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Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Introduction to

Microeletromechanical Systems

(MEMS)

Lecture 4 Topics

• Fundamental MEMS Processes and Devices

Surface Micromachined Polysilicon Comb Drives

o Mechanics

Stress and Strain

Cantilevers

Resonance

o Electrostatics

Parallel Plate Capacitor

Pull-In Voltage

Comb Drives

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

MEMS Overview

Micromachining: lithography, deposition, etching, …

Processes & Foundries

Devices & Structures

Methodology

History & Markets

Introduction

&

Background

2

2

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Fundamental MEMS

Processes and Devices

• Example: surface micromachined polysilicon comb

drives

Mechanics for MEMS

- Stress and strain

- Cantilever beams

- Resonance

Electrostatics for MEMS

- Parallel-plate capacitors

- Pull-in voltage

- Comb drives

3

3

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Electrostatic Comb Drives

Principle: interlacing comb fingers

create large capacitor area;

electrostatically actuated

suspended microstructures (Tang,

Nguyen and Howe, 1989)

Features:

• Linear relationship between

capacitance and displacement

• Higher surface area / capacitance

than parallel plate capacitor

• Electrostatic actuation: low power

(no DC current)

Static (Fixed) Comb

Released

(Moving) Comb

Spring

Suspensions

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Electrostatic Comb Drives

Comb drives combine mechanical and electrostatic issues:

• Elasticity

• Stress and strain

• Resonance (natural frequency)

• Capacitance

• Electrostatic forces

• Electrostatic work and energy

Tang, Nguyen and Howe

JMEMS 1989.

4

4

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Axial Stress And Strain

Stress: force applied to surface

σ = F/A

measured in N/m

2

or Pa

compressive or tensile

Strain: ratio of deformation to length

ε = ∆l / l

measured in %, ppm, or microstrain

A

l

F

∆l

σ

ε

wood

Al

Si

Young’s Modulus:

E = σ/ε

Hooke’s Law:

K = F/∆l = E A/l

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Shear Stress And Strain

Shear Stress: force applied parallel to surface

τ = F/A

measured in N/m

2

or Pa

Shear Strain: ratio of deformation to length

γ = ∆l / l

Shear Modulus:

G = τ / γ

A

l

F

∆l

5

5

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Poisson’s Ratio

Tensile stress in x direction results in compressive

stress in y and z direction (object becomes longer

and thinner)

Poisson’s Ratio:

ν = - ε

y

/ ε

x

= - transverse strain / longitudinal strain

Metals: ν ≈ 0.3

Rubbers:ν ≈ 0.5

Cork: ν ≈ 0

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Cantilever Beams

Axial Strain: ε(y) = y/ρ

ρ radius of curvature

Axial Stress: σ(y) = E ε(y)

Axial Force: dF = σ(y) w dy

Bending Moment:

M = 1/12 t

3

w E / ρ

= E I / ρ

I = 1/12 t

3

w

(area moment of inertia)

L

t

w

x

y

Assume that x axis lies

in center of beam

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6

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Cantilever Beams

F(x) = F

0

M(x) = M

0

+ F(L-x)

For M

0

= 0

y(x) = F / (6EI) (3 Lx

2

- x

3

)

y(L) = FL

3

/ 3EI

Spring Constant, K

= F/y = 3EI/L

3

= Et

3

w / 4L

3

L

M

0

F

0

x

y

Assume that we apply a force F

0

and

a moment M

0

on a beam with length L

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Cantilever Beams

Point Load Distributed Load

Cantilever y(x) = F/(6EI) (3 Lx

2

-x

3

) y(x) = ρx

2

/(24EI) (6L

2

- 4Lx + x

2

)

σ

max

= FLt / 2I σ

max

= ρL

2

t / 4I

Bridge y(x) = Fx/(48EI) (3 Lx-4x

2

) y(x) = ρx

2

/(24EI) (L - x)

2

for L/2 ≥ x ≥ 0

σ

max

= FLt / 8I σ

max

= ρL

2

t / 12I

L length of beam, t thickness of beam, w width of beam

I = wt

3

/12 bending moment of inertia

7

7

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

SCS Beam

E = 100 GPa

K = Ea

3

b / 4L

3

= 0.4 N/m = 0.4 µN/µm

How much does beam bend

in a 1g gravity field?

m = ρ V (assume mass at end of beam)

= 2.3 gram/cm

3

400 µm

3

≈ 10

-12

kg

∆y ≈ 2.5 10

-11

m = 0.25 Å

detectable!

L=100µm

t=2µm

x

y

w=2µm

Example:

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Resonators

mx’’ + bx’ + Kx = F

(Newton dynamics with

damping and springs)

For b = 0:

f

0

= ω / 2π ≈ 100 kHz

Notice: if t = 1µm

f

y

= f

0

/ 2

f

z

= f

0

L = 100µm

t = 2µm

x

y

w = 2µm

3

3

2

1

mL

w Et

m

Κ

= = ω

8

8

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Electrostatic Forces

Parallel Plate Capacitor:

Capacitance:

C = Q/V = ε

0

ε

r

A / d

ε

0

≈ 8.854 10

-12

F/m

dielectric constant of free space

ε

r

dielectric permittivity

Stored energy:

W = ½ C V

2

= ½ Q

2

/ C

Electrostatic force between plates:

F = ½ C/d V

2

d A

V

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Electrostatic Actuation

Positioning of capacitor plate:

F

el

= ½ ε

0

ε

r

AV

2

/ x

2

F

S

= K (x - d

0

)

d

0

: distance at rest (no applied voltage)

Stable equilibrium when F

el

= -F

S

x

V

x

F

d

0

Kd

0

F

el

(V)

-F

S

9

9

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Pull-In Point

The higher V, the closer the plate

is pulled in. F

el

→ ∞ when d →0.

What is the closest stable

distance x

min

?

F

el

and -F

S

must be tangential:

-ε

0

ε

r

A/x

3

V

2

= -K , so

V

2

= K x

3

/ ε

0

ε

r

A

Substitute into F

el

= -F

S

to get

x

min

= 2/3 d

0

can control x only from 2/3 d

0

to d

0

x

V

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Electrostatic Comb Drive

Capacitance is approximately:

C = ε

0

ε

r

A/d

= 2n ε

0

ε

r

lh/d

Change in capacitance when

moving by ∆x:

∆C = ε

0

ε

r

∆A / d

= 2n ε

0

ε

r

∆l h/d

Electrostatic force:

F

el

= ½ V

2

dC/dx = n ε

0

ε

r

h/d V

2

Note: F

el

independent of ∆l over wide

range (fringing field), and quadratic in V.

∆l

w

d

V

10

10

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Electrostatic Accelerometer

Example: use MEMS comb structures as accelerometer

h = 100 µm

n = 100

d = 1 µm

Spring Constant: K = 1 N/m

Proof Mass: m = 0.1 mg

Acceleration: a = 0.1 g

∆x = 0.1 µm

∆C = 17.7 fF

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Accelerometers

SANDIA’s IMEMS Process

http://www.sandia.gov/mems/

micromachine/pix/techinfo/cmos.gif

Three-axis accelerometer

micrograph with labeling

of functional units as

reported by Lemkin et al,

Proceedings ISSCC

1997.

Texas Christian University

11

11

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Gyroscopes

F. Ayazi and K. Najafi, “Design and

fabrication of a high-performance

polysilicon vibrating ring gyroscope,” in

Proc. IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical

Systems Workshop (MEMS 1998),

Heidelberg, Germany, February 1998,

pp. 621–626.

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

MEMS Gyroscope

(B. Clark, R. Horowitz and R. T. Howe, 1996)

12

12

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Comb Drive Design

Combs Suspensions

Linear

Rotational

Cantilever / Bridge

Crab Leg

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Comb Drive Failure Modes

Comb drives require low stiffness in x direction but high

stiffness in y, z direction as well as rotations.

Note: comb fingers are in unstable equilibrium with

respect to the y direction.

Good Poor Poor

x

y

13

13

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Comb Drive Fabrication

Surface micromachining

with 1 released

polysilicon layer

Tang, Nguyen and Howe (UC Berkeley)

This process formed

basis for many

subsequent MEMS

designs

Figure: Tang, Nguyen and Howe, 1989.

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Electrostatic Actuators

Ideas

• Comb drive

• Rotors

• Scratch drive

• T-drive

• Parallelogram

• Zipper

• DMD (torsional mirrors)

• Impact actuator

• Microengine

• Inchworm motors (see

actin and myosin)

Issues

• Force, F

• Range, s

• Frequency, 1/t

P = F s/t

• Linearity

• Efficiency

14

14

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Acceleration, velocity, distance

Force, momentum

Kinetic energy

Dynamics (spring,damper,mass)

Oscillation (assume b=0 )

Translation Rotation

2

2

1

mv E =

x v a & & & = =

Ft mv p

F

= =

x m x b Kx F & & & + + =

m K f

π 2

=

1

Angular acc., ang. vel., angle

Torque, angular momentum

Kinetic energy

Dynamics (moment of inertia)

Oscillation (assume β=0 )

φ ω α

& &

& = =

Tt I p r L

F r T

= = × =

× =

ω

φ φ β φ

& & &

I T + + Κ =

I f Κ =

2π

1

2

2

1

ω I E =

Texas Christian University Department of Engineering Ed Kolesar

Force generated when rotating a rotating system

Underlying principle: conservation of angular

momentum.

Torque:

Time-dependent angular velocity:

Gradient:

ω ω

r r

r r

∇ = ∇ = ∇ = I I L T ) (

Coriolis Force

Ω = ∇ Ω

Ω −

0

sin

cos

0

) ( t

t

t ω ω

r

= Ω

Ω

0

cos

sin

0

) ( t

t

t ω ω

r

Ω = ∇ =

0

ω ω I I T

r

Ω = =

Ω = =

Ω = =

0

2

1 2

2

1

0

2

0

, : disk

, : ring

/ /

: Force Coriolis

mv F mr I

mv F mr I

r I r T F

c

c

c

ω

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