 0.2 GPA and set ow off using the Settings/GW tool. Also, because we anticipate large deformations during the construction, we perform this stage in large-strain mode and set this option on in the Settings/Mech tool. The unsupported embankment construction is simulated by adding each embankment-lift group individually (via the Material/Cut&Fill tool) and then solving for the equilibrium state with this lift in place. As each group is added, the saturation values of the gridpoints in the group are xed at zero (using the In Situ/Initial and In Situ/Fix tools) to simulate the unsaturated condition of the embankment materials. Figure 5.5 shows the Material/Cut&Fill tool with the foamed concrete1 lift added (lled). (We note that if the Show Excavations? box is checked, then the excavated groups are shown grayed-out in this tool.) These steps are repeated for each of the three remaining foamed concrete lifts and the earth-ll lift. Finally, the trafc surcharge is applied along the top of the embankment, using the In Situ/Apply tool. Each of the unsupported construction stages are saved as separate save states in P5.SAV through P10.SAV.

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Figure 5.5

Vertical displacement histories are recorded at four locations along the base of the embankment, at (x =0,y =0), (x =5,y =0), (x =11,y =0) and (x =16,y =0). The displacements are monitored throughout the embankment construction; the results are shown in Figure 5.6. The extent of the displacements induced by the unsupported construction is shown in Figure 5.7. The maximum vertical displacement beneath the embankment is approximately 0.6 m (2 ft). The displacements are associated with excess pore pressures that develop in the muck and very soft clay. This is evident from the pore pressure histories recorded along the centerline of the embankment at y =0 and y =-6 (in the muck) and at y =-10 (in the very soft clay). The plots of pore-pressure histories are given in Figure 5.8.

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JOB TITLE : .

(10 LEGEND 15-Sep-01 13:34 step 75594 Cons. Time 2.1748E+06 HISTORY PLOT Y-axis : Y displacement( 1, 41) Y displacement( 6, 41) Y displacement( 12, 41) Y displacement( 17, 41) X-axis : Number of steps -4.000 -3.000 0.000 -01 )

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Figure 5.6

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Figure 5.7

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JOB TITLE : .

(10 LEGEND 15-Sep-01 13:34 step 75594 Cons. Time 2.1748E+06 HISTORY PLOT Y-axis : Grid-point pp ( 1, 40) Grid-point pp ( 1, 30) Grid-point pp ( 1, 23) X-axis : Number of steps 0.600 1.200 +05 )

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Figure 5.8

The pile-supported embankment construction is simulated by rst installing pile elements in the FLAC model. The model state at P4.SAV (the initial equilibrium state) is restored, and seven piles of 12.8 m length are positioned at a 2.5 m spacing within the foundation soils. Before the piles are placed in the model, the rst foamed concrete lift is added. This is done so that the top of the piles can be connected to the embankment materials. Then, the piles are positioned as shown in Figure 5.9. In order to represent the three-dimensional effect of the 2.5 m pile spacing, we scale the pile properties by dividing by the pile spacing. It is only necessary to scale the elastic modulus (to 4 GPa) and the end-bearing capacity (to 100 KN) to account for the spacing. (Note that in this analysis, we neglect the weight of the piles; the density should also be scaled if this were included.) The properties of the pile coupling springs are selected to simulate an end-bearing capacity and zero skin friction. The cohesive strengths of the shear coupling springs at the top and bottom elements of each pile are set to 130,000 N/m, while all other shear and normal coupling-spring strength values are set to zero. The value for cohesive strength is derived from an axially loaded single-pile simulation to produce an end-bearing ultimate capacity of 100 KN in the silty-sand foundation material. The value for coupling-spring shear stiffness is selected at approximately ten times the equivalent stiffness of the stiffest neighboring zone. By doing this, the deformability at the pile/soil interface will have minimal inuence on both the compliance of the total model and the calculational speed (see Section 4.4.1 in Theory and Background). The properties used for the pile elements in this model are summarized in Table 5.4. The model is saved at this stage as P11.SAV.

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Figure 5.9

Table 5.4

Properties for Pile Elements middle segments top & bottom segments 4.0 0.1524 0.976 1.0 130,000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Elastic modulus (GPa) Radius (m) Perimeter (m) Shear coupling spring stiffness (GN/m/m) Shear coupling spring cohesion (N/m) Shear coupling spring friction (degrees) Normal coupling spring stiffness (GN/m/m) Normal coupling spring cohesion (N/m) Normal coupling spring friction (degrees)

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The embankment construction steps are now performed following the same sequence as for the unsupported case. Each of the pile-supported stages are saved as separate save states in P12.SAV through P17.SAV. The vertical displacements are monitored as before; the histories are shown in Figure 5.10. The maximum vertical displacement beneath the embankment is approximately 0.03 m (1 in). Also, we note that for this case there is an insignicant change in pore pressures in the muck and very soft clay, as seen in Figure 5.11.

JOB TITLE : .

(10 LEGEND 15-Sep-01 16:11 step 71593 Cons. Time 2.1748E+06 HISTORY PLOT Y-axis : Y displacement( 1, 42) Y displacement( 6, 42) Y displacement( 12, 42) Y displacement( 17, 42) X-axis : Number of steps -2.000 -1.500 -02 )

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Figure 5.10 Vertical displacements along base of embankment for pile-supported embankment construction

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(10 LEGEND 15-Sep-01 16:11 step 71593 Cons. Time 2.1748E+06 HISTORY PLOT Y-axis : Grid-point pp ( 1, 40) Grid-point pp ( 1, 30) Grid-point pp ( 1, 23) X-axis : Number of steps 0.400 0.600 +05 )

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Figure 5.11 Pore pressures beneath center of embankment for pile-supported embankment construction We are also interested in the axial loading that develops in the piles. We note that the axial forces calculated in the piles are scaled values; the actual forces are found by multiplying the scaled values by the pile spacing. We create a FISH function, ACTUAL PILE LOAD.FIS, to calculate the actual pile loads from the FLAC scaled loads. This function is created in the Fish Editor which is accessed from the Show menu. Figure 5.12 shows the function we have written in the Fish Editor. We use the STR.FIN le (available in the FLAC\FISH\FIN directory) to access the structural element data structure (see Section 4 in the FISH volume for information on .FIN les). This function is executed by pressing the Run button in the Fish Editor, and the scaled values for pile axial forces are overwritten by actual values. We can now create a plot of the actual axial forces in the piles, as shown in Figure 5.13. (The pile numbers shown in the plot legend correspond to the top, middle and bottom pile segments, which are assigned different material property numbers.) The maximum pile loading is approximately 210 KN. Please note that care must be taken when using this FISH function. The results that are now stored in the structural element array for axial forces are not the correct FLAC values, and subsequent simulations should not be done from this state. Finally, we note that this project can be re-created by importing the data le PEMBANK.DAT listed in Example 5.1, using the File / Import Record menu item. After the record is imported to the GIIC, each save state can be created by rst clicking on that state in the Record pane and then clicking on the restore state button at the top of the pane. The commands associated with that state will then be called into FLAC. Note that the Project Tree Record format must be enabled (from the Model Options dialog) to import this record.

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;Project Record Tree export ;Title: Piled Embankment new ;Branch 1: p1.sav config gwflow grid 60,45 gen 0.0,-40.0 0.0,-15.0 30.0,-15.0 30.0,-40.0 rat 1.0,0.9 i 1 31 j 1 16 gen 0.0,-15.0 0.0,3.0 30.0,3.0 30.0,-15.0 i 1 31 j 16 46 gen 30.0,-40.0 30.0,-15.0 80.0,-15.0 80.0,-40.0 rat 1.02,0.9 i 31 61 j 1 16 gen 30.0,-15.0 30.0,3.0 80.0,3.0 80.0,-15.0 rat 1.02,1.0 i 31 61 j 16 46 model elastic i 1 60 j 1 45 save p1.sav ;Branch 2: p2.sav gen line 11.75,3.0 20.75,0.0 gen line 0.0,-9.0 20.0,-5.0 gen line 0.0,-12.0 20.0,-10.5 mark i 21 61 j 41 mark i 20 61 j 32 mark i 20 61 j 23 mark i 1 20 j 41 model null i 21 j 41 45 model null i 20 j 42 45 model null i 19 j 42 45 model null i 18 j 43 45 model null i 17 j 43 45 model null i 16 j 44 45 model null i 15 j 44 45 model null i 14 j 45 model null region 45 43 gen line 0.0,2.5 11.0,2.5 ini x 12.543801 y 2.0714378 i 13 j 44 ini x 13.681461 y 1.5236754 i 14 j 43 ini x 15.619698 y 0.84950686 i 16 j 42 ini x 14.187088 y 1.3551335 i 15 j 43 ini x 16.336002 y 0.63882875 i 17 j 42 save p2.sav ;Branch 3: p3.sav group silty sand region 55 5 model mohr group silty sand prop density=1620.0 bulk=1.2499999E7 shear=5770000.0 cohesion=0.0 & friction=32.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group silty sand group very soft clay region 59 29 model mohr group very soft clay

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prop density=582.0 bulk=1669999.9 shear=172000.0 cohesion=5000.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group very soft clay group muck region 58 36 model mohr group muck prop density=231.0 bulk=5.0002132E7 shear=100066.7 cohesion=3500.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group muck group foamed concrete1 i 1 17 j 41 model mohr group foamed concrete1 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999968E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete1 group foamed concrete2 i 1 15 j 42 model mohr group foamed concrete2 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999968E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete2 group foamed concrete3 i 1 13 j 43 model mohr group foamed concrete3 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999968E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete3 group foamed concrete4 i 1 12 j 44 model mohr group foamed concrete4 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999968E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete4 group earth fill i 20 j 41 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 & friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill group earth fill i 19 j 41 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 & friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill group earth fill i 18 j 41 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 & friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill group earth fill i 18 j 42 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 & friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill group earth fill i 17 j 42 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 & friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill group earth fill i 16 j 42 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 & friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill

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group earth fill i 16 j 43 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill group earth fill i 14 15 j 43 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill group earth fill notnull i 13 14 j 44 45 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill group earth fill i 1 12 j 45 model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill prop por=0.3 k11=2.83E-9 k22=9.44E-10 group foamed concrete1 prop por=0.3 k11=2.83E-9 k22=9.44E-10 group foamed concrete2 prop por=0.3 k11=2.83E-9 k22=9.44E-10 group foamed concrete3 prop por=0.3 k11=2.83E-9 k22=9.44E-10 group foamed concrete4 prop por=0.3 k11=2.83E-9 k22=9.44E-10 group earth fill prop por=0.3 k11=2.83E-9 k22=9.44E-10 group silty sand prop por=0.8 k11=3.54E-13 k22=1.17E-13 group very soft clay prop por=0.9 k11=3.53E-12 k22=1.18E-12 group muck save p3.sav ;Branch 4: p4.sav model null group earth fill model null group foamed concrete4 model null group foamed concrete3 model null group foamed concrete2 model null group foamed concrete1 fix x y i 1 61 j 1 fix x i 61 j 1 41 fix x i 1 j 1 41 set gravity=9.81 water bulk 2e4 water density=1000.0 set echo off call Ininv.fis set wth=0.0 k0x=0.5 k0z=0.5 ininv history 999 unbalanced solve save p4.sav restore p4.sav ;Branch 0: p5.sav

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model mohr group foamed concrete1 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999936E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete1 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 18 j 41 42 fix saturation i 1 18 j 41 42 set flow=off water bulk=2.0E8 set =large fix x i 1 j 41 42 history 1 ydisp i=1, j=41 history 2 ydisp i=6, j=41 history 3 ydisp i=12, j=41 history 4 ydisp i=17, j=41 history 5 gpp i=1, j=40 history 6 gpp i=1, j=30 history 7 gpp i=1, j=23 solve save p5.sav ;Branch 1: p6.sav model mohr group foamed concrete2 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999936E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete2 fix x i 1 j 42 43 fix saturation i 1 16 j 42 43 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 16 j 42 43 solve save p6.sav ;Branch 2: p7.sav model mohr group foamed concrete3 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999936E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete3 fix x i 1 j 43 44 fix saturation i 1 15 j 43 44 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 14 j 43 44 solve save p7.sav ;Branch 3: p8.sav model mohr group foamed concrete4 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999968E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete4 fix x i 1 j 44 45 fix saturation i 1 13 j 44 45 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 13 j 44 45 solve save p8.sav ;Branch 4: p9.sav

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model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 & friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill fix x i 1 j 45 46 fix saturation i 1 19 j 42 46 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 20 j 42 46 solve save p9.sav ;Branch 5: p10.sav apply pressure 11500.0 from 1,46 to 12,46 solve save p10.sav restore p4.sav ;Branch 0: p11.sav model mohr group foamed concrete1 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999936E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete1 struct node 1 1.251,0.01 struct node 2 1.25,-12.8 struct node 3 3.751,0.01 struct node 4 3.75,-12.8 struct node 5 6.251,0.01 struct node 6 6.25,-12.8 struct node 7 8.751,0.01 struct node 8 8.75,-12.8 struct node 9 11.251,0.01 struct node 10 11.25,-12.8 struct node 11 13.751,0.01 struct node 12 13.75,-12.8 struct node 13 16.251,0.01 struct node 14 16.25,-12.8 struct pile begin node 1 end node 2 seg 10 prop 3001 struct pile begin node 3 end node 4 seg 10 prop 3001 struct pile begin node 5 end node 6 seg 10 prop 3001 struct pile begin node 7 end node 8 seg 10 prop 3001 struct pile begin node 9 end node 10 seg 10 prop 3001 struct pile begin node 11 end node 12 seg 10 prop 3001 struct pile begin node 13 end node 14 seg 10 prop 3001 struct prop 1001 struct prop 2001 struct prop 3001 struct prop 3001 e 4e9 radius 0.1524 perimeter 0.976 cs ncoh 0 cs nfric 0 & cs nstiff 0 cs scoh 0.0 cs sstiff 0.0 cs sfric 0 struct prop 3002 e 4e9 radius 0.1524 cs scoh 1.3e5 cs sstiff 1e9 per 0.976 struct prop 3002 cs ncoh 0 cs nstiff 0 struct chprop 3002 range 70 70

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struct chprop 3002 range 60 60 struct chprop 3002 range 50 50 struct chprop 3002 range 40 40 struct chprop 3002 range 30 30 struct chprop 3002 range 20 20 struct chprop 3002 range 10 10 struct chprop 3002 range 61 61 struct chprop 3002 range 51 51 struct chprop 3002 range 41 41 struct chprop 3002 range 31 31 struct chprop 3002 range 21 21 struct chprop 3002 range 11 11 struct chprop 3002 range 1 1 water bulk 2e8 set flow off fix x i 1 j 40 42 save p11.sav ;Branch 1: p12.sav history 1 ydisp i=1, j=42 history 2 ydisp i=6, j=42 history 3 ydisp i=12, j=42 history 4 ydisp i=17, j=42 history 5 gpp i=1 j=40 history 6 gpp i=1 j=30 history 7 gpp i=1 j=23 set large initial saturation 0.0 i 1 18 j 41 42 fix saturation i 1 18 j 41 42 solve save p12.sav ;Branch 2: p13.sav; model mohr group foamed concrete2 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999968E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete2 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 16 j 42 43 fix saturation i 1 16 j 42 43 solve save p13.sav ;Branch 3: p14.sav model mohr group foamed concrete3 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999968E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete3 fix x i 1 j 43 46 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 19 j 42 46 fix saturation i 1 19 j 42 46 solve

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save p14.sav ;Branch 4: p15.sav model mohr group foamed concrete4 prop density=640.0 bulk=2.85999968E8 shear=2.61E8 cohesion=500000.0 & friction=0.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group foamed concrete4 fix x i 1 j 43 46 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 19 j 42 46 fix saturation i 1 19 j 42 46 solve save p15.sav ;Branch 5: p16.sav model mohr group earth fill prop density=1920.0 bulk=8330000.0 shear=3850000.0 cohesion=2400.0 & friction=30.0 dilation=0.0 tension=0.0 group earth fill fix x i 1 j 43 46 initial saturation 0.0 i 1 19 j 42 46 fix saturation i 1 19 j 42 46 solve save p16.sav ;Branch 5: p17.sav apply pressure 11500.0 from 1,46 to 11,46 solve save p17.sav

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