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Gas Combined Cycle

Gas Turbine Design
In gas turbine design the firing temperature, compression ratio, mass flow, and centrifugal stresses are the factors limiting both unit size and efficiency. For example, each 55°C (100°F) increase in firing temperature gives a 10 - 13 percent output increase and a 2 - 4 percent efficiency increase. The most critical areas in the gas turbine determining the engine efficiency and life are the hot gas path, i.e., the combustion chambers and the turbine first stage stationary nozzles and rotating buckets. The components in these areas represent only 2 percent of the total cost of the gas turbine, yet they are the controlling factor in limiting gas turbine output and efficiency. The development process takes time, however, because each change of material may require years of laboratory and field tests to ensure its suitability in terms of creep strength, yield limit, fatigue strength, oxidation resistance, corrosion resistance, thermal cycling effects, etc. Manufacturers use various combustor arrangements: General Electric has several combustors mounted in a ring around the turbine; Asea Brown Boveri sometimes has a single combustor above the turbine; Siemens has two combustors, one on each side of the turbine. Gas turbines can be fueled with natural gas, diesel oil (distillate), and even residual or crude oil if appropriate customized fuel treatment facilities are installed and properly operated. Turbine nozzles and buckets are cast from nickel super alloys and are coated under vacuum with special metals (platinum-chromium-aluminide) to resist the hot corrosion that occurs ! the high temperatures encountered in the first stage of the turbine, particularly if contaminants such as sodium, vanadium and potassium are present. Only a few parts per million of these contaminants can cause hot corrosion of uncoated components at the high firing temperature encountered. With proper coating of nozzles and buckets and treatment of fuels to minimize the contaminants, manufacturers claim the hot-gas-path components should last 30,000 to 40,000 hours of operation before replacement, particularly the hot-gas-path parts, that give rise to the relatively high maintenance cost for gas turbines (typical O&M annual costs of 4 percent of the capital cost). The continuing improvements in firing temperatures and compression ratios has permitted manufacturers to increase the operating performance on the same basic gas turbine frame or housing. For example, General Electric introduced its Frame 7 series in 1970 with a rating of 45 MW, a firing temperature of 900°C (1650 °F) and an air flow of 0.8 million kgs (1.8 million lbs) per hour. Through many changes and upgrades the latest Model F of the same Frame 7 series has a rating of 147 MW, a firing temperature of 1260°C (2300°F) and an air flow of 1.5 million kgs (3.3 million lbs) per hour. One of the major advances made was to air cool nozzles and buckets using bleed air from the compressor to increase the firing temperature while limiting the metal temperatures of the nozzles and buckets to withstand hot corrosion and creep. This limiting of the

maximum temperature through air cooling while simultaneously increasing the mass flow with more air compressor capacity permits higher power output. To increase the final compressor pressure additional compressor stages are added on the compressor rotor assembly to give higher compression ratio thus providing additional turbine power output. Typical industrial gas turbine compression ratios are 16:1 and aeroderivative ratios are 30:1 with roughly 50 percent of the total turbine power of either type being required just to drive the compressor. Compressor blading is special stainless steel, possibly coated by electroplating with nickel and cadmium to resist pitting in salt and acid environments. Compressor designs have been quite effective, as evident by the 200,000-hour life of some early compressors installed in the 1950s. The gas turbine has the inherent disadvantage that reduced air density with high ambient temperature or high elevation causes a significant reduction in power output and efficiency, because the mass flow through the gas turbine is reduced. A 28°C (50°F) results in about a 25 percent output reduction and a 10 percent higher heat rate. Similarly, at 1000 meter (3300 ft) elevation the gas turbine output would be 15 percent lower than at sea level. Steam plants and diesels are not affected to the same degree by ambient air temperature and elevation changes.

Aeroderivitive Versus Industrial Gas Turbines
The advanced gas turbine designs available today are largely due to the huge sums that have been spent over the last 50 years to develop effective jet engines for military applications, including their adaptation as gas turbine propulsion systems for naval vessels. The commercial aviation, electric power and to a lesser extent, the sea and land transportation industries, have benefited accordingly. Given the aircraft designer's need for engine minimum weight, maximum thrust, high reliability, long life and compactness, it follows that the cutting-edge gas turbine developments in materials, metallurgy and thermodynamic designs have occurred in the aircraft engine designs, with subsequent transfer to land and sea gas turbine applications. However, there are weight and size limitations to aircraft engine designs, whereas the stationary power gas turbine designers are seeking ever larger unit sizes and higher efficiency. To emphasize this difference in approach, today the largest aeroderivative power gas turbine is probably General Electric's 40 MW LM6000 engine with a 40 percent simple-cycle efficiency and a weight of only 6 tons. This engine is adapted from the CF6-80C2 engine that is used on the CF6 military transport aircraft. By comparison, General Electric's largest industrial gas turbine, the Frame 9 Model F has an output of about 200 MW, an open-cycle efficiency of 34 percent, but is huge compared to the LM6000 and weights 400 tons. The aeroderivative is a light weight, close clearance, high efficiency power gas turbine suited to smaller systems. The industrial or frame type gas turbine tends to be a larger, more rugged, slightly less efficient power source, better suited to base-load operation, particularly if arranged in a combined-cycle block on large

systems. There is no significant difference in availability of two types of gas turbines for power use, based on the August 1990 Generation Availability Report of the North American Electric Reliability Council. For the period 19851989 the average availability of 347 jet engines (1587 unit years) was 92 percent and that for 575 industrial gas turbines (2658 unit years) was 91 percent.

Combined Cycle Sizes/Costs
Gas turbines of about 150 MW size are already in operation manufactured by at least four separate groups-General Electric and its licensees, Asea Brown Boveri, Siemens, and Westinghouse/Mitsubishi. These groups are also developing, testing and/or marketing gas turbine sizes of about 200 MW. Combined-cycle units are made up of one or more such gas turbines, each with a waste heat steam generator arranged to supply steam to a single steam turbine, thus formatting a combined-cycle unit or block. Typical combined-cycle block sizes offered by three major manufacturers (Asea Brown Boveri, General Electric and Siemens) are roughly in the range of 50 MW to 500 MW and costs are about $600/kW.

Combined Cycle Efficiencies
Combined-cycle efficiencies are already over 50 percent and research aimed at 1370°C (2500°F) turbine inlet temperature may make 60 percent efficiency possible by the turn of the century, according to some gas turbine manufacturers.

Low-Grade Fuel for Turbines
Gas turbines burn mainly natural gas and light oil. Crude oil, residual, and some distillates contain corrosive components and as such require fuel treatment equipment. In addition, ash deposits from these fuels result in gas turbine deratings of up to 15 percent They may still be economically attractive fuels however, particularly in combined-cycle plants. Sodium and potassium are removed from residual, crude and heavy distillates by a water washing procedure. A simpler and less expensive purification system will do the same job for light crude and light distillates. A magnesium additive system may also be needed to reduce the corrosive effects if vanadium is present. Fuels requiring such treatment must have a separate fuel-treatment plant and a system of accurate fuel monitoring to assure reliable, low-maintenance operation of gas turbines.

Alternative Combined Cycle Designs
Gas dampers are often provided so the gas turbine exhaust can bypass the heat recovery boiler allowing the gas turbine to operate if the steam unit is down for maintenance. In earlier designs supplementary oil or gas firing was also included to permit steam unit operation with the gas turbine down. This is not normally provided on recent combined-cycle designs, because it adds to the capital cost, complicates the control system, and reduced efficiency. Sometimes as many as four gas turbines with individual boilers may be associated with a single steam turbine. The gas turbine, steam turbine, and generator may be arranged as a single-shaft design, or a multishaft arrangement may be used with each gas turbine driving a generator and exhausting into its heat recovery boiler with all boilers supplying a separate steam turbine and generator. Combined-Cycle Shaft Arrangements

Combined Cycle Modular Installations One significant advantage of combined-cycle units is that the capacity can be installed in stages with short lead time gas turbines being installed initially (1 to 2 years) followed later by heat recovery boilers with the steam turbines (3 years total). In this way each combined-cycle unit (i.e. block) can be installed in three (or more) roughly equal capacity segments. The modular arrangement of combined-cycle units also facilitates generation dispatching because each gas turbine can be operated independently (with or without the steam turbine) if part of the combined-cycle unit is down for maintenance or if less than the combined-cycle unit total capacity is required. This may give a higher efficiency for small loading than if the total capacity was operated.

Furthermore, since combined-cycle units are available in sizes of roughly 50 MW to almost 500 MW (and 600 MW are expected to be available soon with 200 MW gas turbines), there are many selection possibilities for most sizes of power system. Another point favoring staging a combined-cycle unit is that the gas turbine (or combined-cycle) per kilowatt cost does not seem to increase significantly for smaller units, as is the case for steam units due partly to the high cost of the substantial civil works necessary for steam plants regardless of steam unit size. Finally, combined-cycle units can be installed in 3 years while a steam unit typically requires 5 years, and once committed there is no power output from a steam unit until the complete unit is available.

Fuels for Combined Cycles Using present technology the combined-cycle unit can be fueled with natural gas, distillate, and even crude or residual oil with appropriate fuel treatment. Fueling with crude or residual oil, however, definitely results in extra capital costs for fuel treatment equipment. Operations suffer due to additional operating costs for additives to counteract contaminants such as vanadium, lower availability due to additional maintenance and water cleaning shutdowns to remove blade deposits, and reduced life because there is a greater tendency for hot gas path corrosion due to blade deposits and corrosion. The daily (or even more frequent) testing of the residual or crude oil for contaminants with appropriate adjustments of fuel treatment is critical to prevent damage to the gas turbine. Even with good operation there will be a reduction in efficiency with crude or residual oil fueling to reduce firing temperatures, as recommended by most manufacturers for this mode of operation, and due to the blade deposits which build up between water-washing intervals. The gas turbine has to be shut down periodically for cleaning and allowed to cool before washing can be done by injecting water while rotating the unit using the starting motor.

Operational Considerations of Combined Cycles This gas turbine is the main component that requires maintenance on combined-cycle units. All manufacturers recommend specific intervals for hotgas-path inspections and for major overhauls, which usually involve hot-gaspath part changes. During overhauls the condition of aeroderivatives may require that the complete engine or at least major components be sent to overhaul centers, while the industrial gas turbines usually will require only part changes on site.

assuming a base of 1 for natural gas. Developed Country Combined Cycle Installations The following key topics provide examples of developed country combinedcycle installations. A unique feature is the low NOx emission level of 10 ppm due to the use of selective catalytic reduction equipment.5 for distillate fueling.310 MW at 15°C ambient decreasing to 2. Fourteen 165 MW single-shaft combined-cycle units serve as mixed base-load and mid-range generation on the 41. U. Similarly.fired hours. maintenance costs will be three times higher for the same number of fired hours if the unit is started. May 1991. May 1991. system. LNG-Fired Combined-Cycle by Tokyo Electric The world's largest regasified LNG-fueled combined-cycle plant is in operation near Tokyo in Japan.e. cycled. once every fired hour. Originally.000 MW at 32°C. but recently change to intermediate load. Electricity Supply Board of Ireland Oil-to-Gas Conversion The electricity Supply Board of Ireland converted two old oil-fired steam plants to gas-fired combined cycle units in the late 1970s.S. for the same number of fired hours. Refer To: World Bank IEN Working Paper #35: "Prospects for Gas-Fueled Combined-Cycle Power Generation in the Developing Countries". and process steam plus 60 MW of power to Dow Chemical Co. and by a factor of 1. i. Peaking at 110 percent of rating will increase maintenance costs by a factor of 3 relative to base-load operation at rated capacity. after a start is initiated by an operator. The plant capacity is 2.The type of fuel and mode of operation are critical in determining both the maintenance intervals and the amount of maintenance work required.A. Twelve Asea Brown Boveri 85 MW gas turbines and heat recovery boilers were installed to supply two 350 MW steam units originally installed for the Midland nuclear plant. The number of operators required in a combined-cycle plant therefore is lower than in a steam plant. Midland Nuclear Plant Conversion. the unit accelerates.000 MW Tokyo Electric Power Co. there units were used for baseloaded operation. The control system on combined-cycle units is largely automatic so. synchronizes and loads with automatic monitoring and adjustment of unit conditions in accordance with present programs. instead of starting once very 1000 . It is estimated by one manufacturer that burning residual or crude oil will increase maintenance costs by a factor of 3. Refer To: World Bank IEN Working Paper #35: "Prospects for Gas-Fueled Combined-Cycle Power Generation in the Developing Countries". This combined-cycle cogeneration plant will supply 1380 MW to Consumer Power Co. .

May 1991. These examples are discussed in greater detail in the associated Key Topics. IEN Working Paper #35: "Prospects for Gas-Fueled Combined-Cycle Power Generation in the Developing Countries".080 MW combined-cycle plant in Egypt to $875/kW for a steam addition to convert four gas turbines at Multan in Pakistan to a combined-cycle plant. Although the operating performance of combined-cycle units in North America is reported to be satisfactory with availability factors of about 85 percent. 5 x 300 MW in India 3 x 300 MW Gas Turbines in Malaysia 2 x 300 MW in Pakistan 5 Combined-Cycle plants in Mexico 300 MW in Egypt 772 MW in Thailand Combined-Cycle in Bangladesh The dollar per kilowatt capacity costs vary from $592/kW for a new 1. the developing country experience is less favorable. and in some countries the performance has been poor. Developing Country Combined Cycle Installations The following list provides examples of Combined Cycle projects in developing countries.Refer To: World Bank. .

GE Energy GAS TURBINE AND COMBINED CYCLE PRODUCTS .

And our reputation for excellence can be seen in everything we do. Always on the cutting edge of gas turbine technology. service. GE offers a wide array of technological options to meet the most challenging energy requirements. Experience and Innovation The world demands a reliable supply of clean. . we deliver results that contribute to our customers’ success. Using an integrated approach that includes parts. dependable power.The Power of Technology. repair and project management.

6 MW 193.2 MW 45.1 MW 50 Hz 60 Hz 50 Hz 60 Hz 60 Hz 60 Hz 50 Hz 50 Hz 50 Hz 50 Hz 60 Hz 60 Hz 6.830 9.3 MW 42.2 MW 126.100 6.276 MS9001H MS7001H MS9001FB MS7001FB 8 MS6001FA CC CC SC SC CC SC CC SC CC SC CC SC 117.7 MW 118.3 MW 412.340 6.1 MW 75.000 6.930 10.341 11.627 6.2 MW 85.332 6.281 6.000 6.350 9.627 9.873 6.950 6.315 9.360 6.855 IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) Overview NOTE: All ratings are net plant based on ISO conditions and natural gas fuel.1 MW 50 Hz 60 Hz 50/60 Hz 6.9 MW 262.593 10.653 7.642 7.240 6.173 11.3 MW 50 Hz 60 Hz 50 Hz 60 Hz Small Heavy-Duty and Aeroderivative Gas Turbine Products Overview 16 6.690 5.960 10.795 6.295 10.9 MW 50 Hz 60 Hz 400 MW 60 Hz 520 MW 50 Hz 2 2 6 6 Heat Rate Btu/kWh kJ/kWh 5.430 6.760 9.2 MW 67.020 9.880 5.1 MW 130.4 MW 45. .090 9.250 9.950 6.690 5.570 10.226 13 MS6001C CC CC SC SC 14 67. All CC ratings shown above are based on a 1 GT/1 ST configuration.582 6.341 7.424 9.281 9.250 6.7 MW 390.202 6.757 6.8 MW 255.800 10.GE ENERGY GAS TURBINE AND COMBINED CYCLE PRODUCTS Heavy Duty Output CC CC CC CC 280.6 MW 171.9 MW 75.002 8 MS7001FA 8 MS9001FA 10 MS9001E 11 MS7001EA 12 MS6001B CC CC SC 64.3 MW 64.

thereby allowing more air to flow to the combustor for fuel premixing.000 technology for both 50 and 60 Hz applications. which reduces firing temperature and thermal efficiency. RDC27903-13-03 PSP30462-05 . An MS9001H is seen during assembly in the factory.0% 1 x MS7001H Closed-Loop Steam Cooling Open loop air-cooled gas turbines have a significant temperature drop across the first stage nozzles. Additionally.690 generator into a seamless system.0% GT Number & Type 1 x MS9001H 2 World’s Most Advanced Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Technology H SYSTEM™ GE’s H System™—the world’s most advanced combined cycle system and the first capable of breaking the 60% efficiency barrier—integrates the gas turbine. closed-loop cooling also minimizes parasitic extraction of compressor discharge air. Undoubtedly the leading 60 Hz S107H 400 5.000 60. the H delivers higher efficiency and output to reduce the cost of electricity of this gas-fired power generation system. optimizing each component’s performance. the H System™ to achieve 60% fuel efficiency capability while maintaining adherence to the strictest low NOx standards and reducing CO2 emissions. It is this closed-loop steam cooling that enables Baglan Bay Power Station is the launch site for GE’s H System™. 6. thereby enabling lower emissions. steam turbine.690 6.H System™ MS9001H/MS7001H COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS Net Plant Heat Rate Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) Net Plant Efficiency 60. The closed-loop steam cooling system allows the turbine to fire at a higher temperature for increased performance. generator and heat recovery steam 50 Hz S109H 520 5.

Small Footprint/High Power Density The H System™ offers approximately 40% improvement in power density per installed megawatt compared to other combined cycle systems. component. development and validation of the H System™ has been conducted under a regimen of extensive World’s first H turbine is transported through Wales to Baglan Bay Power Station. Thoroughly Tested PSP30246-10 The design. Broad commercial introduction has been controlled to follow launch units demonstration. Fourteen combustion chambers are used on the 9H. sub-system and full unit testing. and 12 combustion chambers are used on the 7H. .5 Dry Low NOx (DLN) Combustor System. Dry Low NOx Combustors A 9H gas turbine is readied for testing. GE DLN combustion systems have demonstrated RDC27916-09-09 the ability to achieve low NOx levels in several million hours of field service around the world. This thorough testing approach provides the introduction of cutting edge tech- nology with high customer confidence.Single Crystal Materials 3 H SYSTEM™ The use of these advanced materials and Thermal Barrier Coatings ensures that components will stand up to high firing temperatures while meeting maintenance intervals. Building on GE’s design experience. the H System™ employs a can-annular lean pre-mix DLN-2. once again helping to reduce the overall cost of producing electricity.

Representing the world’s largest. most experienced fleet of highly efficient gas turbines. GE continually advances this technology by incrementally improving the F class product to attain ever higher combined cycle PSP30027-06 efficiencies. our F class turbines have established GE as the clear industry leader for successful fired hours in advanced technology gas turbines. Dry Low NOx combustor systems allow GE’s F Class turbines to meet today’s strict environmental emissions requirements. designed for maximum reliability and efficiency with low life cycle costs. Introduced in 1987. our F class turbines are favored by both power generators and industrial cogenerators requiring large blocks of reliable power. GE’s F class gas turbines resulted from a multi-year development program using technology advanced by GE’s aircraft engine team and GE Global Research.F Class 4 World’s Most Experienced Advanced Technology Gas Turbines F CLASS With over ten million hours of operation. while maintaining reliability and availability. An MS9001FA gas turbine ships from the plant. RDC27305-02a .

899 4.594 10. which is beneficial for combined cycle arrangements where net efficiencies over 58% can be achieved.844 11.794 6.790 4.Our F class gas turbines.327 9. PSP30114 Finland. This CHP plant is owned by Porvoo. including the 6F (either 50 or 60 Hz). F/FA/FB EXPERIENCE 14000 11.186 3. offer 5 F CLASS flexibility in cycle configuration.859 5. All F class gas turbines include an 18-stage axial compressor and a three-stage turbine. PSP30210-01 .575 2. the 7F (60 Hz) and the 9F (50 Hz). and they feature a cold-end drive and axial exhaust.061 12000 10000 8000 6000 FIRED HOURS IN THOUSANDS 4000 7.989 2000 0 ’95 ’96 ’97 ’98 ’99 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 YEAR Half of all 6FA installations are located in Europe. fuel selection and site adaptation.

MS7001FB and MS9001FB 6 World’s Most Advanced Air-Cooled Gas Turbine The FB is the latest evolutionary step in GE’s proven F series. this—now more than ever—is the key to success. The result is a MS7001FB and MS9001FB large combined cycle system designed to provide high performance and low electrical cost. This MS9001FB is seen on half shell during assembly. and the experience gained in over ten million advanced gas turbine fired hours. Improved output and efficiency means better fuel economy and reduced cost of producing electricity. Hunterstown. PSP30510-01 . Taking F technology to a new level of output and efficiency. PA 7FB launch site. PSP30251-39 PSP30371-02 This MS7001FB is shown in the factory. including the materials developed for the H System™. With today’s competitive markets and unpredictable fuel prices. we’ve applied our cutting-edge technology.

0% 58. ensures that components can stand up to the higher firing temperatures of the FB without an increase in maintenance intervals. resulting in combined cycle efficiency rating improvements of better than one percentage Net Plant Efficiency 58.In developing the FB. Providing the basis of process rigor.880 6.884 412. These improvements equate to more MW 60 Hz 50 Hz MS7001FB and MS9001FB per MBtu of natural gas burned.9 5.950 5.206 6.202 6.3% 57. we were able to maintain many of the proven features of the world’s most successful advanced technology turbine.3 5.4 5. Six Sigma methodologies were used to assure a highly reliable robust design optimized for lowest cost of electricity. Output improvements of more than 5% were also achieved. An MS7001FB is seen in test cell.940 825.276 6. such as Single Crystal First Stage Buckets.5 280. we followed a specific course that significantly improved the key driver of efficiency— MS7001FB/MS9001FB COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS Heat Rate Net Plant Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) S109FB S209FB S107FB S207FB 562.266 7 firing temperature. The FB firing temperature was increased more than 100 degrees Fahrenheit over GE’s FA technology.0% 57. in developing the FB. The use of advanced turbine materials. PSP30299 PSP30266-02 . Indeed.5% GT Number & Type 1 x MS9001FB 2 x MS9001FB 1 x MS7001FB 2 x MS7001FB point. the F/FA.

full packaging and robust design ideally suit applications ranging from cogeneration and district heating to pure power generation in combined cycle and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC).508 6.210 6. Its high overall life cycle cost.117 603 PG6111FA 15.9 9. Adaptable to single or multi-shaft configurations. the high-speed 6FA produces 75.7:1 449 204 5.9% GT Number & Type 1 x MS6001FA 2 x MS6001FA 1 x MS6001FA 2 x MS6001FA applications. M S 6 0 0 1 FA .1 237.240 6. Its output range. it burns a variety of fossil fuels. A cold-end drive allows exhaust gases to be directed axially into the HRSG. the 6FA is a 2/3 scale of the 7FA. the 6FA provides major fuel savings over earlier mid-range units in base-load operation. simple cycle peaking and IGCC in both cycle and base load operation with a wide range of fuels. RDC27834-34 reliability—consistently 98% or better—provides customers more days of operation per year while minimizing . M S 7 0 0 1 FA a n d M S 9 0 0 1 FA To meet the need for mid-size power blocks with high performance in combined heat and power MS6001FA COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS Heat Rate Net Plant Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) S106FA S206FA S106FA S206FA 117.170 6. In IGCC operation.6:1 (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) 9. On natural gas the available Dry Low NOx (DLN) system can achieve NOx KEPCO’s Seoinchon Plant.9 75. With over 860. gross plant efficiencies can reach up to 46%.118 603 PG6111FA 60 Hz Power Generation 8 Proven Performance in a Mid-Size Package The highly efficient gear-driven 6FA gas turbine is a mid-size version of the well-proven 7FA and 9FA.5 6.000 hours in daily start/stop cyclic duty. Industry Standard for 60 Hz Power in All Duty Cycles The wide range of power generation applications for the 7FA gas turbine includes combined cycle.6% 54. Its aerodynamically scaled 18-stage axial design reduces combustion chambers from 14 to 6.332 15.3% 54.250 6.7% net efficiency. 60 Hz 50 Hz A classic example of GE’s evolutionary designs. has operated for more than 40.000 operating hours and 61 units installed or on order. cogenera- tion.231 1.MS6001FA.254 1.7 237. one of the world’s largest combined cycle plants.795 10. high exhaust energy. MS7001FA and MS9001FA MS6001FA SIMPLE CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS 50 Hz Power Generation Output Heat Rate Pressure Ratio Mass Flow Turbine Speed Exhaust Temperature Model Designation (ºF) (ºC) (rpm) (lb/sec) (kg/sec) 447 203 5.9 118.7% 55.295 (MW) 75. emissions of 15 ppm.9 MW of simple cycle power at 35% efficiency and 117 MW of combined cycle power at 54.593 6. which can be switched after start-up without sacrificing performance.582 6.760 10.550 Net Plant Efficiency 54.

achieving less than 25 ppm NOx. Power producers around the world require reliable power generation—which makes the 9FA the 50 Hz gas turbine of choice for large combined cycle applications. GE adds customer value M S 6 0 0 1 FA .0+.040 6. Ideally suited for diverse fuels. 50 Hz S109FA S209FA 60 Hz Proven Excellence in Reliable 50 Hz Combined Cycle Performance S107FA 390.9 6. and peak firing.090 6.250 9. For large combined cycle or cogeneration plants where flexible operation and maximum perform- ance is the prime consideration.9 6.0:1 1.873 (MW) 171.6 9.350 6.757 17. it can be configured in a single-shaft combined cycle arrangement with the generator and steam turbine. the 7FA’s DLN-2.000 1.MS7001FA SIMPLE CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS 60 Hz Power Generation Output Heat Rate Pressure Ratio Mass Flow Turbine Speed Exhaust Temperature Model Designation (ºF) (ºC) (rpm) (lb/sec) (kg/sec) 981 445 3. reliability and availability—for new units and upgrades to existing units.6 S207FA 529.371 56.8 786.424 6.5% GT Number & Type 1 x MS7001FA 2 x MS7001FA demand periods—including inlet cooling. the 9FA provides key advantages that include a fuel-flexible combustion system and higher output performance. this combustor is the industry leader in pollution prevention for 50 Hz combined cycle applications with greater than 56% efficiency.7 As an industry leader in reducing emissions.360 9. As an aerodynamic scale of the highly successful MS9001FA SIMPLE CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS 50 Hz Power Generation Output Heat Rate Pressure Ratio Mass Flow Turbine Speed Exhaust Temperature Model Designation (lb/sec) (kg/sec) (rpm) (ºF) (ºC) (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) 255.0:1 (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) 9.980 6. For re-powering applications with space limitations.600 1.0% 56. GE continually makes incremental design enhancements to improve output.413 641 3.020 5. The 9FA can be configured to meet site and power requirements.116 602 PG9351FA 7FA gas turbine.308 56.6 combustor (proven in hundreds of thousands 9 of operating hours) produces less than 9 ppm NOx and CO—minimizing the need for exhaust cleanup sys- tems and saving millions for our customers. M S 7 0 0 1 FA a n d M S 9 0 0 1 FA with power augmentation equipment that provides additional gas turbine performance in summer peak MS7001FA COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS Net Plant Heat Rate Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) Net Plant Efficiency 262. efficiency. With 100s of units in operation. steam injection.114 601 PG7241FA 16. The 9FA gas turbine is configured with the robust DLN-2.1% 1 x MS9001FA 2 x MS9001FA . it can be arranged in a multi-shaft configuration where one or two gas MS9001FA COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS Net Plant Heat Rate Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) Net Plant Efficiency GT Number & Type turbines are combined with a single steam turbine to produce power blocks of 390 or 786 MW.7% 57.

many in arduous climates ranging from desert heat and tropical humidity to arctic cold. Originally introduced in 1978 at 105 MW. along with its extensive The MS9001E gas turbine is designed to attain high availability levels and low maintenance costs. It is also able to burn a variety of syngases produced from oil or coal without turbine modification. base load or peaking duty. the 9E has incorporated numerous component improvements.835 52. naphtha. MS9001E COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS Heat Rate Net Plant Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) Net Plant Efficiency GT Number & Type Like GE’s other E-class technology units. Designed for dual-fuel operation. resulting in extremely low total cost of ownership. Whether for simple cycle or combined cycle application. it is able to switch from one fuel to another while running under load.000 1. crude oil and residual oil.653 12. while its high combined cycle efficiency gives excellent fuel savings in base load operations. experience and reliability record. ducts and silencing. the 9E accommodates a wide range of fuels. RDC26213-12 .100 10. 193. the Dry Low NOx combustion system is available on 9E. it has accumulated over 14 million fired hours of utility and industrial service. auxiliaries. Its compact design provides flexibility in plant layout as well as the easy addition of increments of power when a phased capacity expansion is required. the MS9001E is a reliable. including natural gas. 9E packages are comprehensively engineered with integrated systems that include controls.480 6. low first-cost machine for peaking service.6:1 922 418 3.0% 52. They are designed for reliable operation and minimal maintenance at a competitively low installed cost. light and heavy distillate oil. which can 50 Hz S109E S209E achieve NOx emissions under 15 ppm when burning natural gas.4 6. The latest model boasts an output of 126 MW and is capable of achieving more than 52% efficiency in combined cycle. With more than 390 units.009 543 PG9171E 10 Fuel-Flexible 50 Hz Performer MS9001E The MS9001E gas turbine is GE’s 50 Hz workhorse.1 10. In simple cycle. makes the 9E well suited for IGCC projects. This flexibility.570 6.MS9001E MS9001E SIMPLE CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS 50 Hz Power Generation Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) Heat Rate Pressure Ratio Mass Flow Turbine Speed Exhaust Temperature Model Designation (lb/sec) (kg/sec) (rpm) (ºF) (ºC) 126.7% 1 x MS9001E 2 x MS9001E With its flexible fuel handling capabilities.2 391.930 6.

MS7001EA MS7001EA SIMPLE CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS 60 Hz Power Generation Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) 85.002 12. 60 Hz S107EA 130.9% 1 x MS7001EA 2 x MS7001EA In addition to power generation.7:1 (lb/sec) (kg/sec) (rpm) (ºF) (ºC) 648 294 3.430 11. With strong efficiency performance in simple and combined cycle applications.067 50. It is uncomplicated and versatile. the 7EA is also well suited for mechanical drive applications. thermal barrier coatings and MS7001EA COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS Net Plant Heat Rate Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) Net Plant Efficiency GT Number & Type a multiple-fuel combustion system.2% 50. An MS7001EA is shown on half shell during assembly. able to switch from one fuel to another while the turbine is running under load or during shutdown.1 10. the 7EA can accommodate a full range of fuels.700 7.173 7. industrial and cogeneration applications. 7E/EA units have accumulated millions of hours of operation using crude and residual oils.9:1 659 299 3.600 999 537 M7121EA Time-Tested Performer for 60 Hz Applications 11 MS7001EA With more than 750 units in service. this 85 MW machine is used in a wide variety of power generation.600 997 536 PG7121EA (lb/sec) (kg/sec) (rpm) (ºF) (ºC) Heat Rate Pressure Ratio Mass Flow Turbine Speed Exhaust Temperature Model Designation Mechanical Drive (hp) (Btu/shp-hr) 115. low-cost additions of incremental power.6 6. GT20821 . With state-of-the-art fuel handling equipment.720 11.630 7. its medium-size design lends itself to flexibility in plant layout and fast. advanced bucket cooling.800 6.2 S207EA 263. the 7E/EA fleet has accumulated tens of millions of hours of service and is well recognized for high reliability and availability. It is designed for dual- fuel operation.

0% GT Number & Type 1 x MS6001B variety of fuels and is well suited to IGCC. RDC24656-03 . It can be installed fast for quick near-term capacity.960 7.0% 2 x MS6001B 4 x MS6001B 1 x MS6001B Like all GE heavy-duty gas turbines.163 1.850 6.225 7.850 7.7 261.3 6.3 64.1 10.341 49.0:1 309 140 5. and mechanical drive.7 261.8% 49.950 7. the 6B has earned a solid reputation for high reliability and environ60 Hz mental compatibility.111 1.011 544 M6581B 12 Reliable and Rugged 50/60 Hz Power MS6001B The MS6001B is a performance proven 40 MW class gas turbine. In combined cycle operation the 6B is a solid performer at nearly 50% efficiency.8% 49.018 548 PG6581B (lb/sec) (kg/sec) (rpm) (ºF) (ºC) (hp) 58.MS6001B MS6001B SIMPLE CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS 50/60 Hz Power Generation Mechanical Drive Output Heat Rate (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) Pressure Ratio Mass Flow Turbine Speed Exhaust Temperature Model Designation (lb/sec) (kg/sec) (rpm) (ºF) (ºC) (MW) 42.3 6. With over 980 units in service.380 (Btu/shp-hr) 7. heat recovery.642 11.000 hp class mechanical drive service.225 49.1% and reliability at 99. it is the popular choice for efficient. low cost per horsepower and high horsepower per square foot. low installed cost power generation or prime movers in mid-range service. the MS6001B is an excellent fit for selective mechanical applications.341 Net Plant Efficiency 49. the 6B is capable of achieving less than S206B S406B 130. The rugged and reliable 6B can handle multiple start-ups required for peak load. 130.2:1 311 141 5.8% 2 x MS6001B 4 x MS6001B 15 ppm NOx on natural gas.3 6. the versatile and widely used 6B gas turbine has accumulated over 45 million operating hours in a broad range of applications: simple cycle. It is also a flexible choice for cogeneration applications capable of producing a thermal 50 Hz S206B S406B S106B output ranging from 20 to 400 million Btu/hr.3%.226 12. With its excellent fuel efficiency.225 7.650 12. With availability well documented at 97.850 6.850 6. combined cycle. With a Dry Low NOx combustion system.8% 49. An MS6001B rotor is seen on half shell.225 7. designed for reliable 50/60 Hz power generation and 50. It can accommodate a MS6001B COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS Heat Rate Net Plant Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) S106B 64.

This evolutionary approach ensures users of the 6C that they are receiving advanced but well-proven technology.1 6.281 6. fast .0% GT Number & Type 1 x MS6001C 2 x MS6001C 1 x MS6001C 2 x MS6001C with fewer parts and removable blades and vanes.6:1 270 122 7.100 1. Consistent with GE’s evolutionary design philosophy.281 6.078 581 PG6591C High Efficiency 45 MW Class Gas Turbine 13 MS6001C The 6C meets the need for low-cost electricity production in heat recovery operations for both 50 and 60 Hz— including industrial cogeneration.MS6001C MS6001C SIMPLE CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS 50 Hz Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) Heat Rate Pressure Ratio Mass Flow Turbine Speed Exhaust Temperature Model Designation (lb/sec) (kg/sec) (rpm) (ºF) (ºC) 45. Akenerji Kemalpasa-Izmir Turkey 206C Combined-Cycle—COD since November 2005 Rigorous field validation tests conducted at the Kemalpasa 6C launch site confirmed the outstanding operability of the turbine—high efficiency and low emissions.0% 54. such as a 12-stage compressor MS6001C COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE RATINGS Heat Rate Net Plant Output (MW) (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) S106C S206C S106C S206C 67.315 9. district heating.203 6.2 136.3% 55. Improved operability features include less than 50% and reliable starts in 13 minutes.627 6.4 9.2 136. and three stages of compressor guide vanes for high efficiency at part load. and mid-sized combined-cycle power plants. The turbine includes components that provide high reliability and maintainability. and 42 ppm when burning light distillate with water injection.078 581 60 Hz 45. The Frame 6C builds on the experience and performance of GE’s Frame 6B technology. the 6C incorporates technologies that have been validated in service worldwide.6:1 270 122 7.1 67.203 6.544 Net Plant Efficiency 54.627 6.3 9.340 9.855 19. NOx emissions are limited to 15 ppm dry when operating on natural gas. proven in more than 45 million hours of service.3% 55.100 1.544 6. and also incorporates key features of GE’s advanced F technology. The 6C also features an F-class modular arrangement and a Mark VI Speedtronic control system. PSP30646-02 60 Hz 50 Hz turndown while maintaining emissions guarantees.830 19.

frigates.670 — 14.005 43.080 10.687 10.D U T Y a n d A E R O D E R I VAT I V E G A S T U R B I N E S refineries.Small Heavy-Duty and Aeroderivative Gas Turbines 14 A Broad Portfolio of Packaged Power Plants GE provides a broad range of power packages from 5 MW to nearly 50 MW for simple cycle. petrochemical and distribution systems.4 1032 903 963 948 556 484 517 509 GE5 Generator Drive* GE10 MS5001 Exhaust Flow (lb/sec) (kg/sec) GE5 GE10 Mechanical Drive** MS5002C MS5002E *ISO conditions – natural gas – electrical generator terminals **ISO conditions – natural gas – shaft output .1 311.510 15.670 4.3 274. LNG.0 46.028 Heat Rate (Btu/shp-h) 8.2 103.8:1 — 8. transportation. Marine applications for these machines range from commercial fast ferries and cruise ships to military patrol boats. private and mobile power industries.814 8.8:1 16.1 19. destroyers and aircraft carriers.065 900 901 5.130 10. (ºF) (ºC) 574 482 483 Exhaust Temp. storage.2 11.9 123.630 43.481 15.543 8.500 Pressure Ratio Turbine Speed (rpm) 12.7 47.650 — 10. combined cycle or cogeneration applications in the utility.4 141.6:1 12.740 14.8:1 — 15. RDC26874-04 We offer full turnkey systems and aftermarket solutions for production. (ºF) (ºC) 44. S M A L L H E AV Y .5:1 7.1 11.5 125.830 Output (shp) 7. SMALL HEAVY-DUTY GAS TURBINES Output (kW) Heat Rate (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) 11.250 26.5:1 11.900 4.500 11.6 1.7 20.5:1 5.000 104.575 38.884 12.094 276. Oil & Gas GE is a world leader in high-technology turbine products and services for the oil & gas industry. The powerful LM6000 is one of the most fuel-efficient simple cycle gas turbines in the world.690 Pressure Ratio Turbine Speed (rpm) Exhaust Flow (lb/sec) (kg/sec) Exhaust Temp.

915 8.769 Output (hp) 59.461 8.148 9.569 8.5:1 29.557 29.600 201.016 — — — — 23:1 19.391 9.315 9. downstream and distribution applications around the world.600 268 122 8.292 17.000 3.9:1 29.235 8.315 10.272 8.6 8.369 8.196 50.000 154 70 1001 538 3.2:1 7.600 3.600 167 9.0:1 16.925 98.763 23.896 7.2:1 40:1 40:1 31.711 40.308 8.600 201 91 76 69 63 47 Exhaust Flow (lb/sec) (kg/sec) 282 202 200.600 282 128 824 440 447 458 524 525 494 533 474 479 Exhaust Temp.621 7.780 6.563 7.600 3.112 8.569 7.986 10.268 20.582 8.900 104 47 915 491 3.6 780 416 7.3 9.630 9. 60% RH.080 43.0:1 20.979 LMS100PB LM6000PC Sprint* LM6000PC LM6000PD Sprint LM6000PD LM6000PD (liquid fuel) LM2500RC 50 Hz Power Gen LM2500RD LM2500PH LM2000PE S M A L L H E AV Y .600 201 91 977 525 202 92 976 524 279 272 127 123 838 853 448 456 292 132 834 446 284 129 817 436 456 302 207 137 783 813 417 434 458 208 782 416 Exhaust Flow (lb/sec) (kg/sec) Exhaust Temp.763 29.749 7.000 3.9 47. (ºF) (ºC) LMS100PA 98.415 8.850 19.9 91.600 299 136 819 437 3.872 7.627 3.3:1 3.587 9.435 6.000 168 76 927 497 GE Energy’s Oil & Gas products are installed in major upstream.1:1 3.600 278 126 846 857 976 977 922 992 886 894 8.200 33.725 8.673 9.041 42.774 8.1:1 3.112 15.257 23:1 3.374 8.824 42. Turbine Speed (rpm) 3.2:1 30.146 19.165 27.D U T Y a n d A E R O D E R I VAT I V E G A S T U R B I N E S LM2000PS LM1600PE LMS100PA LMS100PB LM6000PC Sprint* LM6000PC LM6000PD Sprint LM6000PD 452 LM6000PD (liquid fuel) LM2500RC 60 Hz Power Gen LM2500RD LM2500PH LM2500PE LM2000PS LM1600PE LM6000PC LM2500RD LM2500PE LM2000PE *Sprint 2002 deck is used with water injection to 25 ppmvd for power enhancement.600 290 132 837 8.600 9. sea level.894 7.9 92.873 8.627 3.600 7.740 45.6:1 20.600 3.941 6. (ºF) (ºC) 824 980 981 976 885 915 440 527 527 524 474 491 GT06543 15 Pressure Ratio 40:1 40:1 31..600 153 139 104 8.735 Heat Rate (Btu/shp-h) 5.880 8.2:1 — 23:1 — 29.816 98.AERODERIVATIVE GAS TURBINES Output (kW) Heat Rate (Btu/kWh) (kJ/kWh) 7.992 7.164 24.3:1 3. no inlet/exhaust losses on gas fuel with no NOx media unless otherwise specified Mechanical Drive LM1600PE PSP30305 LM2500RC .4:1 18. midstream.1:1 Pressure Ratio 10.627 3.779 9.391 9.833 8.463 22.6 104.394 33.748 98.434 8.5:1 23:1 23:1 19.450 6.400 32.7:1 3.600 456 207 782 417 3.900 10.5:1 15.417 31.336 40.346 17.000 142 64 894 479 3.876 28.1 69.903 41.3:1 28.3 127.452 8.0 91.355 45.825 19.890 46.900 Turbine Speed (rpm) 3.689 26.105 8.606 13.9 152 138.158 9.283 10.600 3.627 3.471 46.4:1 3.674 13.235 23:1 3.901 8.600 3.627 3.1:1 3. NOTE: Performance based on 59ºF amb.173 8. Temp.0 62.600 458 207.916 32.686 30.6:1 3.753 8.359 50.

Using the same combined cycle technology for IGCC that we use for conventional systems. GE offers extensive experience and high levels Cover Photo: PSP30502-03. PSP30120 Experience This 550 MW IGCC is located at the Saras oil refinery in Sardinia. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems can be optimized for each type of fuel as well as site and environmental requirements. Inside Cover Photos: RDC27191-05-05. there are vast numbers of technical possibilities. GE engages experts from throughout the gasification industry at both operating and research levels to develop the most economical and reliable approaches to IGCC technology.000 hours of syngas operation. heavy oils and pet coke are the fuels of choice. GE has optimized system configurations for all major gasifier types and all GE IGCC gas turbine models.5 GW and can be applied in almost any new or re-powering project where solid and heavy fuels are available. of reliability. The three GE 109E singleshaft combined cycle units have accumulated over 12. And IGCC technology produces low cost electricity while meeting strict environmental regulations. PSP30502-01. Designed by GE Energy — Creative Services. Optimal Performance For each gasifier type and fuel.IGCC GE GAS TURBINES FOR IGCC APPLICATIONS Gas Turbines Model GE10 6B 7EA 9E 6FA 7FA 9FA 7FB 90 MW (50/60 Hz) 197 MW (60 Hz) 286 MW (50 Hz) 232 MW (60 Hz) 90 MW (60 Hz) 150 MW (50 Hz) 42 MW (50/60 Hz) 10 MW (50/60 Hz) GE10 106B 107EA 109E 106FA 107FA 109FA 207FB Syngas Power Rating Model IGCC Syngas CC Output Power 14 MW (50/60 Hz) 63 MW (50/60 Hz) 130 MW (60 Hz) 210 MW (50 Hz) 130 MW (50/60 Hz) 280 MW (60 Hz) 420 MW (50 Hz) 750 MW (60 Hz) 16 The Next Generation Power Plant I G CC Making Environmental Compliance Affordable Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology is increasingly important in the world energy market. IGCC technology can satisfy output requirements from 10 MW to more than 1. The IGCC gasification process “cleans” heavy fuels and converts them into high value fuel for gas turbines. where low cost opportunity feedstocks such as coal. Pioneered by GE almost 30 years ago. Using knowledge gained from successfully operating many IGCC units. .

energy services and management GEis Value 17 systems. combined with Six Sigma quality methodology. with an installed base of power generation equipment in more than 120 countries. Our Customer-Centric approach. assures that customer needs are defined up front and that performance against customer expectations is measured and managed every step of the way. Energy management ■ Oil & Gas Energy rentals ■ Petrochemical ■ Gas compression ■ Commercial marine power ■ Energy rentals Our people. with an installed base of power generation equipment in more than 120 countries. products and services provide enhanced performance. GE is a leading global supplier of power generation technology. combined with Six Sigma quality methodology. competitive life-cycle costs and continuous technological innovation with unmatched experience. GE Energy ■ Commercial and industrial power generation Distributed power Energy management Oil & Gas Petrochemical Gas compression Commercial marine power spectrum of the energy industry. technology-based ■ energy industry. energy services and management GE Energy provides innovative. competitive life cycle costs Industries Served: and continuous technological innovation with unmatched experience. assures that customer needs ■ Commercial and industrial power generation ■ are defined up front and that performance against customer expectations is measured and ■ Distributed power ■ managed every step of the way.GE Value Industries Served: ■ GE a leading global supplier of power generation technology. Our Customer-Centric ■ ■ ■ approach. ■ Our people. technology-based products and service solutions across the full systems. products and service solutions across the full spectrum of the provides innovative. products and services provide enhanced performance. .

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GE Energy GAS TURBINE AND COMBINED CYCLE PRODUCTS .

Mercer R.K. Tuthill GE Power Systems Schenectady. NY .g GER-3935B GE Power Systems Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles R. Matta G.S.D.

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. . . . . . . . . . 14 Validation Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Compressor Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 H Gas Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Combustor Design Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Gas Turbine Factory Tests. . . . . . . . . . 17 List of Tables . . . . . 10 Fuel Injection Design Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combined-Cycle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Turbine Design Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 H Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Case for Steam Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Combustor Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Gas Turbine Validation: Testing to Reduce Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Compressor Design Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Conceptual Design . . . . . . . . . 4 H Product Family and Performance . . . . . . . . 7 Turbine Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles Contents Abstract . . . . . . . . 16 List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 System Strategy and Integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Background and Rationale for the H System™ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ ii .

components and subsystems which necessarily preceded full-scale field testing of the H System™. This H System™ will also undergo approximately a half-year of extensive demonstration and characterization testing at the launch site. The end result is generation of electricity at the lowest. combined-cycle plant in the 400 to 500 megawatt range. which in turn produces dramatic improvements in fuel-efficiency. To illustrate the methodical product development strategy used by GE. This paper validates one of the basic premises on which GE started the H System™ development program: Exhaustive and elaborate testing programs minimize risk at every step of this process. The H System™ is not simply a state-of-the-art gas turbine. In 1995. Because fuel represents the largest individual expense of running a power plant. this paper discusses the technological milestones during the development of the first 9H (50 Hz) and 7H (60 Hz) gas turbines. This feature allows the power generator to operate at a higher firing temperature. In addition. The 7H gas turbine will also be subjected to extensive demonstration and characterization testing at the launch site. It is an advanced. GE. In addition to describing the magnitude of performance improvement possible through use of H System™ technology. an efficiency increase of even a single percentage point can substantially reduce operating costs over the life of a typical gas-fired. The H System™ gas turbine has undergone extensive design validation and component testing. introduced its new generation of gas turbines. GE has more than two million fired hours of experience in operating advanced technology gas turbines. Also. the 9H gas turbine is the first ever designed using “Design for Six Sigma” methodology. Both the 7H and 9H gas turbines will achieve the reliability levels of our F-class technology machines. which combines both the steam plant reheat process and gas turbine bucket and nozzle cooling. most competitive price possible. 1 . integrated. Testing of the 7H began in December 1999. The H System™ design incorporates lessons learned from this experience with knowledge gleaned from operating GE aircraft engines. combustion temperature is kept at levels that minimize emission production. no-load testing was completed in February 2000. and full-speed. which maximizes reliability and availability throughout the entire design process. Also included herein are analyses of the series of comprehensive tests of materials. noload testing (FSNL) of the 9H was achieved in May 1998 and pre-shipment testing was completed in November 1999. and increase the probability of success when the H System™ is introduced into commercial service. combined-cycle system every component of which is optimized for the highest level of performance. combined-cycle system is the integrated heat transfer system.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles Abstract This paper provides an overview of GE’s H System™ technology and describes the intensive development work necessary to bring this revolutionary technology to commercial reality. GE has tested its H System™ gas turbine more thoroughly than any system previously introduced into commercial service. Full-speed. the world leader in gas turbine technology for over half a century. GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ The unique feature of an H technology. this paper discusses several technologies which are essential to the introduction of the H System™. This H System™ technology is the first gas turbine ever to achieve the milestone of 60% fuel efficiency. more than three times the fired hours of competitors’ units combined. despite the higher firing temperature of the H System™.

the transfer from GE Aircraft Engines to GEPS includes. and is able to raise firing temperature by 200°F / 110°C over the current “F” class of gas turbines and hold the NOx emission levels at the initial “F” class levels. This means that increases in firing temperature provide higher fuel efficiency (lower fuel consumption per kW of output) and. In a move which could only have occurred within GE. over 200 engineers were transferred from GEAE and CR&D to GEPS. High Temperature Materials Council. and the Dry Low NOx (DLN) Combustion Council. and inversely related to fuel consumption per kW of output. which are described later in the paper: ■ Compressor aerodynamics. NY. and lower emissions than the competing platforms. mechanical design and scale model rig testing ■ Full-scale combustor testing at operating pressures and temperatures ■ Turbine aerodynamics. but with no understanding of the underlying core technology. GE Power Systems (GEPS) and GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) share many common links. but is not limited to. the following technologies. for instance. to the rapid transfer of improved technology and business practices among these businesses. which is directly related to specific output. The General Electric Company is made up of a number of different businesses. higher fuel efficiency. In contrast to the free exchange of core technical personnel between GEPS and GEAE. including.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles Background and Rationale for the H System™ The use of gas turbines for power generation has been steadily increasing in popularity for more than five decades. In contrast. These transfers became the core of the H System™’s “Design and Systems” teams. also promote synergy among the businesses. including test data and analytical codes. in part. H System™ technology is shared in its entirety between GEPS and GEAE. to support the development of the H System™. Gas turbine performance is driven by the firing temperature. Formal technology councils. fostering development of advanced technology. The company has thrived and grown due. However. In the “Conceptual Design” section of this paper. The use of aircraft engine materials and cooling technology has allowed firing temperature for GE’s industrial gas turbines to increase steadily. heat transfer. Gas turbine cycles are inherently capable of higher power density. at the same time. with its unique in-house resources. the Thermal Barrier Coatings Council. higher specific output (more kW per pound of air passing through the turbine). facilitating the efficient transfer of technology from CR&D to the NPI team. and steam turbine components. This approach results in the acquisition of a specific design with limited detail and flexibility. including testing facilities for DLN. The H System™ new product introduction (NPI) team is also located in Schenectady. higher temperatures in the combustor also increase NOx production. compressor components. and nozzle cascade testing ■ Transfer of materials and coating data ■ Processing for turbine blade and wheel superalloys GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 2 . The primary technology transfer channel is the GE Corporate Research & Development (CR&D) Center located in Schenectady. we describe how the GE H System™ solved the NOx problem. several of GE’s competitors have been forced to purchase limited aircraft engine technology from outside companies.

The hot gases from the gas turbine exhaust proceed to a downstream boiler or heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). the use of only three turbine stages would have increased the loading on each stage to a point where unacceptable reduction in stage efficiencies would result. The Case for Steam Cooling The GE H System™ gas turbine uses closed-loop steam cooling of the turbine. that is. while the firing temperature must be as high as possible for optimum cycle efficiency. The H System™’s pressure ratio of 23:1 was selected to optimize the combined-cycle performance. in turn. With the H System™’s higher pressure ratio. Conceptual Design The GE H System™ is a combined-cycle plant. For a given firing temperature class. The resulting steam is passed through a steam turbine and the steam turbine output then augments that from the gas turbine. while at the same time allowing for an uncooled last-stage gas turbine bucket. stages. which used a 15:1 compressor-pressure ratio and three turbine Figure 1. This is a major change from the earlier “F” class gas turbines. The goal is to adequately cool the stage 1 nozzle. in turn. affected by the “compressor pressure ratio”. the gas turbine exhaust temperature is largely determined by the work required to drive the compressor. The 23:1 compressor-pressure ratio. Technology contributed by CR&D includes: ■ Development of heat transfer and fluid flow codes ■ Process development for thermal barrier coatings ■ Materials characterization and data ■ Numerous special purpose component and subsystem tests ■ Design and introduction of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Combustion and firing temperatures Combustion temperature must be as low as possible to establish low NOx emissions. GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 3 . consistent with past GEPS practice. low NOx standards (Figure 1). determined that using four turbine stages would provide the optimum performance and cost solution. It is this closed-loop steam cooling that enabled the combined-cycle GE H System™ to achieve 60% fuel efficiency while maintaining adherence to the strictest. This is achieved with closed-loop steam cooling. By using four stages.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles ■ Gas turbine instrumentation application and monitoring. while minimizing the decrease in combustion product temperature as it passes through the stage 1 nozzle. the H turbine is able to specify optimum work loading for each stage and achieve high turbine efficiency. 2600°F / 1430°C for the H System™. This unique cooling system allows the turbine to fire at a higher temperature for increased performance. The output and efficiency of the steam turbine’s “bottoming cycle” is a function of the gas turbine exhaust temperature. yet without increased combustion temperatures or their resulting increased emissions levels.

transferring what was traditionally waste heat into usable output. the other is combined with intermediate-pressure (IP) steam and used for cooling in the gas turbine. this “chargeable air” is replaced with steam. “Advanced Technology CombinedCycles” and will not be repeated in this paper. and significantly increases the gas turbine output. Steam is used to cool the stationary and rotational parts of the gas turbine. combined-cycle system consists of a gas turbine. it picks up heat for use in the steam turbine. Combined-Cycle System The H technology. One part is returned to the HRSG for reheating. where it is mixed with the reheated steam from the HRSG and introduced to the IP steam turbine section. Advanced Open Loop Air-Cooled Nozzle H SystemTM Closed-Loop Cooled Nozzle AIR IN AIR IN STEAM IN OUT IN STEAM OUT NOZZLE DT = 280F/155C NOZZLE DT = 80F/44C Figure 2. The 9H and 7H combined-cycle specifications GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 4 . A second advantage of replacing “chargeable air” with steam accrues to the H System™’s cycle through recovery of the heat removed from the gas turbine in the bottoming cycle. thereby allowing more to flow to the head-end of the combustor for fuel premixing. since all the compressor air can be channeled through the turbine flowpath to do useful work. This cooling process causes a temperature drop across the stage 1 nozzle of up to 280°F/155°C.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles In conventional gas turbines. An additional benefit of the H System™ is that while the steam cools the nozzle. The features of the combined-cycle system. with designs predating the H System™. with its higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature design. The exhaust steam from this turbine section is then split. which include the coolant steam flow from the steam cycle to the gas turbine. compressor air is also used to cool rotational and stationary components downstream of the stage 1 nozzle in the turbine section. In turn. the stage 1 nozzle is cooled with compressor discharge air. a three-pressure-level HRSG and a reheat steam turbine. are shown in Figure 3. cooling the stage 1 nozzle with a closed-loop steam coolant reduces the temperature drop across that nozzle to less than 80°F/44°C (Figure 2). the heat transferred from the gas turbine increases the steam temperature to approximately reheat temperature. In conventional gas turbines. This results in a firing temperature class of 2600°F/1430°C. because it reduces cycle performance. yet with no increase in combustion temperature. The high-pressure steam from the HRSG is expanded through the steam turbine's high-pressure section. The third advantage of closed-loop cooling is that it minimizes parasitic extraction enhances cycle performance by up to 2 points in efficiency. will establish a new family of gas turbine products. In H System™ gas turbines. or 200°F/110°C higher than in preceding systems. which H Product Family and Performance The H technology. The gas turbine cooling steam is returned to the steam cycle. This air is traditional labeled as “chargeable air”. Further details about the H combined-cycle system and its operation can be found in GER 3936A. In H System™ gas turbines. Impact of stage 1 nozzle cooling method of compressor discharge air. H Technology.

the H technology’s compact design results in a 54% increase in output over the FA plants with an increase of just 10% in plant size.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles One extremely attractive feature of the H technology. MW Net Efficiency. 7H and 7FA footprint comparison Table 2.0 9 1230 (558) 23 400 60 9 Figure 4. The 7H program is following closely. H Technology performance characteristics (60 Hz) tices within the industry. H Technology performance characteristics (50 Hz) 7FA Firing Temperature Class. F (C) Air Flow. H Combined-cycle and steam description are compared in Tables 1 and 2 with the similar “F” technology family members. Figure 3. Department of Energy and its encouragement and support is gratefully acknowledged. lb/sec (kg/sec) Pressure Ratio Combined Cycle Net Output. lb/sec (kg/sec) Pressure Ratio Combined Cycle Net Output.S. The specified output of the H technology products is 400 MW at 60 Hz and 480 MW at 50 Hz in a single-shaft. % NOx (ppmvd at 15% O2) 9H 2400 (1316) 2600 (1430) 1376 (625) 15 391 56. but has been driven by customer input to GE. and consequently. combined-cycle system. about 12 months behind the 9H. The 9H and 7H are not scaled geometrically to one another. F (C) Air Flow. This permits compact plant designs with a reduced “footprint” when compared with conventional designs. MW Net Efficiency. The 7H development has made progress as part of the Advanced Turbine Systems program of the U. % NOx (ppmvd at 15% O2) 7H 2400 (1316) 2600 (1430) 953 (433) 15 263 56. The 9H has been introduced at 25 ppm NOx. GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ introduced first. combined-cycle power plants is the high specific output. In a 60 Hz configuration. the 9H was Table 1. in response to specific customer commitments. System Strategy and Integration While component and subsystem validation is necessary and is the focus of most NPI pro5 . This is a departure from past prac9FA Firing Temperature Class. based on global market needs and economics. the potential for reduced plant capital costs (Figure 4).7 25 1510 (685) 23 480 60 25 GE is moving forward concurrently with development of the 9H and 7H. However.

which was used by the TEPCO team to initiate the May 30. The balance of this paper will focus on the gas turbine and its associated development program. the H System™ gas turbine. Clearly. A diagnostic capability is built into the control system. the performance of the gas turbine. This control system was designed with and is supplied by GE Industrial Systems (GEIS). The control system for the H System™ manages steam flows between the HRSG. the Mark VI controller. Unlike traditional combined-cycle units. softstart for the gas turbine. from its inception. to full speed. third-generation. full-authority digital system. and control concepts. working closely with one another as well as with customers. have formulated improved hardware.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles grams. The end result was an automated. 1998 customer witness test. combining the compressor. which ties all the subsystems together (Figure 5). both steady state and transient. other factors must also be considered in creating a successful product. This integration was facilitatControl Room Remote Dispatch ed by a new. interdependent system. Systems and controls teams. and analyzed in detail. to purge. The Systems and controls teams have state-ofthe-art computer simulations at their disposal to facilitate full engineering of control and fallback strategies. which included proof of concept tests and shake down tests of a full combined-cycle plant at GE Aircraft Engines in Lynn. combustor and turbine at design point (baseload). from startup. combined-cycle and balance of plant has been modeled. steam turbine and HRSG are linked into one. and at no load. integrated system. Massachusetts. In the H System™. Simulation capability was used in real time during the 9H Full-Speed No-Load (FSNL)-1 test in May 1998. Mark VI – ICS design integrated with H Systems™ design GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 6 . one-button. the reasoning behind these GE H System™ components runs contrary to the traditional approach. The development of the Mark VI and integrated control system has been deliberately scheduled ahead of the H gas turbine to reduce the gas turbine risk. which also stores critical data in an electronic historian for easy retrieval and troubleshooting. which designs and specifies each component as a stand-alone entity. Fault Tolerant Plant Data Highway Color Display Printer Log Printer Operator Station Operator Station Engineering Workstation Historian Redundant Unit Data Highway HMI/ Server Steam Turbine & Bypass Control Gas Turbine & Cooling Steam Control Generator Excitation & Protection Static Starter HRSG & Steam Cycle Mechanical Auxiliaries Unit Auxiliary Control HMI/ Server Alarm Printer HRSG/MA Gas Turbine Generator Steam Turbine BOP Equipment •All New Microprocessor Design •Triple Modular Redundant •Remotable I/O •Capability for I/O Expansion •Redundant Control and Plant Data Highways •Peer-to-Peer Communications •Time Synchronized Unit Controls •Time Coherent System Data •Integrated System Diagnostics •Independent OS and OT Protection Figure 5. the Mark VI followed a separate and rigorous NPI risk abatement procedure. software. The gas turbine must operate as a system. as one large. The power plant and all power island components must also operate at steady state and under transient conditions. With the help of GE CR&D. steam turbine and gas turbine. which is yet another GE business working closely with GEPS. The GE H System™ concept incorporates an integrated control system (ICS) to act as the glue. at part load turndown conditions. It also schedules distribution of cooling steam to the gas turbine. Digital simulations also serve as a training tool for new operators. This facilitated revision of the accelerating torque demand curves for the gas turbine and re-setting of the starter motor current and gas turbine combustor fuel schedule.

in conjunction with thin ceramic thermal barrier coatings (Figure 7).6:1 for the MS7001H and 3. These units are derived from the high-pressure compressor GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) used in the CF6-80C2 aircraft engine and the LM6000 aeroderivative gas turbine. while the fourth and last stage is uncooled. The CF6 compressor design has accumulated over 20 million hours of running experience. testing and production database and worked closely with GEAE. Cross-section H gas turbine Turbine Overview The case for steam cooling was presented earlier under Conceptual Design. analysis.1:1 for the MS9001H) with four stages added to achieve the desired combination of airflow and pressure ratio. DLN combustion systems have demonstrated the ability to achieve low NOx levels in field service and are capable of meeting the firing temperature requirements of the GE H System™ gas turbine while obtaining single-digit (ppm) NOx and CO emissions. and CR&D to translate this experience into a reliable and effective feature of the H System™ gas turbine design. In addition to the variable inlet guide vane (IGV). Figure 6. in conjunction with the IGV.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles H Gas Turbine The heart of the GE H System™ is the gas turbine. the third stage uses air cooling. design details. This method of cooling results in higher thermal stresses on the airfoil materials. the H compressors have variable stator vanes (VSV) at the front of the compressor. This is a combination that GEAE has employed in its jet engines for 20 years.5 H System™. GEPS reached into the extensive GEAE design. GE follows a rigorous system of design practices which the company has developed through hav- Compressor Overview The H compressor provides a 23:1 pressure ratio with 1510 lb/s (685 kg/s) and 1230 lb/s (558 kg/s) airflow for the 9H and 7H gas turbines. similar to the GE DLN combustion systems in FA-class service today. The GE H System™ gas turbine’s first two stages use closed-loop steam cooling. The challenges. Combustor Overview The H System™ can-annular combustion system is a lean pre-mix DLN-2. as well as to optimize operation for variations in ambient temperature. and has led GEPS to use single-crystal super-alloys for the first stage. its supplier base. Fourteen combustion chambers are used on the 9H. and increases the temperature gradients through the airfoil walls. the CF6-80C2 compressor has been scaled up (2. used on prior GE gas turbines to modulate airflow. GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 7 . They are used. providing a solid design foundation for the H System™ gas turbine. Closed-loop cooling eliminates the film cooling on the gas path side of the airfoil. For use in the H gas turbines. and twelve combustion chambers are used on the 7H. and validation program results follow. respectively. We start with a brief overview of the 9H and 7H gas turbine components (Figure 6). to control compressor airflow during turndown.

but is designed to deliver a robust product into the field for initial introduction.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles The systematic design and technology-validation approach described in this paper has proved to be the aerospace and aircraft industry’s most reliable practice for introduction of complex. when complete. evidenced by coating spallation when thickness limits are exceeded. GEAE. for a prototype to explore the full operating process in a controlled fashion. However. Through laboratory analyses and experience-based data and knowledge. the effort to develop and validate the H System™ required the employment of over 600 people and had annual expenses of over $100 million.S. GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 8 . For instance. The first phase in the H System™ development process was a thorough assessment of product options. testing. and that maximization of coating thickness is limited by deposits from environmental elements. Department of Energy. All resources and technological capabilities of GEAE and CR&D were made available to the Power Systems’ Htechnology team. that it maintains performance over a specific minimum cyclic life coatings. Gas Turbine Validation: Testing to Reduce Risk Although GEPS officially introduced the H System™ concept and two product lines. H System™ technology has been under development since 1992. and has followed GE’s comprehensive design and technology validation plan that will. These were sorted into categories of existing capabilities or required technology advancements. The development has been a joint effort among GEPS. it is difficult. GE has created an airfoil that has shown. to the industry in 1995. The prototype approach also yields a much greater probability of failure during the initial field introduction of a product than does the comprehensive design approach. and CR&D. For example. cutting-edge technology products. have spanned 10 years from concept to power plant commissioning. H Stage 1 nozzle and bucket – single crystal ing a wide range of experiences with gas turbines in the last 20 years. For each component and subsystem. risk was assessed and abatement analyses. if not impossible. as has been noted during field service. the 9H and 7H gas turbines. The approach is costly and time consuming. and Figure 7. Other suppliers perceive that design and construction of a full-scale prototype may be a faster development-and-design approach. coupled with “Six Sigma” disciplines and the technology validation plan used by GE (Figure 8). and system requirements. even with localized loss of coatings. GEAE’s experience base of over 4000 parts indicates that thermal barrier coating on many airfoils is subject to loss early in operation. components and subsystems. with encouragement and support from the U. At its peak. during field tests. corresponding design concepts. Also crucial in the first phase was careful selection of materials. prototype testing limits the opportunity to evaluate alternative compressor stator gangs and to explore cause-and-effect among components when problems are encountered.

and analytical codes from GEPS and GEAE. optimizing on GEAE and GEPS experience-supported limits on blade loading. The aerodynamic Figure 9. MA test facility. surge margin. The program has completed the third and final compressor rig test at GEAE’s Lynn. approximately $20M. and included the introduction of knowledge gained through experience. and executed. Tests are run with CF6 full-scale hardware. The 7H rig test had over 800 sensors and accumulated over 150 hours to characterize the compressor’s aerodynamic and aeromechanical operations (Figure 9). and stall margins. compressor rig tests and instrumented product tests. Key test elements include optimum ganging of the variable guide vanes and stators. efficiency. Completion of the development program results in full-scale gas turbine testing at our factory test stand in Greenville. technology readiness demonstration. component tests. The aerodynamic design is iterated in concert with the aeromechanical design of the individual blade stages. start-up. This phase includes execution of detailed design and product validation through component and gas turbine testing. funded. The second development phase covered product conceptual and preliminary designs. which amounts to a one-third scale test for the 9H and 7H gas turbines. stress limits. GE validation process data were specified. and turndown character- Advanced Technologies Needed Design. materials data. significantly surpassing any other test options. but provides validation and flexibility. SC. stage pressure and temperature splits. Compressor Design Status Modifications and proof-of-design are made through a rigorous design process that includes GEAE and GEPS experience-based analytical tools. Analysis & Component Tests Proven Best Practices from Experience Base • 23:1 Compressor • Compressor Rig Tests • Full pressure combustion tests • Single crystal material • Robust TBC coatings • Steam Cooling Systems • Nozzle cascade test • Mark VI Control System FSNL Factory Tests FSFL Field Test • • • • • • • Inlet/Exhaust/Structures Through-Bolt Rotor Cold end drive PS & AE materials DLN combustion Proven analytical tools Proven production sources Commercial Operation g GE Proprietary H Event JAE 9 Figure 8.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles design process uses pitchline design and offdesign performance evaluation. A high degree of confidence has been gained through component and subsystem testing and validation of analysis codes. Each rig test is expensive. acceleration. etc. followed by combined-cycle power plant testing at the Baglan Energy Park launch site. stage efficiency. performance mapping to quantify airflow. in the United Kingdom. 7H compressor test rig GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 9 . Plans to abate risk and facilitate design were arranged. The H System™ development program is currently in its third and final phase. axisymmetric streamline curvature calculations with empiricism for secondary flows and mixing. twodimensional inviscid blade-to-blade analysis and three dimensional viscous CFD blade row analysis.

and identification of flutter and vibratory characteristics of the airfoils (aeromechanics). The flow sleeve incorporates Premix Fuel Passages Diffusion Gas Holes Uninterrupted Flowpath Diffusion Air Passage Inlet Flow Conditioner Figure 12. The technical approach features a tri-passage radial prediffuser which optimizes the airflow pressure distribution around the combustion chambers. The transition piece seals are the advanced cloth variety for minimum leakage and maximum wear resistance. with four stages added to increase pressure ratio. ■ 7H compressor design validation – completed August 1999. Advanced 2-Cool™ composite wall convective cooling is utilized at the aft end of the liner. Thus. and initial power generation operability – completed August 1995. The term swozzle is derived by joining the words “swirler” and “nozzle. The three-test series has accomplished the following: ■ Proof of concept. Compressor map Combustor Design Status Figure 11 shows a cross-section of the combustion system. (Figure 10) Cap Assembly Swozzle Based Fuel Nozzle Flowsleeve Impingement Sleeve Combustion Liner Transition Piece Figure 11. and impingement sleeve cooling of the transition piece. Fuel injector system cross-section GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 10 . Fuel Injector Design Status The H System™ fuel injector is shown in Figure 12 and is based on the swozzle concept. ■ 9H compressor design validation and maps including tri-passage diffuser performance and rotor cooling proofof-concept – completed August 1997. and each of these swirl vanes also contains passages for injecting fuel into the premixer airflow.” The premixing passage of the swozzle utilizes swirl vanes to impart rotation to the admitted airflow. Combustion system cross-section impingement holes for liner aft cooling. the premixer is very aerodynamic and highly resistant Swirler Vanes Diffusion Swirler Figure 10.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles istics. The liner cooling is of the turbolator type so that all available air can be allocated to the reaction zone to reduce NOx. An effusion-cooled cap is utilized at the forward end of the combustion chamber. a GTD222 transition piece with an advanced integral aft frame mounting arrangement.

Figure 13. This very simplified staging strategy has major advantages for smooth unit operability and robustness. two premixed fuel streams P1.95 T3. The gas turbine is started on D4. with full pressure. piloted premix. ample flashback/ flameholding resistance.adisp -.degrees C . are activated in the transfer into piloted premix. accelerated to FullSpeed No-Load (FSNL). and loaded further.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles to flashback and flameholding. In excess of thirty tests were run at the GEAE combustion test facility.degrees degrees FF c – .scimanyD noitsubmoC Discrete Peak Guideline Upper Limit Discrete Peak Guideline Upper Limit Overall Overall Level Level Highest Peak HighestDiscrete Discrete Peak T3. quiet combustion dynamics. After loading the gas turbine to approximately 40-50% load. a swirl cup is provided in the center of each fuel injector.95 -. Finally.kaeP ot kaeP . center nozzle premixed fuel (P1). Figure 13 shows a schematic diagram of the staging scheme. Figure 15. Peak to Peak – psida. and diffusion fuel (D4). and P4. and airflow. These modes are supported by the presence of four fuel circuits: outer nozzle premixed fuel (P4). and rigorously assessed component lifing supported by a complete set of thermal data.95 FF c – degrees T3. The H components have significant margin in each case. Comparable combustion dynamics data ignition testing was performed on the fuel injector premixing passages. OH. temperature. burner quaternary premixed fuel (BQ). In all cases the fuel injectors exhibited well in excess of 30 ft/s flameholding margin after the hydrogen torch 11 . At approximately 20-35% gas turbine load.95C -. and Figure 15 shows the comparable combustion dynamics data. Combustion mode staging scheme three combustion modes: diffusion. transfer to full premix mode is made and all D4 fuel flow is terminated while BQ fuel flow is activated. In addition. in Evendale. the outer wall of the premixer is integral to the fuel injector to provide added flameholding resistance. Figure 14 shows typical NOx baseload emissions as a function of combustor exit temperature.dvmpp -2 Program Goal Program Goal Program Margined Goal Progam Margined Goal O %51 @ xON OSI T3. GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ Figure 14. and full premix mode. The H System™ combustor uses a simplified combustion mode staging scheme to achieve low emissions over the premixed load range while providing flexible and robust operation at other gas turbine loads. hydrogen torch PREMIXED MODE TURNDOWN PREMIXED MODE TURNDOWN (BASE LOAD VGV SIMULATION ) (BASELOAD VGV SIMULATION) ISO NOx @ 15% O2 – ppmvd. for diffusion flame starting and low load operation. Downstream of the swozzle vanes. NOx baseload emissions as a function of combustor exit temperature PREMIXEDMODE MODE TURNDOWN PREMIXED TURNDOWN ( BASE LOADVGV VGV SIMULATION) SIMULATION ) (BASELOAD Combustion Dynamics. The most significant attribute is that there are only The H System™ combustor was developed in an extensive test series to ensure low emissions.

dependent on steam purity. which the TBC will experience on the H System™ airfoils. the key factors do not change. Long-term durability of the steam-cooled components is dependent on avoidance of internal deposit buildup. Results have fully defined and validated the factors vital to successful turbine operation. Figure 16.5 relative to the combustion inspection intervals on a thermal cycles to crack initiation basis. shows results for stage 1 nozzle internal cooling heat transfer. Testing has included samples of base material and joints and the testing has addressed the following mechanisms: cyclic oxidation.9% certainty that component lifing goals will be met. Thermal barrier coating durability 12 . Life validation has been performed using both field trials (Figure 18) and laboratory analysis. which is. the impact of steam on the airfoil's heat transfer and material capabilities must also be considered. However. When closed circuit steam cooling is used. Full-scale stage 1 nozzle heat transfer test validates design and analysis predictions GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ Figure 18. This is accomplished through system design and filtration of the gas turbine cooling steam. Thus. Materials validation testing in steam Thermal barrier coating (TBC) is used on the flowpath surfaces of the steam-cooled turbine airfoils. Long-term validation testing. An extensive array of material tests has been performed to validate the material characteristics in a steam environment.S. fatigue crack propagation. For many years. low-cycle fatigue and notched low-cycle fatigue (Figure 17). In addition. the U. long life are the turbine airfoil's heat transfer and material capabilities. Two of the factors critical to reliable.5 and 7. in turn. Figure 16 Figure 17. The latter involved a test that duplicates thermal-mechanical conditions. there is a 99. lifing studies have shown expected combustion system component lives with short term Z-scores between 5. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Turbine System has provided cooperative support for GE’s development of the H System™ turbine heat transfer materials capability and steam effects. as on the H turbine. creep. A number of different heat transfer tests have been performed to fully characterize the heat transfer characteristics of the steam-cooled components. providing the work extraction to drive the compressor and generator.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles was de-activated. Turbine Design Status The turbine operates with high gas path temperatures.

Coatings to improve durability of the spoolie were also tested. which is the H System™ component subjected to the highest operating temperatures and gradients. Accelerated endurance test data was also GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ obtained. A nozzle cascade facility was designed and erected at GEAE (Figure 19). has defined particle size distribution and validated long-term steam filtration. In the conceptual design phase. 13 . Data was obtained validating the aerodynamic design and heat transfer codes. Component testing began for both air and steam systems. specimens duplicating nozzle cooling passages have initiated long-term exposure tests. The spoolie was instrumented to validate the analysis. material capability and steam cooling effects. which would lead to performance loss and adverse thermal gradients within the rotor structure. is scheduled to start in the 4th quarter of 2000). These basic coupon tests and operational experience provided valuable information to the designers. Two prototype nozzles complete with pre-spalled TBC were tested in April 1998.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles currently underway at an existing power plant. Again. The basic concept for power system steam sealing is derived from many years of successful application of spoolies in the GE CF6 and CFM56 aircraft engine families. material selection was made only after considering the effects of steam present in this application. This testing facility accurately provides the actual gas turbine operating environment. The H turbine airfoils have been designed using design data and validation test results for heat transfer. The durability of ceramic thermal barrier coatings has been demonstrated by three different component tests performed by CR&D: ■ Furnace cycle test ■ Jet engine thermal shock tests ■ Electron beam thermal gradient testing The electron beam thermal gradient test was developed specifically for GEPS to accurately simulate the very high heat transfers and gradients representative of the H System™ gas turbine.and F-class gas turbines. Figure 19. In the preliminary design phase. This steam delivery system relies on “spoolies” to deliver steam to the buckets without detrimental leakage. the combination of analysis and validation tests provided confirmation that the design(s) under consideration were based on the right concept. It features a turbine segment carrying two closed-loop steam-cooled nozzles downstream from a full-scale H System™ combustor and transition piece. As further validation. A separate rotational rig is being used for bucket validation. has been validated by another intensive component test. The stage 1 nozzle. Heat transfers and gradients representative of the H System™ gas turbine have also been proven by field testing of the enhanced coatings in E. parametric analysis was performed to optimize spoolie configuration. with actual 9H production nozzles. Nozzle cascade test facility The rotor steam delivery system delivers steam for cooling stage 1 and 2 turbine buckets. A second test series.

spoolie-coating seat. refined analysis was performed to allow for plasticity lifecycle calculations in the region of the highest stresses. which demonstrated effective sealing at machine operating conditions with a life over of 20.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles Over 50 component tests have been conducted on these spoolies. 9H gas turbine in half shell prior to first FSNL test 14 . This analysis was again validated with a spoolie cyclic life test. The spoolies were subjected to a similar environment with complete mechanical G loading. Gas Turbine Factory Tests The first six years of the GE H System™ validation program focused on sub-component and component tests. that of fullscale gas turbine testing at the Greenville. Test rig instrumentation will insure that the machine matches the operating environment. These objectives included confirmation of rotor dynamics: vibration levels and onset of different modes. angular motion. Rotating rig installed in test stand GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ Figure 21. The 9H gas turbine achieved first fire and full speed and. the program moved on to the next stage. A rotating steam delivery rig (Figure 20) has been designed and manufactured to conduct cyclic endurance testing of the delivery system under any load environment. then. accomplished the full set of objectives. The rig has been installed in the test cell. evaluating coatings. This system testing will provide accelerated lifecycle testing. Leakage checks will be completed periodically to monitor sealing effectiveness. The testing also provided data on key systems: Figure 20. Post-testing condition of the seals was correlated to the observation made on the component tests. compressor discharge air flowed through the circuit. and testing should resume in April 2000. Spoolies were also used on the H System™ FSNL gas turbine tests. fits. axial motion. lateral loads. Assembly and disassembly tooling and processes were developed. South Carolina factory (Figure 21). compressor airfoil aero-mechanics. The rotating rig will subject components to the same centrifugal forces and thermal gradients that occur during actual operation of the turbine. In addition. in May 1998. over a space of five fired tests. This provided another opportunity for validation. Finally. The detailed design phase focused on optimization of the physical features of the subsystem. the CF6 scale rig tests. measurement of compressor and turbine rotor clearances. temperature and surface finish. compressor performance. This is typical of any no-load operation.000 cycles. including confirmation of airflow and efficiency scale-up effects vs. and demonstration of the gas turbine with the Mark VI control system. During the 9H FSNL-2 testing.

Compressor and turbine blade aeromechanics data were obtained at rates of up to 108% of the design speed. Rotor dynamics Figure 23. 9H gas turbine in test stand for pre-shipment test This second 9H test series took seven fired starts and verified that the gas turbine was ready to ship to the field for the final validation step. were once again demonstrated. The rotor vibrations showed excellent correlation with the rotor dynamic model and analysis. The pre-shipment test confirmed that the rotating air/steam cooling system performed as modeled and designed. The 9H gas turbine was rebuilt with production turbine airfoils and pre-shipment tests performed in October and November 1999. A successful baseline compressor test program has validated the H System™ compressor design approach. In particular. the 7H not only covered the 9H test objectives described earlier. incorporated over 3500 gauges and sensors (Figure 22). Figure 22. clearing the unit to run at design and over-speed conditions.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles bearings. and vibration levels were found to be acceptable without field balance weights. This 7H went through a test series similar to that for the first 9H factory test. The hardware was found to be in excellent condition. However. As a result of the 9H and 15 GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ . but also ran separately with deliberate unbalance at compressor and turbine ends to characterize the rotor sensitivity and vectors. cavity temperatures and effectiveness of the clearance control systems. 7H gas turbine being installed in test stand Validation Summary GE is utilizing extensive design data and validation test programs to ensure that a reliable H System™ power plant is delivered to the customer. The Mark VI control system demonstrated full control of both the gas turbine and the new H System™ accessory and protection systems. the gas turbine was disassembled in the factory and measured and scrutinized for signs of wear and tear. The first 7H gas turbine was assembled and moved to the test stand in December 1999 (Figure 23). which is critical to the cooling and life of the turbine airfoils and the achievement of well-balanced and predictable rotor behaviors. was well under allowable limits. Many firsts were accomplished. thus. Following the testing. following the same sequence used for the 9H. rotor cooling. leakage. This unit was fully instrumented for the field test to follow and. The 7H gas turbine is now back in the factory for disassembly and inspection.

thermal and stress analysis. which allows the turbine to reach record levels of efficiency and specific work while retaining low emissions capability. The extensive component test validation program. Conclusion The rigorous design and technology validation of the H System™ is an illustration of the GE NPI process in its entirety. threedimensional. Full size verification of the stage 1 nozzle design is being achieved through the steamcooled nozzle cascade testing. Its innovative cooling system allows a major increase in firing temperature. the H compressors have been fully validated for commercial service. Test results have been integrated into detailed. The design for this “next generation” power generation system is now established. The H turbine airfoils have been validated by extensive heat tests. materials testing in steam. combined-cycle power generation system to the customer. aerodynamic. TBC testing and steam purity tests. This ensures the highest probability of success. The H technology. Both the 50 Hz and 60 Hz family members are currently in the production and final validation phase. even before the product or shipping to customers and/or the product has begun operation in the field. combined-cycle power plant creates an entirely new echelon of power generation systems. already well underway.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles 7H compressor tests. Both 9H and 7H gas turbines have undergone successful factory testing and the 9H is now poised for shipment to the field and final validation test. It began with a well-reasoned concept that endured a rigorous review GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 16 . and validation process. will ensure delivery of a highly reliable.

Figure 2. Figure 21. Figure 13. Figure 23. Figure 14. Combustion and firing temperatures Impact of stage 1 nozzle cooling method H combined-cycle and system description 7H and 7FA footprint comparison Mark VI – ICS design integrated with H System™ design Cross-section H gas turbine H Turbine . Figure 16. Figure 20. Figure 4. Figure 18. Figure 10. Table 2. Figure 9. Figure 22. Figure 5. H Technology performance characteristics (50 Hz) H Technology performance characteristics (60 Hz) GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 17 . Figure 19. Figure 3.Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles List of Figures Figure 1. Figure 12. Figure 11.stage 1 nozzle and bucket – single crystal GE validation process 7H compressor rig test Compressor map Combustion system cross-section Fuel injection system cross-section Combustion mode staging scheme Combustion test results – NOx baseload emissions as a function of combustion exit temperature Combustion test results – comparable combustion dynamics data Full-scale stage 1 nozzle complete band heat transfer test validates cooling design Materials validation testing in steam Thermal barrier coating durability Nozzle cascade test facility Rotating rig installed in test stand 9H gas turbine in half shell prior to first FSNL test 9H gas turbine in test stand for pre-shipment test 7H gas turbine being installed in test stand List of Tables Table 1. Figure 6. Figure 15. Figure 7. Figure 17. Figure 8.

Power Systems for the 21st Century – “H” Gas Turbine Combined-Cycles GE Power Systems GER-3935B (10/00) ■ ■ 18 .