1 Sleepwalking into Apartheid Introduction The phrase ‘sleepwalking into apartheid was put forward by Phillips Trevor who

was the chairman of the racial equality commission in the year 2005; he delivered a very wonderful speech to address the issues that were facing Britain about voluntary colonization. In his speech ‘After the 7/7 Sleepwalking into segregation’, he highlighted claims that the Britons were becoming estranged to each other and their societies were getting abandoned outside the mainstream. The Muslims in Britain, according to Trevor are mostly held up as the society which is integrated (incorporated with the rest) the least and is the most segregated (isolated from the rest). Just as a support for his claims, Trevor highlights the incidences of Pakistani and Bangladesh societies where hard segregation and soft segregation indicated isolation from the mainstream. According to Trevor claims about Muslims, is that they can be viewed as a minority group.

Segregation Factors Studying segregation has become both complicated and controversial. The subject inspires extremities of thought and actions, gaining support as well as criticism and stirring passions which are varied ranging from resigned acceptance to active support and even violent disagreements. It’s been very difficult again to offer the explanation to what segregation should entail (Allen & Martin 1992). Basically segregation is not neutral and is engraved in symbolism described by the terrors of apartheid and termination of the British city. As described earlier, this is when assimilation or integration of one community into the other especially the minority community into the larger one.

2 Segregation is a negative concept in the society and should not be encouraged as its divides people and could lead top societal problems like hate crimes (Burke & Morrill 2002). The social segregation concept refers to two main processes, which are; spatial patterns and the social differentiation. The way segregation is manifested is available in most literature writing. For instance, in 1993, Smith suggested that segregation originated from labour migrations politics of social policy (Burke & Morrill 2002). Basically there are fives features of segregation; 1. segregation measurement 2. the purpose of segregation 3. stability and change 4. comparison of the inner­city 5. The policy proposition in the wider framework Segregation in a bigger picture refers to the broadest aspect of social life. Basically spatial  separation   describes   segregation   of   several   groups   across   different   regions.   Presently,  segregation is known to spatially victimize the poor minority groups. Doing away with  segregation   is   what   every   ethnic   community   is   doing.   Previous   researches   have  concentrated   on   exposing   the   way   segregation   develops   and   how   to   alleviate   it   as   a  serious problem (Burke & Morrill 2002) 

3 There are two areas of focus when researching segregation. Some study segregation as  being   in   certain   areas   while   other   investigates   the   implication   of   ghettoisation   in  neighborhoods. However, unavoidably, researchers usually study on a certain group while  few make the comparisons (Blair 2006). The groups differ considerably, not only in the  cultural composition but also in human, economic and other resources they own. The  context in which segregation is defined involves four difference hypotheses; the minority  ethnic group in the society is segregated due to the fact that its confined to a particular are  and no representation in the rest of the society; the ethnic group is not segregated because  the white populace are living everywhere where minority are found and the whites are  widely segregated because they living in their exclusive white residence; the city centre is  segregated because a lot of people from ethnic minority stay there and finally the centre  of the city is not segregated because of the mixed population (Blackmore 2007)

Trevor’s Claims Basically Muslims are not a minority group as the way they have been treated but are a larger group with a diversity of ethnicities and any discussions that involve Muslims should take into consideration the dereference between ethnicity characteristics and those that are attributable to the religion, Islam. Trevor felt that it was important to address those things that were British and according to him, he defined them as Britishness. He identified some ‘simple Truths’ as hew puts it (Blackmore 2007). These were mainly the stereotyping and uninformative clichés that that usually come to mind when describing

4 Britishness; Freedom of speech, democracy, equality, use of common language, care for the children, individualism, eccentric living and politicking. Nobody directs the British how to dress and their way of worship. An important thing to note is that Trevor made a clear setting for differentiating the British and the rest (Blair 2006).

The process of integration has to be a two way street. Two communities both exchange their traditions and adapt some from the other (Blackmore 2007). He also identified some three integral feature of integrated society; they include equality, interaction and equality. However this is not normally the case when two communities happen to be residing together, the contrary may happen and this is what is called drifting from the norm or expected correct relation. When this happens, segregation ensues; It’s worth noting that despite the fact that people identify themselves as a society in Britain, the same societies were greatly divided based on their religion and even on race (Kundnani 2007).

Some of the districts in Britain are now becoming fully fledged ghettoes presenting very dangerous places that no one can go without being terrified and suffering trepidation and from which one gets out undamaged. The separation between the communities is increasing (Kundnani 2007). To imply that this is almost an involuntary act, Trevor uses the word, Sleepwalking. Still there are those who are left outside. This is basically the few individuals who are responsible for their deeds; they are not integrating as expected.

Segregation on Race and Religion

5 An Asian bishop of the Church of England, rev Michael Nazir-Ali affirmed that in Britain, people from other areas and religion were prone to physical attacks if they live or worked in neighborhoods that were dominated by Muslims. The future of Christianity is at stake in this regard, as the country’s public religion. As the modern world encourages multiculturalism as a philosophy, Islam seems to be overriding on its coattails. Bearing in mind that all the faiths have to be treated equally as multicultural beliefs demands, it’s not possible to challenge the call to offer prayers or the dependence on shariah to administer lawful cases.

Trevor’s sleepwalking into apartheid has faced a lot of criticism for what some people call incendiary language. Nonetheless, multiculturalism has intensely resulted into deep and unmanageable social divisions, what some politicians refer to as voluntary apartheid. It can seem that these divisions are attributable to the government’s letdown to support immigrant integration into the larger group or community. Nevertheless it’s also associated with decreased belief in the Church of England or even the whole process of practicing Christianity. It’s a common belief among the British that the church will be disestablished in a generation to come, breaking the connection between the nations and the church which dates back to the time of reforms. Of course some people assert that the critique of multicultural exceed a mere demonstration of intolerance. Although it’s this intolerance in the Islamic communities that has resulted into this draw back

Blackburn Bishop, Reverend Reade Nicholas maintains that it is progressively getting trickier for Christians to keep their faith in the neighborhoods where they happen to be

6 the minority groups. He also believes that at one time, the administration of the nations will be compelled to disestablish that Church of England. There is enough evidence to show that Britain is Undergoing a drastic change. In just few years, the country with a recognized Christian base is currently being referred to as multifaith community. It’s evident that the larger number of immigration into the British Isles make up for the larger portion of shift in attitude. Hitherto, that is not the whole story. Confidence in Christian vision has been lost and yet this is what underlies the accomplishments and ideology of culture, it could also account for a lack of enthusiasm to protect the country’s heritage (Kundnani 2007).

If the minority groups are allowed d to live in their own protected communities, doing communication in their own languages and having little or no need to establish associations with the majority groups, the country is likely to fall into balkanization. Moreover, the segregation encourages and initiates Islamic extremism by estranging the youths from the nation and creating the feeling of ideological commitment in a mark of satisfactoriness (Kundnani 2007).

Of course some Muslims and Christian understand the problem and are enthusiastic to suggest solutions to it. Shariah laws are critical in this regard. Some important questions is to ask whether these law can be related to the British civil laws, whether shariah complaint banks can be allowed in the free market environment, whether Christianity can be sustained as the nations public faith whether universities can transmit a sense of

7 Britishness at the ascendancy of multiculturalism. Questions to these issues have to be found but still there are more questions than the answers.

Major Debate about Segregation Over the past years, there has been a growing debate with regard to the neighbourhood segregation and ghetto forming. Whereas scholars like Paulsen and his colleagues have published several papers in support of the ideology of segregation and uprising of ghettoes, this view has been challenged by other academicians. The most notable is Dr. Ludi Simpson. He has disputed the issue of ghettoes and has in fact went ahead and claimed that self segregation among the communities was a myth and segregation was on the decrease in the contemporary society (Simpson 2007). Simpson’s perceptions have instigated contentious debates, especially in the journal of urban studies with many of them focusing on the definition of “segregation” and the way it ought to be measured (Wood 2004).

Socio-Economic Factors Previous researches have indicated that there is continuous disadvantage of the minority groups in terms of the treatment but rest of the majority tribes is doing fine. In such groups, segregation is very common in many cities and the characteristics are very irregular. The host community may experience some kind of socio economic segregation from these interactions. The social segregation should not only be based on the ethnic ant racial characteristics notable on the economic factors and social issues which also describe spatial segregation. Nonetheless, there is comparatively little comment on

8 segregation within terms of isolating socio-economic implications. The social economic factor implies her include employment, house, education, health.

Education­  over the past few years, the research on income segregation has intensified  with   many   firms   concentrating   on   income   segregation.  Education   is   also   affected   by  thesis is several aspects. With the introduction of quasi market, the minority groups are  hence least qualified than the white majority.  Segregation if Muslims Though Phillips claimed that it’s not only or even ideologically about Islam the media reaction to this speech heavily elide the religious divide addressed Muslims and the black ghettoes as the cities that are leading to segregation. The examples used by Phillips in his speech were basically Bangladeshi and Pakistani in origin. Generally, it’s considered that people from Pakistani and Bangladeshi were the most segregated. There are other influences in the picture. Whereas the initial factor of influence could b ethnicity religion may come in to play a major role in the determination of the distribution of that particular ethnic group (Wood 2004).

This dual influence is very beneficial in explaining why certain ethnical communities continue to experience segregation of high levels while other indicates reducing level of segregation with time. The dual influence integration is likely to be the best too to explain why Muslims will not integrate well but still parallel lives (Wood 2004).

White English Muslims

9 Just to be able to justify or to prove unjustified, that the segreagatu9on that was observed was due to ethnicity alone or whether it was a combination or ethnic origin and religion a control is very useful where ethnicity is not an issue of concern. The control group will share the ethnic background of the host community (Popple 1995). This is to be in larger numbers that would allow reasonable evaluation of the spatial distribution.

The 2001 census saw such a group in existence. There were 61,513 Muslims who were white Britons as well. These individual identified themselves as from the white British origin and subscribed to Muslim as a religion. It was anticipated that 75% were born in Britain (estimated at about 46,233). This is about 3.03% totals of all Muslims in Britain. The converted Muslims were about 0.11%. These figures still have disputes (Millie et al 2005)

The distribution of the white Muslims across Britain was observed at three level to draw results; local area, religion, and selected wards. The patterns of distribution for the whites; The numbers of each English Muslim was noted at each level and comparisons made with other samples Considering all the complex groups, white English Muslims became a subset of several of them (Brown 2004).

Data obtained about distribution was analyzed by several data analysis means and computed. London hosted about 48.93%English Muslims whereas 9.71% white Muslims were located in London. Analysis by use of simple statistical test brings about zero correlation between the distribution of white English and white Muslims and the general

10 distribution of the white population. Nonetheless, a close correlation was observed between the distribution of white Muslims and white English population in general (Millie et al 2005). Distribution by local authority was also assessed by the analyses of data from the 2001 census (microdata).

The way white English Muslims were distributed was expressed as a percentage of the entire English populace in every local government area. Again at this level, a definite correlation between the distribution of the Muslims population and the white English Muslims was drawn. Several counties were studied including Bradford, Coventry and Birmingham. Results from Bradford were analyzed by use of simple statistical tests and a strong positive correlation was obtained between the distribution of white English Muslims and the entire Muslim population in general. On the contrary, there was a strong negative correlation between the population distribution of white British Muslims and the entire white population (Brown 2004).

Factors affecting the Choice of Location There are many factors that determine where an individual will chose to stay. Some of the most influential factors include; family, job, ethic belief, and resources. People may also consider the neighbourhood and the people who stay there, availability if social infrastructure and amenities, the crime rates, place of work and so on (Millie et al 2005

For Muslims, the following factors apply when looking for a residential place in Britain. Muslims would first consider their community and the presence of mosques. It is

11 mandatory that all the male Muslims attend the congregational prayers on every Friday. Neighborhoods easily accessible and close to the mosque will be preferred (Millie et al 2005. The mosque is also a social place and people may come here to meet and have some discussions. Children regularly attend madras as well and would be inconvenienced if they would stay very far way from the mosque. Food is also critical for Muslim religion and people will tend to like settling where they can access halal food (the type of food allowed by religion to eat). Consumption of alcohol is prohibited in Muslim and also other social behaviours like gambling sex and as a result Muslims tend to stay away from these as much as possible. In the UK, about 90% of the total population is alcohol drinkers and more than 80% of young people have had sex while underage. There are also a lot of gambling houses and clubs. The way of life in UK is totally the contrary to what the Muslim could tolerate and it they seem to be living a parallel life, it would be because of their rejection of the immorality like drinking and gambling (Millie et al 2005). Nonetheless, the Muslims claim that the need to be different or separate should never be perceived as self segregation. There have been several studies that have indicated that the Muslims are currently moving out of the areas to settlement (traditional area).

Critic of Ghetto Issues in English Cities There are those who believe that Phillips Trevor is ill informed about the condition of the contemporary lifestyle in UK. There are headlines making the news that the Ghetto condition in other places like Chicago was just like in Britain (Wood 2004  & Dorling 

12 2006). All these se seem to be responding to the famous speech delivered by Phillip Trevor concerning racial equity.

Professor Dorling contradicts Trevor by making claims that there are no neighbourhood ghettoes in British communities. He alleges that Phillips was ill formed. Professor Dorling readily accepts that the racial discrimination cases are rampant in Britain but they are not portrayed or expressed in terms of the increasing level of segregation in the neighbourhood or any other type of ghetto. He argues that if the trends of addressing the issue of segregation would take the perspective taken by Trevor, then the debate would be poorer and would not be addressing the relevant points. The real segregation according to him is occurring by wealth and poverty. The academic researches conducted in Britain recently seem to contradict the perception of Trevor and he is advised to read them so as to be careful in his thought (Dorling 2006)

Dr. Ludi Sympson had a very exclusive research on the issue and his conclusion indicated that the perception racial self segregation and increasing rates of isolation were mere folklore  (Simpson 2007). The more recent statistics were calculated last year and the religious and ethnical issues have been clearly outlined and calculated from the latest census and comparisons are available for the statistics even a decade ago. According to professor Dorling, the statistics used by Philip Trevor fell between 1991 and 2001. For the blacks and people of Asian origin, these statistics dropped fastest (Dorling 2006)

13 Trevor is perceived to have been misinformed by the work reported by researcher from Australia who referred to the degree to which diverse groups in UK could become more secluded to a certain extent than segregated. According to Dorling, the extent of isolation in Britain could be highest in Christians. Trevor indicated that Muslims are the most segregated while previous researchers and according to professor Dorling (Dorling 2006), the most segregated religion in the UK (particularly Wales and England) is the Sikh faiths and the Jewish. The level of geographical segregation for Catholics in Scotland is even higher than that of the minority groups in England.

Professor Dorling claim that the social ghettoes indicated by Trevor in his speech do not exist at all. If the statistics were to be analyzed seriously, Britain would be cut upwards rather than in neighborhoods (Dorling 2006). For instance in the minority of children in fifth floor of the entire House in UK are whites, Most of the kids ‘living in the sky’ are black.

Conclusion Trevor Phillips Claimed that Britain was headed for apartheid unconsciously though what is apparent is that there is wide a wake situation where people reached decisions for various reasons within the society. The majority groups not accept provision of social amenities because the Muslims would spreads out while the Muslims despites what is considered the norm by the majority culture. These are actually consciousness decisions. Any explanation of the social segregation founded entirely on ethnic classification will not be able to give the answers required to appropriately address the subject. The

14 distribution of the Muslims and particularly the white Muslims is a clear indication there are factors other than ethnicity which influence the distribution of communities. This is because their patterns are closely related to that of the other Muslims. Its also important to regard segregation in a different perceptive like professor Dorling and to also determine whether this should be studies as an fundamental issue, very undesirable or a fact of modernity and diversity of lifestyles. References Allen, G & Martin, I (1992) Education and Community. London, Community Education Development Centre. Blackmore, L (2007) Different Experiences of the Anti-Social Behaviour Process. Social Work Monographs- - University Of East Anglia. Norwich, the British Library Board Blair T. (2006) The Duty To Integrate­ ­ Shared British Values. Runnymede’s Quarterly  Bulletin.

Brown, A, (2004) Anti-Social Behaviour… Crime Control and Social Control. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice; 43; (2), pp. 204 - 214 Burke & Morrill (2002) Anti Social Behaviour Orders. An Infringement of the Human Rights Act 1998? Nottingham Law Journal, 2002, 11, (2), 1, Nottingham University Press. Dorling, D. (2006) Ethnic Minority Populations and the Labour Market

15 Kundnani A. (2007) Integrationist­ ­ The Politics of Anti­Muslim Racism. Race and  Class, 48, 24 – 44

Millie, A. et al (2005) Anti Social Behaviour Strategies; Finding a Balance. Joseph Rowntree Foundation Policy Press. Popple, K (1995) Analyzing Community Work, Milton Keynes, Open University Press. Simpson, L. (2007) Ghettos of the Mind­ ­ The Empirical Behaviour of Indices of  Segregation and Diversity. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A Statistics in  Society, 170, 405­424.

Wood, M (2004) Perceptions and Experiences of Anti-Social Behaviour; Findings from The2003/ 2004 British Crime Survey; Home Office Online Report 49/04. Research Development and Statistical Directorate.