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Brown v Board of Education 1954

Involved
Thurgood Marshall: First African-American to serve on the Supreme Court. Argued many cases in the Supreme Court dealing with civil rights Linda Brown: Daughter of Oliver Brown. Had to walk 7 blocks to have a mile long bus ride to an all black school when there was a white school 6 blocks away. Oliver Brown: NAACP member. Designated lead plaintiff of case. Other NAACP members: Darlene Brown, Lena Carper, Sadie Emmanuel, Marguerite Emerson, Shirley Fleming, Zelma Henderson, Shirley Hodison, Maude Lawton, Alma Lewis, Iona Richardson, Lucinda Todd, McKinely Burnett and Charles Scott.

What Happened?
In 1951, a class action suit was filed against the Board of Education. The plaintiffs were thirteen Topeka parents on behalf of their twenty children. The suit called for the school district to reverse its policy of racial segregation. Separate elementary schools were operated by the Board of Education under Kansas law, which permitted (but did not require) districts to maintain separate elementary school facilities for black and white students. The plaintiffs were recruited by the leadership of the NAACP. The designated plaintiff, Oliver Brown, was a parent, a welder, an assistant and an African American. Brown's daughter, had to walk six blocks to her bus stop to ride to her segregated black school one mile away, while a white school, was seven blocks from her house. As directed by the NAACP leaders, the parents attempted to enroll their children in the closest school in the fall of 1951. They were each refused enrollment and directed to the segregated schools. The case, "Oliver Brown et al. v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas," was named after Oliver Brown as a legal strategy to have a man at the head of the roster. Also, it was felt by lawyers of the NAACP, that having Brown at the head of the roster would be better received by the U.S. Supreme Court Justices. The District Court ruled in favor of the Board of Education, citing the U.S. Supreme Court precedent set in Plessy v. Ferguson, which upheld a state law requiring "separate but equal" segregated facilities for blacks and whites in railway cars. The three-judge District Court panel found segregation in public education had a detrimental effect upon black children, but denied relief on the ground that the black and white schools were substantially equal with respect to buildings, transportation, curricular, and educational qualifications of teachers.

Decision
The result was that racial segregation ruled violation of Equal Protection Clause of the 14 Amendment by a unanimous decision stating “ separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” and it paved the way for integration and was a major victory of the civil rights movement.
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Why was it significant?

This policy was endorsed in 1896 by the case of Plessy v.. Racial segregation in education varied from the 17 states that required racial segregation. Board allowed children of colour to attend schools that had been previously set aside for whites only. which became known as " Brown II." the court delegated the task of school desegregation to district courts with orders that desegregation occur "with all deliberate speed. and avoiding significant integration for years using tactics like closing down school systems. race relations in the U. while pretending to provide separate but equal treatment of both white and black Americans."). services and accommodations in schools making it therefore unconstitutional. The language “all deliberate speed” was seen by critics as too ambiguous to ensure re asonable haste for compliance with the court's instruction. It took care of the "separate but equal. unequal black schools. deny to any person.0Brown vs. services. using state money to finance segregated "private" schools and "token" integration where a few carefully selected black children were admitted to former white-only schools but the vast majority remained in underfunded. which stated as long as the separate facilities for the separate races were equal.” Supporters of the earlier decision were displeased with this decision.. declaring state laws established separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. the equal protection of the laws. Ferguson in 1896. which remained closed for five years. instead gave inferior accommodations. the Supreme Court considered arguments by the schools requesting relief concerning the task of desegregation. which overturned earlier rulings of Plessy v. . Southern states and school districts interpreted "Brown II" as legal justification for resisting..S. District Court ruled that Prince Edward County. White students in the county were given assistance to attend white-only "private academies" that were taught by teachers formerly employed by the public school system. Ferguson. had been dominated by racial segregation. It changed all civil rights for minorities in schools. It was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court." the U. Background Since the Brown case. while black students had no q education at all unless they moved out of the county. Based on "Brown II. and treatment for black Americans. African-Americans were fighting for their rights in a non-violent way and this was a break through." Saying it wasn't equal and segregation created inferior treatment. The plaintiffs in Brown asserted this system of racial separation. When faced with a court order to begin desegregation in 1959 the county board of supervisors stopped appropriating money for public schools. and was intended to ensure an equal education for all children in this country.S. In their decision.. delaying. segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment ("no State shall. Brown II In 1955. Virginia did not have to desegregate immediately.