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Power Generation from Thermal Power Plant Introduction About 70 % of energy used by India is produced in Coal fired thermal power plants. Not just India, people all over the world heavily rely on thermal power stations. This is because of the abundant availability of coal, reliable cheap power and early advent of ‘steam engine’ technology. Though there is a lot of hue and cry over the CO2 emissions and diminishing coal reserves, coal power continues to dominate the energy sector. Rankine cycle is the working principle of the plants all over the world. Water is boiled into steam which is super heated. This is the phase where the energy of the coal is give to the steam/water. The high pressure and high temperature steam is allowed to expand in turbines coupled with generators. Here , a part of energy is given back by the steam. Most of remaining heat is dissipated to atmosphere. More about this will be discussed in the efficiency discussion.

The TS graph for Basic Rankine cycle For an ideal plant, there are good number of specifications to be satisfied. The power plant must be located to a coal mine as close as possible. If the plant is dependent on the imported coal it should be closely located to the sea port. In either cases, dedicated transporation system must exist for transmission if coal reserves. Another important aspect is the ash disposable facility. Indian Coal has a higgm amount of ash content which turns out to be around 30 -40 %. This if not disposed properly, results in health hazards in and around the plant leading to numerous other problems. Presently the ash is used for various industries and also used for domestic purposes. In most cases it is stored in propoer places. Huge quantities of water must be required for condenser, disposal of ash and feed water circuit etc. It is therefore desirable to locate plant on side of river. For example, VTPS in Vijayawada is located on the banks of river Krishna. The Process and Principle

The basic entities in the power plant are Boiler, Turbine , Condenser , pump. Here, the principle is explained with the help of Temperature and Entropy (TS) curve. Starting at 1, the water at room temperature is boiled at constant temperature in the boiler. This process has a T constant for it is the boiling of water which takes at a constant temperature. Here we are increasing the entropy of by phase change and the energy is sorted in the form of latent heat also. As you might assume, the temperature is not 1000c because this boiler is at higher pressure and the boiling point is also high. As shown in the figure the temperature is constant and the line is parallel to S axis. All this process happens in a boiler. The end product is steam.

TS graph for the power plant operation Once you have steam, you cannot immediately pump it to the turbine to extract energy because once it enters turbine and starts condensing forming water droplets without giving much energy. The point here is, just a phase change won’t work out for energy tr ansfer from coal in boiler to turbine. The steam must be heated to higher temperatures. This phase is called super heater and this phase is mainly executed in ‘super heater’. This super heater will be located in between boiler and the turbine. The source of heat for the super heater is the hot flue gases obtained in the boiler after burning coal. This explains the phase 2-3 in the T-S curve. Note that , in this process, neither the temperature nor the entropy remains constant. Now, in the next process, the super heated steam is allowed to expand in the turbine. As, the high pressure steam is allowed through a small nozzle ,steam acquires kinetic energy. This kinetic energy of the steam will exert required force on the turbine blades. The turbine is designed well to receive maximum force from the steam. This process is a constant entropy process. The steam is allowed inside the turbine until water droplets begin to form. In practice, formation of water drops is strictly prohibited for the water drops will impinge the turbine blades and cause corrosion. Now the ouput of the turbine is low pressure and low temperature steam. This accounts for the phase 3-4 of the cycle. In this phase of condenser, the heat of steam is exchanged with a heat exchanger, essentially water. The steam now turns into water and this is processed again and sent into boiler for the next

cycle. The heat exchanger gets heated up and this needs to be cooled for further use. Hence the heat of exchanger is dissipated in atmosphere through large cooling towers. A lot of energy from the entire system remains unused in this 4-5 . The analysis can be obtained in the efficiency discussion at the end of the tutorial. As you have seen throughout the process, water needs to be flown from one part to other. The necessary draught is created by the pump. The step 5-6 is a pump which is used to circulate water. During this process, a little temperature change can be observed. Finally, the cooled water cannot be directly sent into boiler. Because the boiler is at higher temperature, it causes irregularly expansion which results in collapse of the boiler. Hence, the water should be heated to higher temperature. This is done in economizer which uses heat from flue gases. Thus this accounts for the 6-1 phase of the Rankine cycle. The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is given by 1-T2T1. Where T2 is the temperature of super heated steam and the T1 is the temperature of the water entering inside. Basic Flow Chart of Power Plant Construction of the plant and parts. As cited above, the primary parts of the plant are the boiler, turbine, condenser are explained below. Other numerous parts including pulveriser, water treatment plant, cooling towers etc are also discussed in detail. Boiler : It is used to convert the water into steam where coal is burnt. It is a relatively huge structure with a typical boiler of a 500 MW plant would be equivalent to 5 storied building. The boiler material will mostly made of cast iron to with stand high temperature and pressure. The construction of boiler varies depending upon the heat transfer method used. In a traditional boiler, the boiler has holes on the lower bottom for the coil powder to enter. The coal enters in such a way that , it creates a vortex inside the boiler. This is to ensure that coal spends maximum time before settling down and gets burnt completely. The outer surface of the boiler has thousands of pipes in which water runs through. This is the process in which heat is exchanged. The flue gases rising out of burning coal pass through the super heater as shown in the figure.

Basic Boiler Schematic

Turbine : Steam turbines convert the energy acquired by the steam in to the mechanical energy. These turbines are couple with the alternators which produce the electrical energy from the mechanical energy. Two types of turbines are widely prevalent : impulse turbines and reaction turbines. In the impulse turbines, steam expands at the nozzles and achieved kinetic energy is used to rotate the blades of the turbine. The blades change the direction of steam but not the pressure. Thus change in momentum can be accounted for rotation of the rotor. In the reaction turbines, steam is partially expanded on the nozzles and remaining expansion takes place during the flow over moving blades. Generally there are two or three sets of turbines at one go. All the enrgy stored in the steam cannot be obtained at one go from a single turbine. So, there are two or three sets of turbines located which are connected by a shaft. Now the high pressure steam enters into the first turbine, lets call it HP turbine. Once the expansion takes place, the pressure falls. Hence we need to use a turbine designed for lower pressure appropriate to the out coming steam. So the second turbine will be a medium pressure turbine (MP turbine). Further , in some cases a third turbine is also added to make more energy out of steam and this is called a low pressure turbine. The specifications of turbines are calclcuated during the plant design and later during operations, same ratings of steam pressure and temperature need to be maintained for optimum operation. Given below is a figure illustrating the construction of the three

stage turbine. Three turbine model for a plant Pulverizer : To generate the massive amount of heat which is required instantaneously , a lot of coal is to be burnt. If chunks of coal is used, very less surface area of coal is exposed and it takes a lot of space to burn enough coal chunks for required power. As a result, to overcome this problem, coal is pulverized into powder which is as smooth as talc. Now this powder is blown into the boiler. Thus, as powder has a very higher surface area compared to chunks of coal, very large amount of coal can be burnt instantaneously in less volume efficiently. This is the underlying interesting fact for using of a pulveriser.

Super heater : The steam is super heated in order to make it hold more energy and transfer it to the turbine. This job is accomplished by the super heater. Super heater is showed in the boiler schematic. The flue gases coming out of the boiler are used to super heat the steam.

Economizer : The water entering into the boiler must have a temperature compatible with the boiler temperature. So, the heat left with the flue gases after super heater is used to heat the water in the economizer. The economizer has convoluted tubes in which water flows and the flue gases flow over these tubes in a closed structure. Air pre heater : The air used for combustion of the coal is also pre heated by the flue gases so as to take maximum heat from the gases before they diffuse in to the atmosphere. It is also to ensure that the un heated air should not interfere with proper combustion inside the boiler.Re heater : To improve the efficiency of the plant, there is something interesting done. The area under curve is the output or work done. If we could improve the area, we can improve the efficiency of the system. The steam which comes out of high pressure turbine is taken out and heated using flue gases and this reheated steam is sent into IP turbine. As a result the new TS graph looks like below.

Improved TS graph after using re heater Condenser : As discussed earlier, the job of condenser is to turn the steam from the turbine into water and thereby reducing the amount of water required for each cycle. There are many types of condensers. The familiar ones are Jet type and Surface type. In the jet type , the cooling water and the steam are mixed and the resultant steam water mixture is drawn outside. Surface type uses a different circuit for both and the steam is converted into water and cooling water turns hot. The surface type are the widely prevalent ones.

Generators : The generators also called alternators are coupled with turbines which generate electrical energy. The output of the generator at 11KV is stepped up to higher voltage of 220KV and transmitted through the transmission lines. Here , the interesting area of study is to control the output power of the generator. As the load on the system continuously vary and as the energy cannot be stored, the output of generator has to be varied according to load. This aspect will be covered in Power Systems Operations and Control tutorial.

Overview of a practical power plant Miscellaneous parts :

6 Enhancements of. Problem : Find out the theoretical efficiency of a power plant whose steam is heated up to a temperature of 4000 Celsius and water temperature at the initial stages is 75 0 Celsius. the fire will come out from every possible gap in the boiler. it mixes with air and makes the surrounding places uncomfortable to live. for. The ash can be used for other purposes or should be disposed properly otherwise during dry season . Other pollution from the plant is due to production of soot. Rankine Cycles The basic Rankine cycle can be enhanced through processes such as superheating and reheat. It is recommended to maintain slightly low pressure in the boiler otherwise. So there is a lower limit for temperature of flue gases. and Effect of Design Parameters on. The heat addition is continued past the point of vapor saturation. energy lost as heat takes a major chunk. But as Nature is a huge sink of heat this doesn’t add much trouble. SO x . pumps for draught. Ash precipitators. turbine governing system etc. But it is also disadvantageous . The Efficiency discussion The efficiency of the thermal powerplant calculated from the Rankine cycle will be around 45% . high pressure cannot be maintained inside the boiler. Pollution aspects : Thermal energy is the most unclean energy. This energy is lost at mainly two points: flue gases entering into atmosphere and cooling of the condensate. it increases the mean temperature at which heat is added. so that there is less moisture content in the mixture as it flows through the turbine. They need forced draught to go out if the temperature is equal to room temperature.13. thus increasing the efficiency of the cycle. COx gases and consequent problems. 8.49 = 49 % efficiency. Out of the losses. Second is that the quality of the two-phase mixture during the expansion is higher with superheating. The cooling of the condensate is a part and parcel of the cycle and nothing can be done there to increase the efficiency. latest technologies are being implemented to minimize the emission of these gases by designing the boiler in a special way and adding other compounds so as to neutralize these gases. This is due to various losses present in the entire system when put into practice. First. . . Also note that. This does several things. in other words the vapor is heated so that its temperature is higher than the saturation temperature associated with . The plant also produces thermal pollution ie by adding more and more heat to the atmosphere. Now we can consider decreasing the temperature of flue gases as much as possible up to room temperatures. It causes thermal pollution and air pollution apart from leaving off a lot of ash.) This is an advantage in terms of decreasing the mechanical deterioration of the blading. Diagrams for a Rankine cycle with superheating are given in Figure 8. the cooled gases do not flow outside the boiler circuit on their own. Efficiency : 1-(75+273)/(400+273) = 1.51 = 0. (The moisture content at is less than that at .0. Nowadays.Ash handling plant. But practically efficiencies of 35%-38% only have been achieved so far.

.[ - coordinates] [ - coordinates] [ - coordinates] Figure 8. increased the mean temperature at which heat is received. . which is a constant pressure (isobaric) process: . and increased . . superheating has increased the turbine work.13: Rankine cycle with superheating The heat exchanges in the superheated cycle are: Along Along : . The thermal efficiency of the ideal Rankine cycle with superheating is This can be expressed explicitly in terms of turbine work and compression (pump) work as Compared to the basic cycle. the cycle efficiency.

which gives a schematic of a Rankine cycle for space power application. To alleviate the problem of having moisture in the turbine. one can heat again after an initial expansion in a turbine. .15: Rankine cycle with superheating and reheat for space power application A comparison of the Carnot cycle and the Rankine cycle with superheating is given in Figure 8. The main practical advantage of reheat (and of superheating) is the decrease in moisture content in the turbine because most of the heat addition in the cycle occurs in the vaporization part of the heat addition process.15. as shown in Figure 8.14: Comparison of Rankine cycle with superheating and Carnot cycle Figure 8.14. The maximum and minimum temperatures are the same. This process is known as reheat.Figure 8. but the average temperature at which heat is absorbed is lower for the Rankine cycle.

(MP 8. Figure 8. so that the efficiency increases.17: Effect of maximum boiler pressure on Rankine cycle efficiency Another design parameter is the maximum cycle pressure. Consider first the changes in cycle output due to a decrease in exit pressure. Muddy Points Why do we look at the ratio of pump (compression) work to turbine work? We did not do that for the Brayton cycle.16. as drawn. is increased.Figure 8. and the modified cycle is . which is set by material properties. which is the integral of around the cycle. the largest change is the mean temperature of the heat rejection.10) . so that the thermal efficiency increases. Figure 8. In addition. The original cycle is .16: Effect of exit pressure on Rankine cycle efficiency We can also examine the effect of variations in design parameters on the Rankine cycle. The average temperature at which the heat is supplied for the cycle with a higher maximum pressure is increased over the original cycle. although the levels of the mean temperature at which the heat is absorbed and rejected both decrease. the exit pressure would be decreased from to .17 shows a comparison of two cycles with different maximum pressure but the same maximum temperature. The consequences are that the cycle work. In terms of the cycle shown in Figure 8.

12) 5.1: This is not possible (Kelvin-Planck) 2. 1. No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body.1 Concept and Statements of the Second Law (Why do we need a second law?) The unrestrained expansion. Listed below are three that are often encountered. Suppose you are asked whether you have ever seen the reverse of these processes take place? Do two bricks at a medium temperature ever go to a state where one is hot and one is cold? Will the gas in the unrestrained expansion ever spontaneously return to occupying only the left side of the volume? Experience hints that the answer is no. unfamiliar though they may be. Like the first law.Shouldn't the efficiency of the super/re-heated Rankine cycle be larger because its area is greater? (MP 8. In other words the first law does not prohibit their occurrence. they are equivalent. There thus must be some other ``great principle'' that describes the direction of natural processes. although the three may not appear to have much connection with each other. There are several ways in which the second law of thermodynamics can be stated. are familiar processes. are compatible with the first law.11) Why can't we harness the energy in the warm water after condensing the steam in a power plant? (MP 8. [Clausius statement of the second law] . that tells us which first law compatible processes will not be observed. it is a generalization from an enormous amount of observation. No process is possible whose sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and the conversion of this heat into work. As described in class (and as derived in almost every thermodynamics textbook). or the temperature equilibration of the two bricks. both these processes. This is contained in the second law. However. [Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law] Figure 5.

. and the first and second laws become: For an isolated system the total energy ( ) is constant. For an isolated system. There exists for every system in equilibrium a property called entropy. we need to consider the system only. is positive and approaches zero for any process which approaches reversibility. For a reversible process.e. .Figure 5. The entropy can only increase or. considered together. a system that has no interaction with the surroundings. this is not possible (Clausius) 3. in the limit of a reversible process. i. changes in the system have no effect on the surroundings. changes in this property are given by The entropy change of any system and its surroundings.. In this case. which is a thermodynamic property of a system.2: For . remain constant.

so that Two out of the three terms in this equation are expressed in terms of state variables. the term should perhaps be viewed as analogous to where the parentheses denote an intensive state variable and the square brackets denote an extensive state variable.. For a simple compressible substance. but what are the appropriate variables? If so. represents the best that can be done. We summarize below some attributes of entropy: . propulsion. the term on the left is a function of state. 5. we can write the work done in a reversible process as .1 includes the second law. however. it is true for all processes. and power generation systems we often compare performance to this limit to measure how close to ideal a given process is. All of these statements are equivalent. If we look at the first law. while the two terms on the right are not. . quantitative measure of the departure from reversibility. not just reversible ones.The limit. and the extensive state variable is the entropy. Because it is written in terms of state variables. In thermodynamics. It seems plausible that we ought to be able to express the third term using state variables as well.1) Because Eq. or . Entropy is not a familiar concept and it may be helpful to provide some additional rationale for its appearance. . it is referred to as the combined first and second law. The second law tells us that the intensive variable is the temperature. The first law for a simple compressible substance in terms of state variables is thus (5. but 3 gives a direct.

The Second Law Previous: 5. is an extensive variable. 3. written in a form that is always true: . The units for specific entropy are J/K-kg.1) different than ? (MP 5.4 Entropy Changes in Up: 5. 2.2) Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 5. The entropy per unit mass. Muddy Points Why is What makes always true? (MP 5. or or . 5. where the numerator is the heat given to the system and the denominator is the temperature of the system at the location where the heat is received. e. or specific entropy.2 Axiomatic Statements of Contents Index 5. . For a system. is . for pure work transfer.g.1.3 Combined First and Second Law Expressions The first law. Entropy is a function of the state of the system and can be found if any two properties of the system are known. The units of entropy are Joules per degree Kelvin (J/K). 4.

and is a volume-like quantity.For reversible processes only. The above is always true because it is a relation between properties and is now independent of process. or specific enthalpy. .. . work or heat may be rewritten as Substitution leads to other forms of the first law true for reversible processes only: (If the substance has other work modes. strain. where is a pressure-like quantity.) Substituting for both and in terms of state variables. e. In terms of specific quantities: The combined first and second law expressions are often more usefully written in terms of the enthalpy.g. stress.

6 Diesel Cycle Contents Index Subsections 3. The First Law Previous: 3. The Second Law Previous: 5.b Adiabatic.7.7 Brayton Cycle [VW.13 alongside a sketch of an engine: a . In terms of enthalpy (rather than specific enthalpy) the relation is Next: 5.2 Gas Turbine Technology and Thermodynamics 3.7. and .4 Entropy Changes in Up: 5.8 Muddiest points on Up: 3. b .8-9.9.7. as shown in Figure 3. quasi-static (or reversible) compression in the inlet and compressor. since . c .4 MIT Cogenerator 3.7. take some work out of the air and use it to drive the compressor.1 Work and Efficiency 3. 9.3 Brayton Cycle for Jet Propulsion: the Ideal Ramjet 3. S & B: 9. with which we 1. quasi-static (or reversible) expansion in the turbine and exhaust nozzle.12] The Brayton cycle (or Joule cycle) represents the operation of a gas turbine engine.2 Axiomatic Statements of Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3.d Adiabatic.Or.c Constant pressure fuel combustion (idealized as constant pressure heat addition). The cycle consists of four processes.

2. or to turn a generator for electrical power generation.14: Schematics of typical military gas turbine engines. a closed cycle. which recirculates the working fluid. Figure 3. Figure 3. real Brayton cycles take one of two forms. in space power generation. . Figure 3. as in Figure 3. d . take the remaining work out and use it to accelerate fluid for jet propulsion.a Cool the air at constant pressure back to its initial condition. Figure 3. 1992). bottom: GE F404 low bypass ratio turbofan with afterburning (Hill and Peterson. In practice. Closed cycles are used.15. for example. Top: turbojet with afterburning. We will typically represent these components schematically. This is the way a jet propulsion cycle works.16(a) shows an ``open'' cycle.14. where the working fluid enters and then exits the device.16(b) shows the alternative.13: Sketch of the jet engine components and corresponding thermodynamic states The components of a Brayton cycle device for jet propulsion are shown in Figure 3.

7.10) 3.15: Thermodynamic model of gas turbine engine cycle for power generation [Open cycle operation] [Closed cycle operation] Figure 3.Figure 3.1 Work and Efficiency The objective now is to find the work done. the heat absorbed.16: Options for operating Brayton cycle gas turbine engines Muddy Points Would it be practical to run a Brayton cycle in reverse and use it as refrigerator? (MP 3. and the thermal efficiency of .

- - and back to . Tracing the path shown around the cycle from first law gives (writing the equation in terms of a unit mass).2 state .and . similarly. Treating the working fluid as a perfect gas with constant specific heats. We thus need to For a constant pressure.8 ) To proceed further. are defined as heat received by the system ( evaluate the heat transferred in processes . The net work per unit mass is given by The thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle can now be expressed in terms of the temperatures: (3. and any cycle returns the system to its starting 3. the Here is zero because is a function of state.. quasi-static process the heat exchange per unit mass is We can see this by writing the first law in terms of enthalpy (see Section 2. The net work done is therefore where .the cycle. we need to examine the relationships between the different . The heat exchange can be expressed in terms of enthalpy differences between the relevant states.3. The heat rejected is.. is negative).4) or by remembering the definition of . for the heat addition from the combustor.

.17: Gas turbine engine pressures and temperatures .8) yields an expression for the thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle: (3. or. (3.10) Figure 3. and and reversible. and using the relation for an adiabatic reversible process we can write the efficiency in terms of the compressor (and cycle) pressure ratio. We know that points points and . and are on a constant pressure process as are .9) The temperature ratio across the compressor..temperatures. In terms of compressor temperature ratio. so . Eq. which is the parameter commonly used: (3. finally. Using this relation in the expression for thermal efficiency. .. The other two legs of the cycle are adiabatic Therefore .

1998) . Figure 3.Figure 3. which powers the 747 and the 767).18: Gas turbine engine pressure ratio trends (Jane’s Aeroengines.17 shows pressures and temperatures through a gas turbine engine (the PW4000.

13) If the gas undergoes constant pressure cooling in the exhaust outside the engine.19. .18 shows the history of aircraft engine pressure ratio versus entry into service.15) Is the work done in the compressor always equal to the work done in the turbine plus work out (for a Brayton cyle)? (MP 3.20 and 3.Figure 3.19: Trend of Brayton cycle thermal efficiency with compressor pressure ratio Equation (3. . doesn't that reduce the internal energy of the flow and therefore the enthalpy? (MP 3. Note the relation between the gas temperature coming into the turbine blades and the blade melting temperature. the blades fail. is fixed by materials technology and cost.12) Why is the Brayton cycle less efficient than the Carnot cycle? (MP 3. This trend is plotted in Figure 3. (If the temperature is too high.10) says that for a high cycle efficiency.14) Does it matter what labels we put on the corners of the cycle or not? (MP 3.21 show the progression of the turbine entry temperatures in aeroengines. and it can be seen that there has been a large increase in cycle pressure ratio. Figure 3.2 Gas Turbine Technology and Thermodynamics The turbine entry temperature.11) Why do we say the combustion in a gas turbine engine is constant pressure? (MP 3.7.) Figures 3. is that still within the system boundary? (MP 3.21 is from Pratt & Whitney.20 is from Rolls Royce and Figure 3. The thermodynamic concepts apply to the behavior of real aerospace devices! Muddy Points When flow is accelerated in a nozzle. Figure 3. the pressure ratio of the cycle should be increased.16) 3.

which shows two Brayton cycles. For maximum .22.21: Turbine blade cooling technology [Pratt & Whitney] For a given level of turbine technology (in other words given maximum temperature) a design question is what should the compressor be? What criterion should be used to decide this? Maximum thermal efficiency? Maximum work? We examine this issue below.Figure 3. Figure 3.22: Efficiency and work of two Brayton cycle engines The problem is posed in Figure 3.20: Rolls-Royce high temperature technology Figure 3.

The net work in the cycle can also be expressed as . which is seen to approach zero as . This means that the compressor exit temperature approaches the turbine entry temperature. evaluated in traversing the cycle. and to find the maximum : The first and the fourth terms on the right hand side of the above equation are both zero (the turbine entry temperature is fixed. . The net work will be less than the heat received.. as is the atmospheric temperature).11). as the heat received approaches zero and so does the net work.efficiency we would like as high as possible. as this is varied.11) To use Eq. The conclusion from either of these arguments is that a cycle designed for maximum thermal efficiency is not very useful in that the work (power) we get out of it is zero. (3. we differentiate the expression for work with respect to . We know that Hence. we need to relate and . The work per unit mass is given by: where is the maximum turbine inlet temperature (a design constraint) and is atmospheric temperature. The design variable is the compressor exit temperature. A more useful criterion is that of maximum work per unit mass (maximum power per unit mass flow). The maximum work occurs where the derivative of work with respect to is zero: (3. This is the area enclosed by the curves. This leads to compact propulsion devices.

. (3.. is shown in Figure 3.11) gives the compressor exit temperature for maximum work as . To find the power the engine can produce. In terms of temperature ratio.12 ) The trend of work output vs. for different temperature ratios . compressor pressure ratio.23. The role of the temperature ratio can be seen if we examine the work per unit mass which is delivered at this condition: Ratioing all temperatures to the engine inlet temperature. The condition for maximum work in a Brayton cycle is different than that for maximum efficiency. we need to multiply the work per unit mass by the mass flow rate: (3.Plugging this expression for the derivative into Eq.

23: Trend of cycle work with compressor pressure ratio. turbine entry temperature] Figure 3.24 shows the expression for power of an ideal cycle compared with data from . for different temperature ratios [Gas turbine engine core] [Core power vs.Figure 3.24: Aeroengine core power [Koff/Meese. 1995] Figure 3.

19) 3. The Brayton cycle thermal efficiency contains the ratio of the compressor exit temperature to atmospheric temperature.25: Ideal ramjet [J. the Brayton cycle is therefore less efficient than a Carnot cycle.17) Question about the assumptions made in the Brayton cycle for maximum efficiency and maximum work (MP 3. where is the heat added and is the heat rejected. as the Carnot efficiency is. so that the ratio is not based on the highest temperature in the cycle.actual jet engines. The equation in the figure for horsepower (HP) is the same as that which we just derived.24(a) shows the gas turbine engine layout including the core (compressor.24(b) shows the core power for a number of different engines as a function of the turbine rotor entry temperature. Kerrebrock.18) You said that for a gas turbine engine modeled as a Brayton cycle the work done is . Figure 3.3 Brayton Cycle for Jet Propulsion: the Ideal Ramjet A schematic of a ramjet is given in Figure 3. burner.25. (MP 3. and turbine). A final comment (for this section) on Brayton cycles concerns the value of the thermal efficiency. Muddy Points What are the units of in ? (MP 3. Figure 3. Figure 3.'' The processes that occur in this propulsion . For a given maximum cycle temperature. The analysis not only shows the qualitative trend very well but captures much of the quantitative behavior too. Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines] In the ramjet there are ``no moving parts. L.7. except for the conversion factors. Does this suggest that the work that you get out of the engine doesn't depend on how good your compressor and turbine are? since the compression and expansion were modeled as adiabatic.

Muddy Points Why don't we like the numbers 1 and 2 for the stations? Why do we go 0-3? (MP 3.3 for other figures of merit. see the website at https://cogen.6 Diesel Cycle Contents Index . The ramjet thermodynamic cycle efficiency can be written in terms of flight Mach number.8 Muddiest points on Up: 3. : Isentropic expansion through the nozzle. . with a decrease in Mach number.7.4 MIT Cogenerator MIT operates a Brayton cycle power generator on campus.21) 3.device are: : Isentropic diffusion (slowing down) and compression. why does ? (MP 3. . The First Law Previous: 3.mit. Next: 3.cfm .edu/ctg. as follows: and so See also Section 11.6. : Constant pressure combustion. For more information.20) For the Brayton cycle efficiency.

The system can be regarded as a chamber enclosed by a piston and filled with this ideal gas. It is brought in contact with a heat reservoir.4. with heat absorbed . During this expansion the temperature decreases to ) . It has four processes. . 2. The heat exchanged during this part of the cycle. the heat reservoir is a constant temperature source (or receiver) of heat. but the concepts can be shown using a familiar working fluid. the system is thermally insulated (removed from contact with the heat reservoir) and then let expand to . In other words. The system then undergoes an isothermal expansion from to .3 The Carnot Cycle A Carnot cycle is shown in Figure 3.2 Generalized Representation of Contents Index 3.UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3.4 Refrigerators and Heat Up: 3. The First Law Previous: 3. which is just a liquid or solid mass of large enough extent such that its temperature does not change appreciably when some amount of heat is transferred to the system. There are two adiabatic reversible legs and two isothermal reversible legs. the ideal gas. Figure 3. At state . We can construct a Carnot cycle with many different systems.4: Carnot cycle -.thermodynamic diagram on left and schematic of the different stages in the cycle for a system composed of an ideal gas on the right The four processes in the Carnot cycle are: 1. The system is at temperature at state .

as defined are the magnitudes of the heat absorbed and rejected. (3. we have Along the curve . the system is compressed adiabatically back to the initial state exchange . are both adiabatic and reversible. therefore. rejecting heat in the process. The heat The thermal efficiency of the cycle is given by the definition (3. . . For a . Along curve . Finally.5) The path from states to and from to reversible adiabatic process we know that of state. there is a sign convention implied.3. .4) In this equation. The heat absorbed and rejected by the system takes place during isothermal processes and we already know what their values are from Eq. Thus. It is then compressed to state . . Using the ideal gas equation .1): The efficiency can now be written in terms of the volumes at the different states as (3. on the other hand are defined with reference to heat received by the system.. the former is negative and the latter is positive. At state the system is brought in contact with a heat reservoir at temperature .. In this example. The quantities . The quantities . 4.

The heat and work transfers to and from the system are shown schematically in Figure 3.Comparing the expression for thermal efficiency Eq.7) The efficiency can be 100% only if the temperature at which the heat is rejected is zero. . does that mean the farther apart isotherms are. the greater efficiency? And that if they were very close.6) Second. First. looking at the - graph. Figure 3. (3. the heats received and rejected are related to the temperatures of the isothermal parts of the cycle by (3.. it would .5) shows two consequences.5..4) with Eq. (3.5: Work and heat transfers in a Carnot cycle between two heat reservoirs Muddy Points Since the . the efficiency of a Carnot cycle is given compactly by (3.

6 Enhancements of Rankine Contents Index 8. The First Law Previous: 3. the turbine exhaust temperature may be high enough to permit efficient generation of steam using the ``waste heat'' from the gas turbine.be very inefficient? (MP 3.4) How do we know which cycles to use as models for real processes? (MP 3. A configuration such as this is known as a gas turbine-steam combined cycle power plant.18. why are we only dealing with volume changes and not pressure changes on the adiabats and isotherms? (MP 3.2 Generalized Representation of Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 8.5) Next: 3.7 Combined Cycles in Stationary Gas Turbine for Power Production The turbine entry temperature in a gas turbine (Brayton) cycle is considerably higher than the peak steam temperature.2) In the Carnot cycle. The cycle is illustrated in Figure 8.4 Refrigerators and Heat Up: 3. Power Cycles with Previous: 8. Depending on the compression ratio of the gas turbine.8 Some Overall Comments Up: 8.3) Is there a physical application for the Carnot cycle? Can we design a Carnot engine for a propulsion device? (MP 3. .

The overall combined where the subscripts refer to combined cycle (CC). The overall efficiency of the combined cycle can be derived as follows.Figure 8. The hot exhaust gases from the gas turbine pass through a heat exchanger where they are used as the heat source for the two-phase Rankine cycle. Brayton cycle (B) and Rankine cycle (R) respectively. but the work output is larger (by the work of the Rankine cycle steam turbine).19. the overall efficiency can be expressed in terms of the heat inputs and heat rejections of the two cycles as (using the quantity the heat transferred): to denote the magnitude of .18: Gas turbine-steam combined cycle [Kerrebrock. The heat out of the gas turbine is denoted as . the steam turbine (Rankine cycle). which can be thought of as composed of an upper and a lower heat engine in series. A schematic of the overall heat engine. so that cycle efficiency is is also the heat input to the steam cycle. is given in Figure 8.19: Schematic of combined cycle using gas turbine (Brayton cycle) and steam turbine (Rankine cycle) [Langston] The heat input to the combined cycle is the same as that for the gas turbine. We denote the heat received by the gas turbine as and the heat rejected to the atmosphere as . From the first law.Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines] Figure 8. The upper engine is the gas turbine (Brayton cycle) which expels heat to the lower engine.

6 Enhancements of Rankine Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 1. and the Rankine cycle has an efficiency of 30%.5) gives insight into why combined cycles are so successful.The first square bracket term on the right hand side is the Brayton cycle efficiency.3 Changing the State Up: 1. which is a representative value for current Brayton cycle gas turbines.8 Some Overall Comments Up: 8.20. Suppose that the gas turbine cycle has an efficiency of 40%. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1.5) Equation (8. which is a very large increase over either of the two simple cycles. is the Rankine cycle efficiency. the second . The combined cycle efficiency would be 58%.1 What it's .20: Comparison of efficiency and power output of various power products [Bartol (1997)] Next: 8.. The combined (8. and the term in parentheses is cycle efficiency can thus be written as . Power Cycles with Previous: 8. Some representative efficiencies and power outputs for different cycles are shown in Figure 8. . Figure 8.

2. 1. they are described clearly and in-depth in (SB&VW). First. although in a less detailed manner. their total effect is integrated. we want ``averaged'' information.2 The Concept of a ``System'' A thermodynamic system is a quantity of matter of fixed identity. a macroscopic. i. Everything outside the boundary is the surroundings. description. each of which has a position and a velocity. for instance.e.7 Equations of state 1.2 Definitions and Fundamental Ideas of Thermodynamics As with all sciences.2. around which we can draw a boundary (see Figure 1. and more importantly. microscopic positions and velocities are generally not useful for determining how macroscopic systems will act or react unless. however.3 The Concept of a ``State'' 1. When working with devices such as engines it is often useful to define the system to be an . We therefore neglect the fact that real substances are composed of discrete molecules and model matter from the start as a smoothed-outcontinuum. 1. Second. For example.2 The Concept of a ``System'' 1. Several of these will be further amplified in the lectures and in other handouts.2. The following is a discussion of some of the concepts we will need. If you need additional information or examples concerning these topics. In order that the mathematical deductions are consistent. For engineering purposes. Work or heat can be transferred across the system boundary.1 The Continuum Model Matter may be described at a molecular (or microscopic) level using the techniques of statistical mechanics and kinetic theory.2.All Contents Index Subsections 1.. pressure contains of air at standard temperature and molecules (VW.2).3 for an example).6 Quasi-Equilibrium Processes 1. They are also covered. Typical engineering applications involve more than molecules.4 The Concept of ``Equilibrium'' 1. The information we have about a continuum represents the microscopic information averaged over a volume. S & B:2.2. Classical thermodynamics is concerned only with continua. not a microscopic. a microscopic description of an engineering device may produce too much information to manage. we need some precise definitions of the basic concepts.2. The boundaries may be fixed or moveable. There are two reasons for this.2.2.1 The Continuum Model 1.5 The Concept of a ``Process'' 1.2. in Chapters 1 and 2 of the book by Van Ness. thermodynamics is concerned with the mathematical modeling of the real world.

A closed system is a special class of system with boundaries that matter cannot cross. This type of system is sometimes termed a control mass. Figure 1. An example is shown in Figure 1. Extensive properties are additive.5: Sample control volume 1. if the .3: Piston (boundary) and gas (system) Figure 1. Thus. Properties may be extensive or intensive.4: Boundary around electric motor (system) Figure 1. This is termed a control volume.2. For fluid systems. Hence the principle of the conservation of mass is automatically satisfied whenever we employ a closed system analysis.3 The Concept of a ``State'' The thermodynamic state of a system is defined by specifying values of a set of measurable properties sufficient to determine all other properties.identifiable volume with flow in and out. More complex systems may require the specification of more unusual properties. typical properties are pressure. As an example. the state of an electric battery requires the specification of the amount of electric charge it contains.5. volume and temperature.

unchanged values as long as external conditions are unchanged is called an equilibrium state. Temperature and pressure are intensive properties. It is important to note that properties describe states only when the system is in equilibrium. the properties of a system can vary from point to point.2) 1. Specific properties are extensive properties per unit mass and are denoted by lower case letters. however.2. Volume is an extensive property. The properties of a simple system are uniform throughout. Intensive properties do not depend on the quantity of matter present. For example: Specific properties are intensive because they do not depend on the mass of the system. Muddy Points Specific properties (MP 1. We can usually analyze a general system by sub-dividing it (either conceptually or in practice) into a number of simple systems in each of which the properties are assumed to be uniform.system is divided into a number of sub-systems. [Mechanical Equilibrium] [Thermal Equilibrium] . the value of the property for the whole system is equal to the sum of the values for the parts.1) What is the difference between extensive and intensive properties? (MP 1. In general.4 The Concept of ``Equilibrium'' The state of a system in which properties have definite.

diagram for an ideal gas. the state of the surroundings may have changed. however. If a process involves finite. on a . This is generally much shorter than the time scales associated with the bulk properties of the flow (say the time needed for a fluid particle to move some significant fraction of the length of the device of interest). it is a very good approximation to view the thermodynamic processes as consisting of such a succession of equilibrium states. A preview is given in Figure 1.6 Quasi-Equilibrium Processes We are often interested in charting thermodynamic processes between states on thermodynamic coordinates. if ten collisions are needed to come to equilibrium. so that.4] The figures below demonstrate the use of thermodynamics coordinates to plot isolines. 1. S& B: 2.) For this to be true the process must be slow in relation to the time needed for the system to come to equilibrium internally. Note that even if a system has returned to its original state and completed a cycle.5 The Concept of a ``Process'' If the state of a system changes. constant volume lines. diagram. or isochors on a and constant pressure lines.2. that properties define a state only when a system is in equilibrium. for example). on a . We will see such phase changes plotted and used for liquid-vapor power generation cycles in Chapter 8. chemical equilibrium. unbalanced forces. Over a large range of parameters. then it is undergoing a process. however.2. the system has undergone a cyclic process or a cycle. a given molecule can undergo roughly molecular collisions per second.Figure 1. so that the process can be viewed as taking place in a series of ``quasi-equilibrium'' states.3. Real substances may have phase changes (water to water vapor.diagram. An extremely useful idealization. or isotherms. mechanical equilibrium (no unbalanced forces) 2. (The term quasi can be taken to mean ``as if. lines along which a property is constant. quasi-steady. Recall from the end of Section 1.2. the properties have returned to their original values. which we can also plot on thermodynamic coordinates. They include constant temperature lines.3-2. at the end of the process. therefore. or isobars. If.6: Equilibrium A system in thermodynamic equilibrium satisfies: 1. The succession of states through which the system passes defines the path of the process. the equilibration time is on the order of seconds. which we can chart. For a gas at conditions of interest to us. which we cannot treat.'' you will see it used in a number of contexts such as quasi-one-dimensional. the system can pass through non-equilibrium states. is that only ``infinitesimal'' unbalanced forces exist. .15 at the end of this chapter. thermal equilibrium (no temperature differences) 3. 1. or water to ice. etc. [VW.

.

which is known as an equation of state. S & B: 3.7 Equations of state It is an experimental fact that two properties are needed to define the state of any pure substance in equilibrium or undergoing a steady or quasi-steady process.diagram Figure 1. which is a very good approximation to real gases at conditions that are typically of interest for aerospace applications 1.7: Thermodynamics coordinates and isolines for an ideal gas 1.3]. .2.2. [VW.'' . if we know and we know . is where .1. etc. is the volume per mol of gas and is the ``Universal Gas Constant. where is the volume per unit mass. 3. The equation of state for an ideal gas.Figure: Figure: - diagram diagram Figure: . Any of these is equivalent to an equation . Thus for a simple compressible gas like air. In words.

weights. which is much more useful. The question we will pose is how efficient can this conversion be in the two cases. concerns the conversion of heat into work. which has a different value for different gases due to the different molecular .A form of this equation which is more useful in fluid flow problems is obtained if we divide by the molecular weight. we examine two types of processes that concern interactions between heat and work.2 Generalized Representation of Up: 3. The second. The First Law Contents Index 3. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1.1 What it's All Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3.3 Changing the State Up: 1. The first of these represents the conversion of work into heat. For air at room conditions.1: Examples of the conversion of work into heat . : where R is . Work and Efficiency As preparation for our discussion of cycles (and as a foreshadowing of the second law). Figure 3.1 Some Properties of Engineering Cycles. Next: 1. The First Law Previous: 3.

To keep the temperature constant during the expansion. If we measured the temperature of the block and the surface we would find that it was higher than when we started. however. There is work associated with the torque exerted on the shaft turning through an angle. it is removed. this is the basis of inertia welding. When the stirring stops. This is a process that has 100% conversion of heat into Figure 3. (High temperatures can be reached if the velocities of pulling are high. After the force has moved through the distance. the fluid comes to rest and there is (again) no change in kinetic or potential energy from the initial state. so that if the temperature is constant for some process the internal energy change is zero. One way to do this is to ask whether we can construct a way that the process could result in the raising of a weight in a gravitational field.Three examples of the first process are given in Figure 3. If so. the piston does work on some external device. as sketched in Figure 3. Is this true for the conversion of heat into work? To answer the last question.2: Isothermal expansion .2.1 have 100% conversion of work into heat.'' It may sometimes be difficult to make the link between a complicated thermodynamic process and the simple raising of a weight. Because first law takes the form work. the . we need to have some basis for judging whether work is done in a given process. This is a case of electrical work being converted to heat. The second example concerns the stirring of a viscous liquid. we can say ``Work has been done.1. indeed it models operation of an electrical heater. The first is the pulling of a block on a rough horizontal surface by a force which moves through some distance. The final example is the passage of a current through a resistance. The fluid and the paddle wheels will be found to be hotter than when we started. The block then has no kinetic energy and the same potential energy it had when the force started to act. One example of a process in which heat is converted to work is the isothermal (constant temperature) expansion of an ideal gas. the internal energy is a function of temperature only. but this is a rigorous test for the existence of work. Friction resists the pulling.) The work done to move the block has been converted totally to heat. heat must be supplied. The system is the gas inside the chamber. For an ideal gas. This 100% conversion could go on without limit as long as work were supplied. As the gas expands. All the examples in Figure 3.

the expression for work can be written as (3. however. For a power or propulsion system. Below this.. in other words a device that would give power or propulsion as long as fuel was added to it. but rather cycles back to the initial state.2) The lowest pressure to which we can expand and still receive work from the system is atmospheric pressure. we cannot continue indefinitely. . we need a series of processes where the system does not progress through a one-way transition from an initial state to a different final state. What is looked for is in fact a thermodynamic cycle for the system. we would like a source of continuous power. . we would have to do work on the system to pull the piston out further. Using the equation of state. To do this.1) For an isothermal process. We define several quantities for a cycle: is the heat absorbed by the system.The work exerted by the system is given by where 1 and 2 denote the two states at the beginning and end of the process. so that written in terms of the pressures at the beginning and end as .. The equation of state for an ideal gas is with the number of moles of the gas contained in the chamber. The work can be (3. is the heat rejected by the system. There is thus a bound on the amount of work that can be obtained in the isothermal expansion.

(Efficiencies are often usefully portrayed as ``What you get'' versus ``What you pay for. The First Law Previous: 3. or rather the fuel that generates the heat. so the overall energy change. is the net work done by the system.) In terms of the heat absorbed and rejected. The cycle returns to its initial state. a basic question is what is the maximum thermal efficiency for any arbitrary cycle? We examine this for several cases. The First Law Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3.7 Brayton Cycle Up: 3. The net work done by the system is related to the magnitudes of the heat absorbed and the heat rejected by The thermal efficiency of the cycle is the ratio of the work done to the heat absorbed.2 Generalized Representation of Up: 3.. the thermal efficiency is (3. Next: 3. The First Law Previous: 3. which is a model for the power cycle in a jet engine. including the Carnot cycle and the Brayton (or Joule) cycle. is zero.5 The Internal combustion Contents Index 3.6 Diesel Cycle .3) The thermal efficiency can only be 100% (complete conversion of heat into work) if .'' Here what we get is work and what we pay for is heat. .

because the Diesel engine can be operated to higher compression ratio. (MP 3. Fuel is sprayed into the cylinder at (high pressure) when the compression is complete. the engine can actually have higher efficiency than an Otto cycle when both are operated at compression ratios that might be achieved in practice.12: The ideal Diesel cycle The thermal efficiency is given by: This cycle can operate with a higher compression ratio than the Otto cycle because only air is compressed and there is no risk of auto-ignition of the fuel.9) . Muddy Points When and where do we use ever ? (MP 3.The Diesel cycle is a compression ignition (rather than spark ignition) engine.8) and ? Some definitions use . Figure 3. An idealized Diesel engine cycle is shown in Figure 3. Although for a given compression ratio the Otto cycle has higher efficiency.12. and there is ignition without a spark. Is it Explanation of the above comparison between Diesel and Otto.

rate of work per unit enthalpy flux 3.4 Refrigerators and Heat Contents Index Subsections 3. gas escapes. .5. ). Exhaust stroke. We model the processes as all acting on a fixed mass of air contained in a piston-cylinder arrangement. short time. Combustion (spark). 5. Model: heat 6. Valve exhaust: valve opens.8: 1. thus effectively adding heat through converting chemical energy into thermal energy. b) compress it. ).1 Efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle 3. gasoline vapor and air drawn into engine ( 2. Intake stroke.5 The Internal combustion engine (Otto Cycle) [VW. ( ) Model: rejection of heat to series of reservoirs at temperatures to 7.5 The Internal combustion Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3. d) expand the combustion products. to .13] The Otto cycle is a set of processes used by spark ignition internal combustion engines (2stroke or 4-stroke cycles).7 Brayton Cycle Up: 3.6 Diesel Cycle Up: 3. The First Law Previous: 3. as shown in Figure 3. .2 Engine work. S & B: 9. piston pushes remaining combustion products out of chamber ( . c) cause it to react. The First Law Previous: 3. increase ( ).5. essentially constant volume ( absorbed from a series of reservoirs at temperatures 4. The different processes are shown in Figure 3.10. and then e) eject the combustion products and replace them with a new charge of fuel and air. ). Power stroke: expansion ( ). These engines a) ingest a mixture of fuel and air. 3.Next: 3. Compression stroke.

10: Piston and valves in a four-stroke internal combustion engine The actual cycle does not have the sharp transitions between the different processes that the ideal cycle has.9: Sketch of an actual Otto cycle Figure 3. and might be as sketched in Figure 3.Figure 3. .8: The ideal Otto cycle Figure 3.9.

The heat absorbed occurs during combustion when the spark occurs. roughly at constant volume.3. In terms of compression ratio.5.1 Efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle The starting point is the general expression for the thermal efficiency of a cycle: The convention. the efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle is: . as previously. is that heat exchange is positive if heat is flowing into the system or engine. The heat absorbed can be related to the temperature change from state 2 to state 3 as: The heat rejected is given by (for a perfect gas with constant specific heats) Substituting the expressions for the heat absorbed and rejected in the expression for thermal efficiency yields We can simplify the above expression using the fact that the processes from 1 to 2 and from 3 to 4 are isentropic: The quantity is called the compression ratio. so is negative.

is the fuel mass flow rate.11. the chemical energy liberated per unit mass of fuel. the mixture will ignite without a spark (at the wrong location in the cycle).e.5. As the compression ratio.11: Ideal Otto cycle thermal efficiency The ideal Otto cycle efficiency is shown as a function of the compression ratio in Figure 3. The heat input is given by where is the heat of reaction. rate of work per unit enthalpy flux The non-dimensional ratio of work done (the power) to the enthalpy flux through the engine is given by There is often a desire to increase this quantity. The non-dimensional power is . i.Figure 3. but so does . is too high. If . because it means a smaller engine for the same power. 3.2 Engine work. increases. increases.

6 Diesel Cycle Up: 3.4 The Clausius- . evaluated at stoichiometric conditions are: so Muddy Points How is calculated? (MP 3.6 Enhancements of Rankine Up: 8.The quantities in this equation. Power Cycles with Previous: 8.4 Refrigerators and Heat Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 8. The First Law Previous: 3.7) Next: 3.6) What are ``stoichiometric conditions?'' (MP 3.

The processes in the Rankine cycle are as follows: 1. In this process. and .Clapeyron Equation Contents Index 8. 3. : Cold liquid at initial temperature is pressurized reversibly to a high pressure by a pump.5 Rankine Power Cycles Figure 8. with transition of liquid to vapor. 4. [ - coordinates] [ - .. The cycle is shown on . The quality decreases from unity at point to 5. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics] A schematic of the components of a Rankine cycle is shown in Figure 8. : Isentropic expansion through a turbine. .12.11.coordinates in Figure 8. . 2. the volume changes slightly.11: Rankine power cycle with two-phase working fluid [Moran and Shapiro. : Heat added at constant temperature (constant pressure). : Reversible constant pressure heating in a boiler to temperature .. : Liquid-vapor mixture condensed at temperature by extracting heat.

Stations correspond to those in Figure 8. To examine the efficiency of the Rankine cycle.12: Rankine cycle diagram. . There are several features that should be noted about Figure 8. .12 and the Rankine cycle in . the mean temperature at which heat is supplied is less than the maximum temperature. but only the part is isothermal. .coordinates] [ - coordinates] Figure 8. From this equation we see not only the reason that the cycle efficiency is less than that of a Carnot cycle. we define a mean effective temperature. this is at both constant temperature and pressure.11 In the Rankine cycle. so that the efficiency is less than that of a Carnot cycle working between the same maximum and minimum temperatures. in terms of the heat exchanged and the entropy differences: The thermal efficiency of the cycle is The compression and expansion processes are isentropic. The heat absorption takes place at constant pressure over . so the entropy differences are related by The thermal efficiency can be written in terms of the mean effective temperatures as For the Rankine cycle. but the direction to move in terms of cycle design (increased ) if we wish to increase the efficiency. The heat rejected occurs over . .

as said earlier. In the two-phase region. 3.and the .diagrams are not similar in shape. as seen for the Brayton cycle. The slope of a constant pressure reversible heat addition line is. The Rankine cycle is less efficient than the Carnot cycle for given maximum and minimum temperatures. Muddy Points Where does degrees Rankine come from? Related to Rankine cycles? (MP 8. 2. Power Cycles with Previous: 8.7 Brayton Cycle Up: 3. but. so the slope of the constant pressure heat addition line is constant and the line is straight. it is more effective as a practical power production device. the turbine work is thus lower in the irreversible case. The enthalpy at the end of the expansion (the turbine exit) is thus higher for the irreversible process than for the reversible process. constant pressure means also constant temperature. as they were with the perfect gas with constant specific heats.general: 1. Irreversible at the end state of the expansion that is higher than . The .5 The Internal combustion Contents Index .6 Enhancements of Rankine Up: 8.9) Next: 8. The First Law Previous: 3. as derived in Chapter 6.4 The ClausiusClapeyron Equation Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3. The effect of irreversibilities is represented by the dashed line from behavior during the expansion results in a value of entropy to . and.

12. Although for a given compression ratio the Otto cycle has higher efficiency. the engine can actually have higher efficiency than an Otto cycle when both are operated at compression ratios that might be achieved in practice. Figure 3. and there is ignition without a spark. Fuel is sprayed into the cylinder at (high pressure) when the compression is complete.3. because the Diesel engine can be operated to higher compression ratio. An idealized Diesel engine cycle is shown in Figure 3.12: The ideal Diesel cycle The thermal efficiency is given by: This cycle can operate with a higher compression ratio than the Otto cycle because only air is compressed and there is no risk of auto-ignition of the fuel.6 Diesel Cycle The Diesel cycle is a compression ignition (rather than spark ignition) engine. Muddy Points When and where do we use ever ? (MP 3. Is it .8) and ? Some definitions use .

5 Trends in thermal Contents Index Subsections 11.1 Thrust o 11.5.1 Parameters reflecting design choices o 11.6.4 Turbojet Engine 11.3.6.2 Parameters reflecting the ability to design and execute efficient components 11.6.5 The Internal combustion Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 11.6. (MP 3.6.6.2 Fuel Air Ratio o o o 11.2 Ideal Assumptions 11.4 Representative performance values 11.7 Brayton Cycle Up: 3.9) Next: 3.3.Explanation of the above comparison between Diesel and Otto.3.3 Specific impulse.3.6.6.6.6 Performance of Jet Engines In Chapter 3 we represented a gas turbine engine using a Brayton cycle and derived expressions for efficiency and work as functions of the temperature at various points in the cycle.1 Notation and station numbering 11. flight .5 Effect of Departures from Ideal Behavior o 11.6.5. In this section we will perform further ideal cycle analysis to express the thrust and fuel efficiency of engines in terms of useful design variables.5 Recapitulation 11.6.3 Ideal Ramjet o 11. 11.6.3. The First Law Previous: 3. Aircraft Engine Performance Previous: 11. including design limits.7 Performance of Propellers Up: 11.

and . turbine) for an engine for a given mission.g. pressure ratios. temperature ratios).g.1 Notation and station numbering Notation: where the capital subscript will refer to the turbine. but only the results the various components produce (e.6. are more . and design choices. the rotational speed.conditions.). Stagnation properties. compressor. In Chapter 12 we will look in greater detail at how some of the components (the turbine and the compressor) produce these effects. Note that ideal cycle analysis addresses only the thermodynamics of the airflow within the engine. 11. combustor. The expressions we develop will allow us to define a particular mission and then determine the optimum component characteristics (e. etc. It does not describe the details of the components (the blading.

6. . Combustor/burner or afterburner: . 4. . it is standard convention to express the performance of various components in terms of stagnation pressure and temperature ratios: total or stagnation pressure ratio across component ( . . . total or stagnation temperature ratio across component ( . Compressor or fan: 3. . . . To identify individual stations within the Figure 11. . 11.easily measured quantities than static properties ( and ). . . . isentropic) 2.2 Ideal Assumptions 1. Thus. where . Nozzle: .12. (adiabatic. . Turbine: 5. and engine we will use the numbers in Figure 11. Inlet/Diffuser: . . . ) ). . . .12: Gas turbine engine station numbering.

1 Thrust The coordinate system and control volume are chosen to be fixed to the ramjet.3.11. The ratios of stagnation pressure to static pressure at inlet and exit of the ramjet are The ratios of stagnation to static pressure at exit and at inlet are the same.3. The thrust can be put in terms of nondimensional parameters as follows: Using .3 Ideal Ramjet To get started with a simple example (no turbomachinery). .6. respectively. we will reexamine the ideal ramjet.6. in the expression for stagnation pressure. is given by: where and are the exit and inlet flow velocities. The thrust. .) 11. picking up where we left off in Section 3. with the consequence that the inlet and exit Mach numbers are also the same. consistent with Figure 3. (Note that we will continue to use station 5 as the exit station.7.25.

burner. We thus neglect the difference between the mass flows and obtain with Thus. . we get: . because the fuel-air ratio is much less than unity (generally several percent). as shown in Figure 11.2 Fuel Air Ratio To find the Isp will will need to find the ramjet fuel-air ratio. The thrust is thus 11.13. Using a control volume around the From the steady flow energy equation: The exit mass flow is not greatly different from the inlet mass flow.To find the thrust we need to find the ratio of the temperature at exit and the temperature at inlet.6. the fuel-air ratio is .3. This is given by where is the stagnation temperature ratio across the combustor (burner).

13: Control volume over the burner 11. What happens in this situation as the flight Mach number.3. but the maximum temperature does not increase much because of dissociation: the reaction does not go to completion at high temperature. increases? is fixed so increases. we need to add some additional information concerning the operational behavior.The fuel-air ratio. ). . . which is a complicated formula. the desired flight parameters ( ). and the temperature of the atmosphere ( Figure 11. The specific impulse for the ramjet is given by The specific impulse can be written in terms of fuel properties and flight and vehicle characteristics as We wish to explore the parameter dependency of the above expression. How can we do this? What are the important effects of the different parameters? How do we best capture the ramjet performance behavior? To make effective comparisons. the ramjet performance ( ).3 Specific impulse. depends on the fuel properties ( ). An important case to examine is when we have stoichiometric conditions and all the fuel burns (denoted by ). A useful approximation is therefore to take constant .6.

3.14: Thrust per unit mass flow and specific impulse for ideal ramjet with stoichiometric combustion [Kerrebrock] A plot of the performance of the stoichiometric ramjet is shown in Figure 11.4 Representative performance values Figure 11. 11. The figure shows that for the parameters used. such that . . The maximum temperature ratio is For the stoichiometric ramjet. Using the expression for . the best operating range of a hydrocarbon-fueled ramjet is stratosphere.14.3. in the .6. from 10 to 30 km. . In the stratosphere. The parameters used are for hydrocarbons. the specific impulse is 11.6.5 Recapitulation .for stoichiometric operation.

1) ? (MP 11.5) What is the relation between of ? (MP 11. and .6) and the existence of the maximum value Why didn't we have a 2s point for the Brayton cycle with non-ideal components? (MP 11. . a measure of? (MP 11.7.Between Section 3.2) Why does industry use ? Is there an advantage to this? (MP 11.3 and this section we have: Examined the Brayton Cycle for ramjet propulsion. Found Found Examined as a function of .4 Turbojet Engine .6.8) 11. and and the relation between and as a function of Muddy Points What exactly is the specific impulse. How is found for rockets in space where rather than .3) Why isn't mechanical efficiency an issue with ramjets? (MP 11.4) How is thrust created in a ramjet? (MP 11.7) What is the variable ? (MP 11.

First we write an expression for the exit velocity: . as shown in Figure 11. We now examine an engine with turbomachinery.Figure 11. temperature ratios.15: Schematic with appropriate component notations added. and Now we have to do a little algebra to manipulate these expressions into more useful forms. Find thrust by finding in terms of . Methodology: 1. etc. Use an energy balance across the combustor to relate the combustor temperature rise to the fuel flow rate and fuel energy content. First write-out the expressions for thrust and Isp: where is the fuel/air mass flow ratio.15. 2. Use a power balance to relate turbine parameters to compressor parameters 3.

We now write the pressure at the exit in a similar manner: .Noting that we can write Thus (11.1) which expresses the exit temperature as a function of the inlet temperature. and the temperature changes across each component.. the Mach number.

1): and We now continue on the path to our expression for .Since and we write and then equate this to our expression for the temperature in (11. .

Second. we put the burner temperature ratio in terms of the exit temperature of the burner. then Since the turbine shaft is connected to the compressor shaft . or The steady flow energy equation states Assuming that the compressor and turbine are adiabatic. by noting that they are related by the condition that the power used by the compressor is equal to the power extracted by the turbine. First we write in terms of . ( more specifically ) since this is the hottest point in the engine and is a frequent benchmark used for judging various designs.Therefore Now we have two steps left.

and for an engine with an afterburner .Assuming the mass flow and specific heats are the same between compressor and turbine. this can be rewritten as where so or That was the first step relating the temperature rise across the turbine to that across the compressor. The remaining step is to write the temperature rise across the combustor in terms of .

and finally into This is what we were seeking. an expression for thrust in terms of important design parameters and flight parameters: By adding and substracting the quantity we may write this write in another form which is often used. and the first expression we wrote for thrust. A recap of the important variables: . we get: into our expression for .Now substituting our expressions for .

and physical constants . The specific impulse becomes where is expressed in terms of typical design parameters. is the fuel/air mass flow ratio.Our final step involves writing the specific impulse and other measures of efficiency in terms of these same parameters. flight conditions. and where again. We begin by writing the First Law across the combustor to relate the fuel flow rate and heating value of the fuel to the total enthalpy rise.

the ideal thermal efficiency is and the propulsive efficiency can be found as . we can write our overall efficiency as or Using the definition from before.Similarly.

Speed of sound 0 0.17.18.1: Turbojet Mission Parameters Mach number Altitude Ambient Temp.We can now use these equations to better understand the performance of a simple turbojet engine.0 Sea level 12 km 18 km 288 K 217 K 217 K 340 m/s 295 m/s 295 m/s Note it is more typical to work with the compressor pressure ratio ( ratio ( ) so we will substitute the isentropic relationship: ) rather than the temperature into the equations before plotting the results in Figures 11.16. . and 11.85 2.16: Performance of an ideal turbojet engine as a function of flight Mach number. Figure 11. We will use the following parameters (with ): Table 11. 11.

17: Performance of an ideal turbojet engine as a function of compressor pressure ratio and flight Mach number.Figure 11. .

Heat transfer. Because . What are the sources of non-ideal performance and departures from reversibility? Losses (entropy production) in the compressor and the turbine.Real Cycle behavior To conclude this chapter.5 Effect of Departures from Ideal Behavior -. 11. We take into account here only irreversibility in the compressor and in the turbine. We will use the Brayton cycle as an example. Stagnation pressure decrease in the combustor.6.Figure 11.18: Performance of an ideal turbojet engine as a function of compressor pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature. we will now improve our estimates of cycle performance by including the effects of irreversibility.

19. These are not thermal efficiencies. consider a perfect gas with constant specific heats and neglect kinetic energy at the inlet and exit of the turbine and compressor. There is a similar metric for again for the same pressure ratio. We also get less work. as can be inferred from Figure 11. We now wish to find the net work done in the cycle and the efficiency. . is that the net work from the engine is less than in the cycle with ideal components. The consequence. the compressor adiabatic efficiency: .of these irreversibilities.19: Gas turbine engine (Brayton) cycle showing effect of departure from ideal behavior in compressor and turbine To develop a quantitative description of the effect of these departures from reversible behavior. we need more work. to drive the compressor than in the ideal situation. We define the turbine adiabatic efficiency as where is specified to be at the same pressure ratio as the compressor. The net work is given . (the changes in kinetic energy from inlet to exit of the compressor are neglected). back from the turbine. Note that for the turbine the ratio is the actual work delivered divided by the ideal work. but rather measures of the degree to which the compression and expansion approach the ideal processes. Figure 11. whereas for the compressor the ratio is the ideal work needed divided by the actual work required.

where the convention is that heat received is positive and heat rejected is negative and work done is positive and work absorbed is negative. From the definition of . by the definition we can find : . The thermal efficiency is We need to calculate . .either by the difference between the heat received and rejected or the work of the compressor and turbine. With Similarly.

The thermal efficiency can now be found: With and or .

[Non-dimensional work as a function of cycle pressure ratio for different values of turbine entry . 11.6.5. net rate of work is a quantity we need to examine.There are several non-dimensional parameters that appear in this expression for thermal efficiency.6. Putting this in a non-dimensional form. We list these in the two sections below and show their effects in accompanying figures.5.2 Parameters reflecting the ability to design and execute efficient components In addition to efficiency.1 Parameters reflecting design choices 11.

The highest efficiency also occurs closer to the pressure ratio for maximum power than in the case of an ideal cycle. Jet Propulsion] Trends in net power and efficiency are shown in Figure 11. the optimum pressure ratio for maximum is not the highest that can be achieved. .20: Non-dimensional power and efficiency for a non-ideal gas turbine engine [from Cumpsty. There is a strong sensitivity to the component efficiencies.temperature divided by compressor entry temperature] [Overall cycle efficiency as a function of pressure ratio for different values of turbine entry temperature divided by compressor entry temperature] [Overall cycle efficiency as a function of cycle pressure ratio for different component efficiencies] Figure 11. for . For example. the cycle efficiency is roughly two-thirds of the ideal value.20 for parameters typical of advanced civil engines. are strongly dependent on the maximum The maximum power and maximum temperature. The ideal analysis is too idealized in this regard. as it is for the ideal Brayton cycle. Choosing this as a design criterion will therefore not lead to the efficiency penalty inferred from ideal cycle analysis. or pressure ratio less than that for The maximum power occurs at a value of max (this trend is captured by ideal analysis). . Some points to note in the figure: For any .

21. why must the nozzle throat area increase if the temperature of the fluid is increased? (MP 11.diagram to the right. they should eventually separate by density. Nomenclature is shown in the figure. compressor and turbine efficiencies Cumpsty. in terms of temperature-entropy ( .14) What's the point of having a throat if it creates a retarding force? (MP 11.15) Why isn't the stagnation temperature conserved in this steady flow? (MP 11.21: Scale diagram of non-ideal gas turbine cycle. does this mean there is more work than ideal since the area is greater? (MP 11. . .13) Why is the flow in the nozzle choked? (MP 11.) and pressure-volume ( .10) When there are losses in the turbine that shift the expansion in . [] [] Figure 11.) coordinates is given below as Figure 11.9) How can be the maximum turbine inlet temperature? (MP 11.12) Why doesn't the pressure in the afterburner go up if heat is added? (MP 11.16) . Pressure ratio .11) For an afterburning engine. Jet Propulsion] [from Muddy Points Isn't it possible for the mixing of two gases to go from the final state to the initial state? If you have two gases in a box. right? (MP 11.A scale diagram of a Brayton cycle with non-ideal compressor and turbine behaviors.

Convective Heat Transfer Contents Index 17. Very near the wall. In a turbulent boundary layer. The boundary layer is a region in which the velocity is lower than the free stream as shown in Figures 17. the dominant mechanisms of shear stress and heat transfer change in nature as one moves away from the wall. The fluid particles move in random directions and the transfer of momentum and energy is mainly through interchange of fluid particles. Convective Heat Transfer Previous: 17. . at a plane is given by (where is the dynamic viscosity).1 The Reynolds Analogy We describe the physical mechanism for the heat transfer coefficient in a turbulent boundary layer because most aerospace vehicle applications have turbulent boundary layers. the flow is turbulent. Figure 17.Next: 11. and molecular conduction and shear are important.7 Performance of Propellers Up: 11.2 Combined Conduction and Up: 17. and the heat flux by . . The shear stress. the fluid motion is smooth and laminar. The latter is the same expression that was used for a solid. The treatment closely follows that in Eckert and Drake (1959).3: Velocity profile near a surface As one moves away from the wall (but still in the boundary layer).2 and 17. Aircraft Engine Performance Previous: 11.5 Trends in thermal Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 17.3.4. shown schematically in Figure 17.

given by . there is a turbulent downwards heat . If .Figure 17.3) Based on these considerations. Fluid moving up transports heat downwards..4) or (again approximately) (17. that results. given by (17. the relation between heat flux and shear stress at plane is (17.. Fluid moving up also has momentum The net flux of momentum down per unit area and time is therefore .4.5) . This net flux of momentum per unit area and time is a force per unit area or stress. Fluid moving down transports flow . a fluid mass penetrates the plane per unit time and unit area. and fluid moving down has momentum .4: Momentum and energy exchanges in turbulent flow With reference to Figure 17. In steady flow.. because of the turbulent velocity field. the same amount crosses from the other side.

since the locations of planes 1-1 and 2-2 are arbitrary. expressed slightly (17. We want a relation between the values at the wall (at which and ) and those in the free stream. Equation (17. yields and dividing by the (17. the heat flux towards the wall is expression for the shear stress. To get this. The Prandtl number varies little over a wide range of temperatures: approximately 3% from 300-2000 K. The assumption being made is that the mechanisms of heat and momentum transfer are similar. after the man who first presented the idea of the boundary layer and was one of the pioneers of modern fluid mechanics.8) can be integrated from the wall to the freestream (conditions ``at ''): . .. we integrate the expression for from the wall to the free stream (17.. and is the thermal diffusivity.6) The same relationship is applicable in laminar or turbulent flow if differently. For the laminar region.7) where is the kinematic viscosity. Prandtl numbers are in fact close to unity and for air at room temperature.8) where the relation between heat transfer and shear stress has been taken as the same for both the laminar and the turbulent portions of the boundary layer. The quantity is known as the Prandtl number ( ).. or. For gases.

(17..9)

where

and

are assumed constant.

Carrying out the integration yields

(17..10)

where

is the velocity and

is the specific heat. In Equation (17.10),

is the heat flux to the

wall and is the shear stress at the wall. The relation between skin friction (shear stress) at the wall and heat transfer is thus (17..11)

The quantity

is known as the skin friction coefficient and is denoted by . The skin friction coefficient has been tabulated (or computed) for a large number of situations. If we define a non-dimensional quantity (17..12)

known as the Stanton Number, we can write an expression for the heat transfer coefficient,

as

(17..13)

Equation (17.13) provides a useful estimate of , or , based on knowing the skin friction, or drag. The direct relationship between the Stanton Number and the skin friction coefficient is

(17..14)

The relation between the heat transfer and the skin friction coefficient (17..15)

is known as the Reynolds analogy between shear stress and heat transfer. The Reynolds analogy is extremely useful in obtaining a first approximation for heat transfer in situations in which the shear stress is ``known.''

An example of the use of the Reynolds analogy is in analysis of a heat exchanger. One type of heat exchanger has an array of tubes with one fluid flowing inside and another fluid flowing outside, with the objective of transferring heat between them. To begin, we need to examine the flow resistance of a tube. For fully developed flow in a tube, it is more appropriate to use an average velocity and a bulk temperature approximate relation for the heat transfer is . Thus, an

(17..16)

The fluid resistance (drag) is all due to shear forces and is given by the tube ``wetted'' area (perimeter length). The total heat transfer, , is

, where , so that

is

(17..17)

The power, velocity,

, to drive the flow through a resistance is given by the product of the drag and the , so that

(17..18)

The mass flow rate is given by

, where

is the cross sectional area. For a given mass or as , i.e.,

flow rate and overall heat transfer rate, the power scales as

(17..19)

Equations (17.18) and (17.19) show that to decrease the power dissipated, we need to decrease , which can be accomplished by increasing the cross-sectional area. Two possible heat exchanger configurations are sketched in Figure 17.5; the one on the right will have a lower loss.

Figure 17.5: Heat exchanger configurations

To recap, there is an approximate relation between skin friction (momentum flux to the wall) and heat transfer called the Reynolds analogy that provides a useful way to estimate heat transfer rates in situations in which the skin friction is known. The relation is expressed by

or

or

The Reynolds analogy can be used to give information about scaling of various effects as well as initial estimates for heat transfer. It is emphasized that it is a useful tool based on a hypothesis about the mechanism of heat transfer and shear stress and not a physical law.

Muddy Points What is the ``analogy'' that we are discussing? Is it that the equations are similar? (MP 17.2) In what situations does the Reynolds analogy ``not work?'' (MP 17.3)

Next: 17.2 Combined Conduction and Up: 17. Convective Heat Transfer Previous: 17. Convective Heat Transfer Contents Index

UnifiedTP

Thermodynamics and Propulsion

Next: 6.8 Some Overall Comments Up: 6. Applications of the Previous: 6.6 Entropy and Unavailable Contents Index

**6.7 Examples of Lost Work in Engineering Processes
**

1. Lost work in Adiabatic Throttling: Entropy and Stagnation Pressure Changes

Figure 6.8: Adiabatic Throttling

2. A process we have encountered before is adiabatic throttling of a gas, by a valve or other device as shown in Figure 6.8. The velocity is denoted by . There is no shaft work and no heat transfer and the flow is steady. Under these conditions we can use the first law for a control volume (the Steady Flow Energy Equation) to make a statement about the conditions upstream and downstream of the valve:

3. 4. where is the stagnation enthalpy, corresponding to a (possibly fictitious) state with zero , even if

velocity. The stagnation enthalpy is the same at stations 1 and 2 if the flow processes are not reversible.

5. For a perfect gas with constant specific heats, and relation between the static and stagnation temperatures is:

. The

6.

7. where is the speed of sound and is the Mach number, . In deriving this result, use has only been made of the first law, the equation of state, the speed of sound, and the definition of the Mach number. Nothing has yet been specified about whether the process of stagnating the fluid is reversible or irreversible.

8. When we define the stagnation pressure, however, we do it with respect to isentropic deceleration to the zero velocity state. For an isentropic process

9.

10. The relation between static and stagnation pressures is

11.

Figure 6.9: Static and stagnation pressures and temperatures

12. The stagnation state is defined by

,

. In

addition, . The static and stagnation states are shown in - coordinates in Figure 6.9. 13. Stagnation pressure is a key variable in propulsion and power systems. To see why, we examine the relation between stagnation pressure, stagnation temperature, and entropy. The form of the combined first and second law that uses enthalpy is

(6..8)

14.

Figure 6.10:Stagnation and static states

15. This holds for small changes between any thermodynamic states and we can apply it to a situation in which we consider differences between stagnation states, say one

and the use of stagnation pressure as a measure of loss is a practice that has widespread application. Equation (6. . and hence the stagnation temperature. Because the entropy is the same at static and stagnation conditions.state having properties and the other having properties (see Figure 6. so that the stagnation pressure change is small compared to the inlet level of stagnation pressure. The throttling process is a representation of flow through inlets. needs no subscript. The stagnation pressure plays the role of an indicator of loss if the stagnation temperature is constant. 19.10).11 shows this relation on a . nozzles.diagram. not the entropy. or irreversibility. The corresponding static states are also indicated. Writing (6. (6. is constant. the stagnation pressure is related directly to the entropy as. In this situation. First. For a process with . Figure 6.8) in terms of stagnation conditions yields 16. we note that for aerospace applications we are (hopefully!) concerned with low loss devices. We have seen that the entropy is related to the loss.11:Losses reflected in changes in stagnation pressure when 21. Both sides of the above are perfect differentials and can be integrated as 18. The utility is that it is the stagnation pressure (and temperature) which are directly measured.9) 20.9) can be put in several useful approximate forms. stationary turbomachinery blades.. 17. the stagnation enthalpy. 22. Figure 6.

26. which is the ``lost work'' per unit mass. with the term now representing the loss of mechanical energy associated with the change in stagnation pressure. We can regard the throttling process as a ``free expansion'' at constant temperature from the initial stagnation pressure to the final stagnation pressure. 24. Expanding the logarithm (using ). We thus know that. Muddy Points Why do we find stagnation enthalpy if the velocity never equals zero in the flow? (MP 6.14) 32. 30.13) Why does remain constant for throttling? (MP 6. Another useful form is obtained by dividing both sides by and taking the limiting forms ). For many applications the stagnation temperature is constant and the change in stagnation pressure is a direct measure of the entropy increase. The quantity on the right can be interpreted as the change in the ``Bernoulli constant'' for incompressible (low Mach number) flow. Stagnation pressure is the quantity that is actually measured so that linking it to entropy (which is not measured) is useful. 2. The quantity on the left is a non-dimensional entropy change parameter. To summarize: 1. Doing of the expression for stagnation pressure in the limit of low Mach number ( this. 31.23. or 25. 28. 27. for the process. 3. we find: 29. Adiabatic Efficiency of a Propulsion System Component (Turbine) . the work we need to do to bring the gas back to the initial state is .

The adiabatic efficiency of the turbine is defined as 38. small changes in enthalpy are related to the entropy change by . .12. Equation (6. 35.10) (6.11) 34. The performance of the turbine can be represented in an ..plane (similar to a plane for a perfect gas with constant specific heats) as shown in Figure 6. 41. or approximately. for a constant pressure process. There is a pressure and temperature drop through the turbine and it produces work.Figure 6.12: Schematic of turbine and associated thermodynamic representation in coordinates - 33. 37. If the difference in the kinetic energy at inlet and outlet can be neglected. A schematic of a turbine and the accompanying thermodynamic diagram are given in Figure 6. The adiabatic efficiency can therefore be written as 42.12.. The non-dimensional term represents the departure from isentropic (reversible) processes and hence a loss. 39. 43. There is no heat transfer so the expressions that describe the overall shaft work and the shaft work per unit mass are (6. From the figure the adiabatic efficiency is 40.11) reduces to 36. 44. From the combined first and second laws. The quantity is the enthalpy difference for two states along a constant pressure line (see diagram).

13: Isothermal expansion with friction 51. Muddy Points 49. How do you tell the difference between shaft work/power and flow work in a turbine. 53.13. The heat will be (eventually) transferred to the atmosphere. represents a useful figure of merit for fluid machinery inefficiency due to 48. The engine operates in a cycle and the entropy change for the complete cycle is zero . The amount of heat transferred to the atmosphere due to the frictional work only is thus. both conceptually and mathematically? (MP 6. 55. all frictional work ends up as heat transferred to the surrounding atmosphere. a balance of forces tells us that 52. If the kinetic energy of the piston is negligible. The quantity irreversibility. 54.15) 50. In a more general look at the isothermal expansion. 56.45. work is done to overcome friction. we now drop the restriction to frictionless processes. The entropy change of the atmosphere (considered as a heat reservoir) due to the frictional work is 58. Isothermal Expansion with Friction Figure 6. The adiabatic efficiency can thus be approximated as 47. 46. 57. As seen in Figure 6. During the expansion. the piston and the walls of the container will heat up because of the friction.

Suppose we had an ideal reversible engine working between these same two temperatures. so that the reversible work is greater than the actual work of the irreversible cycle. Combining the expressions for work and for the entropy changes. The second law states that the total entropy generated is greater than zero for an irreversible process. can be defined as the ratio of the actual work obtained divided by the work that would have been delivered by a reversible engine operating between the two temperatures and : . 70. temperature reservoir. from the high to the low temperature 65. The entropy change for the irreversible cycle can therefore be written as 69. 66.'' . 64. The work done by this reversible engine is 63. For the reversible engine the total entropy change over a cycle is . The difference in work that the two cycles produce is proportional to the entropy that is generated during the cycle: 71. Therefore. 59.(because entropy is a state variable). and rejected heat of magnitude reservoir. 60. 72. 68. which extracted the same amount of heat. 62. An ``engine effectiveness. The total entropy change is 61. 73. 67.

with friction and losses. This is useful in . In a real heat engine.18) 79. Muddy Points 77. Streamlines of the flow have been sketched.17) 78. 76.19) 80.74. Why does ? (MP 6. as has the velocity distribution at station ``0'' far upstream and station ``d'' far downstream. In discussing the terms ``closed system'' and ``isolated system. A coordinate system fixed to the vehicle has been adopted so that we see the airfoil as fixed and the air far away from the airfoil moving at a velocity .15: Airfoil with wake and control volume for analysis of propulsive power requirement We use a control volume description and take the control surface to be defined by the two stream surfaces and two planes at station 0 and station d. Because of the lower velocity in the wake the area between the stream surfaces is larger downstream than upstream. The extent of the wake is also indicated. why is ? (MP 6.'' can you assume that you are discussing a cycle or not? (MP 6. Figure 6. The departure from a reversible process is directly reflected in the entropy change and the decrease in engine effectiveness. 75. The airfoil has a wake.15 shows an aerodynamic shape (airfoil) moving through the atmosphere at a constant velocity.20) 81. Propulsive Power and Entropy Flux still 0 if The final example in this section combines a number of ideas presented in this subject and in Unified in the development of a relation between entropy generation and power needed to propel a vehicle. which mixes with the surrounding air and grows in the downstream direction. Figure 6. Does a cycle process have to have ? (MP 6.

(The conclusions apply to the more general velocity profile as well and we would just need to use integrals over the wake instead of the algebraic expressions below. It is approximated in the analysis as a step change to make the algebra a bit simpler..12) The vertical face of the control surface is far downstream of the body. the momentum equation is Uniform static pressure therefore implies uniform velocity.14) . We can thus write. By this station.13) (We chose our control surface so the condition was upheld. which is the area outside the wake and . fluid that has suffered viscous losses.) The integral momentum equation (control volume form of the momentum equation) can be used to find the drag on the vehicle: (6. The area of the downstream plane control surface is broken into . .) The equation expressing mass conservation for the control volume is (6. i... as indicated. the wake fluid has had much time to mix and the velocity in the wake is close to the free stream value. For fluid which is not in the wake (no viscous forces). so that on the velocity is equal to the upstream value. which is the area occupied by wake fluid. .simplifying the analysis because there is no flow across the stream surfaces.. The control surface is also taken far enough away from the vehicle so that the static pressure can be considered uniform.e. The downstream velocity profile is actually continuous. (6.

Doing this and grouping the terms on the right hand side of Eq.. so that the defect in flux of momentum (the mass flow in the wake times the velocity defect) is.There is no pressure contribution in Eq. (6. is small by virtue of the choice of control surface and we can neglect it. All this flow has a velocity defect (compared to the free stream) of . We can also approximate that the condition of constant stagnation enthalpy holds locally on all . The combined first and second law gives us a means of relating the entropy and velocity: The pressure is uniform ( ) at the downstream station. (6.. They thus sum to zero leaving the curly bracketed terms as (6.14) because the static pressure on the control surface is uniform.15) in a different manner. .16) The wake mass flow is . Using the form given for the wake velocity and expanding the terms in the momentum equation we obtain (6. we have The terms in the square brackets on both sides of this equation are the continuity equation multiplied by .15) The last term in the right hand side of the momentum equation. to first order in . There is no net shaft work or heat transfer to the wake so that the mass flux of stagnation enthalpy is constant.

in this case manifested as power that needs to be supplied because of dissipation in the wake.. The power needed to propel the vehicle is the product of . this can be related to the entropy flux in the wake to yield a compact expression for the propulsive power needed in terms of the wake entropy flux: (6.19) This amount of work is dissipated per unit time in connection with sustaining the vehicle motion.18). in the general case we would express this by an integral over the locally varying wake velocity and density).18) The quantity is the entropy flux (mass flux times the entropy increase per unit mass. so that (6. . The entropy can be related to the drag as (6. Applying both of these to the combined first and second law yields For the present situation. Equation (6.streamlines.17) In Equation (6. .. (6.. Muddy Points . From Eq.19) is another demonstration of the relation between lost work and entropy generation.17) the upstream temperature is used because differences between wake quantities and upstream quantities are small at the downstream control station. .

11.2 Parameters reflecting the ability to design and execute efficient components 11. and design choices. flight conditions.6.1 Notation and station numbering 11.3. Aircraft Engine Performance Previous: 11.6.6.6.5. In this section we will perform further ideal cycle analysis to express the thrust and fuel efficiency of engines in terms of useful design variables.Is it safe to say that entropy is the tendency for a system to go into disorder? (MP 6. .6.6. including design limits.6.2 Fuel Air Ratio o o o 11.5.8 Some Overall Comments Up: 6.5 Recapitulation 11. Applications of the Previous: 6.3 Ideal Ramjet o 11.3.6.3.2 Ideal Assumptions 11.4 Turbojet Engine 11.3 Specific impulse.7 Performance of Propellers Up: 11.1 Parameters reflecting design choices o 11.5 Trends in thermal Contents Index Subsections 11.6 Performance of Jet Engines In Chapter 3 we represented a gas turbine engine using a Brayton cycle and derived expressions for efficiency and work as functions of the temperature at various points in the cycle.6.21) Next: 6.6 Entropy and Unavailable Contents Index Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 11.5 Effect of Departures from Ideal Behavior o 11.6.6.1 Thrust o 11.4 Representative performance values 11.3.6.3.

1 Notation and station numbering Notation: where the capital subscript will refer to the turbine. but only the results the various components produce (e. Note that ideal cycle analysis addresses only the thermodynamics of the airflow within the engine. etc.g. Thus. Stagnation properties. the rotational speed. pressure ratios.). are more easily measured quantities than static properties ( ). it is standard .g. compressor.The expressions we develop will allow us to define a particular mission and then determine the optimum component characteristics (e.6. In Chapter 12 we will look in greater detail at how some of the components (the turbine and the compressor) produce these effects. It does not describe the details of the components (the blading. turbine) for an engine for a given mission. temperature ratios). 11. combustor. and and .

**convention to express the performance of various components in terms of stagnation pressure and temperature ratios:
**

total or stagnation pressure ratio across component ( , total or stagnation temperature ratio across component (

, , ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

) ),

where , , , , and engine we will use the numbers in Figure 11.12.

, . To identify individual stations within the

Figure 11.12: Gas turbine engine station numbering.

**11.6.2 Ideal Assumptions
**

1. Inlet/Diffuser: , (adiabatic, isentropic)

2. Compressor or fan: 3. Combustor/burner or afterburner:

, ,

.

4. Turbine: 5. Nozzle: , .

11.6.3 Ideal Ramjet

To get started with a simple example (no turbomachinery), we will reexamine the ideal ramjet, picking up where we left off in Section 3.7.3. (Note that we will continue to use station 5 as the exit station, consistent with Figure 3.25.)

11.6.3.1 Thrust

The coordinate system and control volume are chosen to be fixed to the ramjet. The thrust, , is given by:

where and are the exit and inlet flow velocities, respectively. The thrust can be put in terms of nondimensional parameters as follows:

Using

,

in the expression for stagnation pressure,

The ratios of stagnation pressure to static pressure at inlet and exit of the ramjet are

The ratios of stagnation to static pressure at exit and at inlet are the same, with the consequence that the inlet and exit Mach numbers are also the same.

To find the thrust we need to find the ratio of the temperature at exit and the temperature at inlet. This is given by

where

is the stagnation temperature ratio across the combustor (burner). The thrust is thus

**11.6.3.2 Fuel Air Ratio
**

To find the Isp will will need to find the ramjet fuel-air ratio, burner, as shown in Figure 11.13, we get: . Using a control volume around the

From the steady flow energy equation:

The exit mass flow is not greatly different from the inlet mass flow, , because the fuel-air ratio is much less than unity (generally several percent). We thus neglect the difference between the mass flows and obtain

with

Thus, the fuel-air ratio is

The fuel-air ratio,

, depends on the fuel properties (

), the desired flight parameters ( ).

), the ramjet performance (

), and the temperature of the atmosphere (

Figure 11.13: Control volume over the burner

**11.6.3.3 Specific impulse,
**

The specific impulse for the ramjet is given by

The specific impulse can be written in terms of fuel properties and flight and vehicle characteristics as

We wish to explore the parameter dependency of the above expression, which is a complicated formula. How can we do this? What are the important effects of the different parameters? How do we best capture the ramjet performance behavior? To make effective comparisons, we need to add some additional information concerning the operational behavior. An important case to examine is when we have stoichiometric conditions and all the fuel burns (denoted by ). What happens in this situation as

the flight Mach number, , increases? is fixed so increases, but the maximum temperature does not increase much because of dissociation: the reaction does not go to completion at high temperature. A useful approximation is therefore to take for stoichiometric operation. In the stratosphere, from 10 to 30 constant

km,

. The maximum temperature ratio is

For the stoichiometric ramjet,

Using the expression for

, the specific impulse is

11.6.3.4 Representative performance values

Figure 11.14: Thrust per unit mass flow and specific impulse for ideal ramjet with stoichiometric combustion [Kerrebrock]

A plot of the performance of the stoichiometric ramjet is shown in Figure 11.14. The figure shows that for the parameters used, the best operating range of a hydrocarbon-fueled ramjet is stratosphere, . The parameters used are for hydrocarbons, such that , in the .

11.6.3.5 Recapitulation

Between Section 3.7.3 and this section we have:

Examined the Brayton Cycle for ramjet propulsion, Found Found Examined as a function of , and . , and

and the relation between and as a function of

Muddy Points What exactly is the specific impulse, How is found for rockets in space where rather than

, a measure of? (MP 11.1) ? (MP 11.2)

Why does industry use (MP 11.3)

? Is there an advantage to this?

Why isn't mechanical efficiency an issue with ramjets? (MP 11.4) How is thrust created in a ramjet? (MP 11.5)

What is the relation between of ? (MP 11.6)

and the existence of the maximum value

Why didn't we have a 2s point for the Brayton cycle with non-ideal components? (MP 11.7)

What is the variable

? (MP 11.8)

11.6.4 Turbojet Engine

We now examine an engine with turbomachinery.15. 2. Methodology: 1. Find thrust by finding in terms of . etc.15: Schematic with appropriate component notations added.Figure 11. First write-out the expressions for thrust and Isp: where is the fuel/air mass flow ratio. and Now we have to do a little algebra to manipulate these expressions into more useful forms. Use an energy balance across the combustor to relate the combustor temperature rise to the fuel flow rate and fuel energy content. temperature ratios. as shown in Figure 11. First we write an expression for the exit velocity: . Use a power balance to relate turbine parameters to compressor parameters 3.

We now write the pressure at the exit in a similar manner: .Noting that we can write Thus (11. the Mach number.1) which expresses the exit temperature as a function of the inlet temperature. and the temperature changes across each component..

1): and We now continue on the path to our expression for . .Since and we write and then equate this to our expression for the temperature in (11.

First we write in terms of . by noting that they are related by the condition that the power used by the compressor is equal to the power extracted by the turbine. The steady flow energy equation states Assuming that the compressor and turbine are adiabatic. ( or more specifically ) since this is the hottest point in the engine and is a frequent benchmark used for judging various designs. then Since the turbine shaft is connected to the compressor shaft . Second.Therefore Now we have two steps left. we put the burner temperature ratio in terms of the exit temperature of the burner.

The remaining step is to write the temperature rise across the combustor in terms of . and for an engine with an afterburner . this can be rewritten as where so or That was the first step relating the temperature rise across the turbine to that across the compressor.Assuming the mass flow and specific heats are the same between compressor and turbine.

Now substituting our expressions for . and the first expression we wrote for thrust. and finally into This is what we were seeking. A recap of the important variables: . we get: into our expression for . an expression for thrust in terms of important design parameters and flight parameters: By adding and substracting the quantity we may write this write in another form which is often used.

Our final step involves writing the specific impulse and other measures of efficiency in terms of these same parameters. and where again. We begin by writing the First Law across the combustor to relate the fuel flow rate and heating value of the fuel to the total enthalpy rise. is the fuel/air mass flow ratio. and physical constants . flight conditions. The specific impulse becomes where is expressed in terms of typical design parameters.

we can write our overall efficiency as or Using the definition from before. the ideal thermal efficiency is and the propulsive efficiency can be found as .Similarly.

We will use the following parameters (with ): Table 11.85 2.18.1: Turbojet Mission Parameters Mach number Altitude Ambient Temp.17.16.0 Sea level 12 km 18 km 288 K 217 K 217 K 340 m/s 295 m/s 295 m/s Note it is more typical to work with the compressor pressure ratio ( temperature ratio ( ) rather than the ) so we will substitute the isentropic relationship: into the equations before plotting the results in Figures 11. Speed of sound 0 0. and 11. 11. .We can now use these equations to better understand the performance of a simple turbojet engine.

Figure 11.16: Performance of an ideal turbojet engine as a function of flight Mach number.17: Performance of an ideal turbojet engine as a function of compressor pressure ratio and flight Mach number.Figure 11. .

We will use the Brayton cycle as an example.Real Cycle behavior To conclude this chapter.18: Performance of an ideal turbojet engine as a function of compressor pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature.Figure 11.6. Stagnation pressure decrease in the combustor. . Heat transfer. 11. we will now improve our estimates of cycle performance by including the effects of irreversibility. We take into account here only irreversibility in the compressor and in the turbine.5 Effect of Departures from Ideal Behavior -. What are the sources of non-ideal performance and departures from reversibility? Losses (entropy production) in the compressor and the turbine.

back from the turbine. as can be inferred from Figure 11. . There is a similar metric again for the same pressure ratio. Figure 11. but rather measures of the degree to which the compression and expansion approach the ideal processes. is that the net work from the engine is less than in the cycle with ideal components.19. .19: Gas turbine engine (Brayton) cycle showing effect of departure from ideal behavior in compressor and turbine To develop a quantitative description of the effect of these departures from reversible behavior. We define the turbine adiabatic efficiency as where is specified to be at the same pressure ratio as for the compressor. We also get less work. (the changes in kinetic energy from inlet to exit of the compressor are neglected).Because of these irreversibilities. to drive the compressor than in the ideal situation. Note that for the turbine the ratio is the actual work delivered divided by the ideal work. whereas for the compressor the ratio is the ideal work needed divided by the actual work required. consider a perfect gas with constant specific heats and neglect kinetic energy at the inlet and exit of the turbine and compressor. The consequence. These are not thermal efficiencies. the compressor adiabatic efficiency: . we need more work.

The net work is given either by the difference between the heat received and rejected or the work of the compressor and turbine. The thermal efficiency is We need to calculate . by the definition we can find : .We now wish to find the net work done in the cycle and the efficiency. where the convention is that heat received is positive and heat rejected is negative and work done is positive and work absorbed is negative. From the definition of . . With Similarly.

The thermal efficiency can now be found: With and or .

We list these in the two sections below and show their effects in accompanying figures. net rate of work is a quantity we need to examine.5.6.5. 11.There are several non-dimensional parameters that appear in this expression for thermal efficiency. Putting this in a non-dimensional form.2 Parameters reflecting the ability to design and execute efficient components In addition to efficiency.1 Parameters reflecting design choices 11. .6.

Some points to note in the figure: For any . Jet Propulsion] Trends in net power and efficiency are shown in Figure 11. for . The ideal analysis is too idealized in this regard.20 for parameters typical of advanced civil engines. the cycle efficiency is roughly two-thirds of the ideal value. the optimum pressure ratio for maximum is not the highest that can be achieved. .[Non-dimensional work as a function of cycle pressure ratio for different values of turbine entry temperature divided by compressor entry temperature] [Overall cycle efficiency as a function of pressure ratio for different values of turbine entry temperature divided by compressor entry temperature] [Overall cycle efficiency as a function of cycle pressure ratio for different component efficiencies] Figure 11. For example. as it is for the ideal Brayton cycle. There is a strong sensitivity to the component efficiencies.20: Non-dimensional power and efficiency for a non-ideal gas turbine engine [from Cumpsty. The highest efficiency also occurs closer to the pressure ratio for maximum power than in the case of an ideal cycle. Choosing this as a design criterion will therefore not lead to the efficiency penalty inferred from ideal cycle analysis.

) and pressure-volume ( .diagram to the right.9) How can be the maximum turbine inlet temperature? (MP 11.11) For an afterburning engine. A scale diagram of a Brayton cycle with non-ideal compressor and turbine behaviors. [] [] Figure 11. are strongly dependent on the maximum The maximum power and maximum temperature. . does this mean there is more work than ideal since the area is greater? (MP 11. compressor and turbine efficiencies Cumpsty. . The maximum power occurs at a value of max or pressure ratio less than that for (this trend is captured by ideal analysis). Nomenclature is shown in the figure. Pressure ratio . right? (MP 11. in terms of temperature-entropy ( . they should eventually separate by density.10) When there are losses in the turbine that shift the expansion in . why must the nozzle throat area increase if the temperature of the fluid is increased? (MP 11. Jet Propulsion] [from Muddy Points Isn't it possible for the mixing of two gases to go from the final state to the initial state? If you have two gases in a box.13) .21: Scale diagram of non-ideal gas turbine cycle.) coordinates is given below as Figure 11.12) Why doesn't the pressure in the afterburner go up if heat is added? (MP 11.21. .

b . take the remaining work out and use it to accelerate fluid for jet propulsion.8 Muddiest points on Up: 3. c . The First Law Previous: 3.13 alongside a sketch of an engine: a .3 Brayton Cycle for Jet Propulsion: the Ideal Ramjet 3. quasi-static (or reversible) expansion in the turbine and exhaust nozzle. quasi-static (or reversible) compression in the inlet and compressor.7.6 Diesel Cycle Contents Index Subsections 3.4 MIT Cogenerator 3. The cycle consists of four processes.Why is the flow in the nozzle choked? (MP 11.9. 9. with which we 1.7 Brayton Cycle [VW. or to turn a generator for electrical power generation.5 Trends in thermal Contents Index UnifiedTP UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3. S & B: 9. take some work out of the air and use it to drive the compressor. and 2. Aircraft Engine Performance Previous: 11.c Constant pressure fuel combustion (idealized as constant pressure heat addition).7.1 Work and Efficiency 3. as shown in Figure 3.b Adiabatic.8-9.d Adiabatic. .14) What's the point of having a throat if it creates a retarding force? (MP 11.16) Next: 11.12] The Brayton cycle (or Joule cycle) represents the operation of a gas turbine engine.15) Why isn't the stagnation temperature conserved in this steady flow? (MP 11.7.2 Gas Turbine Technology and Thermodynamics 3.7.7 Performance of Propellers Up: 11.

where the working fluid enters and then exits the device. which recirculates the working fluid. . In practice.a Cool the air at constant pressure back to its initial condition. bottom: GE F404 low bypass ratio turbofan with afterburning (Hill and Peterson. Figure 3. d . Closed cycles are used. 1992). for example.14: Schematics of typical military gas turbine engines.13: Sketch of the jet engine components and corresponding thermodynamic states The components of a Brayton cycle device for jet propulsion are shown in Figure 3.15. Figure 3. in space power generation.16(b) shows the alternative. Figure 3.14.16(a) shows an ``open'' cycle. as in Figure 3. a closed cycle. We will typically represent these components schematically. real Brayton cycles take one of two forms. Top: turbojet with afterburning. Figure 3. This is the way a jet propulsion cycle works.

1 Work and Efficiency The objective now is to find the work done.Figure 3. the heat absorbed. and the thermal efficiency of .10) 3.15: Thermodynamic model of gas turbine engine cycle for power generation [Open cycle operation] [Closed cycle operation] Figure 3.7.16: Options for operating Brayton cycle gas turbine engines Muddy Points Would it be practical to run a Brayton cycle in reverse and use it as refrigerator? (MP 3.

The net work per unit mass is given by The thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle can now be expressed in terms of the temperatures: (3. quasi-static process the heat exchange per unit mass is We can see this by writing the first law in terms of enthalpy (see Section 2.the cycle..8 ) To proceed further. and any cycle returns the system to its starting 3.2 state . The heat rejected is. is negative). the Here is zero because is a function of state. Treating the working fluid as a perfect gas with constant specific heats.. The heat exchange can be expressed in terms of enthalpy differences between the relevant states.and . The net work done is therefore where . similarly. - - and back to . we need to examine the relationships between the different . are defined as heat received by the system ( evaluate the heat transferred in processes .4) or by remembering the definition of . for the heat addition from the combustor. Tracing the path shown around the cycle from first law gives (writing the equation in terms of a unit mass). We thus need to For a constant pressure.3.

9) The temperature ratio across the compressor. In terms of compressor temperature ratio.temperatures.8) yields an expression for the thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle: (3. . which is the parameter commonly used: (3. finally. . (3. and are on a constant pressure process as are ..17: Gas turbine engine pressures and temperatures .. and and reversible. Using this relation in the expression for thermal efficiency. so . We know that points points and . or. and using the relation for an adiabatic reversible process we can write the efficiency in terms of the compressor (and cycle) pressure ratio. The other two legs of the cycle are adiabatic Therefore .10) Figure 3. Eq.

17 shows pressures and temperatures through a gas turbine engine (the PW4000.Figure 3. Figure 3.18: Gas turbine engine pressure ratio trends (Jane’s Aeroengines. which powers the 747 and the 767). 1998) .

14) Does it matter what labels we put on the corners of the cycle or not? (MP 3. the blades fail. (If the temperature is too high.15) Is the work done in the compressor always equal to the work done in the turbine plus work out (for a Brayton cyle)? (MP 3.11) Why do we say the combustion in a gas turbine engine is constant pressure? (MP 3.2 Gas Turbine Technology and Thermodynamics The turbine entry temperature.16) 3.19.19: Trend of Brayton cycle thermal efficiency with compressor pressure ratio Equation (3.10) says that for a high cycle efficiency. Note the relation between the gas temperature coming into the turbine blades and the blade melting temperature.Figure 3.7.20 is from Rolls Royce and Figure 3. This trend is plotted in Figure 3. The thermodynamic concepts apply to the behavior of real aerospace devices! Muddy Points When flow is accelerated in a nozzle. is fixed by materials technology and cost. .20 and 3. Figure 3. the pressure ratio of the cycle should be increased. .18 shows the history of aircraft engine pressure ratio versus entry into service.21 is from Pratt & Whitney. and it can be seen that there has been a large increase in cycle pressure ratio. doesn't that reduce the internal energy of the flow and therefore the enthalpy? (MP 3.12) Why is the Brayton cycle less efficient than the Carnot cycle? (MP 3.13) If the gas undergoes constant pressure cooling in the exhaust outside the engine.) Figures 3.21 show the progression of the turbine entry temperatures in aeroengines. is that still within the system boundary? (MP 3. Figure 3.

Figure 3. which shows two Brayton cycles.22.22: Efficiency and work of two Brayton cycle engines The problem is posed in Figure 3. For maximum .21: Turbine blade cooling technology [Pratt & Whitney] For a given level of turbine technology (in other words given maximum temperature) a design question is what should the compressor be? What criterion should be used to decide this? Maximum thermal efficiency? Maximum work? We examine this issue below.Figure 3.20: Rolls-Royce high temperature technology Figure 3.

we need to relate and . we differentiate the expression for work with respect to . and to find the maximum : The first and the fourth terms on the right hand side of the above equation are both zero (the turbine entry temperature is fixed.11) To use Eq. The conclusion from either of these arguments is that a cycle designed for maximum thermal efficiency is not very useful in that the work (power) we get out of it is zero. This leads to compact propulsion devices. (3. The maximum work occurs where the derivative of work with respect to is zero: (3. which is seen to approach zero as . as the heat received approaches zero and so does the net work.11). as this is varied.efficiency we would like as high as possible.. This is the area enclosed by the curves. The work per unit mass is given by: where is the maximum turbine inlet temperature (a design constraint) and is atmospheric temperature. We know that Hence. . A more useful criterion is that of maximum work per unit mass (maximum power per unit mass flow). The net work in the cycle can also be expressed as . as is the atmospheric temperature). evaluated in traversing the cycle. This means that the compressor exit temperature approaches the turbine entry temperature. The design variable is the compressor exit temperature. The net work will be less than the heat received.

12 ) The trend of work output vs.. . The condition for maximum work in a Brayton cycle is different than that for maximum efficiency. is shown in Figure 3. The role of the temperature ratio can be seen if we examine the work per unit mass which is delivered at this condition: Ratioing all temperatures to the engine inlet temperature. In terms of temperature ratio. compressor pressure ratio.Plugging this expression for the derivative into Eq.23. (3. To find the power the engine can produce.11) gives the compressor exit temperature for maximum work as . we need to multiply the work per unit mass by the mass flow rate: (3. for different temperature ratios .

for different temperature ratios [Gas turbine engine core] [Core power vs.Figure 3.24: Aeroengine core power [Koff/Meese.24 shows the expression for power of an ideal cycle compared with data from . turbine entry temperature] Figure 3.23: Trend of cycle work with compressor pressure ratio. 1995] Figure 3.

25. and turbine). as the Carnot efficiency is.7. except for the conversion factors. Figure 3.24(a) shows the gas turbine engine layout including the core (compressor. Does this suggest that the work that you get out of the engine doesn't depend on how good your compressor and turbine are? since the compression and expansion were modeled as adiabatic. A final comment (for this section) on Brayton cycles concerns the value of the thermal efficiency. Figure 3.24(b) shows the core power for a number of different engines as a function of the turbine rotor entry temperature.19) 3. (MP 3. L. The Brayton cycle thermal efficiency contains the ratio of the compressor exit temperature to atmospheric temperature.actual jet engines. The equation in the figure for horsepower (HP) is the same as that which we just derived. so that the ratio is not based on the highest temperature in the cycle.3 Brayton Cycle for Jet Propulsion: the Ideal Ramjet A schematic of a ramjet is given in Figure 3. the Brayton cycle is therefore less efficient than a Carnot cycle.18) You said that for a gas turbine engine modeled as a Brayton cycle the work done is . For a given maximum cycle temperature. Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines] In the ramjet there are ``no moving parts. where is the heat added and is the heat rejected. The analysis not only shows the qualitative trend very well but captures much of the quantitative behavior too.17) Question about the assumptions made in the Brayton cycle for maximum efficiency and maximum work (MP 3.25: Ideal ramjet [J. Figure 3. burner. Muddy Points What are the units of in ? (MP 3.'' The processes that occur in this propulsion . Kerrebrock.

device are: : Isentropic diffusion (slowing down) and compression. Next: 3.6 Diesel Cycle Contents Index . why does ? (MP 3.4 MIT Cogenerator MIT operates a Brayton cycle power generator on campus.21) 3. with a decrease in Mach number. : Constant pressure combustion.cfm . The ramjet thermodynamic cycle efficiency can be written in terms of flight Mach number.20) For the Brayton cycle efficiency.edu/ctg. . For more information.mit. : Isentropic expansion through the nozzle. The First Law Previous: 3. . see the website at https://cogen.3 for other figures of merit. as follows: and so See also Section 11.8 Muddiest points on Up: 3.6. Muddy Points Why don't we like the numbers 1 and 2 for the stations? Why do we go 0-3? (MP 3.7.

4 Refrigerators and Heat Up: 3. At state . The system then undergoes an isothermal expansion from to . There are two adiabatic reversible legs and two isothermal reversible legs. 2.4. It is brought in contact with a heat reservoir. The heat exchanged during this part of the cycle.UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3. Figure 3. In other words. but the concepts can be shown using a familiar working fluid. the heat reservoir is a constant temperature source (or receiver) of heat. the system is thermally insulated (removed from contact with the heat reservoir) and then let expand to . with heat absorbed . which is just a liquid or solid mass of large enough extent such that its temperature does not change appreciably when some amount of heat is transferred to the system. It has four processes.2 Generalized Representation of Contents Index 3. . The First Law Previous: 3. The system is at temperature at state .3 The Carnot Cycle A Carnot cycle is shown in Figure 3. the ideal gas. We can construct a Carnot cycle with many different systems.thermodynamic diagram on left and schematic of the different stages in the cycle for a system composed of an ideal gas on the right The four processes in the Carnot cycle are: 1. The system can be regarded as a chamber enclosed by a piston and filled with this ideal gas.4: Carnot cycle -. During this expansion the temperature decreases to ) .

we have Along the curve .3. . the former is negative and the latter is positive. The heat The thermal efficiency of the cycle is given by the definition (3. . 4. Finally. therefore.. For a . Thus. Along curve . there is a sign convention implied. (3. rejecting heat in the process. the system is compressed adiabatically back to the initial state exchange . on the other hand are defined with reference to heat received by the system. as defined are the magnitudes of the heat absorbed and rejected. .5) The path from states to and from to reversible adiabatic process we know that of state. Using the ideal gas equation . The quantities . .4) In this equation. The heat absorbed and rejected by the system takes place during isothermal processes and we already know what their values are from Eq. It is then compressed to state .. are both adiabatic and reversible. At state the system is brought in contact with a heat reservoir at temperature .1): The efficiency can now be written in terms of the volumes at the different states as (3. In this example. The quantities .

does that mean the farther apart isotherms are. looking at the - graph.Comparing the expression for thermal efficiency Eq.5: Work and heat transfers in a Carnot cycle between two heat reservoirs Muddy Points Since the .5) shows two consequences. (3.. the greater efficiency? And that if they were very close. Figure 3. .4) with Eq. (3. the heats received and rejected are related to the temperatures of the isothermal parts of the cycle by (3.6) Second.5. First.7) The efficiency can be 100% only if the temperature at which the heat is rejected is zero. the efficiency of a Carnot cycle is given compactly by (3.. The heat and work transfers to and from the system are shown schematically in Figure 3. it would .

why are we only dealing with volume changes and not pressure changes on the adiabats and isotherms? (MP 3.2 Thermal and Propulsive Up: 11.5) Next: 3.2) In the Carnot cycle. The First Law Previous: 3.4) How do we know which cycles to use as models for real processes? (MP 3.3) Is there a physical application for the Carnot cycle? Can we design a Carnot engine for a propulsion device? (MP 3.4 Refrigerators and Heat Up: 3.2 Generalized Representation of Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 11.be very inefficient? (MP 3. Aircraft Engine Performance Contents Index 11.1 Overall Efficiency Thus . Aircraft Engine Performance Previous: 11.

level flight.3.4 Aircraft Endurance Up: 13. or The rate of change of aircraft gross weight is thus .2 Power Required Contents Index Subsections 13. The rate of change of the gross weight of the vehicle is equal to the fuel weight flow: For steady. Aircraft Engine Performance Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 13.2 The Propulsion Energy Conversion Chain 13. . .3 Aircraft Range: the Breguet Range Equation Consider an aircraft in steady. .1 Relation of overall efficiency. Aircraft Performance Previous: 13. level flight.1. and thermal efficiency 13.Next: 11. with weight . as shown in Figure 13.3.2 Thermal and Propulsive Up: 11. Aircraft Engine Performance Previous: 11.

If is the final weight of vehicle and . and thermal is the heating value (``heat of combustion'') of the fuel (i. the energy per unit of ..1 Relation of overall efficiency. and structural design parameters. the relation between vehicle parameters and flight time. The rate of energy release is and . so fuel mass). in J/kg.3. is .Suppose and remain constant along the flight path: We can integrate this equation for the change in aircraft weight to yield a relation between the weight change and the time of flight: where is the initial weight. efficiency Suppose . propulsion system. 13.e. The above equation is known as the Breguet range equation. It shows the influence of aircraft. or. The range is the flight time multiplied by the flight speed.

Thus and or Keep in mind that.2 The Propulsion Energy Conversion Chain The above concepts are depicted in Figure 13.4: The propulsion energy conversion chain from Part I The combustion efficiency is near unity unless conditions are far off design.3. in general. We can therefore regard the two main drivers as the thermal and propulsive 13. Figure 13. which shows the process from chemical energy contained in the fuel to energy useful to the vehicle.1 efficiencies. The evolution of the overall efficiency of aircraft engines in terms of these quantities was shown in Figure 11. .8.4 as parts of the propulsion energy conversion train mentioned in Part I. 13.

Next: 13. The First Law Previous: 3.1 Refrigerator Hardware 3. ``What we pay for'' is the work. The result is that work is done on the system.5 The Internal combustion Up: 3. defined as .4. There will be a quantity of heat rejected at the higher temperature and a quantity of heat absorbed at the lower temperature. Aircraft Performance Previous: 13.2 Power Required Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3.3 The Carnot Cycle Contents Index Subsections o 3. The former of these is negative according to our convention and the latter is positive.6. with the heat extraction being used to cool the room. If so.0. In this mode of operation the cycle works as a refrigerator or heat pump. there is now net work into the system and net heat out of the system.4 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps The Carnot cycle has been used for power. but we can also run it in reverse. The cycle and the heat and work transfers are indicated in Figure 3. heat is extracted from a low temperature source and rejected to a high temperature source. The words ``low'' and ``high'' are relative and the low temperature source might be a crowded classroom on a hot day.4 Aircraft Endurance Up: 13. and ``what we get'' is the amount of heat extracted. A metric for devices of this type is the coefficient of performance.

as shown by the two arrows in the heat exchangers. We will see an example when we discuss two-phase situations. The working fluid is colder than the refrigerator air at one point and hotter than the surroundings at another point. The Carnot cycles that have been drawn are based on ideal gas behavior. The internal energy (and temperature) of the refrigerant is alternately raised and lowered by the devices in the loop. a refrigerant.0. these ratios are the same when the cycle is run in reverse. The coefficient of performance is thus given in terms of the absolute temperatures as This can be much larger than unity.7. that circulates around a loop. . they will look different.Figure 3.1 Refrigerator Hardware Typically the thermodynamic system in a refrigerator analysis will be a working fluid. 3. however. as shown in Figure 3. For different working media.6: Operation of a Carnot refrigerator For a Carnot cycle we know the ratios of heat in to heat out when the cycle is run forward and. What is the same whatever the medium is the efficiency for all Carnot cycles operating between the same two temperatures. Thus heat will flow in the appropriate direction. since the cycle is reversible.4.

. The first of these represents the conversion of work into heat. In these devices. Work and Efficiency As preparation for our discussion of cycles (and as a foreshadowing of the second law). This lowers the internal energy of the inside and raises the internal energy of the refrigerant. Electrical energy is used to drive the pump or compressor.2 Generalized Representation of Up: 3. The First Law Previous: 3.7: Schematic of a domestic refrigerator Starting in the upper right hand corner of the diagram. The First Law Contents Index 3.5 The Internal combustion Up: 3. we describe the process in more detail. which is much more useful. The second. adding additional energy to it and thus further raising its internal energy. the internal energy of the refrigerant is reduced and the internal energy of the surroundings is increased. The internal energy of the refrigerant is raised to a point where its temperature is hotter than the temperature of the surroundings. Next: 3. repeating the cycle. we examine two types of processes that concern interactions between heat and work. It is at this point where the internal energy of the contents of the refrigerator and the energy used to drive the compressor or pump are transferred to the surroundings.3 The Carnot Cycle Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3. First the refrigerant passes through a small turbine or through an expansion valve. A heat exchanger is used to transfer energy from the inside of the refrigerator to the cold refrigerant. The First Law Previous: 3.Figure 3. Then a pump or compressor is used to do work on the refrigerant. work is done by the refrigerant so its internal energy is lowered to a point where the temperature of the refrigerant is lower than that of the air in the refrigerator. As a result. The question we will pose is how efficient can this conversion be in the two cases.1 Some Properties of Engineering Cycles. The refrigerant is then passed through a heat exchanger (often coils at the back of the refrigerator) so that energy is transferred from the refrigerant to the surroundings. The refrigerant then continues on to the turbine or expansion valve. concerns the conversion of heat into work.

(High temperatures can be reached if the velocities of pulling are high. This 100% conversion could go on without limit as long as work were supplied. The fluid and the paddle wheels will be found to be hotter than when we started.1 have 100% conversion of work into heat. After the force has moved through the distance. but this is a rigorous test for the existence of work. One way to do this is to ask whether we can construct a way that the process could result in the raising of a weight in a gravitational field. Is this true for the conversion of heat into work? To answer the last question. The final example is the passage of a current through a resistance. This is a process that has 100% conversion of heat into . the internal energy is a function of temperature only.) The work done to move the block has been converted totally to heat. As the gas expands. There is work associated with the torque exerted on the shaft turning through an angle. The system is the gas inside the chamber. Friction resists the pulling. as sketched in Figure 3. heat must be supplied.Figure 3. it is removed. All the examples in Figure 3. the . the piston does work on some external device. The second example concerns the stirring of a viscous liquid. Because first law takes the form work. The block then has no kinetic energy and the same potential energy it had when the force started to act. The first is the pulling of a block on a rough horizontal surface by a force which moves through some distance. This is a case of electrical work being converted to heat.2. When the stirring stops.1. indeed it models operation of an electrical heater. To keep the temperature constant during the expansion. we need to have some basis for judging whether work is done in a given process. however. One example of a process in which heat is converted to work is the isothermal (constant temperature) expansion of an ideal gas. this is the basis of inertia welding. we can say ``Work has been done. so that if the temperature is constant for some process the internal energy change is zero.1: Examples of the conversion of work into heat Three examples of the first process are given in Figure 3. If we measured the temperature of the block and the surface we would find that it was higher than when we started. the fluid comes to rest and there is (again) no change in kinetic or potential energy from the initial state.'' It may sometimes be difficult to make the link between a complicated thermodynamic process and the simple raising of a weight. For an ideal gas. If so.

however. There is thus a bound on the amount of work that can be obtained in the isothermal expansion. To do this.Figure 3. Using the equation of state.1) For an isothermal process. For a power or propulsion system. The work can be (3. we would like a source of continuous power. . but rather cycles back to the initial state. .2: Isothermal expansion The work exerted by the system is given by where 1 and 2 denote the two states at the beginning and end of the process. in other words a device that would give power or propulsion as long as fuel was added to it. we need a series of processes where the system does not progress through a one-way transition from an initial state to a different final state. The equation of state for an ideal gas is with the number of moles of the gas contained in the chamber. the expression for work can be written as (3. so that written in terms of the pressures at the beginning and end as . we cannot continue indefinitely. Below this.2) The lowest pressure to which we can expand and still receive work from the system is atmospheric pressure... What is looked for is in fact a thermodynamic cycle for the system. we would have to do work on the system to pull the piston out further.

The First Law Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion . The First Law Previous: 3. The net work done by the system is related to the magnitudes of the heat absorbed and the heat rejected by The thermal efficiency of the cycle is the ratio of the work done to the heat absorbed. (Efficiencies are often usefully portrayed as ``What you get'' versus ``What you pay for.3) The thermal efficiency can only be 100% (complete conversion of heat into work) if . so the overall energy change.2 Generalized Representation of Up: 3. or rather the fuel that generates the heat. the thermal efficiency is (3. The cycle returns to its initial state. is the net work done by the system. is the heat rejected by the system.'' Here what we get is work and what we pay for is heat. a basic question is what is the maximum thermal efficiency for any arbitrary cycle? We examine this for several cases. .We define several quantities for a cycle: is the heat absorbed by the system. which is a model for the power cycle in a jet engine.. Next: 3.) In terms of the heat absorbed and rejected. is zero. including the Carnot cycle and the Brayton (or Joule) cycle.

We will generally not. Since this molecular motion is primarily a function of temperature. . however. There exists for every system a property called energy. . The system energy can be considered as a sum of internal energy.Next: 2. we will neglect the chemical energy. .'' the First Law defines a useful property called ``energy. The First Law Contents Index 2. is a function of the state of the system. Recall that for pure substances the entire state of the system is specified if any two properties are specified. The change in energy of a system is equal to the difference between the heat added to the system and the work done by the system. 4. and chemical energy. ``temperature.1: Random motion is the physical basis for internal energy 3. The internal energy.. or .2 Corollaries of the Up: 2. the internal energy is sometimes called ``thermal energy. which defined a useful property. (2. For most situations in this class. is the heat input to the system. Thus .) 2. kinetic energy.6] Observation leads to the following two assertions: 1. S & B: 2. 1. (We will discuss the equations that relate the internal energy to these other variables as the course progresses. or . The two new terms (compared to what you have seen in physics and dynamics. . The First Law Previous: 2. where is the energy of the system. for example) are the internal energy and the chemical energy.1) 3. It arises from the random or disorganized motion of molecules in the system. neglect the internal energy. as shown in Figure 2.1.1 First Law of Thermodynamics [VW.'' 2. and is the work done by the system. potential energy.'' Figure 2. Like the Zeroth Law.

The equation can also be written on a per unit mass basis 3. In many situations the potential energy. the First Law describes the behavior of the new property [VW. depends only on the state of the system. Then 5. and chemical energy of the system are constant or not important. which arises from molecular motion (see above). S& B: Chapter 5]. 10. but .2) 11.(thermal energy) + 1. and 7. does not depend on how the system got to that state. where the symbol `` '' is used to denote that these are not exact differentials but rather are dependent on path. Like the Zeroth Law. (2. thus the .. 13. 6. kinetic energy. 12. 2. We therefore have the striking result that: 9. 8. Note that the signs are important: is defined to be positive if it is transferred to the system. 4. Note that and are not functions of state. Sometimes this difference is emphasized by writing the First Law in differential form.

consider the device shown in Figure 2. because it is well suited to dealing with systems of a fixed mass. Figure 2. The change in energy of the system supplies the connection between the heat added and work done.in one form or another.7-4. S& B: 4. To give an example of where the first law is applied. it expands against a weight. and negative if work is being done on the system. We will spend most of the course dealing with various applications of the first law -. some force (pressure times area) is applied over a distance.12]. Muddy Points What are the conventions for work and heat in the first law? (MP 2. We will see in Section 2.2: The change in energy of a system relates the heat added to the work done The form of the first law we have given here is sometimes called the ``control mass'' form.2.8] is defined to be positive if it is done by the system (see Section 1.3).1-4. We heat a gas.8-5. We will call this the ``control volume'' form of the first law [VW. and negative if heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings. [VW. [VW.5 that this form can be written for a control volume with mass flow in and mass flow out (like a jet engine for example). S & B: 5. and work is done. thus the numerical value we substitute for will be positive if the system is doing work. 14. For quasi-static processes we can substitute 15.4] . numerical value we substitute for will be positive if heat is transferred to the system from the surroundings. S & B: 4.1) .

6] Observation leads to the following two assertions: 1. The two new terms (compared to what you have seen in physics and dynamics. kinetic energy.'' 2. . . potential energy. Like the Zeroth Law.1: Random motion is the physical basis for internal energy .2 Corollaries of the Up: 2.1 First Law of Thermodynamics [VW. The First Law Previous: 2. the internal energy is sometimes called ``thermal energy.2) Next: 2. Since this molecular motion is primarily a function of temperature. 1. S & B: 2. The First Law Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 2. neglect the internal energy.2 Corollaries of the Up: 2. however. and chemical energy. we will neglect the chemical energy. as shown in Figure 2. There exists for every system a property called energy. for example) are the internal energy and the chemical energy. ``temperature. which defined a useful property. For most situations in this class.1.'' the First Law defines a useful property called ``energy. It arises from the random or disorganized motion of molecules in the system. The system energy can be considered as a sum of internal energy.'' Figure 2. The First Law Previous: 2.When does ? (MP 2. We will generally not. The First Law Contents Index 2.

The change in energy of a system is equal to the difference between the heat added to the system and the work done by the system. which arises from molecular motion (see above).) 2. Like the Zeroth Law. Then 5. The internal energy. the First Law describes the behavior of the new property [VW. 6. Recall that for pure substances the entire state of the system is specified if any two properties are specified. kinetic energy. depends only on the state of the system.1) 3. where is the energy of the system. but . does not depend . or . 2. 4. and chemical energy of the system are constant or not important. S& B: Chapter 5]. 4. The equation can also be written on a per unit mass basis 3. (2. and 7. 8. or . In many situations the potential energy. Note that and are not functions of state. and is the work done by the system.. Thus .3. (We will discuss the equations that relate the internal energy to these other variables as the course progresses. (thermal energy) + 1. is a function of the state of the system. is the heat input to the system. .

We therefore have the striking result that: 9. (2. and work is done.on how the system got to that state. For quasi-static processes we can substitute 15. it expands against a weight.4] . . thus the numerical value we substitute for will be positive if heat is transferred to the system from the surroundings. We will spend most of the course dealing with various applications of the first law -. thus the numerical value we substitute for will be positive if the system is doing work. We heat a gas.2) 11. S & B: 4. [VW. To give an example of where the first law is applied. where the symbol `` '' is used to denote that these are not exact differentials but rather are dependent on path.2. Note that the signs are important: is defined to be positive if it is transferred to the system. Sometimes this difference is emphasized by writing the First Law in differential form. S& B: 4.in one form or another. [VW.7-4.3). and negative if work is being done on the system. and negative if heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings.. The change in energy of the system supplies the connection between the heat added and work done. 14.1-4. some force (pressure times area) is applied over a distance. consider the device shown in Figure 2. 13.8] is defined to be positive if it is done by the system (see Section 1. 10. 12.

5 that this form can be written for a control volume with mass flow in and mass flow out (like a jet engine for example). We will see in Section 2. The First Law Up: 2. The First Law Previous: 2. S & B: 5.12].5 Control volume form Contents Index 2.8-5. The First Law Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 3. because it is well suited to dealing with systems of a fixed mass.6 Muddiest Points on Chapter 2 .1) When does ? (MP 2.2 Corollaries of the Up: 2.Figure 2.2) Next: 2. We will call this the ``control volume'' form of the first law [VW. The First Law Previous: 2. Muddy Points What are the conventions for work and heat in the first law? (MP 2.2: The change in energy of a system relates the heat added to the work done The form of the first law we have given here is sometimes called the ``control mass'' form.

3 When is enthalpy the same in initial and final states? Initial and final stagnation enthalpy is the same if the flow is steady and if there is no net shaft work plus heat transfer. a row of blades) that can be identified as the work carrier. which is carried by a shaft from the control volume to the outside world. If we consider a system (a mass of fixed identity.6 What distinguishes shaft work from other works? The term shaft work arises in using a control volume approach.5 What is shaft work? I am not sure how best to answer. rather than looking at a . which in this problem is the mass of gas that is pushed into the tank. MP 2. why (physically) is the final temperature in the tank higher than the initial temperature? Work is done on the system.. but it appears that the difficulty people are having might be associated with being able to know when one can say that shaft work occurs... Work is positive if it is done by the system. There are several features of a process that produces (or absorbs) shaft work. MP 2. potential. This would be true even if the blob were flowing through a turbine or compressor. As we have defined it. (In doing this we are focusing on the same material as it undergoes the unsteady compression or expansion processes in the device.1 What are the conventions for work and heat in the first law? Heat is positive if it is given to the system. MP 2. then it is a good approximation to use as representing the total energy change. rather than control mass (see the discussion of control volumes in Chapter I or in IAW). The “tank problem” is unsteady so the initial and final enthalpies are not the same. Second.. If the change in kinetic energy is negligible.MP 2. First of all the view taken of the process is one of control volume.2 When does ? We deal with changes in energy. the initial and final enthalpy is the same. neglecting the effects of raising or lowering the blob the only mode of work would be the work to compress the blob. but this is seldom important if the control boundary is normal to the flow direction. ``shaft work'' is all work over and above work associated with the ``flow work'' (the work done by pressure forces). When the changes in the other types of energy (kinetic..4 In the filling of a tank.) can be neglected compared to the changes in thermal energy. MP 2. Section 2. Generally this means work done by rotating machinery.. MP 2. the shaft work is work over and above the ``flow work'' that is done by (or received by) the streams that exit and enter the control volume. See the discussion of the steady flow energy equation in notes. there needs to be a shaft or equivalent device (a moving belt.5. Third. strain. etc. There could also be work over and above the pressure force work done by shear stresses at the boundaries of the control volume. say a blob of gas) flowing through some device.

control volume. A control volume is an enclosure that separates a quantity of matter from the surroundings or environment. There are several features of a process that produces (or absorbs) shaft work. First of all. Third. MP 2.7 Definition of a control volume. a row of blades) that can be identified as the work carrier. It is only necessary that the enclosure forms a closed surface and that its properties are defined everywhere. It may be deformable and thus capable of transmitting work to the system. Second.5 or in IAW).) The question about shaft work and non shaft work has been asked several times. the shaft work is work over and above the flow work that is done by (or received by) the streams that exit and enter the control volume. The First Law Previous: 2.. An enclosure may transmit heat or be a heat insulator. through which mass passes.2 Corollaries of the Up: 2. It may also be capable of transmitting mass. The enclosure does not necessarily have to consist of a solid boundary like the walls of a vessel. The First Law Up: 2.. and accounts for Next: 3.5 Control volume form Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 2. The First Law Contents Index 2.1 First Law of Thermodynamics . there needs to be a shaft or equivalent device (a moving belt. The First Law Previous: 2. rather than control mass (see the discussion of control volumes in Section 2. but it appears that the difficulty people are having might be associated with being able to know when one can say that shaft work occurs. MP 2. I am not sure how best to answer. the view taken of the process is one of control volume. The stagnation enthalpy of a gas is defined as both the enthalpy and the kinetic energy of the gas at that state.8 What is the difference between enthalpy and stagnation enthalpy? The enthalpy of a gas is defined as . and represents both the internal energy of that state and the flow work done on the gas to get it at that pressure and density.

) 2. and chemical energy. There exists for every system a property called energy.'' Figure 2. Thus . potential energy. for example) are the internal energy and the chemical energy.1. as shown in Figure 2. S& B: Chapter 5].'' the First Law defines a useful property called ``energy. is the heat input to the system. we will neglect the chemical energy. . Like the Zeroth Law. (2. . Recall that for pure substances the entire state of the system is specified if any two properties are specified. 4. and is the work done by the system. ``temperature. or . (We will discuss the equations that relate the internal energy to these other variables as the course progresses. . neglect the internal energy.[VW. (thermal energy) + 1.1) 3. or . Since this molecular motion is primarily a function of temperature. the First Law describes the behavior of the new property [VW. which defined a useful property.'' 2. where is the energy of the system. Like the Zeroth Law. is a function of the state of the system. kinetic energy. It arises from the random or disorganized motion of molecules in the system. however.6] Observation leads to the following two assertions: 1. The change in energy of a system is equal to the difference between the heat added to the system and the work done by the system. The system energy can be considered as a sum of internal energy. We will generally not. the internal energy is sometimes called ``thermal energy. The two new terms (compared to what you have seen in physics and dynamics. The internal energy.. For most situations in this class. S & B: 2. 1.1: Random motion is the physical basis for internal energy 3. .

.2. Then 5. Note that and are not functions of state. does not depend on how the system got to that state. (2. The equation can also be written on a per unit mass basis 3. which arises from molecular motion (see above). thus the numerical value we substitute for will be positive if heat is transferred to the system from the surroundings.8] . Sometimes this difference is emphasized by writing the First Law in differential form. kinetic energy. 8. We therefore have the striking result that: 9. Note that the signs are important: is defined to be positive if it is transferred to the system. where the symbol `` '' is used to denote that these are not exact differentials but rather are dependent on path. 10. 6. [VW. 13. depends only on the state of the system.7-4. and 7.2) 11. 4. 12. and chemical energy of the system are constant or not important. In many situations the potential energy. and negative if heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings. but . S & B: 4.

is defined to be positive if it is done by the system (see Section 1.3); thus the numerical value we substitute for will be positive if the system is doing work, and negative if work is being done on the system. [VW, S& B: 4.1-4.4] ,

14. For quasi-static processes we can substitute

15.

To give an example of where the first law is applied, consider the device shown in Figure 2.2. We heat a gas, it expands against a weight, some force (pressure times area) is applied over a distance, and work is done. The change in energy of the system supplies the connection between the heat added and work done. We will spend most of the course dealing with various applications of the first law -- in one form or another.

Figure 2.2: The change in energy of a system relates the heat added to the work done

The form of the first law we have given here is sometimes called the ``control mass'' form, because it is well suited to dealing with systems of a fixed mass. We will see in Section 2.5 that this form can be written for a control volume with mass flow in and mass flow out (like a jet engine for example). We will call this the ``control volume'' form of the first law [VW, S & B: 5.8-5.12].

Muddy Points What are the conventions for work and heat in the first law? (MP 2.1) When does ? (MP 2.2)

Next: 2.2 Corollaries of the Up: 2. The First Law Previous: 2. The First Law Contents Index

UnifiedTP

Thermodynamics and Propulsion

Next: 2.2 Corollaries of the Up: 2. The First Law Previous: 2. The First Law Contents Index

**2.1 First Law of Thermodynamics
**

[VW, S & B: 2.6]

**Observation leads to the following two assertions:
**

1. There exists for every system a property called energy, . The system energy can be considered as a sum of internal energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, and chemical energy. 1. Like the Zeroth Law, which defined a useful property, ``temperature,'' the First Law defines a useful property called ``energy.'' 2. The two new terms (compared to what you have seen in physics and dynamics, for example) are the internal energy and the chemical energy. For most situations in this class, we will neglect the chemical energy. We will generally not, however, neglect the internal energy, . It arises from the random or disorganized motion of molecules in the system, as shown in Figure 2.1. Since this molecular motion is primarily a function of temperature, the internal energy is sometimes called ``thermal energy.''

Figure 2.1: Random motion is the physical basis for internal energy

3. The internal energy,

, is a function of the state of the system.

Thus , or , or . Recall that for pure substances the entire state of the system is specified if any two properties are

specified. (We will discuss the equations that relate the internal energy to these other variables as the course progresses.)

2. The change in energy of a system is equal to the difference between the heat added to the system and the work done by the system, (2..1)

3. 4. where is the energy of the system,

is the heat input to the system, and is the work done by the system. (thermal energy) + 1. Like the Zeroth Law, the First Law describes the behavior of the new property [VW, S& B: Chapter 5]. 2. The equation can also be written on a per unit mass basis

3. 4. In many situations the potential energy, kinetic energy, and chemical energy of the system are constant or not important. Then

5. 6. and

7.

8. Note that and are not functions of state, but , which arises from molecular motion (see above), depends only on the state of the system; does not depend on how the system got to that state. We therefore have the striking result that:

9.

**10. Sometimes this difference is emphasized by writing the First Law in differential form,
**

(2..2)

11. 12. where the symbol `` '' is used to denote that these are not exact differentials but rather are dependent on path. 13. Note that the signs are important:

is defined to be positive if it is transferred to the system; thus the numerical value we substitute for will be positive if heat is transferred to the system from the surroundings, and negative if heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings. [VW, S & B: 4.7-4.8] is defined to be positive if it is done by the system (see Section 1.3); thus the numerical value we substitute for will be positive if the system is doing work, and negative if work is being done on the system. [VW, S& B: 4.1-4.4] ,

14. For quasi-static processes we can substitute

15.

To give an example of where the first law is applied, consider the device shown in Figure 2.2. We heat a gas, it expands against a weight, some force (pressure times area) is applied over a distance, and work is done. The change in energy of the system supplies the connection between the heat added and work done. We will spend most of the course dealing with various applications of the first law -- in one form or another.

Figure 2.2: The change in energy of a system relates the heat added to the work done

The form of the first law we have given here is sometimes called the ``control mass'' form, because it is well suited to dealing with systems of a fixed mass. We will see in Section 2.5 that this form can be written for a control volume with mass flow in and mass flow out (like a jet engine for example). We will call this the ``control volume'' form of the first law [VW, S & B: 5.8-5.12].

Muddy Points What are the conventions for work and heat in the first law? (MP 2.1) When does ? (MP 2.2)

Next: 2.2 Corollaries of the Up: 2. The First Law Previous: 2. The First Law Contents Index

UnifiedTP

Thermodynamics and Propulsion

**Next: 1.4 Muddiest Points on Up: 1. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1.2 Definitions and Fundamental Contents Index Subsections
**

1.3.1 Heat 1.3.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 1.3.3 Work o 1.3.3.1 Example: Work on Two Simple Paths o 1.3.3.2 Example: Work Done During Expansion of a Gas

1.3.4 Work vs. Heat - which is which?

**1.3 Changing the State of a System with Heat and Work
**

Changes in the state of a system are produced by interactions with the environment through heat and work, which are two different modes of energy transfer. During these interactions, equilibrium (a static or quasi-static process) is necessary for the equations that relate system properties to one-another to be valid.

1.3.1 Heat

Heat is energy transferred due to temperature differences only. 1. 2. 3. 4. Heat transfer can alter system states; Bodies don't ``contain'' heat; heat is identified as it comes across system boundaries; The amount of heat needed to go from one state to another is path dependent; Adiabatic processes are ones in which no heat is transferred.

**1.3.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
**

With the material we have discussed so far, we are now in a position to describe the Zeroth Law. Like the other laws of thermodynamics we will see, the Zeroth Law is based on observation. We start with two such observations:

1. If two bodies are in contact through a thermally-conducting boundary for a sufficiently long time, no further observable changes take place; thermal equilibrium is said to prevail. 2. Two systems which are individually in thermal equilibrium with a third are in thermal equilibrium with each other; all three systems have the same value of the property called temperature.

These closely connected ideas of temperature and thermal equilibrium are expressed formally in the ``Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:''

Zeroth Law: There exists for every thermodynamic system in equilibrium a property called temperature. Equality of temperature is a necessary and sufficient condition for thermal equilibrium.

The Zeroth Law thus defines a property (temperature) and describes its behavior1.3. Note that this law is true regardless of how we measure the property temperature. (Other relationships we work with will typically require an absolute scale, so in these notes we use either the Kelvin or Rankine scales. Temperature scales will be discussed further in Section 6.2.) The zeroth law is depicted schematically in Figure 1.8.

an engine) has on its surroundings. lifting a weight).1 stated that heat is a way of changing the energy of a system by virtue of a temperature difference only. electric and magnetic work (e.3.g. in a piston-cylinder. chemical work. We can have push-pull work (e. If work is done on the system (energy added to the system). Thus we define work as being positive when the system does work on the surroundings (energy leaves the system). The work doneon the surroundings.3 Work [VW.Figure 1.1-4. S & B: 4. surface tension work. . (Figure 1.9). Any other means for changing the energy of a system is called work. a gas (the system). exerting a force on the surroundings via a piston.8: The zeroth law schematically 1. which moves through some distance.g. an electric motor). the work is negative. elastic work.g. we focus on the effects that the system (e.3. is . etc. In defining work. for example. Consider a simple compressible substance.6] Section 1.

'' The conditions for reversibility are that: 1. . we require a ``quasi-static'' process. the system and the surroundings will be returned to the original states. . Chapter 2). there cannot be any friction. and the work done by the system is the same as the work done on the surroundings. Consider . A reversible process can be altered in direction by infinitesimal changes in the external conditions (see Van Ness. The external pressure can only be related to the system pressure if . Therefore. when is small (the process is quasi-static). No work is done on the surroundings even though changes and the system volume changes. In other words. To reverse the process we need to apply only an infinitesimal . 2. For this to occur. and the process must also be slow enough so that pressure differences due to accelerations are not significant.therefore Why is the pressure instead of ? Consider (vacuum). Use of instead of is often inconvenient because it is usually the state of the system that we are interested in. If the process is reversed. Under these conditions. we say that the process is ``reversible.

10: Work during an irreversible process For simple compressible substances in reversible processes. (and thus. not related to the work) We can write the above expression for work done by the system in terms of the specific volume. is not related to because the system is not in equilibrium. In the case of a ``free expansion.Remember this result.11(a).'' where (vacuum). If the system volume contracts under a force. Note that if the system volume expands against a force. . that we can only relate work done on surroundings to system pressure for quasi-static (or reversible) processes. the work done can be represented as the area under a curve in a pressure-volume diagram. as in Figure 1.9: A closed system (dashed box) against a piston. which moves into the surroundings Figure 1. where is the mass of the system. work is done by the system. Figure 1. work is done on the system. [Work is area under curve of ] [Work depends on .

Muddy Points How do we know when work is done? (MP 1. Figure 1.12. we need to specify the path. which shows a system undergoing quasi-static processes for which we can calculate work interactions as . either the work must be 3. the work between states 1 and 2.11: Work in coordinates Key points to note are the following: 1.3) 1.12: Simple processes .3. When we say . therefore work is not a property.3. For irreversible (non-reversible) processes.1 Example: Work on Two Simple Paths Consider Figure 1.path] Figure 1. but work is path dependent (depends on the path taken between states). and not a state variable. we cannot use given or it must be found by another method. Properties only depend on states. 2. .

the path is specified as isothermal. describe 1. We write the work as above. and is the total system volume.Along Path a: Along Path b: Practice Questions Given a piston filled with air.3. 1. is the Universal gas constant. a bunsen burner.13:Quasi-static. how you would use these to move along either path a or path b above.13. Is it specified? Yes. to . ice. substituting the ideal gas equation of state. isothermal expansion of an ideal gas The equation of state for a thermally ideal gas is where is the number of moles. how you would physically know the work is different along each path. . Figure 1. . To find the work we must know the path.3. isothermal expansion of a thermally ideal gas from .2 Example: Work Done During Expansion of a Gas Consider the quasi-static. and a stack of small weights. as shown in Figure 1. and 2.

Heat . Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1.2 Definitions and Fundamental Contents Index UnifiedTP .also for . 1. or both: it depends on what crosses the system boundary (and thus. on how we define our system). the other.which is which? We can have one. If the system is the water and the resistor combined. . 2.14: A resistor heating water 1. For example consider a resistor that is heating a volume of water (Figure 1. If the water is the system. then the state of the system will be changed by heat transferred from the resistor. then the state of the system will be changed by electrical work.3.4 Work vs. Next: 1.14): Figure 1. so the work done by the system is or in terms of the specific volume and the system mass.4 Muddiest Points on Up: 1.

1.3. 1. 3. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1.4 Work vs. Bodies don't ``contain'' heat.3. Heat .3.3. The amount of heat needed to go from one state to another is path dependent.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics With the material we have discussed so far.1 Heat Heat is energy transferred due to temperature differences only.4 Muddiest Points on Up: 1.3. equilibrium (a static or quasi-static process) is necessary for the equations that relate system properties to one-another to be valid.3. During these interactions.3. we are now in a position to describe the Zeroth Law. the Zeroth Law is based on . which are two different modes of energy transfer. 4.2 Example: Work Done During Expansion of a Gas 1.Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 1.1 Heat 1.3 Changing the State of a System with Heat and Work Changes in the state of a system are produced by interactions with the environment through heat and work.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 1. Heat transfer can alter system states.3. 2.3.2 Definitions and Fundamental Contents Index Subsections 1. Adiabatic processes are ones in which no heat is transferred.which is which? 1.1 Example: Work on Two Simple Paths o 1.3. Like the other laws of thermodynamics we will see.3 Work o 1. heat is identified as it comes across system boundaries. 1.

These closely connected ideas of temperature and thermal equilibrium are expressed formally in the ``Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:'' Zeroth Law: There exists for every thermodynamic system in equilibrium a property called temperature.1-4.observation. Temperature scales will be discussed further in Section 6.8. Any other means for changing the energy of a system is called work.2. Equality of temperature is a necessary and sufficient condition for thermal equilibrium.3. we focus on the effects that the system (e. If two bodies are in contact through a thermally-conducting boundary for a sufficiently long time. an electric motor). We can have push-pull work (e.g. thermal equilibrium is said to prevail.3. 2. so in these notes we use either the Kelvin or Rankine scales. The Zeroth Law thus defines a property (temperature) and describes its behavior1. chemical work.3 Work [VW. Two systems which are individually in thermal equilibrium with a third are in thermal equilibrium with each other. an engine) has on .) The zeroth law is depicted schematically in Figure 1. no further observable changes take place.1 stated that heat is a way of changing the energy of a system by virtue of a temperature difference only. surface tension work. all three systems have the same value of the property called temperature. We start with two such observations: 1. in a piston-cylinder. electric and magnetic work (e.g. lifting a weight). Note that this law is true regardless of how we measure the property temperature. (Other relationships we work with will typically require an absolute scale. etc.3. Figure 1.6] Section 1. S & B: 4. In defining work.g.8: The zeroth law schematically 1. elastic work.

we require a ``quasi-static'' process. is therefore Why is the pressure instead of ? Consider (vacuum). The external pressure can only be related to the system pressure if .its surroundings. . No work is done on the surroundings even though changes and the system volume changes. In other words. Consider a simple compressible substance. for example. which moves through some distance. Thus we define work as being positive when the system does work on the surroundings (energy leaves the system). For this to occur. and the process must also be slow enough so that pressure differences due to accelerations are not significant. If work is done on the system (energy added to the system). . . a gas (the system). The work doneon the surroundings. the work is negative. exerting a force on the surroundings via a piston. there cannot be any friction. Use of instead of is often inconvenient because it is usually the state of the system that we are interested in. (Figure 1. Consider .9).

work is done by the system. which moves into the surroundings . we say that the process is ``reversible. To reverse the process we need to apply only an infinitesimal . Under these conditions. If the system volume contracts under a force. work is done on the system. In the case of a ``free expansion.9: A closed system (dashed box) against a piston. . A reversible process can be altered in direction by infinitesimal changes in the external conditions (see Van Ness. is not related to because the system is not in equilibrium. 2. not related to the work) We can write the above expression for work done by the system in terms of the specific volume. that we can only relate work done on surroundings to system pressure for quasi-static (or reversible) processes. and the work done by the system is the same as the work done on the surroundings. where is the mass of the system. Chapter 2). the system and the surroundings will be returned to the original states. Remember this result. (and thus.'' The conditions for reversibility are that: 1. Note that if the system volume expands against a force. when is small (the process is quasi-static). If the process is reversed.Therefore. Figure 1.'' where (vacuum).

For irreversible (non-reversible) processes. Muddy Points How do we know when work is done? (MP 1. 2.10: Work during an irreversible process For simple compressible substances in reversible processes. and not a state variable. we cannot use given or it must be found by another method. as in Figure 1. When we say . Properties only depend on states.Figure 1.11: Work in coordinates Key points to note are the following: 1.11(a). either the work must be 3. .3) . the work done can be represented as the area under a curve in a pressure-volume diagram. [Work is area under curve of ] [Work depends on path] Figure 1. the work between states 1 and 2. therefore work is not a property. we need to specify the path. but work is path dependent (depends on the path taken between states).

a bunsen burner.3. To find the work we must know the path. how you would physically know the work is different along each path. how you would use these to move along either path a or path b above.3.12: Simple processes Along Path a: Along Path b: Practice Questions Given a piston filled with air. . 1.1 Example: Work on Two Simple Paths Consider Figure 1. isothermal expansion of a thermally ideal gas from . and a stack of small weights.3.12. to .1. Figure 1. the path is specified as isothermal. ice. as shown in Figure 1. and 2. which shows a system undergoing quasi-static processes for which we can calculate work interactions as .2 Example: Work Done During Expansion of a Gas Consider the quasi-static.3.13. . describe 1. Is it specified? Yes.

or both: it depends on what crosses the system boundary (and thus. so the work done by the system is or in terms of the specific volume and the system mass. is the Universal gas constant.which is which? We can have one. . substituting the ideal gas equation of state.Figure 1. also for . 1. the other.3. on how we define our system). Heat . and is the total system volume.4 Work vs. isothermal expansion of an ideal gas The equation of state for a thermally ideal gas is where is the number of moles.13:Quasi-static. We write the work as above. For example consider a resistor that is heating a volume of water (Figure 1.14): .

If the water is the system. Contents Index 6. The surroundings are equivalent to a second reservoir at heat. 2.2 Definitions and Fundamental Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 6.7) . the maximum work we could derive is thermal efficiency of a Carnot cycle operated between these two temperatures: (6.Figure 1.7 Examples of Lost Up: 6. For an amount of times the .14: A resistor heating water 1. . Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1. If the system is the water and the resistor combined. Entropy Changes.. Applications of the Previous: 6. Next: 1. then the state of the system will be changed by heat transferred from the resistor. transferred from the reservoir.6 Entropy and Unavailable Energy (Lost Work by Another Name) Consider a system consisting of a heat reservoir at at in surroundings (the atmosphere) .5 Irreversibility. then the state of the system will be changed by electrical work.4 Muddiest Points on Up: 1.

The maximum work available from the quantity of is .Only part of the heat transferred can be turned into work. . . The amount of energy. or However. beforethe transfer to the reservoir at The maximum amount of work available after the transfer to the reservoir at is There is an amount of energy that could have been converted to work prior to the irreversible heat transfer process of magnitude . is the entropy gain of the reservoir at and ( ) is the entropy decrease of the reservoir at . Suppose we transferred the same amount of heat from the reservoir directly to another reservoir at a temperature heat. that could have been converted to work (but now cannot be) can therefore be written in terms of entropy changes and the temperature of the surroundings as . in other words only part of the heat energy is available to be used as work.

We thus now develop it in a more general fashion. In this reversible process. the overall entropy change for the combined process is zero.) The change in internal energy is (with the quantities and both regarded. on the system and extract from the system a quantity of heat. which can be assumed to be at constant temperature. . The change in internal energy of the .The situation just described is a special case of an important principle concerning entropy changes. the entropy of the surroundings is changed by For the combined changes (the irreversible state change and the reversible state change back to the initial state).2. . for example. which transfers heat to the surroundings (for example the atmosphere). To do this we need to do work. system during the state change is surroundings is (with . because the entropy is a function of state. in this example. (We did this. considering an arbitrary system undergoing an irreversible state change. as positive for work done by the surroundings and heat given to the surroundings)6. in ``undoing'' the free expansion process. Thus. irreversibility and the loss of capability to do work. . the energy change is zero because the energy is a function of state. The change in entropy of the the heat transfer to the system) Now consider restoring the system to the initial state by a reversible process. For the system.

. : represents the difference between work we actually obtained and work that would be done during a reversible state change. . .The total entropy change is thus only reflected in the entropy change of the surroundings: The surroundings can be considered a constant temperature heat reservoir and their entropy change is given by We also know that the total entropy change. The total entropy change is associated only with the irreversible process and is related to the work in the two processes by The quantity represents the extra work required to restore the system to the original state. The lost work in any irreversible process can therefore be related to the total entropy change (system plus surroundings) and the temperature of the surroundings by To summarize the results of the above arguments for processes where heat can be exchanged with the surroundings at 1. for system plus surroundings is. For an irreversible process. From either of these perspectives we can identify quantity we denoted previously as . The quantity can also be interpreted as the work that the system would have done if the original as the process were reversible. For a reversible process. 3. we would not have needed any extra work to do this. It represents a quantity of work that is now unavailable because of the irreversibility. 2. . . If the process were reversible. It is the extra work that would be needed to restore the system to its initial state. representing lost work.

3.4-5.3. Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 2. is the energy that becomes unavailable for work during Muddy Points Is path dependent? (MP 6.5 Irreversibility.12) Next: 6.1 Adiabatic.2 Quasi-Static Expansion of a Gas 2.3.3 Example Applications of the First Law to motivate the use of a property called ``enthalpy'' [VW. Entropy Changes. S & B: 5. The First Law Previous: 2.3. throttling of a gas 2. an irreversible process.3 Transient filling of a tank 2.4.11) the and going from the final state back to the initial state? Are and (MP 6.4 Specific Heats Up: 2.7 Examples of Lost Up: 6. Applications of the Previous: 6.2 Corollaries of the Contents Index Subsections 2. steady.4 The First Law in Terms of Enthalpy 2.5] .

we can define the system (choosing the appropriate system is often a critical element in effective problem solving) as a unit mass of gas in the following two states. The process is adiabatic. In terms of the system behavior. denoted by ``2''. Initially the gas is upstream of the valve and just through the valve. The first law for the system is therefore The work done by the system is Use of the first law leads to In words. In the final state the gas is downstream of the valve plus just before the valve.5 shows the configuration of interest. however. Figure 2.6 show the actual configuration just described. as indicated schematically on the right side of Figure 2.2. the initial and final states of the system have the same value of the .3. throttling of a gas (flow through a valve or other restriction) Figure 2. The figures on the left of Figure 2. we could replace the fluid external to the system by pistons which exert the same pressure that the external fluid exerts.1 Adiabatic. with changes in potential energy and kinetic energy assumed to be negligible. We wish to know the relation between properties upstream of the valve.5: Adiabatic flow through a valve. steady.6: Equivalence of actual system and piston model To analyze this situation. denoted by ``1'' and those downstream.6. a generic throttling process Figure 2.

When you evaluate the energy of an object of volume . and has units of Joules per The utility and physical significance of enthalpy will become clearer as we work with more flow problems. 1996). the . This is so with any object or system. since we are dealing with a unit mass. (The force of one atmosphere pressure on one square meter is equivalent to the force of a mass of about . Muddy Points When is enthalpy the same in initial and final states? (MP 2.3) 2. We can write the first law in terms of the states before and after the expansion as and writing the work in terms of system properties. For the case examined. the work required to make a place for itself is . . kilogram. and this work may not be negligible. For now. you have to remember that the object had to push the surroundings out of the way to make room for itself. We call this total energy the enthalpy.) Thus the total energy of a body is its internal energy plus the extra energy it is credited with by having a volume at pressure . you may wish to think of it as follows (Levenspiel. has units of Joules.2 Quasi-Static Expansion of a Gas Consider a quasi-static process of constant pressure expansion. With pressure on the object. .3.'' usually denoted by In terms of the specific quantities. initial and final states of the system have the same value of We define this quantity as the ``enthalpy. . the enthalpy per unit mass is It is a function of the state of the system.quantity .

so the first law again takes the form Work is done on the system. where is the initial volume of the system. The initial state has the system completely outside the tank. The configuration is shown in Figure 2. as is the change in potential energy. so . which is at a pressure and a temperature . this time for an unsteady flow.By grouping terms we can write the heat input in terms of the enthalpy change of the system: 2.7.filling of a tank from the atmosphere At a given time. and the final state has the system completely inside the tank. The inflow stops when the pressure inside is equal to the pressure outside. is the transient process of filling a tank.3 Transient filling of a tank Another example of a flow process. from a surrounding atmosphere. The tank is insulated. Figure 2. the valve at the tank inlet is opened and the outside air rushes in. so there is no heat transfer to the atmosphere. of magnitude .7: A transient problem —. What is the final temperature of the gas in the tank? This time we take the system to be all the gas that enters the tank. The kinetic energy initially and in the final state is negligible.3. initially evacuated.

There were basically four steps: 1. why (physically) is the final temperature in the tank higher than the . 4. The final temperature is thus roughly hotter than the outside air! It may be helpful to recap what we used to solve this problem. Definition of the system Use of the first law Equating the work to a `` '' term Assuming the fluid to be a perfect gas with constant specific heats. A message that can be taken from both of these examples (as well as from a large number of other more complex situations.In terms of quantities per unit mass ( system). Muddy Points In the filling of a tank.4). it is not only defined but also tabulated as a function of temperature and pressure for a number of working fluids. . where is the mass of the The final value of the internal energy is For a perfect gas with constant specific heats (see the next section. Section 2. 3. is that the quantity occurs naturally in problems of fluid flow. Because the combination appears so frequently. 2.

we obtain or Next: 2.4) 2.4 Specific Heats Up: 2.3.2 Corollaries of the Contents Index . can be differentiated (applying the chain rule to the term) to produce Substituting the above for the in the First Law. The First Law Previous: 2.4 The First Law in Terms of Enthalpy We start with the first law in differential form and substitute static or reversible process: for by assuming a quasi- The definition of enthalpy.initial temperature? (MP 2.

the enthalpy of the elements (oxygen. For the reaction of carbon and oxygen to produce is . carbon. however. If there are no changes in composition. the heat that has to be extracted .4 First Law Analysis Up: 15. . nitrogen. and only changes in properties of given substances. The reactants enter at standard conditions. this is adequate. Downstream of the reaction zone there is an appropriate amount of heat transfer with the surroundings so that the products leave at the standard conditions.2 Fuel-Air Ratio Contents Index 15.) At these reference conditions. hydrogen. the combustion (reaction) takes place in the volume indicated. the specific energy for steam.1. we need to have a reference state so there is consistency for different substances. Generating Heat: Thermochemistry Previous: 15. The convention used is that the reference state is a temperature of ( ) and a pressure of . etc. Because of this.UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 15. since all comparisons could be made with respect to the chosen base.) is taken as zero. this is heat that comes out of the control volume. The results of a combustion process can be diagrammed as in Figure 15.3 Enthalpy of formation The systems we have worked with until now have been of fixed chemical composition. If there are changes in composition. (These are roughly room conditions. we could use thermodynamic properties relative to an arbitrary base. For example.

Suppose we have one unit of and one unit of at the initial conditions and we . as . to define the . The relation in terms of mass flows can be written in molar form. . molar mass flow rate. in these terms. .2) The statements that have been made do not necessarily need to be viewed in the context of flow processes.. and molar enthalpy. for any individual ith (or eth) component The SFEE is. (15.1: Constant pressure combustion There is no shaft work done in the control volume and the first law for the control volume (SFEE) reduces to: We can write this statement in the form (15. by using the molecular weight.Figure 15.1) In Eq..1) the subscripts ``R'' and ``P'' on the summations refer to the reactants ( ) and products ( ) respectively. (15. The subscripts on the mass flow rates and enthalpies refer to all of the components at inlet and at exit. If so. carry out a constant pressure reaction at ambient pressure. which is often more convenient for reacting flow problems.

For elements or compounds that exist in more than one state at the reference conditions (for example. is called the enthalpy of formation and denoted by formation for a number of substances are given in Table A. Combining terms.9 in SB&VW. carbon exists as diamond and as graphite). Values of the heat of the elements is zero. The enthalpies of the reactants and products for the formation of are: The enthalpy of in any other state is given by These descriptions can be applied to any compound.. we also need to specify the state. .since . or In terms of the numbers of moles and the specific enthalpy this is (15.3) The enthalpy of . with reference to a base where the enthalpy of . at and .

3 Examples of Reversible and Irreversible Processes 6. Applications of the Previous: 6.8.8 Some Overall Comments on Entropy.8.Note that there is a minus sign for the heat of formation.1 Entropy 6. Muddy Points Is the enthalpy of formation equal to the heat transfer out of the combustion during the formation reaction? (MP 15.2 Fuel-Air Ratio Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 6.2 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 6. This means that .9 Muddiest Points on Up: 6.8. Reversible and Irreversible Processes . The heat transfer is out of the control volume and is thus negative by our convention.7 Examples of Lost Contents Index Subsections 6. Generating Heat: Thermochemistry Previous: 15.4) Are the enthalpies of and (monoatomic hydrogen) both zero at ? (MP 15.4 First Law Analysis Up: 15.5) Next: 15.

friction. Reynolds and Henry C. Consider an isolated system. Such a process could go in either direction without contradicting the second law. Entropy is an extensive thermodynamic property. Processes of this latter type are called reversible. 1977. spontaneous combustion. and the transfer of energy as heat from a body at high temperature to a body at low temperature. and reduce irreversibilities in practical engineering processes. The second law says that any process that would reduce the entropy of the isolated system is impossible. then for the backward process (that is.1 Entropy 1. evaluate. A macroscopic feature which is associated with entropy production is a loss of ability to do useful work. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and it is sometimes said that there is a decrease in the availability of energy. In other words.2 Reversible and Irreversible Processes Processes can be classed as reversible or irreversible. Entropy is a thermodynamic property that measures the degree of randomization or disorder at the microscopic level. William C. for the reverse change in state) the entropy would decrease. The key idea of a reversible process is that it does not produce any entropy.] 6.8. Energy is degraded to a less useful form. or departure from the ideal condition of reversibility. The natural state of affairs is for entropy to be produced by all processes. The organized energy (such as that of a raised weight) is easily put to practical use. Perkins. Some processes that are clearly irreversible include: mixing of two gases. Recognition of the irreversibilities in a real process is especially important in engineering. disorganized energy (such as . If the change in state of the system is such that the entropy increases for the forward process. Irreversibility. All real processes (with the possible exception of superconducting current flows) are in some measure irreversible. though many processes can be analyzed quite adequately by assuming that they are reversible. Entropy is produced in irreversible processes.[Mainly excerpted (with some alterations) from: Engineering Thermodynamics. The notion that entropy can be produced. If a process occurs. 2. and we therefore say that the forward process is irreversible. Suppose a process takes place within the isolated system in what we shall call the forward direction. is the second law of thermodynamics. but never destroyed. then it would also be unchanged by the reverse process. reflects an increase in the amount of disorganized energy at the expense of organized energy. 4. the entropy of a complex system is the sum of the entropies of its parts. The concept of a reversible process is an important one which directly relates to our ability to recognize. 3.8. 6. The backward process is therefore impossible. in which the entropy is unchanged by the forward process. however.

Entropy on the Previous: 7. Further. 6.7 Examples of Lost Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 7. in order to obtain better performance.9 Muddiest Points on Up: 6. Consequently the engineer is constantly striving to reduce irreversibilities in systems.3 Examples of Reversible and Irreversible Processes Processes that are usually idealized as reversible include: Frictionless movement Restrained compression or expansion Energy transfer as heat due to infinitesimal temperature nonuniformity Electric current flow through a zero resistance Restrained chemical reaction Mixing of two samples of the same substance at the same state. Applications of the Previous: 6. Entropy on the Contents Index 7.2 Microscopic and Macroscopic Up: 7. One side contains air.1 Entropy Change in Mixing of Two Ideal Gases Consider an insulated rigid container of gas separated into two halves by a heat conducting partition so the temperature of the gas in each part is the same. the . this straightening can never be perfect. Next: 6. since we are always somewhat uncertain about the microscopic state. Processes that are irreversible include: Movement with friction Unrestrained expansion Energy transfer as heat due to large temperature non uniformities Electric current flow through a non zero resistance Spontaneous chemical reaction Mixing of matter of different composition or state.8.the random motions of the molecules in a gas) requires ``straightening out'' before it can be used effectively.

For an ideal gas. there is no change in temperature. there would be more and more of the different color molecules in the regions that were initially all white and all red. we would see the growth of pink regions spreading into the initially red and white areas.. One view of entropy is thus that increases in entropy are connected with increases in randomness or disorder. the energy is not a function of volume. for each gas. but these fluctuations would only last for a time on the order of several molecular collisions. we would see white molecules start to move into the red region and. say argon. the two gases were at the same temperature initially. While we do not have scope to examine this topic in depth. . Another way to say this is in terms of ``disorder. we would say this final state was more random. so the final temperature is the same as the initial temperature. Suppose the partition is taken away so the gases are free to diffuse throughout the volume. the entropy change to the final . the purpose of this chapter is to make plausible the link between disorder and entropy through a statistical definition of entropy.1) states that there is an entropy increase due to the increased volume that each gas is able to access. Suppose we were able to see the gas molecules in different colors. As we watched. as the gases mixed. This link can be made rigorous and is extremely useful in describing systems on a microscopic basis. The entropy change of the system is (7.1) Equation (7. After we took the partition away. both regarded as ideal gases. than the initial state in which the red and white molecules were confined to specific regions. say the air molecules as white and the argon molecules as red. is . similarly. The mass of gas in each side is such that the pressure is also the same.) The entropy change of each gas is thus the same as that for a reversible isothermal expansion from the initial specific volume specific volume. and. The entropy of this system is the sum of the entropies of the two parts: . If we moved further away so we could no longer pick out individual molecules. red molecules start to come into the white volume.'' there is more disorder in the final state than in the initial state. we would expect a uniform pink gas to exist throughout the volume. In the final state.other side another gas. Examining the mixing process on a molecular level gives additional insight. (The energy of the overall system is unchanged. more mixed. In terms of the overall spatial distribution of the molecules. For a mass of ideal gas. There might be occasional small regions which were slightly more red or slightly more white.

Entropy on the Previous: 7.6 Entropy and Unavailable Contents Index 6. 5. A process we have encountered before is adiabatic throttling of a gas. 4.Next: 7.7 Examples of Lost Work in Engineering Processes 1. The . corresponding to a (possibly fictitious) state with zero .8. There is no shaft work and no heat transfer and the flow is steady.2 Microscopic and Macroscopic Up: 7. Lost work in Adiabatic Throttling: Entropy and Stagnation Pressure Changes Figure 6.8 Some Overall Comments Up: 6. Under these conditions we can use the first law for a control volume (the Steady Flow Energy Equation) to make a statement about the conditions upstream and downstream of the valve: 3.8: Adiabatic Throttling 2. where is the stagnation enthalpy. by a valve or other device as shown in Figure 6. Entropy on the Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 6. The velocity is denoted by . The stagnation enthalpy is the same at stations 1 and 2 if the flow processes are not reversible. For a perfect gas with constant specific heats. even if velocity. Applications of the Previous: 6. and relation between the static and stagnation temperatures is: .

9.6. the speed of sound.9: Static and stagnation pressures and temperatures 12. Nothing has yet been specified about whether the process of stagnating the fluid is reversible or irreversible. In deriving this result. . however. where is the speed of sound and is the Mach number. the equation of state. The static and stagnation states are shown in . 8. and the definition of the Mach number. The relation between static and stagnation pressures is 11. For an isentropic process 9.coordinates in Figure 6. The form of the combined first and second law that uses enthalpy is . stagnation temperature. Figure 6. 7. 10. Stagnation pressure is a key variable in propulsion and power systems. When we define the stagnation pressure. and entropy. The stagnation state is defined by . 13. use has only been made of the first law. To see why. In addition. . we examine the relation between stagnation pressure. . we do it with respect to isentropic deceleration to the zero velocity state.

needs no subscript. This holds for small changes between any thermodynamic states and we can apply it to a situation in which we consider differences between stagnation states.10). 19. say one state having properties and the other having properties (see Figure 6. the stagnation pressure is related directly to the entropy as.8) 14.(6. The corresponding static states are also indicated.8) in terms of stagnation conditions yields 16.10:Stagnation and static states 15. In this situation. Figure 6.. Writing (6. and hence the stagnation temperature. the stagnation enthalpy. (6. 17.9) 20.. . For a process with . Because the entropy is the same at static and stagnation conditions. Both sides of the above are perfect differentials and can be integrated as 18. is constant.

with the term now representing the loss of mechanical energy associated with the change in stagnation pressure.11 shows this relation on a . The throttling process is a representation of flow through inlets. We have seen that the entropy is related to the loss. The quantity on the right can be interpreted as the change in the ``Bernoulli constant'' for incompressible (low Mach number) flow. 28. nozzles. 27. 2. we note that for aerospace applications we are (hopefully!) concerned with low loss devices. The utility is that it is the stagnation pressure (and temperature) which are directly measured. and the use of stagnation pressure as a measure of loss is a practice that has widespread application. To summarize: 1. or irreversibility. Doing of the expression for stagnation pressure in the limit of low Mach number ( this. The quantity on the left is a non-dimensional entropy change parameter. Stagnation pressure is the quantity that is actually measured so that linking it to entropy (which is not measured) is useful. For many applications the stagnation temperature is constant and the change in stagnation pressure is a direct measure of the entropy increase. First. Expanding the logarithm (using ). stationary turbomachinery blades. 22. or 25. 26. Another useful form is obtained by dividing both sides by and taking the limiting forms ). .diagram. The stagnation pressure plays the role of an indicator of loss if the stagnation temperature is constant.9) can be put in several useful approximate forms. Figure 6. 30. so that the stagnation pressure change is small compared to the inlet level of stagnation pressure. we find: 29. 24. not the entropy.Figure 6.11:Losses reflected in changes in stagnation pressure when 21. 31. Equation (6. 23.

11) reduces to 36.12: Schematic of turbine and associated thermodynamic representation in coordinates - 33.13) Why does remain constant for throttling? (MP 6. Muddy Points Why do we find stagnation enthalpy if the velocity never equals zero in the flow? (MP 6. the work we need to do to bring the gas back to the initial state is . If the difference in the kinetic energy at inlet and outlet can be neglected.. There is no heat transfer so the expressions that describe the overall shaft work and the shaft work per unit mass are (6. Adiabatic Efficiency of a Propulsion System Component (Turbine) Figure 6.14) 32.11) 34. There is a pressure and temperature drop through the turbine and it produces work. 35. which is the ``lost work'' per unit mass.10) (6. Equation (6.3. for the process.12. We thus know that. The adiabatic efficiency of the turbine is defined as . 37.. A schematic of a turbine and the accompanying thermodynamic diagram are given in Figure 6. We can regard the throttling process as a ``free expansion'' at constant temperature from the initial stagnation pressure to the final stagnation pressure.

46. In a more general look at the isothermal expansion.13.38. As seen in Figure 6. The adiabatic efficiency can therefore be written as 42. From the combined first and second laws. for a constant pressure process. 45. 43. a balance of forces tells us that 52. Muddy Points 49. 39. both conceptually and mathematically? (MP 6.plane (similar to a plane for a perfect gas with constant specific heats) as shown in Figure 6.15) 50. The quantity irreversibility. represents a useful figure of merit for fluid machinery inefficiency due to 48. we now drop the restriction to frictionless processes. From the figure the adiabatic efficiency is 40. If the kinetic energy of the piston is negligible. . small changes in enthalpy are related to the entropy change by . Isothermal Expansion with Friction Figure 6. work is done to overcome friction. or approximately.12. 41. The performance of the turbine can be represented in an . The adiabatic efficiency can thus be approximated as 47. The quantity is the enthalpy difference for two states along a constant pressure line (see diagram). The non-dimensional term represents the departure from isentropic (reversible) processes and hence a loss. How do you tell the difference between shaft work/power and flow work in a turbine. 44.13: Isothermal expansion with friction 51.

56. and rejected heat of magnitude reservoir. from the high to the low temperature 65. Suppose we had an ideal reversible engine working between these same two temperatures. 67. The amount of heat transferred to the atmosphere due to the frictional work only is thus. The work done by this reversible engine is 63. all frictional work ends up as heat transferred to the surrounding atmosphere. which extracted the same amount of heat. 57. 54. During the expansion. 70. For the reversible engine the total entropy change over a cycle is . The engine operates in a cycle and the entropy change for the complete cycle is zero (because entropy is a state variable). 64. 55. the piston and the walls of the container will heat up because of the friction. The difference in work that the two cycles produce is proportional to the entropy that is . The entropy change for the irreversible cycle can therefore be written as 69. 60. Therefore. 66. 68. 62. Combining the expressions for work and for the entropy changes. 59.53. temperature reservoir. The total entropy change is 61. The heat will be (eventually) transferred to the atmosphere. The entropy change of the atmosphere (considered as a heat reservoir) due to the frictional work is 58.

The departure from a reversible process is directly reflected in the entropy change and the decrease in engine effectiveness.17) 78. Muddy Points 77. A coordinate system fixed to the vehicle has been adopted so that we see the airfoil as fixed and the air far away from the airfoil moving at a velocity . . 75.'' . with friction and losses. Does a cycle process have to have ? (MP 6. why is ? (MP 6.'' can you assume that you are discussing a cycle or not? (MP 6.20) 81. as has the velocity distribution at station ``0'' far upstream and station ``d'' far downstream. Figure 6. so that the reversible work is greater than the actual work of the irreversible cycle. 73. The second law states that the total entropy generated is greater than zero for an irreversible process. 76.19) 80. can be defined as the ratio of the actual work obtained divided by the work that would have been delivered by a reversible engine operating between the two temperatures and : 74.15 shows an aerodynamic shape (airfoil) moving through the atmosphere at a constant velocity.18) 79.generated during the cycle: 71. Propulsive Power and Entropy Flux still 0 if The final example in this section combines a number of ideas presented in this subject and in Unified in the development of a relation between entropy generation and power needed to propel a vehicle. In discussing the terms ``closed system'' and ``isolated system. An ``engine effectiveness. In a real heat engine. Why does ? (MP 6. Streamlines of the flow have been sketched. 72.

as indicated. The control surface is also taken far enough away from the vehicle so that the static pressure can be considered uniform.. (The conclusions apply to the more general velocity profile as well and we would just need to use integrals over the wake instead of the algebraic expressions below. which is the area outside the wake and . the wake fluid has had much time to mix and the velocity in the wake is close to the free stream . fluid that has suffered viscous losses. By this station. The downstream velocity profile is actually continuous. It is approximated in the analysis as a step change to make the algebra a bit simpler. The extent of the wake is also indicated.12) The vertical face of the control surface is far downstream of the body. For fluid which is not in the wake (no viscous forces). which is the area occupied by wake fluid. This is useful in simplifying the analysis because there is no flow across the stream surfaces. so that on the velocity is equal to the upstream value. The area of the downstream plane control surface is broken into . which mixes with the surrounding air and grows in the downstream direction.) The equation expressing mass conservation for the control volume is (6. i.. .e. Because of the lower velocity in the wake the area between the stream surfaces is larger downstream than upstream. Figure 6. the momentum equation is Uniform static pressure therefore implies uniform velocity.15: Airfoil with wake and control volume for analysis of propulsive power requirement We use a control volume description and take the control surface to be defined by the two stream surfaces and two planes at station 0 and station d.The airfoil has a wake.

14) There is no pressure contribution in Eq.13) (We chose our control surface so the condition was upheld. Doing this and grouping the terms on the right hand side of Eq.15) in a different manner.. we have The terms in the square brackets on both sides of this equation are the continuity equation multiplied by .. is small by virtue of the choice of control surface and we can neglect it.. (6. (6.value. Using the form given for the wake velocity and expanding the terms in the momentum equation we obtain (6. We can thus write.15) The last term in the right hand side of the momentum equation. . They thus sum to zero leaving the curly bracketed terms as (6.16) .) The integral momentum equation (control volume form of the momentum equation) can be used to find the drag on the vehicle: (6.14) because the static pressure on the control surface is uniform.. (6. .

From Eq.18). (6. this can be related to the entropy flux in the wake to yield a compact expression for the propulsive power needed in terms of . There is no net shaft work or heat transfer to the wake so that the mass flux of stagnation enthalpy is constant. . The combined first and second law gives us a means of relating the entropy and velocity: The pressure is uniform ( ) at the downstream station. The entropy can be related to the drag as (6.17) the upstream temperature is used because differences between wake quantities and upstream quantities are small at the downstream control station.17) In Equation (6. Applying both of these to the combined first and second law yields For the present situation. so that the defect in flux of momentum (the mass flow in the wake times the velocity defect) is. in the general case we would express this by an integral over the locally varying wake velocity and density).. so that (6. The power needed to propel the vehicle is the product of . to first order in . .The wake mass flow is . . We can also approximate that the condition of constant stagnation enthalpy holds locally on all streamlines..18) The quantity is the entropy flux (mass flux times the entropy increase per unit mass. All this flow has a velocity defect (compared to the free stream) of .

19) This amount of work is dissipated per unit time in connection with sustaining the vehicle motion. Muddy Points Is it safe to say that entropy is the tendency for a system to go into disorder? (MP 6. In other words the first law does not prohibit their occurrence. are compatible with the first law. both these processes. However. There thus .19) is another demonstration of the relation between lost work and entropy generation. unfamiliar though they may be. Equation (6.the wake entropy flux: (6.2 Axiomatic Statements of Up: 5. The Second Law Contents Index 5. Suppose you are asked whether you have ever seen the reverse of these processes take place? Do two bricks at a medium temperature ever go to a state where one is hot and one is cold? Will the gas in the unrestrained expansion ever spontaneously return to occupying only the left side of the volume? Experience hints that the answer is no.1 Concept and Statements of the Second Law (Why do we need a second law?) The unrestrained expansion. are familiar processes.. in this case manifested as power that needs to be supplied because of dissipation in the wake.21) Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 5. The Second Law Previous: 5. or the temperature equilibration of the two bricks.

it is a generalization from an enormous amount of observation. although the three may not appear to have much connection with each other.1: This is not possible (Kelvin-Planck) 2. which is a thermodynamic property of a system. Like the first law. [Clausius statement of the second law] Figure 5. No process is possible whose sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and the conversion of this heat into work. this is not possible (Clausius) 3. that tells us which first law compatible processes will not be observed. [Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law] Figure 5.2: For . Listed below are three that are often encountered. . There exists for every system in equilibrium a property called entropy. As described in class (and as derived in almost every thermodynamics textbook). This is contained in the second law. For a reversible process. There are several ways in which the second law of thermodynamics can be stated. No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body. changes in this property are given by . they are equivalent.must be some other ``great principle'' that describes the direction of natural processes. 1.

is positive and approaches zero for any process which approaches reversibility. a system that has no interaction with the surroundings. represents the best that can be done. For an isolated system. The second law tells . quantitative measure of the departure from reversibility. In thermodynamics.e. but what are the appropriate variables? If so. The entropy can only increase or. however. Entropy is not a familiar concept and it may be helpful to provide some additional rationale for its appearance. but 3 gives a direct.. we can write the work done in a reversible process as . All of these statements are equivalent. If we look at the first law. and the first and second laws become: For an isolated system the total energy ( ) is constant. changes in the system have no effect on the surroundings. or . considered together. remain constant. while the two terms on the right are not. we need to consider the system only. so that Two out of the three terms in this equation are expressed in terms of state variables. It seems plausible that we ought to be able to express the third term using state variables as well. the term should perhaps be viewed as analogous to where the parentheses denote an intensive state variable and the square brackets denote an extensive state variable. the term on the left is a function of state. propulsion. and power generation systems we often compare performance to this limit to measure how close to ideal a given process is. The limit. i.The entropy change of any system and its surroundings. In this case. For a simple compressible substance. in the limit of a reversible process.

The Second Law Contents Index UnifiedTP .g. The first law for a simple compressible substance in terms of state variables is thus (5. We summarize below some attributes of entropy: 1.. Entropy is a function of the state of the system and can be found if any two properties of the system are known.1) Because Eq.1 includes the second law. 2.2) Next: 5. is .2 Axiomatic Statements of Up: 5. or specific entropy. is an extensive variable. and the extensive state variable is the entropy. where the numerator is the heat given to the system and the denominator is the temperature of the system at the location where the heat is received. Muddy Points Why is always true? (MP 5. or or . The entropy per unit mass.us that the intensive variable is the temperature. The units of entropy are Joules per degree Kelvin (J/K). For a system. 4. . e. for pure work transfer. it is referred to as the combined first and second law. it is true for all processes.1) What makes different than ? (MP 5. . 3. not just reversible ones. 5. 5. Because it is written in terms of state variables. . The units for specific entropy are J/K-kg. The Second Law Previous: 5.

the change in entropy of the reservoir is .4 Brayton Cycle in Contents Index 6. In general.e. the entropy of the system plus the entropy of the .6 Entropy and Unavailable Up: 6. The conclusion is that for a reversible process.5 Irreversibility. If will be transferred between the system and is absorbed by the system. i. heat one of the reservoirs which is at change of the system is . no change occurs in the total entropy produced.Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 6. To analyze these. Applications of the Previous: 6. reversible processes are accompanied by heat exchanges that occur at different temperatures. Entropy Changes. If there is heat absorbed by the reservoir at temperature . and ``Lost Work'' Consider a system in contact with a heat reservoir during a reversible process.. During any infinitesimal portion. we can visualize a sequence of heat reservoirs at different temperatures so that during any infinitesimal portion of the cycle there will not be any heat transferred over a finite temperature difference. the entropy The entropy change of the reservoir is The total entropy change of system plus surroundings is This is also true if there is a quantity of heat rejected by the system.

. . which takes the system between the same specified states as in the reversible process. we obtain less work (see IAW notes) than in a reversible process.7:Irreversible and reversible state changes We now carry out the same type of analysis for an irreversible process. so that for the irreversible process. The entropy change associated with the state change is (6. In the irreversible process. There is no equality between the entropy change and the quantity for an . the change in internal energy is the same.surroundings: . with and denoting the irreversible and reversible processes. the system receives heat .3) If the process is not reversible. The change in internal energy for the irreversible process is and does work For the reversible process Because the state change is the same in the two processes (we specified that it was). This is shown schematically in Figure 6. Equating the changes in internal energy in the above two expressions yields The subscript ``actual'' refers to the actual process (which is irreversible).7. Figure 6.

It .4) The content of Equation (6. The change in entropy for any process that leads to a transformation between an initial state ``a'' and a final state ``b'' is therefore where is the heat exchanged in the actual process. is referred to as lost work and denoted by (6. To apply the second law we consider the total entropy change (system plus surroundings). so the only way to decrease the entropy of a system is through heat transfer. If the surroundings are a reservoir at temperature . The total entropy change is .. In terms of this quantity we can write. The equality only applies to a reversible process. The equality is only applicable for a reversible process. with which the system exchanges heat. but did not.4)) is always greater than zero. The difference represents work we could have obtained.4) is that the entropy of a system can be altered in two ways: (i) through heat exchange and (ii) through irreversibilities. The lost work ( in Equation (6.irreversible process.

The quantity (

) is the entropy generated due to irreversibility.

**Yet another way to state the distinction we are making is
**

(6..5 )

The lost work is also called dissipation and noted entropy change of the system becomes:

. Using this notation, the infinitesimal

or

Equation (6.5) can also be written as a rate equation, (6..6)

Either of Equation (6.5) or (6.6) can be interpreted to mean that the entropy of the system, affected by two factors: the flow of heat

, is

and the appearance of additional entropy, denoted by

, due to irreversibility6.1. This additional entropy is zero when the process is reversible and always positive when the process is irreversible. Thus, one can say that the system developssources which create entropy during an irreversible process. The second law asserts that sinks of entropy are impossible in nature, which is a more graphic way of saying that and are positive definite (always greater than zero), or zero in the special case of reversible processes.

The term

which is associated with heat transfer to the system, can be interpreted as a flux of entropy. The boundary is crossed by heat and the ratio of this heat flux to temperature can be defined as a flux of entropy. There are no restrictions on the sign of this quantity, and we can say that this flux either contributes towards, or drains away, the system's entropy. During a reversible process, only this flux can affect the entropy of the system. This terminology suggests that we interpret entropy as a kind of weightless fluid, whose quantity is conserved (like that of matter) during a reversible process. During an irreversible process, however, this fluid is not conserved; it cannot disappear, but rather is created by sources throughout the system. While this interpretation should not be taken too literally, it provides an easy mode of expression and is in the same category of concepts such as those associated with the phrases ``flux of energy'' or ``sources of heat.'' In fluid mechanics, for example, this graphic language is very effective and there should be no objections to copying it in thermodynamics.

Muddy Points Do we ever see an absolute variable for entropy? So far, we have worked with deltas only (MP 6.8)

I am confused as to

as opposed to

.(MP 6.9)

For irreversible processes, how can we calculate

if not equal to

?(MP 6.10)

Next: 6.6 Entropy and Unavailable Up: 6. Applications of the Previous: 6.4 Brayton Cycle in Contents Index

UnifiedTP

Thermodynamics and Propulsion

Next: 7.3 A Statistical Definition Up: 7. Entropy on the Previous: 7.1 Entropy Change in Contents Index

**7.2 Microscopic and Macroscopic Descriptions of a System
**

The microscopic description of a system is the complete description of each particle in this system. In the above example, the microscopic description of the gas would be the list of the state of each molecule: position and velocity in this problem. It would require a great deal of data for this description; there are roughly molecules in a cube of air one centimeter on a side at room temperature and pressure. The macroscopic description, which is in terms of a few (two!) properties is thus far more accessible and useable for engineering applications, although it is restricted to equilibrium states. To address the description of entropy on a microscopic level, we need to state some results concerning microscopic systems. These results and the computations and arguments below are taken almost entirely from the excellent discussion in Chapter 6 of Engineering Thermodynamics by Reynolds and Perkins7.1. For a given macroscopic system, there are many microscopic states. A key idea from quantum mechanics is that the states of atoms, molecules, and entire systems are discretely quantized. This means that a system of particles under certain constraints, like being in a box of a specified size, or having a fixed total energy, can exist in a finite number of allowed microscopic states. This number can be very big, but it is finite. The microstates of the system keep changing with time from one quantum state to another as molecules move and collide with one another. The probability for the system to be in a particular quantum state is defined by its quantum-state probability . The set of the is called the distribution of probability. The sum of the probabilities of all the allowed quantum states must be unity, hence for any time ,

(7..2)

When the system reaches equilibrium, the individual molecules still change from one quantum state to another. In equilibrium, however, the system state does not change with time; so the probabilities for the different quantum states are independent of time. This distribution is then called the equilibrium distribution, and the probability can be viewed as the fraction of time a system spends in the quantum state. In what follows, we limit consideration to equilibrium states. We can get back to macroscopic quantities from the microscopic description using the

probability distribution. For instance, the macroscopic energy of the system would be the weighted average of the successive energies of the system (the energies of the quantum states); the energies are weighted by the relative time the system spends in the corresponding microstates. In terms of probabilities, the average energy, , is

(7..3)

where

is the energy of a quantum state.

The probability distribution provides information on the randomness of the equilibrium quantum states. For example, suppose the system can only exist in three states (1, 2 and 3). If the distribution probability is

the system is in quantum state 1 and there is no randomness. If we were asked what quantum state the system is in, we would be able to say it is always in state 1. If the distribution were

or

the randomness would not be zero and would be equal in both cases. We would be more uncertain about the instantaneous quantum state than in the first situation.

Maximum randomness corresponds to the case where the three states are equally probable:

In this case, we can only guess the instantaneous state with

probability.

Next: 7.3 A Statistical Definition Up: 7. Entropy on the Previous: 7.1 Entropy Change in Contents Index

UnifiedTP

Thermodynamics and Propulsion

Next: 6.6 Entropy and Unavailable Up: 6. Applications of the Previous: 6.4 Brayton Cycle in Contents Index

**6.5 Irreversibility, Entropy Changes, and ``Lost Work''
**

Consider a system in contact with a heat reservoir during a reversible process. If there is heat absorbed by the reservoir at temperature , the change in entropy of the

reservoir is . In general, reversible processes are accompanied by heat exchanges that occur at different temperatures. To analyze these, we can visualize a sequence of heat reservoirs at different temperatures so that during any infinitesimal portion of the cycle there will not be any heat transferred over a finite temperature difference.

During any infinitesimal portion, heat one of the reservoirs which is at change of the system is . If

will be transferred between the system and is absorbed by the system, the entropy

The entropy change of the reservoir is

The total entropy change of system plus surroundings is

This is also true if there is a quantity of heat rejected by the system.

The conclusion is that for a reversible process, no change occurs in the total entropy produced, i.e., the entropy of the system plus the entropy of the surroundings: .

Figure 6.7:Irreversible and reversible state changes

We now carry out the same type of analysis for an irreversible process, which takes the system between the same specified states as in the reversible process. This is shown schematically in Figure 6.7, with and denoting the irreversible and reversible processes. In the irreversible process, the system receives heat . The change in internal energy for the irreversible process is and does work

For the reversible process

Because the state change is the same in the two processes (we specified that it was), the change in internal energy is the same. Equating the changes in internal energy in the above two expressions yields

The subscript ``actual'' refers to the actual process (which is irreversible). The entropy change associated with the state change is (6..3)

. The equality only applies to a reversible process. To apply the second law we consider the total entropy change (system plus surroundings). The change in entropy for any process that leads to a transformation between an initial state ``a'' and a final state ``b'' is therefore where is the heat exchanged in the actual process. we obtain less work (see IAW notes) than in a reversible process.4) is that the entropy of a system can be altered in two ways: (i) through heat exchange and (ii) through irreversibilities. . . so the only way to decrease the entropy of a system is through heat transfer. There is no equality between the entropy change and the quantity for an irreversible process. with which the system exchanges heat. so that for the irreversible process. but did not. The difference represents work we could have obtained. If the surroundings are a reservoir at temperature . The equality is only applicable for a reversible process. is referred to as lost work and denoted by (6. In terms of this quantity we can write.4)) is always greater than zero.If the process is not reversible. The lost work ( in Equation (6.4) The content of Equation (6. It .

The total entropy change is The quantity ( ) is the entropy generated due to irreversibility.6) can be interpreted to mean that the entropy of the system.5) or (6. . Using this notation.5 ) The lost work is also called dissipation and noted entropy change of the system becomes: .5) can also be written as a rate equation. is . the infinitesimal or Equation (6. Yet another way to state the distinction we are making is (6.6) Either of Equation (6... (6.

which is a more graphic way of saying that and are positive definite (always greater than zero). The second law asserts that sinks of entropy are impossible in nature.10) . for example. it provides an easy mode of expression and is in the same category of concepts such as those associated with the phrases ``flux of energy'' or ``sources of heat. This additional entropy is zero when the process is reversible and always positive when the process is irreversible. only this flux can affect the entropy of the system. During an irreversible process.9) For irreversible processes.8) I am confused as to as opposed to . and we can say that this flux either contributes towards. While this interpretation should not be taken too literally. This terminology suggests that we interpret entropy as a kind of weightless fluid. but rather is created by sources throughout the system. this graphic language is very effective and there should be no objections to copying it in thermodynamics. due to irreversibility6. or drains away. can be interpreted as a flux of entropy. Muddy Points Do we ever see an absolute variable for entropy? So far. During a reversible process. this fluid is not conserved. or zero in the special case of reversible processes. the system's entropy.1. however.affected by two factors: the flow of heat and the appearance of additional entropy. one can say that the system developssources which create entropy during an irreversible process. The term which is associated with heat transfer to the system.(MP 6. Thus. whose quantity is conserved (like that of matter) during a reversible process. it cannot disappear. The boundary is crossed by heat and the ratio of this heat flux to temperature can be defined as a flux of entropy. we have worked with deltas only (MP 6.'' In fluid mechanics. There are no restrictions on the sign of this quantity. how can we calculate if not equal to ?(MP 6. denoted by .

6 Entropy and Unavailable Up: 6. where is the heat into the reservoir (defined here as positive if heat flows into the reservoir.6 Muddiest Points on Up: 5. a heat reservoir. The Second Law Previous: 5. From the definition of entropy ( ).4 Entropy Changes in Contents Index 5. Heat transfer between two heat reservoirs The entropy change of the two reservoirs in Figure 5.3) is a constant temperature heat source or sink.4 is the sum of the entropy . there is no heat transfer across a finite temperature difference and the heat exchange is reversible. Because the temperature is uniform.4 Brayton Cycle in Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 5.) Figure 5. Applications of the Previous: 6.5 Calculation of Entropy Change in Some Basic Processes 1. or to. A heat reservoir (Figure 5.3: Heat transfer from/to a heat reservoir 2.Next: 6. Heat transfer from.

10) to any size reservoir and still get 3. could you add ? (MP 5. why can the entropy decrease? (MP 5. the total entropy change is and the low temperature Figure 5.6) Why does the entropy of a heat reservoir change if the temperature stays the same? (MP 5. This is one of the statements of the second law given in Section 5.9) be less than zero in any process? Doesn't entropy always increase? If the same for a reservoir. Possibility of obtaining work from a single heat reservoir .1.7) How can the heat transfer from or to a heat reservoir be reversible? (MP 5.4: Heat transfer between two reservoirs The second law says that the entropy change must be equal to or greater than zero. Muddy Points In the single reservoir example. If the high temperature reservoir is at reservoir is at .8) How can (MP 5. This corresponds to the statement that heat must flow from the higher temperature source to the lower temperature source.change of each.

Muddy Points What is the difference between the isothermal expansion of a piston and the (forbidden) production of work using a single reservoir? (MP 5. by a device or system. The surroundings receive work only so the entropy change of the surroundings is zero. which is not possible. how do we know there is no ? (MP 5. The total entropy change is the sum of the change in the reservoir. the system or device. rejecting no heat.12) ? I thought that the whole thing about cycles How does a cycle produce zero . and producing work. The ``only'' is important. operating in a cycle.5: Work from a single heat reservoir The total entropy change in the proposed process is thus less than zero.5 as the absorption of heat. The second law thus tells us that we cannot get work from a single reservoir only.We can regard the process proposed in Figure 5. .1. and the surroundings. The total entropy change is Figure 5. because we are considering a complete cycle (return to initial state) and entropy is a function of state. it means without any other changes occurring. This is the other statement of the second law we saw in Section 5. The entropy change of the reservoir is . The entropy change of the device is zero.11) For the ``work from a single heat reservoir'' example.

6(a). 6. 12. as in Figure 5. 11. Difference between the free expansion and the reversible isothermal expansion of an ideal gas The essential difference between the free expansion in an insulated enclosure and the reversible isothermal expansion of an ideal gas can also be captured clearly in terms of entropy changes. Entropy changes in the ``hot brick problem'' [Temperature equalization of two bricks] [Reservoirs used in reversible state transformations] Figure 5. to final volume and (the same) temperature . so we need to devise a reversible path. 9.13) 4.6(b). This quantity is less than zero. The entropy change of the two bricks is 10. For the high temperature 7. The heat exchange at any of these steps is brick. (MP 5. is the heat capacity of the brick (J/kg). To do this imagine a large number of heat reservoirs at varying temperatures spanning the range . The process by which the two bricks come to the same temperature is not a reversible one.6: The ``Hot Brick'' Problem 5.was an entropy that the designers try to minimize. We can examine in a more quantitative manner the changes that occurred when we put the two bricks together. the . The process is not reversible. For the 8. where cold brick. the entropy change is: . as depicted in Figure 5. For a state change from initial volume and temperature . The bricks are put in contact with them sequentially to raise the temperature of one and lower the temperature of the other in a reversible manner.

We will make this connection stronger in Chapter 6. making use of the equation of state and the fact that process.entropy changes are state changes and the two system final and end states are the same for both processes. For the free expansion: There is no change in the entropy of the surroundings because there is no interaction between the system and the surroundings. 3. 2. so the process is not reversible. There are several points to note from this result: 1. There is a direct connection between the work needed to restore the system to the original state and the entropy change: The quantity has a physical meaning as ``lost work'' in the sense of work which we lost the opportunity to utilize. .entropy change is or. . for an isothermal This is the entropy change that occurs for the free expansion as well as for the isothermal reversible expansion processes —. The total entropy change is therefore. the equality between and is only for a reversible process.

The Second Law Previous: 5. however.For the reversible isothermal expansion: The entropy is a state variable so the entropy change of the system is the same as before. (MP 5. how do we know that the pressure and volume ratios are the same? We know for each that .4 Entropy Changes in Contents Index UnifiedTP . In this case.6 Muddiest Points on Up: 5. is equal to the heat received by the system: . heat is transferred to the system from the surroundings ( ) so that The heat transferred from the surroundings. Muddy Points On the example of free expansion versus isothermal expansion. The total change in entropy (system plus surroundings) is therefore The reversible process has zero total change in entropy.14) and Where did come from? (MP 5.15) Next: 5. however.

if the volume increases without a proportionate decrease in temperature (as in the case of an adiabatic free expansion). air) and we thus examine the entropy relations for ideal gas behavior. S & B: 6.5 Calculation of Entropy Up: 5.1] Many aerospace applications involve flow of gases (e. .g. we can write the entropy (5.. Integrating Equation (5.6..4 Entropy Changes in an Ideal Gas [VW.6.2) as relating the fractional change in temperature to the fractional change of volume.3 Combined First and Contents Index 5. then increases.2) between two states ``1'' and ``2'': . with scale factors and . The starting point is form (a) of the combined first and second law. For an ideal gas.Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 5.2) We can think of Equation (5. Thus Using the equation of state for an ideal gas ( change as an expression with only exact differentials: ).5. The Second Law Previous: 5. 7.

(5. we find or .. For moles of gas.3 is in terms of specific quantities. and making use of the relations . which allows us to examine an assumption we have used. This expression gives entropy change in terms of temperature and volume.For a perfect gas with constant specific heats In non-dimensional form (using ) (5. We can develop an alternative form in terms of pressure and volume. .2).3) Equation 5. The ideal gas equation of state can be written as Taking differentials of both sides yields Using the above equation in Eq.

The Second Law Previous: 5. in that both are characteristics of a constant entropy. i.5) Next: 5.3 Combined First and Contents Index UnifiedTP . For the specific situation in which .5) Equation (5.4) as exponents we obtain (5. and to the concept of a reversible adiabatic process.5) describes a general process. We now see.Integrating between two states 1 and 2 (5.5 Calculation of Entropy Up: 5.. adiabatic process.. a deeper meaning to the expression. process.4) What is the difference between isentropic and adiabatic? (MP 5. the entropy is constant. or isentropic. It was stated that this expression applied to a reversible.e. Muddy Points Why do you rewrite the entropy change in terms of ? (MP 5. we recover the expression ..4) Using both sides of (5. through use of the second law.

2.2.4 The Concept of ``Equilibrium'' 1.3 Changing the State Up: 1.2).1 The Continuum Model Matter may be described at a molecular (or microscopic) level using the techniques of statistical mechanics and kinetic theory. however.2 Definitions and Fundamental Ideas of Thermodynamics As with all sciences.3 The Concept of a ``State'' 1. pressure contains of air at standard temperature and molecules (VW.2.2.7 Equations of state 1.2. they are described clearly and in-depth in (SB&VW). i. The following is a discussion of some of the concepts we will need. and more importantly. a microscopic description of an engineering device may produce too much information to manage.2.2 The Concept of a ``System'' 1. their total effect is integrated.2. Typical engineering applications involve more than molecules. For example. description. S & B:2. in Chapters 1 and 2 of the book by Van Ness. each of which has a position and a velocity. We therefore neglect the fact that real substances are composed of discrete molecules and model matter from the start as a smoothed-outcontinuum. Second.2.1 The Continuum Model 1. Several of these will be further amplified in the lectures and in other handouts. They are also covered.e. we want ``averaged'' information. microscopic positions and velocities are generally not useful for determining how macroscopic systems will act or react unless.Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 1. For engineering purposes. If you need additional information or examples concerning these topics..5 The Concept of a ``Process'' 1. The information we have about a continuum represents the microscopic information averaged over a volume. around which we can . not a microscopic. There are two reasons for this. In order that the mathematical deductions are consistent.6 Quasi-Equilibrium Processes 1. we need some precise definitions of the basic concepts. First. a macroscopic.1 What it's All Contents Index Subsections 1. thermodynamics is concerned with the mathematical modeling of the real world.2.2 The Concept of a ``System'' A thermodynamic system is a quantity of matter of fixed identity. although in a less detailed manner. Classical thermodynamics is concerned only with continua. 1. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1. for instance. 1.

Hence the principle of the conservation of mass is automatically satisfied whenever we employ a closed system analysis.4: Boundary around electric motor (system) Figure 1. Figure 1.5. An example is shown in Figure 1.draw a boundary (see Figure 1.3 for an example). This is termed a control volume.3: Piston (boundary) and gas (system) Figure 1.2. When working with devices such as engines it is often useful to define the system to be an identifiable volume with flow in and out. Everything outside the boundary is the surroundings.5: Sample control volume 1.3 The Concept of a ``State'' The thermodynamic state of a system is defined by specifying values of a set of . Work or heat can be transferred across the system boundary. A closed system is a special class of system with boundaries that matter cannot cross. The boundaries may be fixed or moveable. This type of system is sometimes termed a control mass.

It is important to note that properties describe states only when the system is in equilibrium. Intensive properties do not depend on the quantity of matter present.2. In general. Volume is an extensive property. unchanged values as long as external conditions are unchanged is called an equilibrium state. [Mechanical Equilibrium] [Thermal . We can usually analyze a general system by sub-dividing it (either conceptually or in practice) into a number of simple systems in each of which the properties are assumed to be uniform. Extensive properties are additive. the properties of a system can vary from point to point. the state of an electric battery requires the specification of the amount of electric charge it contains. the value of the property for the whole system is equal to the sum of the values for the parts. More complex systems may require the specification of more unusual properties. The properties of a simple system are uniform throughout. Muddy Points Specific properties (MP 1. Specific properties are extensive properties per unit mass and are denoted by lower case letters.measurable properties sufficient to determine all other properties. if the system is divided into a number of sub-systems. however. As an example.4 The Concept of ``Equilibrium'' The state of a system in which properties have definite. For fluid systems. Thus. volume and temperature.2) 1. typical properties are pressure. For example: Specific properties are intensive because they do not depend on the mass of the system. Temperature and pressure are intensive properties. Properties may be extensive or intensive.1) What is the difference between extensive and intensive properties? (MP 1.

) For this to be true the process must be slow in relation to the time needed for the system to come to equilibrium internally.3-2. it is a very good approximation to view the thermodynamic processes as consisting of such a succession of equilibrium states. the equilibration time is on the order of seconds. quasi-steady. This is generally much shorter than the time scales associated with the bulk properties of the flow (say the time needed for a fluid particle to move some significant fraction of the length of the device of interest). at the end of the process. or isochors on a - . They include constant temperature lines. if ten collisions are needed to come to equilibrium. Note that even if a system has returned to its original state and completed a cycle. therefore.3. thermal equilibrium (no temperature differences) 3. constant volume lines. a given molecule can undergo roughly molecular collisions per second. etc. however.'' you will see it used in a number of contexts such as quasi-one-dimensional.6 Quasi-Equilibrium Processes We are often interested in charting thermodynamic processes between states on thermodynamic coordinates. however. unbalanced forces.diagram.6: Equilibrium A system in thermodynamic equilibrium satisfies: 1. The succession of states through which the system passes defines the path of the process. (The term quasi can be taken to mean ``as if. Over a large range of parameters. so that the process can be viewed as taking place in a series of ``quasi-equilibrium'' states. then it is undergoing a process. the properties have returned to their original values. An extremely useful idealization. on a . the state of the surroundings may have changed. which we can chart. [VW. the system can pass through non-equilibrium states. For a gas at conditions of interest to us. or isotherms.Equilibrium] Figure 1. 1. mechanical equilibrium (no unbalanced forces) 2. chemical equilibrium.2. S& B: 2.5 The Concept of a ``Process'' If the state of a system changes. so that. that properties define a state only when a system is in equilibrium. Recall from the end of Section 1. If a process involves finite.4] The figures below demonstrate the use of thermodynamics coordinates to plot isolines. is that only ``infinitesimal'' unbalanced forces exist. 1.2. which we cannot treat. If.2. the system has undergone a cyclic process or a cycle. lines along which a property is constant.

A preview is given in Figure 1. or water to ice.15 at the end of this chapter. or isobars.diagram. for example). which we can also plot on thermodynamic coordinates. . on a - diagram for an ideal gas. Real substances may have phase changes (water to water vapor. and constant pressure lines. We will see such phase changes plotted and used for liquid-vapor power generation cycles in Chapter 8.

7: Thermodynamics coordinates and isolines for an ideal gas 1.3]. Thus for a simple compressible gas like air.Figure: Figure: - diagram diagram Figure: . In words.'' . is where is the volume per mol of gas and . etc. [VW. S & B: 3. which is known as an equation of state. . Any of these is equivalent to an equation . if we know and we know . The equation of state for an ideal gas.7 Equations of state It is an experimental fact that two properties are needed to define the state of any pure substance in equilibrium or undergoing a steady or quasi-steady process.2.2. where is the volume per unit mass. which is a very good approximation to real gases at conditions that are typically of interest for aerospace applications1.diagram Figure 1. is the ``Universal Gas Constant.1. 3.

1 The Continuum Model 1. . which has a different value for different gases due to the different molecular .1 What it's All Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 1. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1. If you need additional information or examples concerning these topics. Next: 1. weights.2.7 Equations of state 1.1 What it's All Contents Index Subsections 1. In order that the mathematical deductions are consistent.3 Changing the State Up: 1.A form of this equation which is more useful in fluid flow problems is obtained if we divide by the molecular weight. For air at room conditions.4 The Concept of ``Equilibrium'' 1.2.5 The Concept of a ``Process'' 1.2. Several of these will be further amplified in the lectures and in other handouts. The following is a discussion of some of the concepts we will need. thermodynamics is concerned with the mathematical modeling of the real world.2 Definitions and Fundamental Ideas of Thermodynamics As with all sciences. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1.3 Changing the State Up: 1. : where R is .2.2 The Concept of a ``System'' 1.2.2.3 The Concept of a ``State'' 1. we need some precise definitions of the basic concepts.2.6 Quasi-Equilibrium Processes 1.

They are also covered. For example.e.3: Piston (boundary) and gas (system) . microscopic positions and velocities are generally not useful for determining how macroscopic systems will act or react unless. 1.1 The Continuum Model Matter may be described at a molecular (or microscopic) level using the techniques of statistical mechanics and kinetic theory. a macroscopic. i. not a microscopic.2). pressure contains of air at standard temperature and molecules (VW. Classical thermodynamics is concerned only with continua.. S & B:2. A closed system is a special class of system with boundaries that matter cannot cross. however. description. Typical engineering applications involve more than molecules. and more importantly. 1. The information we have about a continuum represents the microscopic information averaged over a volume.3 for an example). Hence the principle of the conservation of mass is automatically satisfied whenever we employ a closed system analysis. When working with devices such as engines it is often useful to define the system to be an identifiable volume with flow in and out.they are described clearly and in-depth in (SB&VW). a microscopic description of an engineering device may produce too much information to manage. around which we can draw a boundary (see Figure 1. each of which has a position and a velocity.2. Work or heat can be transferred across the system boundary. Figure 1. we want ``averaged'' information. although in a less detailed manner. For engineering purposes.5. First. This type of system is sometimes termed a control mass.2 The Concept of a ``System'' A thermodynamic system is a quantity of matter of fixed identity. There are two reasons for this. The boundaries may be fixed or moveable. their total effect is integrated. in Chapters 1 and 2 of the book by Van Ness. This is termed a control volume. Second. An example is shown in Figure 1. for instance.2. We therefore neglect the fact that real substances are composed of discrete molecules and model matter from the start as a smoothed-outcontinuum. Everything outside the boundary is the surroundings.

More complex systems may require the specification of more unusual properties. . however.5: Sample control volume 1. Temperature and pressure are intensive properties. We can usually analyze a general system by sub-dividing it (either conceptually or in practice) into a number of simple systems in each of which the properties are assumed to be uniform. Intensive properties do not depend on the quantity of matter present. the value of the property for the whole system is equal to the sum of the values for the parts. the state of an electric battery requires the specification of the amount of electric charge it contains.2. typical properties are pressure. In general.4: Boundary around electric motor (system) Figure 1. volume and temperature. Volume is an extensive property. Thus. Specific properties are extensive properties per unit mass and are denoted by lower case letters. if the system is divided into a number of sub-systems. Extensive properties are additive. For example: Specific properties are intensive because they do not depend on the mass of the system. For fluid systems. Properties may be extensive or intensive.3 The Concept of a ``State'' The thermodynamic state of a system is defined by specifying values of a set of measurable properties sufficient to determine all other properties. As an example. the properties of a system can vary from point to point.Figure 1. The properties of a simple system are uniform throughout.

the properties have returned to their original values. . If. Muddy Points Specific properties (MP 1.2.2) 1. The succession of states through which the system passes defines the path of the process. the system has undergone a cyclic process or a cycle.1) What is the difference between extensive and intensive properties? (MP 1. chemical equilibrium. thermal equilibrium (no temperature differences) 3. [Mechanical Equilibrium] [Thermal Equilibrium] Figure 1. at the end of the process. the state of the surroundings may have changed.It is important to note that properties describe states only when the system is in equilibrium.4 The Concept of ``Equilibrium'' The state of a system in which properties have definite.5 The Concept of a ``Process'' If the state of a system changes. Note that even if a system has returned to its original state and completed a cycle. unchanged values as long as external conditions are unchanged is called an equilibrium state.2.6: Equilibrium A system in thermodynamic equilibrium satisfies: 1. then it is undergoing a process. mechanical equilibrium (no unbalanced forces) 2. 1.

for example).6 Quasi-Equilibrium Processes We are often interested in charting thermodynamic processes between states on thermodynamic coordinates. the equilibration time is on the order of seconds. lines along which a property is constant. . A preview is given in Figure 1. so that the process can be viewed as taking place in a series of ``quasi-equilibrium'' states. which we can chart. on a . which we cannot treat.1.3. on a . S& B: 2. An extremely useful idealization. the system can pass through non-equilibrium states. constant volume lines. or isobars. etc.3-2. For a gas at conditions of interest to us. or isotherms.diagram. If a process involves finite.2. or isochors on a diagram. Real substances may have phase changes (water to water vapor. a given molecule can undergo roughly molecular collisions per second.) For this to be true the process must be slow in relation to the time needed for the system to come to equilibrium internally. if ten collisions are needed to come to equilibrium. or water to ice.4] The figures below demonstrate the use of thermodynamics coordinates to plot isolines. that properties define a state only when a system is in equilibrium. (The term quasi can be taken to mean ``as if.15 at the end of this chapter. Over a large range of parameters. therefore. They include constant temperature lines. Recall from the end of Section 1. and constant pressure lines. so that. it is a very good approximation to view the thermodynamic processes as consisting of such a succession of equilibrium states.2. quasi-steady.'' you will see it used in a number of contexts such as quasi-one-dimensional. which we can also plot on thermodynamic coordinates. is that only ``infinitesimal'' unbalanced forces exist. This is generally much shorter than the time scales associated with the bulk properties of the flow (say the time needed for a fluid particle to move some significant fraction of the length of the device of interest). unbalanced forces. however. We will see such phase changes plotted and used for liquid-vapor power generation cycles in Chapter 8.diagram for an ideal gas. [VW. however.

3]. .Figure: Figure: - diagram diagram Figure: . Thus for a simple compressible gas like air.1.2. [VW. 3.7: Thermodynamics coordinates and isolines for an ideal gas 1.7 Equations of state It is an experimental fact that two properties are needed to define the state of any pure substance in equilibrium or undergoing a steady or quasi-steady process.diagram Figure 1. S & B: 3.

For air at room conditions.2 Conservation of Angular Contents Index .3 Changing the State Up: 1.2.'' A form of this equation which is more useful in fluid flow problems is obtained if we divide by the molecular weight.4 Multistage Axial Compressors Up: 12. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1. : where R is . . which is a very good approximation to real gases at conditions that are typically of interest for aerospace applications1. is the ``Universal Gas Constant.where is the volume per unit mass. which has a different value for different gases due to the different molecular .1 What it's All Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 12. etc. if we know and we know . Any of these is equivalent to an equation . In words. is where is the volume per mol of gas and . Next: 1. weights. Energy Exchange with Previous: 12. which is known as an equation of state. The equation of state for an ideal gas.

and positive and negative angular momentum. The equation is based on the concepts of conservation of angular momentum and conservation of energy. The work per unit time. : . negative means it is spinning in the other direction). to characteristics of a rotating blade row. Figure 12.the same sense as the angular velocity. angular momentum is a vector . So depending on how things are defined. torque is positive when -.2. .positive means it is spinning in one direction.12. we note that the torque. We will work with the model of the blade row shown in Figure 12. .2: Control volume for Euler Turbine Equation. or power.2. If the blade row is moving. In Figure 9. Applying conservation of angular momentum.3 The Euler Turbine Equation The Euler turbine equation relates the power added to or removed from the flow.e. then work is done on/by the fluid. is the torque multiplied by the angular velocity. The sign matters (i. there can be positive and negative torques. must be equal to the time rate of change of angular momentum in a streamtube that flows through the device This is true whether the blade row is rotating or not.

If torque and angular velocity are of opposite sign work is being extracted from the fluid (a turbine). we arrive at: or for a perfect gas with . with Then equating this expression of conservation of energy with our expression from conservation of angular momentum. Here is another approach to the same idea: If the tangential velocity increases across a blade row (where positive tangential velocity is defined in the same direction as the rotor motion) then work is added to the flow (this happens in a compressor). work is being done on the fluid (a compressor)..3) . (12.If torque and angular velocity are of like sign. From the steady flow energy equation. If the tangential velocity decreases across a blade row (where positive tangential velocity is defined in the same direction as the rotor motion) then work is removed from the flow (this happens in a turbine).

Note that the velocities used in this equation are what we will later call absolute frame velocities (as opposed to relative frame velocities).Equation (12.3 Combined First and Second Law Expressions The first law. and work was done and work was done Next: 12. written in a form that is always true: For reversible processes only.2 Axiomatic Statements of Contents Index 5.4 Entropy Changes in Up: 5. If angular momentum decreases across a blade row. If angular momentum increases across a blade row. then by the fluid (a turbine). It relates the temperature ratio (and hence the pressure ratio) across a turbine or compressor to the rotational speed and the change in momentum per unit mass.2 Conservation of Angular Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 5. Energy Exchange with Previous: 12. then on the fluid (a compressor). The Second Law Previous: 5.3) is called the Euler Turbine Equation. work or heat may be rewritten as Substitution leads to other forms of the first law true for reversible processes only: .4 Multistage Axial Compressors Up: 12.

e. since . or specific enthalpy. and is a volume-like quantity. . In terms of specific quantities: The combined first and second law expressions are often more usefully written in terms of the enthalpy.(If the substance has other work modes. where is a pressure-like quantity.g. The above is always true because it is a relation between properties and is now independent of process.) Substituting for both and in terms of state variables. strain. In terms of enthalpy (rather than specific enthalpy) the relation is .. stress. Or.

Next: 5. Like the Zeroth Law. The two new terms (compared to what you have seen in physics and dynamics. as shown in Figure 2.6] Observation leads to the following two assertions: 1. potential energy. .2 Axiomatic Statements of Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 2.'' . We will generally not. The system energy can be considered as a sum of internal energy. however.2 Corollaries of the Up: 2.1 First Law of Thermodynamics [VW. The Second Law Previous: 5. we will neglect the chemical energy. The First Law Contents Index 2. the internal energy is sometimes called ``thermal energy.1. For most situations in this class.4 Entropy Changes in Up: 5. There exists for every system a property called energy. kinetic energy. It arises from the random or disorganized motion of molecules in the system. ``temperature. which defined a useful property. The First Law Previous: 2.'' 2. S & B: 2. 1.'' the First Law defines a useful property called ``energy. Since this molecular motion is primarily a function of temperature. and chemical energy. for example) are the internal energy and the chemical energy. neglect the internal energy. .

and is the work done by the system. or . Like the Zeroth Law. and chemical energy of the system are constant or not important. is a function of the state of the system. The internal energy. Then 5. the First Law describes the behavior of the new property [VW.) 2. (We will discuss the equations that relate the internal energy to these other variables as the course progresses. kinetic energy.1) 3. The equation can also be written on a per unit mass basis 3. 8. The change in energy of a system is equal to the difference between the heat added to the system and the work done by the system. which arises from . (thermal energy) + 1.Figure 2. is the heat input to the system. S& B: Chapter 5]. where is the energy of the system. or .1: Random motion is the physical basis for internal energy 3. Note that and are not functions of state. .. 6. Thus . (2. 4. In many situations the potential energy. 2. Recall that for pure substances the entire state of the system is specified if any two properties are specified. 4. but . and 7.

12. some force (pressure times area) is applied over a distance. thus the numerical value we substitute for will be positive if the system is doing work. We heat a gas. thus the numerical value we substitute for will be positive if heat is transferred to the system from the surroundings. [VW. To give an example of where the first law is applied. S& B: 4. does not depend on how the system got to that state.4] .7-4.2) 11. The change in energy of the system supplies the connection between the heat added and work done. [VW. 14. Note that the signs are important: is defined to be positive if it is transferred to the system.molecular motion (see above).1-4. 13. consider the device shown in Figure 2. We therefore have the striking result that: 9. and work is done. and negative if work is being done on the system. S & B: 4. where the symbol `` '' is used to denote that these are not exact differentials but rather are dependent on path. . We will spend most of the course dealing with various applications of the first law -. and negative if heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings. depends only on the state of the system.8] is defined to be positive if it is done by the system (see Section 1. For quasi-static processes we can substitute 15.2.3). Sometimes this difference is emphasized by writing the First Law in differential form. 10..in one form or another. (2. it expands against a weight.

Muddy Points What are the conventions for work and heat in the first law? (MP 2. S & B: 5.12].2) Next: 2. The First Law Previous: 2.2 Corollaries of the Up: 2.4 Specific Heats Contents Index Subsections .2: The change in energy of a system relates the heat added to the work done The form of the first law we have given here is sometimes called the ``control mass'' form. We will see in Section 2.5 that this form can be written for a control volume with mass flow in and mass flow out (like a jet engine for example).6 Muddiest Points on Up: 2.8-5. because it is well suited to dealing with systems of a fixed mass. The First Law Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 2. The First Law Previous: 2.1) When does ? (MP 2.Figure 2. We will call this the ``control volume'' form of the first law [VW.

Rather than focus on a particle of mass which moves through the engine.5.5.3.1 Conservation of mass For the control volume shown.5. developed below.8: Control volume and system for flow through a propulsion device 2.2 Example o 2.4 Example Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics o 2.5 Control volume form of the conservation laws [VWB&S.1. Figure 2.3 Power to drive a gas turbine compressor 2.8.3. 2. we are interested in what happens in a fixed volume.1 Tank Filling o 2.5. For a single flow coming in and a single flow coming out this is .4.4. 6.4.2 Conservation of energy 2. We may also be interested in the rates of heat and work into and out of a system.2 Flow through a rocket nozzle o 2. for example a rocket motor or a jet engine through which mass is flowing at a certain rate.3 Stagnation Temperature and Stagnation Enthalpy o 2. a specific quantity of matter.1 Conservation of mass 2.1 Frame dependence of stagnation quantities o 2. in propulsion and power problems. it is more convenient to focus on the volume occupied by the engine.5. This requires us to use the control volume form of the thermodynamic laws.2] The thermodynamic laws (as well as Newton's laws) are for a system.5. 6.5.5.5.5.5. More often. the rate of change of mass inside the volume is given by the difference between the mass flow rate in and the mass flow rate out. For this reason. A schematic of the difference is shown in Figure 2.3 Steady Flow Energy Equation in terms of Stagnation Enthalpy 2.3. the control volume form of the system laws is of great importance.

If the mass inside the control volume changes with time it is because some mass is added or some is taken out. The heat transfer and the work are already included and the only other contribution must be associated with the mass flow in and out.10 shows two schematics of this idea. The physical idea is that any rate of change of energy in the control volume must be caused by the rates of energy flow into or out of the volume.2 Conservation of energy The first law of thermodynamics can be written as a rate equation: where To derive the first law as a rate equation for a control volume we proceed as with the mass conservation equation. . Figure 2. which carries energy with it. therefore Figure 2. The desired form of the equation will be .9: A control volume used to track mass flows 2. In the special case of a steady flow.5.

We saw this in Section 2. and we have neglected chemical energy. doing work on it. and receives work from the surrounding air. and the present derivation is essentially an application of the ideas presented there. the work done on the surroundings by the flow at the exit station is . Flow entering the volume at station ``i'' is pushed on by. whenever fluid enters or leaves a control volume there is a work term associated with the entry or exit.[Simple] [More General] Figure 2. example 1. In addition. is equal to the volume per unit mass times the rate of mass flow.10: Schematic diagrams illustrating terms in the energy equation for a simple and a more general control volume The fluid that enters or leaves has an amount of energy per unit mass given by where is the fluid velocity relative to some coordinate system.3. Put another way. Flow exiting at station ``e'' must push back the surrounding fluid.'' The latter. however. The rate of flow work at exit is given by the product of the pressure times the exit area times the rate at which the external flow is ``pushed back. in a time .

10) Note how our use of enthalpy has simplified the rate of work term. . but this could .. We can then combine the specific internal energy term. If heat is added or work is done on the system then the sign is positive.The net rate of flow work is Including all possible energy flows (heat. thus work is flowing out of the system. where is the work done by the system on the environment. the first law for a control volume will be most often used as: (2. In writing the control volume form of the equation we have assumed only one entering and one leaving stream. if work or heat are extracted from the system then the sign is negative. shear work. there will be no shear work and no piston work. in and the specific flow Thus. etc. piston work. Hence. the first law can be written as: For most of the applications in this course. to make the enthalpy appear: . work term. NOTE: this is consistent with .). the first law can then be written as: where includes the sign associated with the energy flow. shaft work.

11) which has units of Joules per second. we will neglect the terms unless explicitly stated. From now on. Muddy Points What is shaft work? (MP 2. For problems of interest in aerospace applications the velocities are high and the term that is associated with changes in the elevation is small.5.7) 2. We could also divide by the mass flow to produce which has units of Joules per second per kilogram. In the special case of a steady-state flow.3 Stagnation Temperature and Stagnation Enthalpy Suppose that our steady flow control volume is a set of streamlines describing the flow up to the nose of a blunt object.6) Definition of a control volume (MP 2.5) What distinguishes shaft work from other works? (MP 2. . (2.be generalized to any number of inlet and exit streams. Applying this to Equation 2..11.10 produces a form of the ``Steady Flow Energy Equation'' (SFEE). as in Figure 2.

a control volume can be drawn between the dashed streamlines and points 1 and 2 The streamlines are stationary in space.Figure 2. It is also convenient to define the stagnation enthalpy. If there is also no heat transferred to the flow (adiabatic). so there is no external work done on the fluid as it flows. Note that for any steady.5. The stagnation temperature is the temperature that the fluid would reach if it were brought to zero speed by a steady adiabatic process with no external work. or where is the Mach number2. the stagnation temperature is constant. .11: Streamlines and a stagnation region. adiabatic flow with no external work. then the steady flow energy equation becomes The quantity that is conserved is defined as the stagnation temperature.

Depending on the . quasi-static process with no external work. reversible process with no external work (for stagnation pressure).which allows us to write the Steady Flow Energy Equation in a simpler form as Note that for a quasi-static adiabatic process so we can write and define the relationship between stagnation pressure and static pressure as where.5.3. adiabatic. The stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure are the conditions the fluid would reach if it were brought to zero speed relative to some reference frame.1 Frame dependence of stagnation quantities An area of common confusion is the frame dependence of stagnation quantities. the stagnation pressure is the pressure that the fluid would reach if it were brought to zero speed. via a steady adiabatic process with no external work (for stagnation temperature) or a steady. 2. adiabatic. via a steady.

a jet engine is sitting motionless on the ground prior to take-off.5. is not frame dependent. Air is entrained into the engine by the compressor. Thus in our re-entry vehicle example. The inlet can be assumed to be frictionless and adiabatic. the skin temperature is much hotter than the atmospheric temperature. Since re-entry vehicles travel fast. prior to passage into the compressor.speed of the reference frame the stagnation quantities will take on different values. as . Let's place our reference frame on the vehicle and stagnate a fluid particle on the nose of the vehicle (carrying it along with the vehicle and thus essentially giving it kinetic energy). Figure 2. looking at the still atmosphere from the vehicle frame we see a stagnation temperature hotter than the atmospheric (static) temperature. . . and these are not frame dependent. but the stagnation temperature. the stagnation temperature is the same as the static temperature.12: A stationary gas turbine drawing air in from the atmosphere Considering the state of the gas within the inlet. is. 2. The temperature the skin reaches (to first approximation) is the stagnation temperature and depends on the speed of the vehicle.'' but in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics static is used to label the thermodynamic properties of the gas ( etc. The stagnation temperature of the air in the vehicle frame is where is the vehicle speed. . The confusion comes about because is usually referred to as the static temperature.3.2 Example For the case shown below. If we look at the same still atmosphere from a stationary frame. . which is at temperature.). In common language this has a similar meaning as ``stagnation. The atmospheric temperature. For example. consider a high speed reentry vehicle traveling through the still atmosphere. .

is equal to since it is moving the same speed as the reference frame (the motionless airplane). Note the prominent role of enthalpy. The steady flow energy equation finds much use in the analysis of power and propulsion devices and other fluid machinery. and working in the reference frame of the motionless airplane: 1. less than. by the same argument as 2. or equal to ? Less than.5.3. by the same argument as 1. less than. Is ) ? greater than. The steady flow energy equation tells us that if there is no heat or shaft work (the case for our adiabatic inlet) the stagnation enthalpy (and thus stagnation temperature for constant ) remains unchanged. less than.8) . or equal to ? If then since the flow is moving at station 1 and therefore some of the total energy is composed of kinetic energy (at the expense of internal energy. or equal to Equal. Muddy Points What is the difference between enthalpy and stagnation enthalpy? (MP 2. Is greater than. less than. Thus 2. . 2.3 Steady Flow Energy Equation in terms of Stagnation Enthalpy The form of the ``Steady Flow Energy Equation'' (SFEE) that we will most commonly use is Equation 2. Is greater than. and neglecting chemical and potential energies. Is greater than.11 written in terms of stagnation quantities.state (1). thus lowering 3. or equal to ? The stagnation temperature of the atmosphere. 4.

S& B: 6.5. kinetic energy changes.1 Tank Filling Using what we have just learned we can attack the tank filling problem solved in Section 2.4.2.4. In this problem the shaft work is zero.3.13: A control volume approach to the tank filling problem The control volume form of the first law is therefore The equation of mass conservation is Combining we have Integrating from the initial time to the final time (the incoming enthalpy is constant) and using gives the result as before.2 Flow through a rocket nozzle A liquid bi-propellant rocket consists of a thrust chamber and nozzle and some means for . and potential energy changes are neglected.3 from an alternate point of view using the control volume form of the first law. and the heat transfer.4] 2. In addition there is no exit mass flow.5.5.4 Example Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics [VW. 2. Figure 2.

in the chamber.forcing the liquid propellants into the chamber where they react. and then write the First Law as or Therefore If we assume quasi-static. and location . for now we will assume that the gas behaves as a perfect gas with constant specific heats. and we assume that the flow is adiabatic. There is no external work. though in general this is a poor approximation. Figure 2. Also. adiabatic expansion then . We define our control volume as going between location .14: Flow through a rocket nozzle Once the rocket is operating we can assume that all of the flow processes are steady. at the exit. so it is appropriate to use the steady flow energy equation. converting chemical energy to thermal energy.

3 Power to drive a gas turbine compressor Consider for example the PW4084 pictured in Figure 2.15.4. and external static pressure. We wish to find the total shaft work required to drive the compression system.5. Figure 2. The engine is a two-spool design.15: The Pratt and Whitney 4084 (drawing courtesy of Pratt and Whitney) .so and . are set by propellants. The fan and low pressure compressor are driven by the low pressure turbine. The high pressure compressor is driven by the high pressure turbine.000 lbs of thrust at takeoff. the conditions in the combustion chamber. is the 2. The engine is designed to produce about 84.

. and the core stream. then . : We obtain the temperature change by assuming that the compression process is quasi-static and adiabatic. Heat transfer from the gas streams is negligible. with the shaft cutting through the back side of the control volume. the fan stream. from the front of the fan to the back of the fan and high pressure compressor. so we write the First Law (steady flow energy equation) as: For this problem we must consider two streams.We define our control volume to encompass the compression system.

All of this power is generated by the low pressure and high pressure turbines. along with estimates of we obtain . The First Law Previous: 2. Note that .6 Muddiest Points on Up: 2.4 First Law Analysis Up: 15. If a car engine has .Substituting these values into the expression for the first law above. Generating Heat: Thermochemistry Previous: 15.3 Enthalpy of formation .4 Specific Heats Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 15.110 automobile engines. then the power needed to drive compressor is equivalent to 1. Next: 2.2 Fuel-Air Ratio Contents Index 15.

this is heat that comes out of the control volume.1: Constant pressure combustion There is no shaft work done in the control volume and the first law for the control volume (SFEE) reduces to: We can write this statement in the form (15. however. the enthalpy of the elements (oxygen. (These are roughly room conditions. the heat that has to be extracted .) is taken as zero.1) . Figure 15. The results of a combustion process can be diagrammed as in Figure 15. If there are changes in composition. nitrogen.1.. The convention used is that the reference state is a temperature of ( ) and a pressure of .The systems we have worked with until now have been of fixed chemical composition. For example. carbon. we need to have a reference state so there is consistency for different substances. etc.) At these reference conditions. If there are no changes in composition. the specific energy for steam. and only changes in properties of given substances. this is adequate. Downstream of the reaction zone there is an appropriate amount of heat transfer with the surroundings so that the products leave at the standard conditions. we could use thermodynamic properties relative to an arbitrary base. The reactants enter at standard conditions. Because of this. since all comparisons could be made with respect to the chosen base. hydrogen. For the reaction of carbon and oxygen to produce is . the combustion (reaction) takes place in the volume indicated.

or . for any individual ith (or eth) The SFEE is. Combining terms. The subscripts on the mass flow rates and enthalpies refer to all of the components at inlet and at exit. molar mass flow rate. in these terms. (15. (15.In Eq. The relation in terms of mass flows can be written in molar form. and molar enthalpy. .2) The statements that have been made do not necessarily need to be viewed in the context of flow processes. by using the molecular weight. component as . Suppose we have one unit of and one unit of at the initial conditions and we . to define the . carry out a constant pressure reaction at ambient pressure. If so..1) the subscripts ``R'' and ``P'' on the summations refer to the reactants ( ) and products ( ) respectively. since . which is often more convenient for reacting flow problems.

Note that there is a minus sign for the heat of formation.3) The enthalpy of .. Muddy Points Is the enthalpy of formation equal to the heat transfer out of the combustion during the formation reaction? (MP 15. is called the enthalpy of formation and denoted by formation for a number of substances are given in Table A.9 in SB&VW. carbon exists as diamond and as graphite). Values of the heat of the elements is zero. at and .4) Are the enthalpies of and (monoatomic hydrogen) both zero at ? . The enthalpies of the reactants and products for the formation of are: The enthalpy of in any other state is given by These descriptions can be applied to any compound. This means that .In terms of the numbers of moles and the specific enthalpy this is (15. with reference to a base where the enthalpy of . For elements or compounds that exist in more than one state at the reference conditions (for example. we also need to specify the state. The heat transfer is out of the control volume and is thus negative by our convention.

corresponding to a (possibly fictitious) state with zero .7 Examples of Lost Work in Engineering Processes 1. Applications of the Previous: 6. Lost work in Adiabatic Throttling: Entropy and Stagnation Pressure Changes Figure 6.2 Fuel-Air Ratio Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 6. where is the stagnation enthalpy. The velocity is denoted by .4 First Law Analysis Up: 15. by a valve or other device as shown in Figure 6.8: Adiabatic Throttling 2. even if velocity. A process we have encountered before is adiabatic throttling of a gas. Generating Heat: Thermochemistry Previous: 15. Under these conditions we can use the first law for a control volume (the Steady Flow Energy Equation) to make a statement about the conditions upstream and downstream of the valve: 3.8.5) Next: 15.8 Some Overall Comments Up: 6. 4.6 Entropy and Unavailable Contents Index 6. There is no shaft work and no heat transfer and the flow is steady.(MP 15. The stagnation enthalpy is the same at stations 1 and 2 if .

however. the speed of sound. 5. The static and stagnation states are shown . in .9.coordinates in Figure 6. In deriving this result. Nothing has yet been specified about whether the process of stagnating the fluid is reversible or irreversible. we do it with respect to isentropic deceleration to the zero velocity state. the equation of state. . where is the speed of sound and is the Mach number. and the definition of the Mach number. For a perfect gas with constant specific heats. and relation between the static and stagnation temperatures is: . 7. The stagnation state is defined by addition. When we define the stagnation pressure. The 6. .9: Static and stagnation pressures and temperatures 12. 10. For an isentropic process 9. Figure 6. 8. use has only been made of the first law. . The relation between static and stagnation pressures is 11. In .the flow processes are not reversible.

. 19.8) 14. say one state having properties and the other having properties (see Figure 6. is constant.13.10). Writing (6. we examine the relation between stagnation pressure. Stagnation pressure is a key variable in propulsion and power systems. For a process with . . and entropy. Both sides of the above are perfect differentials and can be integrated as 18. the stagnation enthalpy. needs no subscript. the stagnation pressure is related directly to the entropy as. The corresponding static states are also indicated. Figure 6. 17. Because the entropy is the same at static and stagnation conditions. To see why.8) in terms of stagnation conditions yields 16. and hence the stagnation temperature.10:Stagnation and static states 15. The form of the combined first and second law that uses enthalpy is (6. stagnation temperature. In this situation. This holds for small changes between any thermodynamic states and we can apply it to a situation in which we consider differences between stagnation states.

. Equation (6. 23. The throttling process is a representation of flow through inlets. 28. so that the stagnation pressure change is small compared to the inlet level of stagnation pressure. Doing this.9) can be put in several useful approximate forms. 24. The utility is that it is the stagnation pressure (and temperature) which are directly measured. Figure 6. First. we find: 29. We have seen that the entropy is related to the loss.(6.11:Losses reflected in changes in stagnation pressure when 21. 22.11 shows this relation on a . or irreversibility. Expanding the logarithm (using ). nozzles. or 25. stationary turbomachinery blades. 26. not the entropy. Another useful form is obtained by dividing both sides by and taking the limiting forms of the expression for stagnation pressure in the limit of low Mach number ( ). 27. we note that for aerospace applications we are (hopefully!) concerned with low loss devices.diagram.9) 20. The stagnation pressure plays the role of an indicator of loss if the stagnation temperature is constant. Figure 6. . and the use of stagnation pressure as a measure of loss is a practice that has widespread application.

There is no heat transfer so the expressions that describe the overall shaft work and the shaft work per unit mass are (6. for the process.10) (6. For many applications the stagnation temperature is constant and the change in stagnation pressure is a direct measure of the entropy increase. with the term now representing the loss of mechanical energy associated with the change in stagnation pressure.30.11) . The quantity on the left is a non-dimensional entropy change parameter. 2. The quantity on the right can be interpreted as the change in the ``Bernoulli constant'' for incompressible (low Mach number) flow.13) Why does remain constant for throttling? (MP 6. We can regard the throttling process as a ``free expansion'' at constant temperature from the initial stagnation pressure to the final stagnation pressure. Muddy Points Why do we find stagnation enthalpy if the velocity never equals zero in the flow? (MP 6. A schematic of a turbine and the accompanying thermodynamic diagram are given in Figure 6. 3.12. There is a pressure and temperature drop through the turbine and it produces work.12: Schematic of turbine and associated thermodynamic representation in coordinates - 33.. 31. Stagnation pressure is the quantity that is actually measured so that linking it to entropy (which is not measured) is useful.14) 32. the work we need to do to bring the gas back to the initial state is . To summarize: 1.. Adiabatic Efficiency of a Propulsion System Component (Turbine) Figure 6. which is the ``lost work'' per unit mass. We thus know that.

From the figure the adiabatic efficiency is 40.34. Equation (6. The adiabatic efficiency can therefore be written as 42. How do you tell the difference between shaft work/power and flow work in a turbine. or approximately. 35. small changes in enthalpy are related to the entropy change by . The quantity to irreversibility. 46. 45. The adiabatic efficiency can thus be approximated as 47. 43.11) reduces to 36. 44. Isothermal Expansion with Friction . 41. From the combined first and second laws. Muddy Points 49. both conceptually and mathematically? (MP 6. The quantity is the enthalpy difference for two states along a constant pressure line (see diagram).12. 39. If the difference in the kinetic energy at inlet and outlet can be neglected. The performance of the turbine can be represented in an . 37. represents a useful figure of merit for fluid machinery inefficiency due 48.plane (similar to a plane for a perfect gas with constant specific heats) as shown in Figure 6. The non-dimensional term represents the departure from isentropic (reversible) processes and hence a loss. The adiabatic efficiency of the turbine is defined as 38. for a constant pressure process.15) 50.

. The work done by this reversible engine is . Suppose we had an ideal reversible engine working between these same two temperatures.13. 57. The heat will be (eventually) transferred to the atmosphere. 62. all frictional work ends up as heat transferred to the surrounding atmosphere. 56. and rejected heat of magnitude to the low temperature reservoir. In a more general look at the isothermal expansion. a balance of forces tells us that 52. 60. 59. 53. As seen in Figure 6. During the expansion. work is done to overcome friction. The engine operates in a cycle and the entropy change for the complete cycle is zero (because entropy is a state variable). The amount of heat transferred to the atmosphere due to the frictional work only is thus.Figure 6. 55. from the high temperature reservoir. the piston and the walls of the container will heat up because of the friction. The entropy change of the atmosphere (considered as a heat reservoir) due to the frictional work is 58.13: Isothermal expansion with friction 51. The total entropy change is 61. Therefore. 54. If the kinetic energy of the piston is negligible. we now drop the restriction to frictionless processes. which extracted the same amount of heat.

72. 73. 68. so that the reversible work is greater than the actual work of the irreversible cycle. For the reversible engine the total entropy change over a cycle is 65. can be defined as the ratio of the actual work obtained divided by the work that would have been delivered by a reversible engine operating between the two temperatures and : 74. The second law states that the total entropy generated is greater than zero for an irreversible process.'' .'' can you assume . The difference in work that the two cycles produce is proportional to the entropy that is generated during the cycle: 71. 70. Combining the expressions for work and for the entropy changes. 75. 67. 64.17) 78. 66. In discussing the terms ``closed system'' and ``isolated system. Muddy Points 77. An ``engine effectiveness. The departure from a reversible process is directly reflected in the entropy change and the decrease in engine effectiveness. The entropy change for the irreversible cycle can therefore be written as 69.63. Why does ? (MP 6. 76.

19) 80. The airfoil has a wake. A coordinate system fixed to the vehicle has been adopted so that we see the airfoil as fixed and the air far away from the airfoil moving at a velocity . Figure 6. with friction and losses. The control surface is also taken far enough away from the vehicle so that the static pressure can be considered uniform. Figure 6.20) 81.18) 79.15 shows an aerodynamic shape (airfoil) moving through the atmosphere at a constant velocity.that you are discussing a cycle or not? (MP 6. In a real heat engine. Propulsive Power and Entropy Flux still 0 if The final example in this section combines a number of ideas presented in this subject and in Unified in the development of a relation between entropy generation and power needed to propel a vehicle. This is useful in simplifying the analysis because there is no flow across the stream surfaces. The area of the downstream plane control surface is broken into . Streamlines of the flow have been sketched. The extent of the wake is also indicated. why is ? (MP 6. fluid that has suffered viscous losses. which is the area occupied by wake fluid. the momentum equation is . which is the area outside the wake and . Does a cycle process have to have ? (MP 6.e. as has the velocity distribution at station ``0'' far upstream and station ``d'' far downstream. i. For fluid which is not in the wake (no viscous forces)..15: Airfoil with wake and control volume for analysis of propulsive power requirement We use a control volume description and take the control surface to be defined by the two stream surfaces and two planes at station 0 and station d. which mixes with the surrounding air and grows in the downstream direction. Because of the lower velocity in the wake the area between the stream surfaces is larger downstream than upstream.

14) There is no pressure contribution in Eq.Uniform static pressure therefore implies uniform velocity.. .) The integral momentum equation (control volume form of the momentum equation) can be used to find the drag on the vehicle: (6.. By this station. (The conclusions apply to the more general velocity profile as well and we would just need to use integrals over the wake instead of the algebraic expressions below.12) The vertical face of the control surface is far downstream of the body. Using the form given for the wake velocity and expanding the terms in the momentum equation we obtain (6. We can thus write. (6..) The equation expressing mass conservation for the control volume is (6. The downstream velocity profile is actually continuous.14) because the static pressure on the control surface is uniform. as indicated. so that on the velocity is equal to the upstream value.. the wake fluid has had much time to mix and the velocity in the wake is close to the free stream value.15) . It is approximated in the analysis as a step change to make the algebra a bit simpler. (6.13) (We chose our control surface so the condition was upheld. .

(6. We can also approximate that the condition of constant stagnation enthalpy holds locally on all streamlines. is small by virtue of the choice of control surface and we can neglect it. All this flow has a velocity defect (compared to the free stream) of . ...15) in a different manner. we have The terms in the square brackets on both sides of this equation are the continuity equation multiplied by . so that (6. to first order in . They thus sum to zero leaving the curly bracketed terms as (6.17) .16) The wake mass flow is . There is no net shaft work or heat transfer to the wake so that the mass flux of stagnation enthalpy is constant. so that the defect in flux of momentum (the mass flow in the wake times the velocity defect) is. . Applying both of these to the combined first and second law yields For the present situation. .The last term in the right hand side of the momentum equation. The combined first and second law gives us a means of relating the entropy and velocity: The pressure is uniform ( ) at the downstream station. Doing this and grouping the terms on the right hand side of Eq.

in this case manifested as power that needs to be supplied because of dissipation in the wake. (6. The power needed to propel the vehicle is the product of .19) is another demonstration of the relation between lost work and entropy generation. in the general case we would express this by an integral over the locally varying wake velocity and density).18) The quantity is the entropy flux (mass flux times the entropy increase per unit mass. From Eq.In Equation (6. . The entropy can be related to the drag as (6.18). Equation (6..17) the upstream temperature is used because differences between wake quantities and upstream quantities are small at the downstream control station.19) This amount of work is dissipated per unit time in connection with sustaining the vehicle motion.21) . this can be related to the entropy flux in the wake to yield a compact expression for the propulsive power needed in terms of the wake entropy flux: (6. Muddy Points Is it safe to say that entropy is the tendency for a system to go into disorder? (MP 6..

3. turbine) for an engine for a given mission.4 Representative performance values 11.g.3 Ideal Ramjet o 11. pressure ratios.5 Recapitulation 11.Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 11. etc.3.3.6.1 Parameters reflecting design choices o 11.6.6.6.5.3.6. temperature ratios).5. but only the results the various components produce (e. In Chapter 12 we will look in greater detail at how some of the components (the turbine and the compressor) . Note that ideal cycle analysis addresses only the thermodynamics of the airflow within the engine. including design limits.). 11.g.4 Turbojet Engine 11.5 Effect of Departures from Ideal Behavior o 11. The expressions we develop will allow us to define a particular mission and then determine the optimum component characteristics (e. compressor.2 Fuel Air Ratio o o o 11. and design choices. flight conditions. In this section we will perform further ideal cycle analysis to express the thrust and fuel efficiency of engines in terms of useful design variables.5 Trends in thermal Contents Index Subsections 11.6. Aircraft Engine Performance Previous: 11.6. combustor.6.1 Thrust o 11.6.7 Performance of Propellers Up: 11.6 Performance of Jet Engines In Chapter 3 we represented a gas turbine engine using a Brayton cycle and derived expressions for efficiency and work as functions of the temperature at various points in the cycle. It does not describe the details of the components (the blading.6.6. the rotational speed.2 Parameters reflecting the ability to design and execute efficient components 11.6.2 Ideal Assumptions 11.3 Specific impulse.1 Notation and station numbering 11.3.

. total or stagnation temperature ratio across component ( . Thus.1 Notation and station numbering Notation: where the capital subscript will refer to the turbine. . . . are more easily measured quantities than static properties ( and ). it is standard convention to express the performance of various components in terms of stagnation pressure and temperature ratios: total or stagnation pressure ratio across component ( . .produce these effects. Stagnation properties. . and . .6. 11. . ) ). .

.12: Gas turbine engine station numbering.) .25. . 11. .6.12. (adiabatic. Nozzle: . To identify individual stations within Figure 11. we will reexamine the ideal ramjet. Turbine: 5. picking up where we left off in Section 3. Combustor/burner or afterburner: . .where .6. . consistent with Figure 3. . isentropic) 2. Inlet/Diffuser: . Compressor or fan: 3.7. 4.3 Ideal Ramjet To get started with a simple example (no turbomachinery).3. 11. .2 Ideal Assumptions 1. and the engine we will use the numbers in Figure 11. . (Note that we will continue to use station 5 as the exit station.

3. with the consequence that the inlet and exit Mach numbers are also the same. The thrust can be put in terms of nondimensional parameters as follows: Using .11. The ratios of stagnation pressure to static pressure at inlet and exit of the ramjet are The ratios of stagnation to static pressure at exit and at inlet are the same. in the expression for stagnation pressure. . The thrust. is given by: where and are the exit and inlet flow velocities. To find the thrust we need to find the ratio of the temperature at exit and the temperature at inlet. respectively. This is given by .6.1 Thrust The coordinate system and control volume are chosen to be fixed to the ramjet.

the fuel-air ratio is The fuel-air ratio.13. the burner. the desired flight parameters ( .2 Fuel Air Ratio To find the Isp will will need to find the ramjet fuel-air ratio. because the fuel-air ratio is much less than unity (generally several percent). we get: . depends on the fuel properties ( ).3. . as shown in Figure 11. We thus neglect the difference between the mass flows and obtain with Thus. Using a control volume around From the steady flow energy equation: The exit mass flow is not greatly different from the inlet mass flow. The thrust is thus 11.6. .where is the stagnation temperature ratio across the combustor (burner).

and the temperature of the atmosphere ( ). . constant for stoichiometric operation. What happens in this situation as the flight Mach number. increases? is fixed so increases. which is a complicated formula. but the maximum temperature does not increase much because of dissociation: the reaction does not go to completion at high temperature. the ramjet performance ( ).13: Control volume over the burner 11. we need to add some additional information concerning the operational behavior. A useful approximation is therefore to take km. from 10 to 30 . The maximum temperature ratio is . In the stratosphere.3 Specific impulse. The specific impulse for the ramjet is given by The specific impulse can be written in terms of fuel properties and flight and vehicle characteristics as We wish to explore the parameter dependency of the above expression.3. Figure 11.6. How can we do this? What are the important effects of the different parameters? How do we best capture the ramjet performance behavior? To make effective comparisons. An important case to examine is when we have stoichiometric conditions and all the fuel burns (denoted by ).).

5 Recapitulation Between Section 3.6. the specific impulse is 11.4 Representative performance values Figure 11. The figure shows that for the parameters used.6.7. in 11. . Using the expression for . such that .For the stoichiometric ramjet. The parameters used are for hydrocarbons.3 and this section we have: Examined the Brayton Cycle for ramjet propulsion.3. the best operating range of a hydrocarbonfueled ramjet is the stratosphere. .14.3.14: Thrust per unit mass flow and specific impulse for ideal ramjet with stoichiometric combustion [Kerrebrock] A plot of the performance of the stoichiometric ramjet is shown in Figure 11. .

1) ? (MP 11.6) and the existence of the maximum Why didn't we have a 2s point for the Brayton cycle with non-ideal components? (MP 11.3) ? Is there an advantage to this? Why isn't mechanical efficiency an issue with ramjets? (MP 11. .8) 11.5) What is the relation between value of ? (MP 11.2) Why does industry use (MP 11.6.7) What is the variable ? (MP 11. How is found for rockets in space where rather than .4 Turbojet Engine . and .4) How is thrust created in a ramjet? (MP 11. Found Found Examined as a function of . and and the relation between and as a function of Muddy Points What exactly is the specific impulse. a measure of? (MP 11.

temperature ratios. Find thrust by finding in terms of . Methodology: 1. Use an energy balance across the combustor to relate the combustor temperature rise to the fuel flow rate and fuel energy content. and Now we have to do a little algebra to manipulate these expressions into more useful forms. First we write an expression for the exit velocity: . We now examine an engine with turbomachinery.15. as shown in Figure 11. Use a power balance to relate turbine parameters to compressor parameters 3. First write-out the expressions for thrust and Isp: where is the fuel/air mass flow ratio.15: Schematic with appropriate component notations added.Figure 11. etc. 2.

Noting that we can write Thus (11.. and the temperature changes across each component.1) which expresses the exit temperature as a function of the inlet temperature. the Mach number. We now write the pressure at the exit in a similar manner: .

.Since and we write and then equate this to our expression for the temperature in (11.1): and We now continue on the path to our expression for .

then Since the turbine shaft is connected to the compressor shaft .Therefore Now we have two steps left. ( or more specifically ) since this is the hottest point in the engine and is a frequent benchmark used for judging various designs. First we write in terms of . Second. The steady flow energy equation states Assuming that the compressor and turbine are adiabatic. by noting that they are related by the condition that the power used by the compressor is equal to the power extracted by the turbine. we put the burner temperature ratio in terms of the exit temperature of the burner.

this can be rewritten as where so or That was the first step relating the temperature rise across the turbine to that across the compressor. The remaining step is to write the temperature rise across the combustor in terms of . and for an engine with an afterburner .Assuming the mass flow and specific heats are the same between compressor and turbine.

an expression for thrust in terms of important design parameters and flight parameters: By adding and substracting the quantity we may write this write in another form which is often used. we get: . A recap of the important variables: . and into our expression for into the first expression we wrote for thrust. and finally This is what we were seeking.Now substituting our expressions for .

Our final step involves writing the specific impulse and other measures of efficiency in terms of these same parameters. and where again. The specific impulse becomes where is expressed in terms of typical design parameters. is the fuel/air mass flow ratio. flight conditions. We begin by writing the First Law across the combustor to relate the fuel flow rate and heating value of the fuel to the total enthalpy rise. and physical constants .

Similarly. the ideal thermal efficiency is and the propulsive efficiency can be found as . we can write our overall efficiency as or Using the definition from before.

85 2.We can now use these equations to better understand the performance of a simple turbojet engine. .18.0 Sea level 12 km 18 km 288 K 217 K 217 K 340 m/s 295 m/s 295 m/s Note it is more typical to work with the compressor pressure ratio ( temperature ratio ( ) rather than the ) so we will substitute the isentropic relationship: into the equations before plotting the results in Figures 11. We will use the following parameters (with ): Table 11. and 11.16. 11.1: Turbojet Mission Parameters Mach number Altitude Ambient Temp.17. Speed of sound 0 0.

17: Performance of an ideal turbojet engine as a function of compressor pressure ratio and flight Mach number. .Figure 11.16: Performance of an ideal turbojet engine as a function of flight Mach number. Figure 11.

5 Effect of Departures from Ideal Behavior -.Figure 11. 11.Real Cycle behavior To conclude this chapter. Stagnation pressure decrease in the combustor.6. We will use the Brayton cycle as an example. What are the sources of non-ideal performance and departures from reversibility? Losses (entropy production) in the compressor and the turbine. . We take into account here only irreversibility in the compressor and in the turbine.18: Performance of an ideal turbojet engine as a function of compressor pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature. we will now improve our estimates of cycle performance by including the effects of irreversibility. Heat transfer.

whereas for the compressor the ratio is the ideal work needed divided by the actual work required. as can be inferred from Figure 11. (the changes in kinetic energy from inlet to exit of the compressor are neglected).Because of these irreversibilities. We also get less work. There is a similar metric again for the same pressure ratio. . The consequence. Note that for the turbine the ratio is the actual work delivered divided by the ideal work. These are not thermal efficiencies. the compressor adiabatic efficiency: . Figure 11. we need more work. but rather measures of the degree to which the compression and expansion approach the ideal processes. We define the turbine adiabatic efficiency as where is specified to be at the same pressure ratio as for the compressor. back from the turbine.19. consider a perfect gas with constant specific heats and neglect kinetic energy at the inlet and exit of the turbine and compressor. to drive the compressor than in the ideal situation.19: Gas turbine engine (Brayton) cycle showing effect of departure from ideal behavior in compressor and turbine To develop a quantitative description of the effect of these departures from reversible behavior. . is that the net work from the engine is less than in the cycle with ideal components.

With Similarly. .We now wish to find the net work done in the cycle and the efficiency. by the definition we can find : . From the definition of . where the convention is that heat received is positive and heat rejected is negative and work done is positive and work absorbed is negative. The thermal efficiency is We need to calculate . The net work is given either by the difference between the heat received and rejected or the work of the compressor and turbine.

The thermal efficiency can now be found: With and or .

There are several non-dimensional parameters that appear in this expression for thermal efficiency. . net rate of work is a quantity we need to examine.6.2 Parameters reflecting the ability to design and execute efficient components In addition to efficiency. 11. Putting this in a non-dimensional form.5.5.6. We list these in the two sections below and show their effects in accompanying figures.1 Parameters reflecting design choices 11.

The ideal analysis is too idealized in this regard. the cycle efficiency is roughly two-thirds of the ideal value.[Non-dimensional work as a function of cycle pressure ratio for different values of turbine entry temperature divided by compressor entry temperature] [Overall cycle efficiency as a function of pressure ratio for different values of turbine entry temperature divided by compressor entry temperature] [Overall cycle efficiency as a function of cycle pressure ratio for different component efficiencies] Figure 11. Choosing this as a design criterion will therefore not lead to the efficiency penalty inferred from ideal cycle analysis. The highest efficiency also occurs closer to the pressure ratio for maximum power than in the case of an ideal cycle. as it is for the ideal Brayton cycle. Jet Propulsion] Trends in net power and efficiency are shown in Figure 11. the optimum pressure ratio for maximum is not the highest that can be achieved.20: Non-dimensional power and efficiency for a non-ideal gas turbine engine [from Cumpsty. for . . Some points to note in the figure: For any . For example. There is a strong sensitivity to the component efficiencies.20 for parameters typical of advanced civil engines.

The maximum power occurs at a value of max or pressure ratio less than that for (this trend is captured by ideal analysis).diagram to the right.21.11) For an afterburning engine. A scale diagram of a Brayton cycle with non-ideal compressor and turbine behaviors. Pressure ratio . in terms of temperature-entropy ( . right? (MP 11.10) When there are losses in the turbine that shift the expansion in .21: Scale diagram of non-ideal gas turbine cycle. [] [] Figure 11. compressor and turbine efficiencies [from Cumpsty. .) coordinates is given below as Figure 11. they should eventually separate by density. Nomenclature is shown in the figure.9) How can be the maximum turbine inlet temperature? (MP 11. . are strongly dependent on the maximum The maximum power and maximum temperature.12) . why must the nozzle throat area increase if the temperature of the fluid is increased? (MP 11.) and pressure-volume ( . . Jet Propulsion] Muddy Points Isn't it possible for the mixing of two gases to go from the final state to the initial state? If you have two gases in a box. does this mean there is more work than ideal since the area is greater? (MP 11.

2 Fuel-Air Ratio The reaction for aeroengine fuel at stoichiometric conditions is On a molar basis. which is the way in which the aeroengine industry discusses it. we need to ``weight'' the molar proportions by the molecular weight of the components.16) Next: 11.Why doesn't the pressure in the afterburner go up if heat is added? (MP 11. the oxygen molecular weight .15) Why isn't the stagnation temperature conserved in this steady flow? (MP 11.1 Fuels Contents Index 15. The fuel molecular weight is . Aircraft Engine Performance Previous: 11.7 Performance of Propellers Up: 11. the ratio of fuel to air is .14) What's the point of having a throat if it creates a retarding force? (MP 11. The fuel/air is and the nitrogen molecular weight is (approximately) ratio on a mass flow basis is thus .13) Why is the flow in the nozzle choked? (MP 11.3 Enthalpy of formation Up: 15.5 Trends in thermal Contents Index UnifiedTP UnifiedTP UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 15. To find the ratio on a mass flow basis. Generating Heat: Thermochemistry Previous: 15.

The Second Law Contents Index 5.3 Enthalpy of formation Up: 15. Generating Heat: Thermochemistry Previous: 15. There thus must be some other ``great principle'' that describes the direction of natural processes. are compatible with the first law. Muddy Points Do we always assume 100% complete combustion? How good an approximation is this? (MP 15. or the temperature equilibration of the two bricks. .1 Fuels Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 5.2 Axiomatic Statements of Up: 5. The Second Law Previous: 5. Like the first law.If we used the actual constituents of air we would get 0.3) Next: 15.0667. it is a generalization from an enormous amount of observation. a value about 0. unfamiliar though they may be. This is contained in the second law. In other words the first law does not prohibit their occurrence. both these processes. that tells us which first law compatible processes will not be observed. Suppose you are asked whether you have ever seen the reverse of these processes take place? Do two bricks at a medium temperature ever go to a state where one is hot and one is cold? Will the gas in the unrestrained expansion ever spontaneously return to occupying only the left side of the volume? Experience hints that the answer is no.1 Concept and Statements of the Second Law (Why do we need a second law?) The unrestrained expansion. are familiar processes. However.5% different.

which is a thermodynamic property of a system. For a reversible process. this is not possible (Clausius) 3. is positive and approaches zero for any process which approaches reversibility. 1. . they are equivalent. There exists for every system in equilibrium a property called entropy. considered together.1: This is not possible (Kelvin-Planck) 2. Listed below are three that are often encountered. changes in this property are given by The entropy change of any system and its surroundings. . [Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law] Figure 5. No process is possible whose sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and the conversion of this heat into work.2: For . No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body. As described in class (and as derived in almost every thermodynamics textbook). [Clausius statement of the second law] Figure 5.There are several ways in which the second law of thermodynamics can be stated. although the three may not appear to have much connection with each other.

For a simple compressible substance. and the first and second laws become: For an isolated system the total energy ( ) is constant.1) .. changes in the system have no effect on the surroundings. but what are the appropriate variables? If so. The first law for a simple compressible substance in terms of state variables is thus (5. and power generation systems we often compare performance to this limit to measure how close to ideal a given process is. the term should perhaps be viewed as analogous to where the parentheses denote an intensive state variable and the square brackets denote an extensive state variable. If we look at the first law. All of these statements are equivalent. we can write the work done in a reversible process as . quantitative measure of the departure from reversibility. so that Two out of the three terms in this equation are expressed in terms of state variables. we need to consider the system only. The limit. . the term on the left is a function of state. . however. and the extensive state variable is the entropy. In thermodynamics. a system that has no interaction with the surroundings. The entropy can only increase or. remain constant.. It seems plausible that we ought to be able to express the third term using state variables as well. In this case. i. while the two terms on the right are not. propulsion.e. represents the best that can be done. or . Entropy is not a familiar concept and it may be helpful to provide some additional rationale for its appearance. The second law tells us that the intensive variable is the temperature. in the limit of a reversible process. but 3 gives a direct.For an isolated system.

2. 5.2 Axiomatic Statements of Up: 5.2) Next: 5. it is true for all processes. Muddy Points Why is always true? (MP 5. The entropy per unit mass. For a system. The Second Law Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 5. The units of entropy are Joules per degree Kelvin (J/K). 4. Entropy is a function of the state of the system and can be found if any two properties of the system are known. . The units for specific entropy are J/K-kg. is an extensive variable. We summarize below some attributes of entropy: 1.4 Entropy Changes in Up: 5.g. 3. The Second Law Previous: 5.1) What makes different than ? (MP 5. for pure work transfer. it is referred to as the combined first and second law.1 includes the second law. e.2 Axiomatic Statements . not just reversible ones. or or . 5. Because it is written in terms of state variables. is . where the numerator is the heat given to the system and the denominator is the temperature of the system at the location where the heat is received. or specific entropy.Because Eq. The Second Law Previous: 5.

work or heat may be rewritten as Substitution leads to other forms of the first law true for reversible processes only: (If the substance has other work modes. stress. or specific enthalpy.3 Combined First and Second Law Expressions The first law.g.. The above is always true because it is a relation between properties and is now independent of process. . strain. written in a form that is always true: For reversible processes only. . In terms of specific quantities: The combined first and second law expressions are often more usefully written in terms of the enthalpy. where is a pressure-like quantity.) Substituting for both and in terms of state variables. and is a volume-like quantity.of Contents Index 5. e.

Radiation Heat Transfer Previous: 19.2 Kirchhoff's Law and ``Real Bodies'' Real bodies radiate less effectively than black bodies.1 Ideal Radiators Contents Index 19.3 Radiation Heat Transfer Up: 19. The Second Law Previous: 5. In terms of enthalpy (rather than specific enthalpy) the relation is Next: 5. The measurement of this is the emittance. defined by .4 Entropy Changes in Up: 5. .Or. since .2 Axiomatic Statements of Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 19.

'' Also.1 Ideal Radiators Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion Next: 6. It was derived for the case when and is not strictly true for all circumstances when the temperature of the body and the cavity are different.where is radiation from the real body at . but it is true if . Radiation Heat Transfer Previous: 19. A table of emittances for different substances is given at the end of this section as Table 19. It implies that good radiators are good absorbers. and roughly 0. Applications of the Previous: 6..02 for polished metals or silvered reflectors. Thus (19. Up: 6. . An energy balance gives .5 Irreversibility. is known as Kirchhoff's Law. and is radiation from a black body at . taken from the book by Lienhard.3 Radiation Heat Transfer Up: 19. The power absorbed per unit area is equal to . the relation .1. Values of emittance vary greatly for different materials. are properties of the surface. The power emitted is equal to .1) Equation (19. The level of the emittance can be related to the absorptance using the following arguments. Suppose we have a small non-black body in the cavity. . Entropy Changes. describes a ``gray body.3 Representation of Thermodynamic Contents Index Subsections . since Next: 19. They are near unity for rough surfaces such as ceramics or oxidized metals.1). This situation . so the absorptance and emittance are not functions of .

The quantity desired is the derivative of . the shapes look quite different in these two planes when the medium is not an ideal gas. at constant pressure: combined first and second law. with a scale factor of between the two. - We can also plot the Brayton cycle in an . and the relation between and (6. .. this is temperature. so the shape of the cycle in an plane is the same as in a . For a given ideal gas (specific ) the slope is positive and increases as . 6. with respect to entropy.planes is true for ideal gases only.plane. which relates changes in enthalpy. but we need to define the shape of the latter. From the . entropy. The former are vertical. For an ideal gas. As we will see when we examine two-phase cycles. . Note that the similarity in the shapes of the cycles in . and pressure: On constant pressure curves and . changes in specific enthalpy are related to changes in temperature by .2) The derivative is the slope of the constant pressure legs of the Brayton cycle on a plane.. .plane is . constant pressure heat exchange legs. This has advantages because changes in enthalpy directly show the work of the compressor and turbine and the heat added and rejected. This suggests that a place to start is with the combined first and second law.4 Brayton Cycle in - Coordinates The Brayton cycle has two reversible adiabatic (i. The slope of the constant pressure legs in the .4.plane.e.and .1 Net work per unit mass flow in a Brayton cycle 6. isentropic) legs and two reversible.

and temperature The temperature ratios of any elementary cycle ``i'' are therefore the same and each of the elementary cycles has the same thermal efficiency. The upper and lower curves of the Brayton cycle. If the efficiency of all the elementary cycles has this value.4. ratio. We know that the temperature ratio of the first elementary cycle is the ratio of compressor exit temperature to engine entry (atmospheric for an aircraft engine) temperature. the efficiency of the overall Brayton cycle (which is composed of the elementary cycles) must also have this value. as previously.4. . however. in Figure 6. we know that pressure ratio. All of the elementary Carnot cycles therefore have the same pressure ratio: From the isentropic relations for an ideal gas. The `` '' Carnot cycle has an efficiency of where the indicated lower temperature is the heat rejection temperature for that elementary cycle and the higher temperature is the heat absorption temperature for that cycle. . we can break up the Brayton cycle into many small Carnot cycles. We only need to find the temperature ratio across any one of the cycles to find what the efficiency is.4: Ideal Brayton cycle as composed of many elementary Carnot cycles [Kerrebrock] Plotting the cycle in .Figure 6.coordinates also allows another way to address the evaluation of the Brayton cycle efficiency which gives insight into the relations between Carnot cycle efficiency and efficiency of other cycles. Thus. have constant pressure. . are related by: . As shown in Figure 6.

The net mechanical work of the cycle is given by: where. . by the first law. Muddy Points If there is an ideal efficiency for all cycles. Now that we have defined entropy.5: Arbitrary cycle operating between . which operates between some maximum and minimum temperatures. is there a maximum work or maximum power for all cycles? (MP 6.Figure 6.1 Net work per unit mass flow in a Brayton cycle In Section 3.) diagram.1 we found the net work of a Brayton cycle in terms of heat transfer. we can reexamine the net work using an enthalpy-entropy ( .4.6. We can break it up into small Carnot cycles and evaluate the efficiency of each. Figure 6.7. Consider the cycle shown in Figure 6.5. A benefit of this view of efficiency is that it allows us a way to comment on the efficiency of any thermodynamic cycle. This graphical argument shows that the efficiency of any other thermodynamic cycle operating between these maximum and minimum temperatures has an efficiency less than that of a Carnot cycle. It can be seen that the efficiency of any of the small cycles drawn will be less than the efficiency of a Carnot cycle between and .7) 6.

Entropy Changes. - Figure 6. the temperature ratio. . across the compressor and turbine is related to the enthalpy changes: The net work is thus The turbine work is greater than the work needed to drive the compressor.If kinetic energy changes across the compressor and turbine are neglected.) representation showing compressor and turbine work Next: 6. Applications of the Previous: 6.6: Brayton cycle in enthalpy-entropy ( . Up: 6.5 Irreversibility.3 Representation of Thermodynamic Contents Index UnifiedTP Thermodynamics and Propulsion . as is evident on the ( ) diagram.

3.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics With the material we have discussed so far.4 Work vs. 1. 4. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1. We start with two such observations: 1.3.3. equilibrium (a static or quasi-static process) is necessary for the equations that relate system properties to one-another to be valid.4 Muddiest Points on Up: 1. Heat . all three systems have the same value of the property called temperature.3 Work o 1. no further observable changes take place.2 Example: Work Done During Expansion of a Gas 1.3.3. heat is identified as it comes across system boundaries.1 Heat 1. 3. 1. During these interactions. thermal equilibrium is said to prevail. If two bodies are in contact through a thermally-conducting boundary for a sufficiently long time.3. Like the other laws of thermodynamics we will see.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 1.1 Example: Work on Two Simple Paths o 1.3.3 Changing the State of a System with Heat and Work Changes in the state of a system are produced by interactions with the environment through heat and work.Next: 1. the Zeroth Law is based on observation.3. we are now in a position to describe the Zeroth Law.3. These closely connected ideas of temperature and thermal equilibrium are expressed .1 Heat Heat is energy transferred due to temperature differences only.2 Definitions and Fundamental Contents Index Subsections 1. Bodies don't ``contain'' heat. Two systems which are individually in thermal equilibrium with a third are in thermal equilibrium with each other. Heat transfer can alter system states. which are two different modes of energy transfer. The amount of heat needed to go from one state to another is path dependent.which is which? 1. Adiabatic processes are ones in which no heat is transferred. 2.3. 2. 1.

3.g. Temperature scales will be discussed further in Section 6. exerting a force on the surroundings via a piston.8. S & B: 4.formally in the ``Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:'' Zeroth Law: There exists for every thermodynamic system in equilibrium a property called temperature. We can have push-pull work (e. Figure 1.g. is .6] Section 1. (Figure 1. an engine) has on its surroundings. the work is negative.3. etc. chemical work. The work doneon the surroundings.3. we focus on the effects that the system (e.g.1-4. so in these notes we use either the Kelvin or Rankine scales. elastic work. electric and magnetic work (e. a gas (the system). Note that this law is true regardless of how we measure the property temperature. (Other relationships we work with will typically require an absolute scale. in a piston-cylinder.2. In defining work. Consider a simple compressible substance. lifting a weight). which moves through some distance.) The zeroth law is depicted schematically in Figure 1. an electric motor). The Zeroth Law thus defines a property (temperature) and describes its behavior1. Any other means for changing the energy of a system is called work.9). for example. If work is done on the system (energy added to the system). surface tension work. Thus we define work as being positive when the system does work on the surroundings (energy leaves the system).1 stated that heat is a way of changing the energy of a system by virtue of a temperature difference only.8: The zeroth law schematically 1. Equality of temperature is a necessary and sufficient condition for thermal equilibrium.3 Work [VW. .

Consider . when is small (the process is quasi-static). No work is done on the surroundings even though changes and the system volume changes. we require a ``quasi-static'' process. The external pressure can only be related to the system pressure if . In other words. there cannot be any friction. Use of instead of is often inconvenient because it is usually the state of the system that we are interested in.therefore Why is the pressure instead of ? Consider (vacuum). and the process must also be slow enough so that pressure differences due to accelerations are not significant. Therefore. . . For this to occur.

where is the mass of the system. In the case of a ``free expansion. we say that the process is ``reversible. 2. Under these conditions. is not related to because the system is not in equilibrium. which moves into the surroundings . Chapter 2).'' where (vacuum).9: A closed system (dashed box) against a piston. that we can only relate work done on surroundings to system pressure for quasi-static (or reversible) processes. the system and the surroundings will be returned to the original states. Remember this result. work is done on the system. Figure 1. not related to the work) We can write the above expression for work done by the system in terms of the specific volume. work is done by the system. Note that if the system volume expands against a force. (and thus. .and the work done by the system is the same as the work done on the surroundings. If the process is reversed.'' The conditions for reversibility are that: 1. A reversible process can be altered in direction by infinitesimal changes in the external conditions (see Van Ness. To reverse the process we need to apply only an infinitesimal . If the system volume contracts under a force.

and not a state variable. [Work is area under curve of ] [Work depends on path] Figure 1. 2.3) 1.11(a). therefore work is not a property.Figure 1. but work is path dependent (depends on the path taken between states). Muddy Points How do we know when work is done? (MP 1.10: Work during an irreversible process For simple compressible substances in reversible processes. as in Figure 1. . Properties only depend on states.12.3. we need to specify the path. either the work must be 3. When we say . the work done can be represented as the area under a curve in a pressure-volume diagram. . which shows a system undergoing quasi-static processes for which we can calculate work interactions as . the work between states 1 and 2. we cannot use given or it must be found by another method. For irreversible (non-reversible) processes.1 Example: Work on Two Simple Paths Consider Figure 1.3.11: Work in coordinates Key points to note are the following: 1.

how you would physically know the work is different along each path.13:Quasi-static. ice. a bunsen burner.13. as shown in Figure 1. describe 1.3. and 2.12: Simple processes Along Path a: Along Path b: Practice Questions Given a piston filled with air. how you would use these to move along either path a or path b above. to . and a stack of small weights. Figure 1.2 Example: Work Done During Expansion of a Gas Consider the quasi-static. 1. . the path is specified as isothermal.Figure 1. To find the work we must know the path. isothermal expansion of a thermally ideal gas from . isothermal expansion of an ideal gas . Is it specified? Yes.3.

For example consider a resistor that is heating a volume of water (Figure 1. .which is which? We can have one. on how we define our system).14: A resistor heating water .14): Figure 1. or both: it depends on what crosses the system boundary (and thus. also for . substituting the ideal gas equation of state.4 Work vs. so the work done by the system is or in terms of the specific volume and the system mass. 1. We write the work as above. and is the total system volume.3. Heat . is the Universal gas constant.The equation of state for a thermally ideal gas is where is the number of moles. the other.

then the state of the system will be changed by electrical work. If the water is the system. 2. then the state of the system will be changed by heat transferred from the resistor.4 Muddiest Points on Up: 1. If the system is the water and the resistor combined. Introduction to Thermodynamics Previous: 1.2 Definitions and Fundamental Contents Index UnifiedTP . Next: 1.1.

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