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Engine Lubrication, Part I

With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage, ambient temperature, time of year and climate, location and engine design. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances. Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced, on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. Without lubricating oil the engine would fail within minutes, keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. Engine oil comes in many forms: synthetic or mineral or a combination of both. Each with their own unique properties and the most important one is viscosity, which determines its readiness to flow at different temperatures. To enhance the properties of the oil, special formulated additives are added which contain friction reducers, high pressure and anti wear compounds to name a few. aving a basic understanding of engine oil is a must for the professional and private pilot, here we can only scratch on the surface of a very interesting sub!ect.

Oil properties
Engine oil performs a number of functions in the engine: lubrication, cooling, cleaning, sealing, corrosion protection, noise reduction and propeller operation. The most important being lubrication. Without oil all moving parts of the engine would be in direct contact and wear out very rapidly. "il forms a layer between the parts and reduces friction. #ou can visuali$e oil as millions of tiny, molecular si$e, ball bearings rolling between the moving parts of the engine. The si$e of these balls is determined by the clearances in the engine and dictates which viscosity the oil must have for a long service life. To perform its task, oil must be able to withstand high temperatures, pressure and shear loads. %t has certain properties as viscosity and contains additives to clean the engine as $inc and other compounds. "il is either mineral &from oil wells', semisynthetic &part mineral part synthetic' or of full synthetic &man made' origin. Each type has its own unique properties and specific purposes.

Viscosity
(or pilots the most important property is oil viscosity, its readiness to flow under different temperatures.

)uring a cold start in wintertime oil will be thicker than during a warm start in summertime. %n both cases it is important that oil pressure is attained within *+ seconds after start to prevent any damage.

Multigrade
"il is said to be of a certain viscosity or grade. ,ultigrade oils are capable of keeping their specific viscosity under a wide temperature range, for e-ample: ./+01 to 2 3+01, important during startup of the engine. "il with higher grades are used at higher startup4ambient temperatures and not really usable in free$ing arctic conditions where a synthetic multigrade like +W or 5W would be best. 6ircraft engines used to use a single grade oil as a 7+ grade &86E3+' or even a /++ grade &86E5+'. 6lthough multigrades &for summer and winter use' like /5W5+ or 9+W5+ are more common these days. 8ome diesel engines and more modern gasoline engines &1enturion, Wilksch, :ota-, 8ubaru' tend to use the /+W3+ or /5W3+ viscosity oils, where :ota- even recommends a motorbike oil as it contains additives for gears. When replenishing, you can add oil of a different viscosity but keep in mind that the final viscosity will end up in between the two. (or e-ample: 5+; of 86E7+ mi-ed with 5+; 86E/++ results in 86E<+. ,i-ing multigrades as /+W3+ and /5W5+ should get /9W35, the final result depends on the mi-ing ratio. =e sure not to mi- mineral, semisynthetic or full synthetic oils.

Cooling
6s oil is pumped around in the engine lubricating gears, bearings, pistons and valves its temperature rises. Especially near the pistons and cylinders. To make sure the oil stays within the operating limits it will need to be cooled by running it through an oil cooler. 8ome of which are thermostatically controlled, which is a must as it keeps the engine oil on a preset constant temperature regardless the ambient temperature. The oil temperature indicator shows the temperature of the oil when it leaves the cooler and is about to enter the engine. %t must be within a certain range so that all parts are cooled properly and do not overheat. Too low an oil temperature isn>t good either as any moisture collected by the oil needs to dry out. (urthermore, the engine is only operating on design specifications when at its proper operating temperature.

Cleaning and corrosion protection
?sing the correct ashless dispersant oil keeps the interior of the engine clean if used continuously after the first hours of initial break.in. These oils contain specific additives which keep dirt suspended so that the oil filter can collect them. )uring the time the engine is running, oil is collecting combustion byproducts as: soot, coke produced by hot areas, blowby gases add acids, water vapour and gasoline dilution from priming.

6ll these products form their own composition as sludge, varnish and corrosive acids. "il is capable to handle all of this without problem but it will need regular changes as the additives in new fresh oil are >used up>. The aircraft maintenance program dictates how many hours can be flown before the oil and filter will need changing, usually every 5+ or /++ hours. 6fter the engine is shutdown the oil will eventually collect in the sump, leaving a thin film on all internal parts preventing corrosion. =ut if the engine is shutdown with oil that was in service for quite some time and isn>t flown for the ne-t couple of weeks or months, there is a change that contaminants in the oil could corrode the metals. %t is wise to change the oil before putting an aircraft in storage or even using preservation oil in the cylinders to prevent any possible corrosion.

Sealing and noise reduction
Thin oil films provide the necessary gas tight seals between piston rings and cylinder walls preventing gas blowby. Lubricating oil on the valve train cushions the valves which open and closes at 9+ times per second at 93++ :@, cruise power reducing valve noise. With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage, ambient temperature, time of year and climate, location and engine design. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances. Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced, on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. Without oil the engine would fail within minutes, keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. aving a basic understanding of engine oil is a must for the professional and private pilot, here we can only scratch on the surface of a very interesting sub!ect. The oil system in an aircraft engine is very reliable and needs little maintenance, changing oil and filters in regular intervals plus visual inspection. The pilot must keep an eye on levels, pressures and temperatures during operation. 8ponsor the siteA

Oil system

. "il pumps are usually two gears &gerotor' driven by the camshaft. "utside air is led through the cooler and the cool air picks up the heat from the tubes and fins in the cooler.6 typical aircraft engine oil system has a dry or wet sump. 6 dry sump means that oil is collected in a separate tank and these are normally used in radial. The engine will reach operating temperatures much quicker after a cold start and maintain it during a long descent. This can be indicated by a light on the instrument panel. 8ome oil pressure sensors are equipped with an e-tra switch which closes the moment oil pressure is build up by the pump. This is much better than having to keep the engine warm with a winteri$ation kit which blocks part of the air flow into the cowling. Oil cooler 6 radiator type cooler. is basically an air4oil heat e-changer. Those models with a thermostat &either internally or as addon' keep the oil on a preset temperature. Oil pressure and temperature 6n oil pressure gauge is connected in the high pressure line after the oil pump as an indicator for the pilot and a oil temperature gauge shows temperature after being cooled en before entering the engine again. a filter and to the high pressure oil pump &with regulating valve' which pumps the oil through galeries to spray and splash the lubrication points. time of year and climate. Oil pump "il is being kept in the sump and flows around through a cooler &sometimes with a thermostat'. With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. Screens and filters 6 screen is used in the sump to act as a coarse filter and a screw on type e-ternal oil filter is used as the main filter. This filter sometimes contains a pressure relieve valve to let oil through should the filter become clogged and this valve makes sure that the oil keeps flowing. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage. location and engine design. 1an be equiped with an thermostat and or bypass valve should the cooler become blocked. ambient temperature. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances. aerobatic and the well known four stroke :ota. regardless. )ry sump engines contain a scavenge pump to remove the oil from the engine to the separate tank. 6 wet sump system as most Lycoming or 1ontinental engine uses has the oil in the sump underneath attached to the engine.engines.

or removed during an oil change. valves and more. of internal engine hot spots cleaning. The pilot must keep an eye on levels. on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. Without oil the engine would fail within minutes. Oil maintenance "il maintenance you sayB #es. dirt and other contaminants suspended sealing. keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. reducing friction of moving parts cooling. pressure and shearing effects without any side effect. here we can only scratch on the surface of a very interesting sub!ect. changing oil and filters in regular intervals plus visual inspection. This will give you insight in what is going on inside the engine related to the wear and tear of bearings. The oil system in an aircraft engine is very reliable and needs little maintenance. the oil together with suspended contaminants is being removed from the engine and it forms a very important part of preventive maintenance. pistons in cylinders cushioning. This is very important since there are many small passages in the engine which could clog up and cause oil starvation. it also gives the maintenance engineer the opportunity to have a look under the cowling &as some pilots would care less' and see if things are still as they should be. keeping sludge. have an oil sample analy$ed. %n part % of Engine Lubrication we discussed al off the above but cleaning. pistons. 6nd if you are doing it the proper way. reducing sound and dampening noise corrosion protection "il must carry out all these functions under harsh conditions as low and high temperatures. )uring an oil change. if large enough.Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced. cylinders. "il should be changed during each 5+ hour check. Changing oil Cormally ashless dispersant type oils are used after the first /++ hours of engine run in. :egular oil changes form the basis of good preventive maintenance. Engine oil has a number of important functions: • • • • • • lubrication. pressures and temperatures during operation. aving a basic understanding of engine oil is a must for the professional and private pilot. . These oils contain additives capable of holding dirt in the engine suspended so that they can be collected by the oil filter.

Engine break in Every engine is run. Dust adding e-tra additives will not work as the oil itself is sub!ect to very high temperatures and shearing action which have their effect on quality. Oil brands When on a cross country and the engine needs an oil top up. but if it is not available. soot during start and idling. $inc and more to combat contaminant.in or broken. %n the first 95 hours &or when oil consumption stabili$es' straight mineral oil should be used. but only in combination with water. Oil change 6ny good brand ashless dispersant oil contains additives as acid neutrali$ers.a 9+W5+ with a /5W5+. "il therefore need to be changed after a certain amount of time.. 6nd the longer the filter is on the engine. The amount of water condensation depends on the humidity of the ambient air. Oil and air filters 6 filter can only remove particles of a certain specified si$e and larger. Dust make sure that it is the same type: straight mineral or ashless dispersant. depending on the ratio of the mi-. Co filter is able to remove everything /++. blowby gasses produce sulfuric acids and water vapor is attracted after engine shutdown and startup.in at the factory on a test stand. the higher the temperature &summer' the more water vapor it can contain and the location of the aircraft. Dust make sure not to mi. .synthetic oil with mineral oil. (or e-ample a /+ micron filter should remove all particles of /+ micron and larger. The viscosity should be the same you would use.in period the additives would cause the break. %f normal ashless dispersant oil would be used during the break.in. for such a filter would even block the oil. This aids in the break. hot areas cause coke. The result will be a /EW5+. this is oil without the additives found in ashless dispersant oil. sludge. but it is generally accepted that the first /++ hours are considered the final break in period. There is a reserve of additives in new oil which is >used up> during the time the engine runs. you may mi. 6cids are corrosive. from the atmosphere through the air filter. dirt and varnish.in to fail and the piston rings will never properly seat in the cylinders resulting in a higher than normal oil consumption and possible a higher cylinder wall wear rate and the engine not reaching its recommended T=". the more dirt it collects the more it starts loosing it effectiveness and it will need replacement which is done during the /++ hour check. but what usually is forgotten is the effectiveness of the filter. Thus it is very important that the oil reaches it correct operating temperature during each flight so that any water gets >boiled off>. The oil dries out and the vapor leaves the engine through the crankcase breather or water4oil separator.)uring engine operation the oil collects dirt from different places. don>t worry about the brand.

Either method is good. %t must be said that all the oil analysis of your engine should be carried out by the same lab &as to assure the same work procedures' and even an one time analysis of a batch of fresh engine oil should be done to set up a base line for the engine. 6s oil is used to reduce friction and wear it eventually picks up metals from the engine. =oth will identify submicroscopic particles in the oil in ppm. 1omparing these different reports will have little meaning. . Through analysis we can determine how much and which type. %t goes without saying that the engine should be run on the same type and brand of the oil for the results to have any meaning. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances.With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. 8ubmicroscopic material is released and suspended in the oil. it is adopted by the military. commercial and general aviation. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage. %f the concentration of a certain metal rises its a good indication that wear is increasing and maintenance action might be needed before the engine fails. time of year and climate. 8ponsor the siteA Oil analysis 8pectrographic oil analysis is a popular way of identifying wear characteristics of an engine. )uring the normal course of operation these parts undergo minimal and minute wear. "il analysis identifies this and gives a good view of the engine internals regarding wear during its operation. Engines are designed with various metals and alloys. ambient temperature. but they should not be used together on the same engine. Without oil the engine would fail within minutes. measured in parts per million &ppm'. on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. !nalysis methods There are two ways of analysis: atomic absorbtion and atomic emissions. =ut with atomic absorption particles smaller than 5 micron will be detected and with atomic emission particles smaller than /+ micron are detected. the oil system provides oil under pressure or splashes oil to the areas needed and sub!ect to friction. location and engine design. Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced.

especially in winter. %f left unattended longer. however. even on a four monthly basis when not flying frequently &time limited as opposed to hour limited'. could not be the case of piston oil compression and scraper rings as they are sub!ect to high temperatures and oil does tend to get burned off. Protecti"e coatings =etween aircraft use. Moisture formation . acids capable of etching into the metals of the engine. engine oil should maintain a coating on all internal parts. Engines flown less than /++ hours a year are candidates for corrosion formation &my personal opinion is that in this day of age engine corrosion can be properly taken care of by good metallurgy and modern engine oil and % wonder why the established engine manufacturers do not apply modern alloys in their engines to combat corrosion'. %ts too short for all parts to get up to operating temperatures and in the end will do harm. will help against acid formation. . This behavior keeps the oil covering all internal parts. %t increases water formation and corrosive attack. Fround running is !ust not enough. although this is only in minute quantities. =ut this has the disadvantage that it takes a couple of seconds for the oil to be up to pressure and reaching all parts moving. (requent oil and filter changes is a good way to minimi$e these effects. think one hour a week and regular &5+ hour' oil changes will make any oil look good."il analysis is an e-tra tool which can help identify problems in the engine before they develop into threating issues during flight.oisture is formed when the engine oil cools and water condenses. :egular flying with oil temperatures reaching /++01 will make sure that all water is boiled off. if not. Thicker oil would help too as it >sticks> better to the metal. ence the need for multigrade oils in which we have /5W5+ and 9+W5+ which are thinner at lower temperatures facilitating quicker oil pressure but are able to be >thick> enough at engine operating temperatures. !cids Engine combustion byproducts are pickup by the oil and will form. :esulting in more corrosion. the o-idation will damage the steel parts of the engine. the surfaces will begin to o-idate within a short period of time. when mi-ed with condensation. There is some debate that oil will >run off> engine parts after a while. %t gives the technician insight information in the normal wear of the engine and any deviations from the normal trend should be investigated. This. Engine Oil use The frequency of aircraft 4 engine use is one of the prime factors in determining how the oil will perform and how often it should be changed. but oil will always stick to metal and keep it covered. (requent oil changes. (requently flown aircraft.

#inally "il and filter should be changed regularly but the use of the aircraft &or the lack of' and other factors dictates if the oil must be changed sooner than prescribed by the manufacturer to prevent any corrosion formation in the engine. on a microscopic level there are always small !agged edges or uneven spots. 6s said above. sliding or rolling motion have different friction characteristics . %f these surface irregularities come into contact they may break off or even sei$e and become attached together. coastal and or high humidity places. With further movement tiny parts will break and float around in the oil and eventually may cause damage if the oil is not filtered or oil filters not changed at the proper interval.Location The location where the aircraft is used or parked. do more oil changes to minimi$e possible corrosion and this will help in keeping the engine in good health. the better the surface is machined or polish the lower the coefficient friction the surfaces have Load. Lubrication is needed to overcome friction caused by surfaces sliding or rolling over each other. the heavier the load on a surface the more friction there is 8peed of movement. be it diesel or spark ignited. Co matter how polished or closely machined a surface is. if flying infrequently are your are in said locations. the increase of speed of sliding surface will increase the friction Cature of movement. 8ponsor the siteA $ypes of Lubrication The amount of friction between two parts depends on several factors: • • • • • Temperature. will contribute to corrosion. "il analysis is a great tool to see if the oil is up to the task its designed for in your engine and particular use of the aircraft. oil is used to lubricate all moving parts so that durability and reliability is assured for many thousands of hours of trouble free service life. either ambient and in the engine itself has an effect on friction 8urface finish. %n an engine.

different or improved additives or even changing from oil to grease can reduce friction. the changing of viscosity. boundary friction can be minimi$ed in some situations. is to use a lubricant which is formulated with antiwear or even e-treme pressure additives. There>s a number of ways to do !ust that. 6lso. think of lead4copper !ournal bearings. during hydrodynamic lubrication there is no friction e-cept in the lubricant itself. The oil is keeping the shaft and bearing apart by viscosity. ie increasing its thickness. . the type of oil and its characteristics also have an effect on friction &viscosity' %f we want to reduce friction we need to change or remove the factors which may have an adverse effect on the surfaces in motion. This film is then sacrificed as the surfaces come into contact so that the film wears off and not the metal surface. E L We will discuss each of these. %n case of sliding friction use a rolling element like a ball or needle bearing elements. The use of sacrificial surfaces can be used to. %oundary lubrication This occurs when an engine is started. &ydrodynamic lubrication This is when a full film of oil has separated an engine shaft &crank or camshaft' from its support and no contact e-ists between the parts. )L Elastohydrodynamic lubrication. of all wear in an engine occurs in this regime. %n the small area where the sliding or rolling surfaces are lubricated this happens in one of three modes of lubrication: • • • =oundary lubrication ydrodynamic lubrication. To make sure that no damage is done during these regimes. These additives react with the surfaces in contact due to the high pressure and temperature and form a chemical film on those surfaces.• Type of lubricant. 6lthough care must be taken not to increase viscosity too much as the internal friction of the lubricant increases too and can give rise to higher temperatures. at low speed or even in high load conditions. 8ome specialist say that E+. 6t this time the two moving &rolling or sliding' surfaces may come into real contact and damage could result. =y increasing the viscosity of the lubricant. where molecular structures shear during operation. Last but not least.

a :ota. the metal surfaces will not come into contact. make sure not to add too much oil.)L requires that the machined surfaces have a high degree of geometric conformity and relatively low pressure. This situation can be found between rotating crank or camshafts and the !ournal or sleeve bearings. aving a basic understanding of engine oil is a must for the professional and private pilot. during flight he &or she' must pay close attention to temperature and pressure. ambient temperature. (or e-ample: the @6. 6nd as long as these conditions do not change. location and engine design./7+ runs perfectly on G quarts but will throw out anything above that &min is 9 quarts'. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances. time of year and climate. . Elastohydrodynamic lubrication This type of lubrication occurs where surfaces have a low degree of conformity combined with high contact pressures as found in gear drives &:ota-' and rolling bearing elements &wheel bearings'.ake sure to check under the cowling for oil stains. "nce the engine is at operating temperature and shafts are at normal engine speeds it should be possible to remain in hydrodynamic regime forever so that friction is at minimum. %n fact these surfaces may actually deform long before the semisolid oil or grease film breaks. The lubricants are caught by the moving surfaces and under high pressure the viscosity increase to such a high level that it forms a semisolid film separating the two moving surfaces. Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced. keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. =efore flight the pilot checks the oil level and adds any if needed. With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. Without oil the engine would fail within minutes.should be kept at . due to this remarkable property of the lubricant. on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage. Operational !spects Engine oil systems are usually very reliable but the daily &and in between flights' checks of the oil level can not be forgotten as aircraft engines will use a bit of oil during operation. it could indicate a minor oil leak from the sump or oil lines. )uring preflight the pilot should check the oil cooler for obvious blockages by foreign matter and leaks &under the engine on the ground'. here we can only scratch on the surface of a very interesting sub!ect.97. When topping up.

6fter engine start the first and most important item to check is the oil pressure. 1heck your @" for precise details. &igh oil temperature E-tended climbs in high "6T will cause oil temperature to rise and pressure to drop slightly. %f oil temperature rises with a large oil pressure loss then a oil leak can be e-pected. it must register within *+ seconds &G+ when in cold to free$ing conditions'. type and grade of oil. broken oil line or relief valve or even a faulty pressure gauge or oil pressure sensor may cause a low oil pressure indication. Lo' pressure . "n the :ota. . %f combined with a low or reducing oil pressure this may indicate an oil leak with a resulting engine failure closeby. Heep an eye on the oil pressure and temperature as these are indications of general engine health. Oil system malfunctions "il system faults are rare and usually are related to pressure and or temperature. loss of pressure by a failing pump.aybe be caused by a low oil level.< series engine the oil pressure sensor is a resistive type mounted on the engine near the oil pump and due to vibrations from the engine the sensor will eventually fail while indicating fluctuating pressures. make sure that you are familiar with the normal indications for your engine. #luctuating oil pressure This can be an indication that the oil level is getting low and the pump is drawing air from either the in or e-ternal sump. 6 failing scavenge pump may cause oil not being transferred to the e-ternal sump. Heep in mind that a high oil temperature will cause oil viscosity to be lower and that oil pressure will drop slightly. .ma-imum level for optimum cooling.. &igh pressure ?sually caused by a faulty pressure relief valve or failing oil pressure sensor &more likely'. "il pressure too high may cause seals to blow out resulting in a loss of oil. igh power settings combined with low airspeeds &e-tended climb' will increase the oil pressure due to a higher :@.ake sure to top up with the correct quantity. if in doubt land asap and consult your or any aircraft engineer.

2. heat is generated and the engine parts wear easily. @iston rings 9. @iston pin G. )ue to the frictional force.1 Need for Lubrication %n an %.12. 1am shaft etc.Lubrication System in I(C( Engines 2.3 Engine parts which are lubricated The following are some engine parts that require adequate lubrication.ist lubrication system. 2. Wet sump lubrication system. engine.12.12. While lubricating it also carries some heat from the moving parts and delivers it to the surroundings through the bottom of the engine &crank case'. =ig and small end of the connecting rode 5. Ialve mechanisms 7.12.2 Function of Lubrication &a' &b' &c' Lubricant reduces friction between moving part %t reduces wear and tear of the moving parts. &e' %t helps reduce noise created by the moving parts. 1rank shaft 3. since more power is required to drive an engine having more friction between rubbing surfaces. !etrol Lubrication System or "ist Lubrication System. @ower is also lost due to friction. 2.12. %t minimi$es power loss due to friction. &d' %t provides cooling effect.4 Lubrication Systems The main lubrication systems are: /. 1rank pin *. @etrol lubrication system or . . moving parts rub against each other causing frictional force. /. the rubbing surfaces. 9.1. %nternal surfaces of cylinder walls E. To reduce the power lost and also wear and tear of the moving part substance called lubricant is introduced between. 2.

pin bushings.12. and through or spit a steam of oil onto the cylinder walls. and rocker studs. 2.pin bearings. it will lead to e-cess e-haust smoke and carbon deposits in the cylinder.rod bearings piston. %n the pressure. &ii' %f the added oil is more. of lubricating oil is added with petrol in the petrol tank. 6bout *.This system of lubrication is used in scooters and motor cycles. The parts of the engine such as piston cylinder walls.% !ressure&Feed System. supplies the necessary lubrication for the crankshaft main bearings. there will not be sufficient lubrication and even result in sei$ure of the engine. @ressure. "il passing through the oil lines is directed to the timing gears and the valve rocker shafts in order to lubricate these parts. camshaft bearings. The lubricating oil is left behind in the form of mist. The pressure. with small modifications.# $et sump Lubrication System Engine Lubrication Two types of engine lubrication systems are used in internal. to G. is the more popular for more popular for modern automobile engines. 8ome engines have oil spit holes in the connecting rods that line up with drilled holes in the crankshaft !ournal during each revolution. the connecting.feed system.feed system. The oil. The splash system is used on most lawn mower and outboard engines. valve lifters.feed system.rod and piston. e-haust parts and spark plugs. connecting rod are lubricated by being wetted with the oil mist )isad"antage &i' %f the added oil is less. The cylinder walls are lubricated by oil thrown off the connecting. 2. valve push rods.(eed 8ystem . The petrol evaporates when the engine is working. passing through the drilled passageways under pressure.combustion engines: the splash system and the pressure.12. oil is forced by the oil pump through oil lines and drilled passageways.

dippers on the ends of the connecting rods enter the oil supply.ans.rod bearing. or fine spray. The 8plash system )ry sump lubrication in #* engines The dry sump lubrication system is a design that intends to lubricate the engine>s internal parts to provide optimal performance of the engine itself. piston pins and valve mechanism. and splash oil to the upper parts of the engine. =oth systems rely on an oil reservoir from which oil is drawn with a pump and spread around the engine for lubrication and cooling purposes.rod bearings and the drilled passageways in the connecting rods. the main bearings must have oil feed holes or grooves that line up with the drilled holes in the crankshaft each time the crankshaft rotates.cycle engines such as lawn mower engines.To enable the oil to pass from the drilled passageways in the engine block to the rotating crankshaft. 6s the engine is operating. 8ince the oil in the passageways is under pressure. pick up sufficient oil to lubricate the connecting. 2. . 6s the oil falls.stroke. 6fter the oil has been forced to the area requiring lubrication. The same is true in the case of the connecting. %:L and other well known racing series. Lubrication systems for a four. The oil is thrown up as droplets.12. 6ll oil is then allowed to flow back to the reservoir from where the cycle restarts. it falls back down into the oil pan ready to be picked up again and returned through the system. each time the drilled holes in the crankshaft and connecting rod line up with the holes in the bearings. it is frequently splashed by the moving parts onto some other part requiring lubrication. the pressure forces the oil through these drilled passages into the crankshaft and connecting rod. lubricating their respective bearings. Le . reciprocating piston engine can be categorised in !ust two groups: the wet sump design and the dry sump system. which lubricates the cylinder walls. %t is currently the best system for high performance engines and is widely used in (ormula "ne.stroke.' (he Splash system The splash system is used only on small four.

. The pressure section of each feeds oil to the block. giving a further advantage to lower the engine>s centre of gravity and reduce its empty weight. the dry sump system was designed and is now in use in all ma!or racing series. the oil is now sucked away from the engine by one or more scavenger pumps. reducing chances of leaks. there is no need for tubes to circulate the oil from the reservoir to the engine. =ecause the sump is an internal part of the engine. as required by the regulations . the oil is pumped up a pick. such a situation is unacceptable. all current (/ engines include a dry sump system. possibly leaving the engine without oil for a short period.Wet sump lubrication is the most widely used system as it is more cost efficient and perfectly adequate for normal passenger vehicles. 6 wet sump design has several advantages. one is for scavenging while the second is a pressure stage. The oil pans> capacity can range from * to E litre. When performance and reliability matter. The dry sump system literally keeps the sump of the engine dry and allows for it to be produced small. while the four. %n this design. low weight and its simplicity.(ormula "ne cars for e-ample e-perience lateral F. all engines also have a similar layout as the fuel tank is located ahead of the engine. the oil of the engine is stored in a sump located under the crankshaft as an integral part of the engine block. The latter phenomenon is also known as oil starvation. %n some cases. run by belts or gears from the crankshaft. The oil pump that rotates the oil through the engine is . !ust behind the driver. )espite its advantages. While it was previously held there. %n most designs. (rom this pan. 6gain. the oil reservoir is tall and narrow and specially designed with internal baffles. the oil is pumped into the engine at elevated pressure and then flows down to the engine>s sump.stage pump has one pressure and three scavenge sections. including its low cost. driven by the crankshaft through gears. a fifth stage is added to provide e-tra suction in the crankcase area. The pump itself consists of at least two stages with as many as 5 or G. )ue to the engine free$e.stage dry sump pump has one pressure section and two scavenge sections. reducing windages and increasing horsepower. The three. 8uch centrifugal accelleration would pull all oil to one side of the sump. depending on the engine>s si$e and purpose. The design differs from a wet sump in its e-ternal oil tank. With two stages. !pplication in #ormula One 6s mentioned. a wet sump system is unsuitable for racing purposes. while the scavenge sections pull oil from special pickups in the dry sump oil pan. quite simply because it is impossible to create a similar high revving engines with a wet sump system.forces of up to *F in mid corner. usually at around half the crank speed. To resolve this issue. The latter system is connected similar to the three stage while the e-tra line of the scavenge section is routed to pull oil from the lifter valley. This prevents e-cess oil to slosh in the top of the engine.up tube and supplied to the engine under pressure.

K The first !ob of 8hell eli. It takes a good engine lubricant to achieve just the right balance of these characteristics. reduce friction and power loss and cool the engine as it endures extreme track conditions. the supplier of (errari. no energy is wasted and maximum power is delivered to the engine. @istons can e-ceed temperatures of *++01N engine oil is sprayed on the underside of the pistons to keep them cool . thereby enhancing the engineLs reliability. )r( Lisa Lilley e-plains: JEngine lubricant is critical.+++ rev4min must also be transmitted through a lubricant effectively and without failure.+++ rev4min must be transmitted through a layer of lubricant . without this e-tra protection they would undoubtedly fail in a race.# says )r( Lilley. while ensuring the car’s performance is optimised. The enormous forces required to open the valves quickly enough at /<. which ensures it gets directly to all critical engine components Lubricant is fed to the bearings of the camshafts to minimise friction and wear and also to lubricate the critical cam. where the enormous forces required to open the valves quickly enough at /<. controlling the engine temperature and preventing the heat from having a detrimental affect. The ability of an engine oil to cool as well as lubricate is often overlooked. The very lifeblood of the engine. J$t %hell we have a team dedicated to tailoring %hell &elix engine oil for the !errari so that we can ensure reliability and protection but we can also guarantee the car is receiving the most horsepower possible. J hen you consider that the oil flow around the engine is faster than the speed of the !errari !ormula "ne car. taskingL lubricant is designed to take away the heat. its job is to protect the moving parts from mechanical wear. The engine is e-posed to e-treme conditions and high temperatures as it turns. The oil is fed to the bearings of the camshafts to lubricate. Shell $echnology Manager for #errari.is to protect all the moving parts that rub together from mechanical wear. this gives you an idea of the extreme conditions in a !ormula "ne engine."ne of the providers of the required high performing lubricants is 8hell. The Mmulti. minimising friction and wear.to.# "il is pumped from the Jdry sumpK oil tank on the front of the engine into the Jdistribution networkK within the cylinder block and heads.follower interfaces.

coming out inside the bearings to keep them working. The lubricant flung off these The lubricant squirts onto the underside of the bearings then creates a film on the cylinder walls.efficiently and without failure The lubricant is fed down the middle of the crankshaft. refreshed and ready to start its circuit of the engine again +hat ma. whether it>s in an aviation engine or the wheel bearing on a car. The JcameraK e-its the engine. . pistons from small no$$les on the distribution on which the pistons and rings run smoothly to network.or functions do lubricants perform in a"iation enginesLubricants are used to reduce friction and wear. showing a fully to be cooled in radiators and returned to the oil lubricated engine tank. to take away heat ensure minimum power losses and mechanical wear The used lubricant is sucked away from the bottom of the crankcase by the scavenge pumps.

&o' do a"iation lubricants keep an engine cool6ir. owever. This can lead to melting. the easier it is to properly maintain and lubricate. hydrodynamic. and elastohydrodynamic forms. scarring or scuffing. %n aviation engines. dynamic. we think of removing sludge. "il properties can include boundary or mi-ed film. ?nused aircraft have a high potential for rust and corrosion. +hat about the . and consumes less oil. aviation oil must be of a blend or formulation that is compatible with the seal materials so that the seal itself lasts longer. galling. but also helps seal the gasketed areas and the rubber or synthetic seals for the crankshaft.transfer medium which flows through the crankcase and oil coolers. 6irplanes that are used infrequently especially need the corrosion and rust protection that good aviation lubricants can provide. Without the cooling oil film on a cylinder wall. lubricationLubricating properties are among the most important physical characteristics of aviation oil.ob 'e think of first 'hen 'e think of oil . in addition to helping fight corrosion and rust in the engine.by. +hat are the benefits of using a lubricant that cleans the engine6ll aviation oils clean. when a lubricant keeps your airplane engine clean. "il also cools the valve springs and the whole valve train. cooling and sealing. &o' does oil seal an a"iation engine6viation oil not only provides a seal between the rings and cylinder walls.cooled aircraft engines rely on their oil for cooling far more than water. and dissipates the heat from moving parts.cooled automotive engines. 6utomotive oil typically accounts for about 3+ percent of the engine>s cooling capacity. on plugs. Thus. the oil must carry off a greater percentage of the engine>s heat. produces less blow. When those rings are able to move freely. among other downtime problems. When oil washes around those areas. your engine operates at higher efficiencies. When we say an aviation oil cleans. or in the screen. 6 dirty ring belt restrains the movement of the rings within the grooves and they can>t seal. thus constantly cooling engine bearings and piston rings. This may create pressure between the ring face and the cylinder wall O leading to wear. and grunge accumulations in the oil pan. has better ring seal. it helps retain a seal. The more frequently and consistently an airplane is flown. Principles of aircraft engine lubrication "il is a heat. it also means a clean ring belt area and better control of the combustion process. the rings wouldn>t have a good heat transfer path. @roper lubrication requires a strong enough and thick enough oil film between moving parts to keep friction and wear to a minimum. varnishes."ther ma!or functions of a lubricant include cleaning. or scarring problems. .

there is ma-imum velocity between metal parts and ma-imum oil viscosity. 8o. %n true hydrodynamic lubrication. there is a constant lubricating film between any parts that might rub together. . owever. With bearings. if an engine has been sitting idle for a month. That usually happens after an engine has been sitting for a while. Principles of aircraft engine lubrication )ynamic lubrication is produced through the pressure generated by an oil pump and this pressure provides an adequate flow of oil to the lubrication system. When everything is operating properly in an aircraft engine. %f it>s very cold when you fire up your engine. 6lso. 6ny wear that the lubricant flow itself could cause is so slight that it would take several lifetimes to wear out a component O like a river wearing away the rocks. #ou need the right viscosity and the right velocity between moving parts to keep oil where it needs to be. Principles of aircraft engine lubrication . it takes a while to get oil to all those surfaces again. If that/s true. the clearances are so close and so contained that they will sometimes keep a good lubricating film on that bearing for years. The oil isn>t going to provide good hydrodynamic lubrication until the engine warms up. contact pressure is much lower and is spread over a large surface area.=oundary or mi-ed film lubrication is found in the upper cylinder area in the outer boundary of an aircraft engine.film lubrication that keeps moving parts from contacting one another. This is the most remote engine area to lubricate because the oil rings scrape most of the oil film off the cylinder walls before it reaches the upper cylinder. you need good boundary or mi-ed film strength at those critical boundary areas. as with water skiing. there must be a residual amount of lubrication in the upper cylinder to protect the engine on startup. 6 constant supply of oil is required between the parts for hydro.ost of the oil has been squee$ed out of that !unction. "il film retention is not as critical on startup in cam and crank !ournal areas. some lifters have been pressed against cam faces and loaded under ma-imum spring pressure. Think about what happens inside your engine whenever you do something like a cold start. dynamic lubrication. ydrodynamic lubrication is full. 'hy do engines 'ear out#our biggest problems are on surfaces where there is no oil. ydrodynamic lubrication is like water skiing O it provides a smooth surface for any moving part to ride on and prevents any direct contact between moving parts. for that crucial moment. When the engine is fired up.

of /5+ or higher. the oil has a high viscosity inde-. and hydraulic fluids.wear. 8everal types of polymers are used to change the viscosity inde. :egulations prohibit the use of ash. can tolerate e-treme temperature changes and better retain their viscosity characteristics. 6ll fluids flow better when they are warm O cold oil is thick.ulti. . an oil can act like a solid O as in areas of very fast. automatic transmission fluid. 8ingle grade oils typically have a viscosity inde. untreated base oil can be limited in its lubrication without supplemental additives.can be increased by adding viscosity modifiers.bearing detergents and anti. When engine parts hit that fast.is an arbitrary numbering system. dynamic.phosphate that are used in automotive or diesel truck engine oils because they may cause pre. The fewer additives in the oil.%n elastohydrodynamic lubrication. igher numbers mean an oil>s viscosity changes little with temperature. "il viscosity is more important in an aviation engine than in an automobile engine.grade oils. &o' can an oil/s "iscosity inde0 be impro"edIiscosity inde.graded that it may have a viscosity inde. and elastohydrodynamic. or viscosity inde.improvers. What does viscosity have to do with lubricationB 6ll of these lubrication types O the mi-ed film.of <+ to //+. . so oil formulators can select those with the most desirable performance and cost characteristics. the more dependent it is on its viscometrics &viscosity properties'.ulti. %f an oil>s viscosity changes very little. despite significant temperature changes. The contact happens so quick that the oil can>t get out of the way. gear oil. detergency and other lubrication aspects. but thins and flows better as it gets hot. while others protect engine components. to base oils. with a viscosity inde. such as where the rocker arm contacts the valve stem.is simply its resistance to changing flow characteristics due to changes in temperature.of aviation oils. The oil acts as a shock absorber. all relate to and depend on oil viscosity.grade oils are common in applications such as aviation oil. and lower numbers means it changes more. hydrodynamic. e-hibits elastohydrodynamic properties. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication provides effective protection for the instant it>s needed. $inc. . +hat other oil characteristics can be changed 'ith additi"es8ome additives help the oil. its viscosity inde.of 9++. e-treme force.dithio. 8ome automatic transmission fluid is so multi. the oil literally acts like a solid. and hence. Iiscosity modifiers are available in different molecular weights. +hat is an oil/s "iscosity inde0While viscosity is an oil>s internal resistance to flow. 6sh cannot be added to aviation piston engine oils. 6viation oil will assist in boundary or mi-ed film lubrication. power steering fluid. 8traight. Iiscosity inde.ignition or detonation in an aircraft engine. Iiscosity is a measure of a fluid>s resistance to flow.

crystal formations and slow viscosity increases that occur when oil gets cold. (low improvers help prevent wa. %f an oil is foaming. The following information on grease is from the 8ky :anch Engineering . :educing foam improves oil cooling and lubrication. anti. preventing e-cessive foam formation. %t has high water resistance but poor high. and oil screen restrictions. tend to fortify the oil against o-idation... #ou must fly the plane to allow the moisture to dissipate. That doesn>t mean starting. protect. "-idation inhibitors reduce reactions of o-ygen with oil molecules and thereby minimi$e engine deposits.temperature performance. 8ometimes you can improve the pour point of an oil significantly for a cold engine or cold starts by adding a little flow improver or flow modifier. . oil thickening. 6shless dispersants in aviation oil are important because they encapsulate these very small particles of contamination and keep them from clumping and getting big enough to cause internal problems such as contributing to deposits or sludge. P(ly your plane monthly to reduce the effects of rust and corrosion on engine components. Principles of aircraft engine lubrication :ust and corrosion inhibitors help protect the metal engine components from corrosive contaminants introduced by typical engine operation.wear additives.foam.improvers..corrosion. 1rease is the 'ord Duly 4 6ugust /<<7 6lthough not in the same category as aviation oils. Frease is the word. as the name implies. Freases are often referred to by the type of thickener used. as can some ashless. and o-idation inhibitors can all be found in aviation oils. flow. cushion. anti.)ispersants.. based on manufacturer recommendations. P?se only approved aviation oils in aircraft engines. and provide long service life. "-idation inhibitors. )ispersants isolate minute particles to prevent sludge and deposit formation. #inal thoughts P1hange your aircraft engine oil frequently. 6nti. anti. Freases are thickened oils that seal. but is becoming less popular.rust. 1alcium &lime' is the original type of thickener. it can>t adhere to an engine>s surface and can>t cool as effectively.anual by Dohn 8chwaner &</G' 39/.up and idling the engine for /+ minutes. greases are derivatives of oils that provide the same types of protection to other parts of the aircraft.. anti..foam additives allow small bubbles in oil to burst.EGE9.

%L. Cot as temperature stable as . Freases are separated by their usage. offer superior high temperature performance over lithium or calcuim thickeners.speed. 6ero8hell Frease 99. 1lay. 6ero8hell Frease 5 and 99 are both used as a wheel bearing grease. igh pressure sliding surfaces require e-treme pressure additives such as . and prevent corrosion.F.F. /G. %norganic gels.4542 0$ero%hell 1rease 4.@:(.a synthetic oil grease with a mineral oil grease. has superior high and low temperature performance and is specified in higher. 6ero8hell Frease E.9//G3)'.based greases &bentonite' are sometimes used in high temperature greases. . a mineral oil grease.F.F. +oyco /43 6 synthetic inorganic gel grease with the similar temperature applications as .speed ball bearing greases should be kept clean.%L. but it has superior water resistance at high temperature.7/*99E. igh. 6ero8hell Frease 5. (ive gallon pails of grease are sub!ect to dirt contamination because of the length of time it takes to use up that much grease. is also used in wheel bearings. %f the grease is too thick or dries out. rather than melt. 'I()1)/4678$ 0$ero%hell 1rease -7.speed. the grease will be displaced to the side and therefore perform no lubricating action.9*79E)' and 6eroshell Frease /E &. causing churning of the grease and adding friction and heat to the bearing. used in low or high temperature applications. the race fills with grease.olyQ greases form a solid. 6ero8hell Frease 5 is the most common mineral oil grease.F. 'obilgrease /.oly is not desired in roller bearings because of its coating property. 6ero8hell Frease 5 offers superior water and corrosion resistance. Frease in a roller bearing will be pushed from the race by the action of the balls. These greases burn. The high temperature point of the grease is often governed by the flash point of the oil portion. :oller bearings require a clean grease that has e-cellent thermal stability. if sub!ected to e-cessive temperatures.olybdemum )isulfide.@:(. high pressure gear requires different grease characteristics than a high. Frease of the proper thickness will come in contact with the side of the ball as it passes and impart a thin film of oil onto the ball.%L.%L. The type of oil that makes up the grease can either be synthetic or mineral oil. prevent water wash off.%L. inorganic gel grease. . 'I()1).%L. are all synthetic oil greases.3 6 synthetic inorganic gel grease. +oyco //2!.7/*99)'. as used in 6eroshell Frease 99&. +oyco 543 6 mineral oil. roller bearing grease.//E 0$ero%hell 1rease //. 6 low. %all bearing greases 'I()*+!).%L. 6ero8hell Frease 5 &. *5351' and 6ero8hell Frease /G &. and /E.based. %t is not good practice to mi.Lithium thickeners are used in 6eroshell Frease E &. Low or moderate pressure sliding surfaces may require a grease that will not evaporate.5EG+'. Wide temperature performance makes it a preferred grease in !et aircraft. %norganic gel does not melt and the grease does not soften at high temperatures. performance aircraft wheel bearings. %f grease is too thin or melts.7/*99E. the most common wheel bearing grease used. film lubricant. These Q. These have high melting points &Qdrop outQ' and adequate water resistance.-. an inorganic gel synthetic grease.

such as landing gear bogie pivot assemblies. ?sed where high water.*535'. resistance and load carrying ability. 'I()1)/44. %t is the same as .62 0$ero%hell 1rease -53 6 calcium.9//G3.F.F.resistance than for other listed greases.%L. where water and corrosion resistance are required.life performance. 1eneral purpose grease 'I()1)/. 'I()1)66--$ or 'I()1)/5-. and high. .%L. %t is used in helicopter main and tail rotor bearings.%L.obil 6viation Frease 8 1 /++>s synthetic base oil.F.8 part number. rust. This is a good. %t has low evaporation loss. relatively poor water resistance but e-cellent corrosion resistance. but has superior o-idation and corrosion resistance. moderate. long. %t is used as a general purpose airframe grease where water. %t is recommended for aviation applications which need a lubricant that can perform normal functions. all.9*79E or . molybdenum disulfide synthetic grease with a higher temperature range. 'I()1). 'I()1)/--75< 0$ero%hell 1rease -6..purpose airframe grease.resistance.8 in water. "-idation and evaporation rate are greater than .F. %t has better water resistance than .based greases'.7/*99E and ./++ to 95+ ('. %t is used in !et aircraft where parts are e-posed to low temperatures.resistance and corrosion prevention is important./6$ 0+oyco //'%3 6n inorganic gel. slow moving sliding surfaces./6: 0$ero%hell 1rease 6.fretting and o-idation protection.temperature degradation. synthetic grease with a broad temperature range &. yet go far beyond that in terms of high and low temperatures. Principles of aircraft engine lubrication 'obil $viation 1rease %&2 -88 09o mil)spec3 . ?sed in amphibious wheel bearings. %t is not as good as :oyco //. provide outstanding protection against wear. combined with selected additives.based mineral oil grease with e-cellent anti. high temperature.9*79E but contains moly..@:(. +oyco 753 6 .%t has moderate water resistance &between . %t is also available with molybdenum disulfide under :oyco //.icrogelR grease &6ero8hell Frease E' and a lithium soap &:oyco 9E'.F. +oyco /63 6 . %t is used where ball bearings are sub!ect to static vibration that may cause fretting and corrosion.%L. %t has the greatest load carrying ability of any of the listed greases.9*79E.load wear inde&lower than the moly. 0$ero%hell 1rease 73 6n inorganic gel mineral oil grease with superior water.-.icrogelR grease &6ero8hell Frease /E' and a lithium soap &:oyco G3' synthetic oil molybdenum disulfide grease. corrosion. and high load carrying is required. %t is particularly suitable for the lubrication of commercial aircraft wheel bearings. ?sed with high load.%L.%L.

)raws coolant from the radiator and sends it through the oil cooler cavity and cylinder block to cool the engine.@. (6C.8. and then through the oil filter.T./+ /. %t creates air flow through the radiator to lower the temperature of the coolant as it passes through the radiator .@.*<*+. W6TE: @?. 1ontains the oil that lubricates moving parts in the engine./*. The pump draws oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil cooler. The coolant then returns to the radiator. (rom the filter. "%L @6C. The coolant flows across the plates of the oil cooler. the oil enters the cylinder block to lubricate the engine and is then returned to the oil pan. ECF%CE "%L 1""LE:. 6s the oil warms. "%L (%LTE:. Located on the front housing cover side. The fan is turned by the engine drive belt./+. the heat is transferred to the coolant which flows from the radiator. :emoves particles from the oil which could cause damage to the internal parts of the engine. "%L @?. %t is attached to the bottom of the engine.GG+. oil is also sent through the turbocharger and then returned to the oil pan. ECF%CE L?=:%16T%"C 6C) 1""L%CF 8#8TE. Engine oil flows through the plates of the oil cooler. (rom the filter.

Located on the front housing cover side. (rom the filter. :emoves particles from the oil which could cause damage to the internal parts of the engine.*<*+. The coolant flows across the plates of the oil cooler. The coolant then returns to the radiator. )raws coolant from the radiator and sends it through the oil cooler cavity and cylinder block to cool the engine. "%L (%LTE:.T. oil is also sent through the turbocharger and then returned to the oil pan. %t is attached to the bottom of the engine. ECF%CE L?=:%16T%"C 6C) 1""L%CF 8#8TE. and then through the oil filter./+ /. ECF%CE "%L 1""LE:.@. The fan is turned by the engine drive belt./*. "%L @6C./+. 6s the oil warms.GG+. The pump draws oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil cooler.8. (rom the filter. the oil enters the cylinder block to lubricate the engine and is then returned to the oil pan. 1ontains the oil that lubricates moving parts in the engine. "%L @?. W6TE: @?. Engine oil flows through the plates of the oil cooler. the heat is transferred to the coolant which flows from the radiator.@. (6C. %t creates air flow through the radiator to lower the temperature of the coolant as it passes through the radiator .

/+ /. thicker petroleum hydrocarbon base stock derived from crude oil.GG+. ECF%CE "%L 1""LE:. "%L @?. Located on the front housing cover side. The viscosity must be high enough to maintain a lubricating film. . but low enough that the oil can flow around the engine parts under all conditions. (6C.. with additives to improve certain properties. The coolant flows across the plates of the oil cooler. The coolant then returns to the radiator. The pour point defined first this property of motor oil. The bulk of a typical motor oil consists of hydrocarbons with between /7 and *3 carbon atoms per molecule. %t is attached to the bottom of the engine.indicates the viscosity changes less with temperature than a lower viscosity inde-./+. )<E as Q. as defined by 68T.*<*+. and then through the oil filter.an inde- ./*. W6TE: @?.8. the oil enters the cylinder block to lubricate the engine and is then returned to the oil pan. %t creates air flow through the radiator to lower the temperature of the coolant as it passes through the radiator Properties . The fan is turned by the engine drive belt.ost motor oils are made from a heavier. 6 higher viscosity inde. :emoves particles from the oil which could cause damage to the internal parts of the engine.T. 6s the oil warms. 1ontains the oil that lubricates moving parts in the engine. "%L (%LTE:.@. Engine oil flows through the plates of the oil cooler. The viscosity of a liquid can be thought of as its QthicknessQ or a measure of its resistance to flow. ECF%CE L?=:%16T%"C 6C) 1""L%CF 8#8TE. (rom the filter..is a measure of how much the oil>s viscosity changes as temperature changes.SGT "ne of the most important properties of motor oil in maintaining a lubricating film between moving parts is its viscosity. )raws coolant from the radiator and sends it through the oil cooler cavity and cylinder block to cool the engine. The viscosity inde. the heat is transferred to the coolant which flows from the radiator. "%L @6C. oil is also sent through the turbocharger and then returned to the oil pan.otor oil must be able to flow adequately at the lowest temperature it is e-pected to e-perience in order to minimi$e metal to metal contact between moving parts upon starting up the engine.@. (rom the filter. The pump draws oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil cooler.

/+. The number 9+ comes with or without a W.ini. The resulting quantity is determined as mg H" 4 &gram of lubricant'. 95. see 68T. and therefore increasing the oil>s flash point &reducing its tendency to burn'. /5. evaporation loss is allowable to meet 6@% 8L and %L861 F(. or sulfur content. 3+. removing the more volatile components. 5. 6nalogously. )*79<..+9&9++E'. /+.SET but the Qcold cranking simulatorQ &118. Total 6cid Cumber &T6C' is the measure of a lubricant>s acidity. /5 and 95 are suffi-ed with the letter W. 6nother manipulated property of motor oil is its Total =ase Cumber &T=C'. 8till another important property of motor oil is its flash point. 68T. "il is largely composed of hydrocarbons which can burn if ignited. ). 2edit3 1rades :ange of motor oils on display in Huwait The 8ociety of 6utomotive Engineers &86E' has established a numerical code system for grading motor oils according to their viscosity characteristics. see 68T. at lower temperature. fractional distillation separates a motor oil fraction from other crude oil fractions.. The document 86E D*++ defines the viscometrics related to these grades. 6t a petroleum refinery. 5+ or G+. )59<*.:I. %t is dangerous for the oil in a motor to ignite and burn. 9+. . designating their QwinterQ &not QweightQ' or cold. 6 ma-imum of /5.of the lowest temperature of its utility. so a high flash point is desirable. start viscosity. *+.Q for a given application.+7' are today the properties required in motor oil specs and define the 86E classifications. oil specifications require lower than /+. The C"61H volatility &68T. 5. "ther tests include $inc.+7' and Q. which is a measurement of the reserve alkalinity of an oil. the lowest temperature at which the oil gives off vapors which can ignite..57++' Test determines the physical evaporation loss of lubricants in high temperature service. from low to high viscosity: +. phosphorus. meaning its ability to neutrali$e acids.* specifications.:otary IiscometerQ &. )3G73. 86E viscosity gradings include the following. 8ome automotive "E. depending on whether it is being used to denote a cold or hot viscosity grade. and testing for e-cessive foaming. The numbers +.

ranging from cold temperatures in the winter before the vehicle is started up. The // viscosity grades are +W. 9+W.8% units. using two different test methods. industrial applications. 9+.odifier' additive. The difference in viscosities for most single. 95W. or I%%s are added to the oil./3+' do not mean that it has higher viscosity than an engine oil. 6 specific oil will have high viscosity when cold and a lower viscosity at the engine>s operating temperature. that oil is graded as 86E viscosity grade +W. (or single non. (or single winter grade oils. and 3+. the lower the temperature the oil can pass. The higher the viscosity. which should not be confused with engine oil viscosity. a-le. 9+W. These numbers are often referred to as the >weight> of a motor oil. centipoise &abbreviated c@'. *+. the higher the 86E viscosity grade is. *+. or G+. the kinematic viscosity is measured at a temperature of /++ 01 &9/9 0(' in units of mmV4s or the equivalent older non. 5W. 86E D*++ has established eleven viscosity grades. the oil is graded as 86E viscosity grade 9+. and G+. such as when the temperature ranges in use are not very wide. if an oil passes at the specifications for /+W and 5W. 2edit3 Single grade 6 single. 3+. =ased on the coldest temperature the oil passes at.grade oil without the use of I%%s.)59<*' and the . the higher the viscosity and thus higher 86E code. /+W. and manual transmission oils.8tokes &unitWcentistokesTT &abbreviated c8t'. single. grade motor oil is satisfactoryN for e-ample.shear rate is also required. To bring the difference in viscosities closer together. That oil cannot be labeled as either +W or /+W.grades and given a W designation. 5W. Cote that the 86E has a separate viscosity rating system for gear. to hot operating temperatures when the vehicle is fully warmed up in hot summer weather. /+W.grade oil is too large between the e-tremes of temperature. )3G73'. The longer it takes. %n addition.Hinematic viscosity is graded by measuring the time it takes for a standard amount of oil to flow through a standard orifice. The higher numbers of a gear oil &eg E5W. for 86E grades 9+. cannot use a polymeric Iiscosity %nde%mprover &also referred to as Iiscosity . /5W. the dynamic viscosity is measured at different cold temperatures. =ased on the range of viscosity the oil falls in at that temperature. then that oil must be labeled as an 86E 5W. in units of m@aUs or the equivalent older non. 3+. specified in D*++ depending on the viscosity grade. 5+. as defined by 86E D*++. 8% units. but fails for +W. 5+. though it is possible to have a multi. (or e-ample.ini. They are the 1old 1ranking 8imulator &68T. and vintage or classic cars. at standard temperatures.winter grade oils. a minimum viscosity measured at /5+ 01 &*+9 0(' and at a high. The lower the viscosity grade. 2edit3 Multi grade The temperature range the oil is e-posed to in most vehicles can be wide. or 95W. special polymer additives called viscosity indeimprovers. *+. 86E D*+G. (or some applications. /5W.are considered Winter.:otary Iiscometer &68T.grade engine oil. lawn mower engines. These additives are used to make the oil a multi)grade motor oil. of which si. The idea is to .

Froup %% base stocks are composed of fractionally distilled petroleum that has been hydrocracked to further refine and purify it.world ability of an oil to crank or pump when cold is potentially diminished soon after it is put into service. &a byproduct of the dewa-ing process'. or 9+. and perfluoropolyalkylethers &@(@6Es'.grade oil that can be easily made with modern base oils without any I%% is a 9+W. 6lso. a /+W. that oil can be labelled with either of the two 86E viscosity grades.grade oils. Froup I base oils are so diverse that there is no catch.grade oil still varies logarithmically with temperature. .grade oils includes two viscosity gradesN for e-ample.grades were initially developed. e-cept that Froup %%% base stocks have higher viscosity inde-es. -8 ).otor oil is used for the lubrication. when multi. e-treme pressure performance.otor oil may be composed of a lubricant base stock only in the case of non. The real.all group for any base stock not described by Froups % to %I. where they must not be called synthetic' and group %I is a synthetic oil. E-amples of group I base stocks include polyol esters. they were frequently described as all)season oil. but can vary from country to country when climatic or fuel efficiency constraints come into play.all description. Froups % and %% are commonly referred to as mineral oils. 9+W. Froup I is a catch. group %%% is typically referred to as synthetic &e-cept in Fermany and Dapan. Therefore. Froup %%% base stocks are produced by further hydrocracking of Froup %% base stocks.detergent oil. Lubricant base stocks are categori$ed into five groups by the 6@%. The 86E designation for multi. This oil can be labeled as 9+W. (or e-ample. then that oil cannot be labeled as a single grade. polyalkylene glycols &@6F oils'. and ability to inhibit corrosion of engine parts.9+. if any I%%s are used however. The two numbers used are individually defined by 86E D*++ for single. if an oil does not contain any I%%s.grade oil.*+ oil must fail the D*++ requirements at 5W'. and all limitations placed on the viscosity grades &for e-ample.S7T This slope representing the change with temperature depends on the nature and amount of the additives to the base oil.8 designates a common multi. an oil labeled as /+W. but the slope representing the change is lessened. or of hydroisomeri$ed slack wa-. 2edit3 Standards 2edit3 !merican Petroleum Institute The 6merican @etroleum %nstitute &6@%' sets minimum for performance standards for lubricants. or a lubricant base stock plus additives to improve the oil>s detergency. .grade oil to have the viscosity of the base grade when cold and the viscosity of the second grade when hot. cooling. %n fact. Froup % base stocks are composed of fractionally distilled petroleum which is further refined with solvent e-traction processes to improve certain properties such as o-idation resistance and to remove wa-. a very simple multi. The viscosity of a multi.*+ must pass the 86E D*++ viscosity grade requirement for both /+W and *+. Froup %%% base stocks have similar characteristics to Froup %% base stocks. The motor oil grade and viscosity to be used in a given vehicle is specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle &although some modern European cars now have no viscosity requirement'. and can pass as a multi. Cote. . This enables one type of oil to be generally used all year.cause the multi.grade.9+. and cleaning of internal combustion engines. Froup %I base stock are polyalphaolefins &@6"s'.

. is a sliding tappet design to test specifically for cam wear protection. motorcycle oils are sub!ect to their own unique standards. especially engines with sliding &flat4cleave' tappets. -W.truck engines. not everyone is in agreement with backwards compatibility. 6@% created a separated 1%. . and it is noted that one of the engine tests required for 6@% 8.diesel engine service designations which are current: 1D. and 6@% 8D and newer oils are referred to be specific to automobile and light truck use..S<T The 6@% oil classification structure has eliminated specific support for wet. 6ll the current gasoline categories &including the obsolete 8 '. it is the norm for all diesel rated engine oils to carry the QcorrespondingQ gasoline specification.wear component in motor oil and is usually found in motor oil in the form of Xinc dithiophosphate. %t is possible for an oil to conform to both the gasoline and diesel standards. The latest 6@% service standard designation is 8C for gasoline automobile and light. and in addition.*+' due to the chemical poisoning that phosphorus has on catalytic converters. 1(. 8ome manufacturers continue to use obsolete designations such as 11 for small or stationary diesel engines.3. 8L and 8D for gasoline engines. 1%. %n fact. such as QperformanceQ engines or fully race built engines. which is sensitive to reducing $inc and phosphorus.3. and thus has created a controversial issue obsolescing oils needed for older engines. 6ccordingly. E-ampleN in 6@% 8F rated oils. @hosphorus is a key anti.ost engines built before /<75 have the flat4cleave bearing style systems of construction.3 for oils that meet certain e-tra requirements.temperature deposits. There are si. %n addition.8. This reduction in anti. 1 .wear chemicals in oil has caused pre. 9. 1F. this was at the /9++. have placed limitations on the phosphorus content for certain 86E viscosity grades &the -W./*++ ppm level for $incs and phosphorus.3 and 1%. including the latest series for control of high.4%L861 F(. (or e-ample. there are specialty oils out in the market place with higher than 6@% allowed phosphorus levels.9+.The 6@% service classesS<T have two general classifications: % for QserviceQ &originating from spark ignition' &typical passenger cars and light trucks using gasoline engines'. and 2 for QcommercialQ &originating from compression ignition' &typical diesel equipment'.3. 6ll previous service designations are obsolete. Engine oil which has been tested and meets the 6@% standards may display the 6@% 8ervice 8ymbol &also known as the Q)onutQ' with the service designation on containers sold to oil users. states 6@% 8. which represents most of the worlds ma!or automobile4engine manufactures. and this marking is located in the lower portion of the 6@% 8ervice 8ymbol Q)onutQ. where the engine protection requirements are above and beyond 6@%4%L861 requirements. 1urrent 6@% service categories include 8C. although motorcycle oils commonly still use the 8(48F standard. and %L861. =ecause of this.mature failure of the oil pump drive4cam position sensor gear that is meshed with camshaft gear in some modern engines. and 1(. The 8C standard refers to a group of laboratory and engine tests. Each new 6@% category has placed successively lower phosphorus and $inc limits.3. 6@%. owever.clutch motorcycle applications in their descriptors. where the current 8. is under G++ ppm.3 is fully backwards compatible.3 @L?8 designation in con!unction with 1D. . there are special situations. the 8equence %I6.mature failures of camshafts and other high pressure bearings in many older automobiles and has been blamed for pre.

more difficultS/9T than the previous %%%( test. specified oil was designed for: cars which typically push their oil temperature consistently above /++ 01 &9/9 0(' are most turbocharged engines. which involves running a *.3 with 8L.. with %L861 adding an e-tra requirement of fuel economy testing to their specification. . *. Engine oils bearing the 6@% starburst symbol since 9++5 are %L861 F(. a 8equence I%= (uel Economy Test &68T.6@% 1D.9+.*+ viscosity grade oils.* and 6@% 8L oils. F. +W. along with most engines of European or Dapanese origin.3S/+T applies to 86E +W. The %%%F test is about 5+. and so on. *+. *.5 and in 8eptember 9+//.*+.. 5W. setting the standards via their European %ndustry groupsN 61E6.6 and . F(. and the D68" T<+3.= standard is not suitable for wet clutch use.S/*T To help consumers recogni$e that an oil meets the %L861 requirements. used in F(. F(. 6 new set of specifications. (or 3.7 L I..3. 6@% 1%. and is particularly relevant to motorcycle engines. 6 key new test for F(. %L861 will no longer offer licensing for F(. 6@% developed a QstarburstQ certification mark. These are much more severe conditions than any 6@%. 2edit3 !CE! The 61E6 &$ssociation des 2onstructeurs Europ=ens d>$utomobiles' performance4quality classifications 6*465 tests used in Europe are arguably more stringent than the 6@% and %L861 standards. The D68" T<+3. %n general. (or F(.. %L861 works with 6@% in creating the newest gasoline oil specification.7 L &9*9 inY'.3. and /5+ 01 &*++ 0(' oil temperature for /++ hours.3 with 8D. )G7*E' is required that is not required in 6@% service category 8. 6T1 and 1"C16WE. which is also required for 6@% 8.3. %ntroduced in 9++3. 6@% 1 . 2edit3 4!SO The Dapanese 6utomotive 8tandards "rgani$ation &D68"' has created their own set of performance and quality standards for petrol engines of Dapanese origin.ordinating European 1ouncil' is the development body for fuel and lubricant testing in Europe and beyond. 2edit3 ILS!C The %nternational Lubricant 8tandardi$ation and 6pproval 1ommittee &%L861' also has standards for motor oil. the D68" T<+3 standard is used. particularly small capacity. high power output.9+.G++ rpm.S//T took effect in "ctober 9+/+.3 will almost always list either 8L or 8. 5W.stroke gasoline engines.5.69 standards are designed to distinguish oils that are approved for wet clutch use.3 compliant. 6T%EL. 1E1 &The 1o. is the 8equence %%%F.G at /95 hp &<* kW'. The industry has one year to convert their oils to F(.. and /+W.

standards are from Feneral . and this refers particularly to low ash. many around the *."E. and alkaline additives to neutrali$e acidic o-idation products of the oil.5 c@ &*. a petrol engine can now go up to 9 years or *+. Feneral .=en$.only oil standard.7 wt. and a diesel engine can go up to 9 years or 5+.(or 9. %n Dapan.. @robably the most well known of these are the IW5+Z. motor oil manufacturers often include other additives such as detergents and dispersants to help keep the engine clean by minimi$ing sludge buildup. a standard that is used in Corth 6merica for selected Corth 6merican performance engines.+++ km &\*/.ercedes and @86 all have their own similar longlife oil standards.6 and D68".+Z series from Iolkswagen Froup. =. with a Q?se .ZZ from .' car manufacturers felt that the direction of the 6merican 6@% oil standards was not compatible with the needs of a motor oil to be used in their motors.Q oil standards.6'. taking Iolkswagen Froup vehicles.. and the @86 Froup of @eugeot and 1itro[n. (=.5 wt.G++ mi'. F. often up to a ma-imum of _ a litre of non. =ecause of the real or perceived need for motor oils with unique qualities. especially D68". 6s a result many leading European motor manufacturers created and developed their own Q"E.+++ mi' . 6s a result. for the Iau-hall.. "pel and 8aab brands. lubricity. @orsche.' engine oil &see specifications: :enault :C +E9+.Scitation neededT 6nother trend of today represent mid86@ &sulfated ash ]+.=99Z. nor 86E viscosity grades. igh 8hear' viscosity.*35 &(6. oil. . Iolkswagen &5+3. "ther European "E. They may also make no primary reference to the 61E6 standards.stroke gasoline engines. (1' standard is used.. (urthermore. These standards.++'. the D68" . with the e-ception of being able to use a QlesserQ 61E6 grade oil for Qemergency top. 2edit3 Other additi"es %n addition to the viscosity inde.upQ.ercedes.otors. . virtually all European "E. though this usually has strict limits. the T 8 figures are low as ^9. many modern European cars will demand a specific "E. =..5 m@aUs'.otors also has the 3E/7.obil / onlyQ sticker usually placed on those cars.W.wear additive to protect contacting metal surfaces with $inc and other compounds in case of metal to . The 61E6 specifications 1/ to 13 reflect the mid86@ and low86@ needs of automotive "E..s. very highly speciali$ed Qe-tended drainQ QlonglifeQ oils have arisen. standard that is used for the 1hevrolet 1orvette.+++ km &\/7. standards require a long drains of *+.G m@as..requirement issues not addressed by the 6@% service categories. before requiring an oil change.91<*3.' and low86@ &sulfated ash ]+. (":) W88. the (ord QW88Q standards.ost commercial oils have a minimal amount of $inc dialkyldithiophosphate as an anti. many of the European original equipment manufacturer &"E. are designed to address oil. whereby. they may make no reference at all to 6@% standards.W 8pecial "ils and =.+++ km and up by using T 8 & igh Temperature. detergency.(1.improvers.Scitation neededT %n recent times.. and the . corrosion inhibitors.W Longlife standards. low smoke and e-haust blocking. 2edit3 OEM standards di"ergence =y the early /<<+s.

the ability to lubricate aviation engines at temperatures that caused mineral.$ero temperatures of the Eastern front in wintertime. in significant quantities as replacements for mineral lubricants &and fuels' by Ferman scientists in the late /<*+s and early /<3+s because of their lack of sufficient quantities of crude for their &primarily military' needs. the application obstacle of @T(E is insolubility in lubricant oils. X))@ and calcium additives are also added to protect motor oil from o-idative breakdown and to prevent the formation of sludge and varnish deposits. They were used in WW%% in flight engines and became commercial after WW%% until the /<<+s. Q8lick5+Q to consumers to increase motor oil>s ability to coat and protect metal surfaces.metal contact.Liquid' &Froup I' and polyalpha.pressure additives and antiwear additives. True synthetics include classes of lubricants like synthetic esters as well as QothersQ like FTL &.de'.based lubricants to solidify owing to their higher wa.wear properties. %nstead of making motor oil with the conventional petroleum base.based lubricants to break down. 8ome of these additives include: • • • • • Xinc dialkyldithiophosphate &X))@' additives. 8ome molybdenum disulfide containing additives to lubricating oils are claimed to reduce friction. %n the mid /<E+s. There is controversy as to the actual effectiveness of these products as they can coagulate and clog the oil filters.olygraphite' and are today still available &Liqui . 6 significant factor in its gain in popularity was the ability of synthetic.liqui. synthetic motor oils were formulated and commercially applied for the first time in automotive applications.3+.made.treatment devices is the deposition of oil ash.mineral bases. The use of synthetic lubricants widened through the /<5+s and /<G+s owing to a property at the other end of the temperature spectrum. additives with suspended @T(E particles were available e. ash and phosphorus &86@'. There are other additives available commercially which can be added to the oil by the user for purported additional benefit. or microni$ed @T(E. are available to consumers for additional protection under e-treme. They were commerciali$ed in the /<E+s &EL( 6CT6: . The same 86E system for designating motor oil viscosity also applies to synthetic oils.content. 6nother aspect for after.to. igher purity and therefore better property control theoretically means . The quantity of $inc dialkyldithiophosphate is limited to minimi$e adverse effect on catalytic converters. or have anti. temperatures which caused petroleum. which increases the e-haust back pressure and reduces over time the fuel economy. . QtrueQ synthetic oil base stocks are artificially synthesi$ed. 2edit3 Synthetic oil and synthetic blends 8ynthetic lubricants were first synthesi$ed. or Froup I non. bond to metal. olefins &Froup %I'. which typically also contain calcium sulfonates.o89 /+ W.moly. Iarious other e-treme. www. 8ynthetic oils are derived from either Froup %%% mineral base oils. such as @T(E &Teflon'. %n the /<7+s and /<<+s.oly . called Qchemical bo-Q limits today the concentrations of sulfur.any patents proposed use perfluoropolymers to reduce friction between metal parts.based lubricants to remain fluid in the sub.pressure conditions or in heavy duty performance situations. Froup %I.g. The so. owever. Their application is questionable.ethane Fas. or man.

these synthetic motor oils have a much improved viscosity inde. 8o.synthetic oil has good mechanical properties at e-tremes of high and low temperatures. They have become the sub!ect of renewed interest with the advent of bio. 2edit3 %io based oils =io. TestsScitation neededT do show that fully synthetic oil is superior in e-treme service conditions to conventional oil. The molecules are made large and QsoftQ enough to retain good viscosity at higher temperatures. Test results indicate satisfactory performance from the oils tested.+++ mi' primarily due to reduced degredation by o-idation. Their specially designed properties allow a wider temperature range at higher and lower temperatures and often include a lower pour point. The development of canola. =ut in the vast ma!ority of vehicle applications. sometimes as long as /G. although at a lower rate compared to conventional oils.improvers.fuels and the push for green products. and thus they do not degrade as quickly as traditional motor oils. 6lso the rubbing of metal engine parts inevitably produces some microscopic metallic particles from the .based motor oils began in /<<G in order to pursue environmentally friendly products. owever. mineral oil based lubricants. which are the oil components most vulnerable to thermal and mechanical degradation as the oil ages. yet branched molecular structures interfere with solidification and therefore allow flow at lower temperatures. periodic oil and filter changes should still be done with synthetic oilN but some synthetic oil suppliers suggest that the intervals between oil changes can be longer. although the viscosity still decreases as temperature increases. true synthetic oils need little or no viscosity inde. there is inevitably some e-posure of the oil to products of internal combustion.based oils in the /<th 1entury. they still fill up with particulate matter.+++ km &/+. sometimes fortified with synthetic additives and with the benefit of over a century of development.over the traditional petroleum base.based oils e-isted prior to the development of petroleum. With their improved viscosity inde-. @urdue ?niversity has funded a pro!ect to develop and test such oils.S/3T 2edit3 Maintenance "il being drained from a car %n engines.+++`/5.93. and microscopic coke particles from black soot accumulate in the oil during operation. Thus.+++. and the oil filter still fills and clogs up over time. continues to be the predominant and satisfactory lubricant for most internal combustion engine applications.

The oil filter removes many of the particles and sludge. e-cess fuel.than ideal drivingN this applies to short trips of under /G km &/+ mi'. 8ome manufactures address this &%E.+++ mi' or every * months which is not necessary according to many automobile manufacturers. . The motor oil and especially the additives also undergo thermal and mechanical degradation. and other contamination that leads to QsludgeQ. promoting vehicle manufacturer>s recommendations for oil change intervals over those of the oil change industry. QacidsQ. but different viscosity motor oil may perform better based on the operating environment. The viscosity can be ad!usted for the ambient temperature change. a common plastic product found in many consumer containers. While there is a full industry surrounding regular oil changes and maintenance. %n the /<G+s typical cars took heavy 9+W. QvarnishQ. 8ome quick oil change shops recommended intervals of 5. . 8ome vehicle manufacturers may specify which 86E viscosity grade of oil should be used. These systems are commonly known as "il Life .+++ km &E. but eventually the oil filter can become clogged.based intervals account for the short trip driver who drives fewer miles.5++ mi' while offering increased fuel efficiency.otor>s use of 5W.+++ km &*. the oil and the oil filter need to be periodically replaced. .otor oil is changed on time in service or distance vehicle has traveled.live standards' while others do not. 2edit3 #uture 6 new process to break down polyethylene.s.s. =y the early /<7+s recommended viscosities had moved down to /+W. and trip lengthN and one system adds an optical sensor for determining the clarity of the oil in the engine. but builds up more contaminants. or other deposits. 6 modern typical application would be onda .any manufacturers have engine computer calculations to estimate the oil>s condition based on the factors which degrade it such as :@.W and IW with their respective long.+++ mile myth. =. %t is advised by manufacturers to not e-ceed their time or distance driven on a motor oil change interval. 6lso important is the quality of the oil used especially when synthetics are used &synthetics are more stable than conventional oils'.wearing of the surfaces. with the constraint of QsevereQ service requiring more frequent changes with less. .*+. an oil change is fairly simple and something car owners can do themselves.any modern cars now list somewhat higher intervals for changing of oil and filter. temperatures. prinicipally in the cam and valve mechanism areas.Tropsch process. where the oil does not get to full operating temperature long enough to burn off condensation. 6ctual operating conditions and engine hours of operation are a more precise indicator of when to change motor oil. Lower viscosity oils are used in many newer 6merican market vehicles. primarily to improve fuel efficiency. Time.onitors or "L. Engine designs are evolving to allow the use of low viscosity oils without the risk of high rates of metal to metal abrasion. This has led to a campaign by the 1alifornia E@6 against the *.with the correct molecular properties for conversion into a lubricant. bypassing the e-pensive (ischer. The plastic is melted and then pumped into a furnace.9+ viscosity oil for /9. 8uch particles could circulate in the oil and grind against the part surfaces causing wear. The heat of the furnace breaks down the molecular chains of . (or these reasons.any manufacturers have varying requirements and have designations for motor oil they require to be used. is used to make wa. if used for e-tremely long periods.5+ oil. thicker for summer heat and thinner for the winter cold.

bio. @araffinic oils are used for manufacturing engine oils.properties and lean burn characteristics. refined base stock.chained structure.refined products as containing at least 95.ash. :e. 6nother class of base oils suited for engine oils represents the polyalkylene glycols. re. that they not only are biodegradable according to "E1) *+/. .ost hydrocarbon molecules of paraffinic oils have non. . the wa. The 1alifornia 8tate public contract code define a re. and paper industries.to-.S/<T 1eneral classification of lubricants Mineral lubricants • Fluid lubricants (Oils) . low flash point. re. low pour point and low resistance to o-idation.iller. . this clean Jbase stockK is blended with some virgin base stock and a new additives package to make a finished lubricant product that can be !ust as effective as lubricants made with all virgin oil.test methods.refined motor oil as one that contains at least E+.criteria of the European preparations directive &E14/<<<435'. naphtenic and aromatic.S/GT 2edit3 5e refined motor oil The oil in a motor oil product does not break down or burn as it is used in an engineOit simply gets contaminated with particles and chemicals that make it a less effective lubricant. Caphtenic oils are used in moderate temperature applications.ester blends appeared in the /<<+s followed by formulations beginning in 9+++ which respond to the bio. daphnie' are each above /++ mg4L. 9aphtenic oils are produced from crude oil distillates. 9++5' =iodegradable .is sub!ected to a catalytic process that alters the wa->s molecular structure.refined base stock.to. algae.ring long.ineral oils &petroleum oils' are products of refining crude oil. leaving a clear oil. *araffinic oils are produced either by hydrocracking or solvent e-traction process.S/ET The ?8 Environmental @rotection 6gency defines re. They offer $ero. industrial lubricants and as processing oils in rubber.otor "ils based on esters or hydrocarbon. et al. .S/7T but other standards are significantly higher.no. @araffinic oils are relatively viscous and resistant to o-idation.no. There are three types of mineral oil: paraffinic. $romatic oils are products of refining process in manufacture of paraffinic oils.S/5T This means. mainly for manufacturing transformer oils and metal working fluids. &. @araffinic oils possess low viscousity. te-tile. but also the aquatic to-icities &fish. They possess high flash point and high pour point.polyethylene into wa-.ost hydrocarbon molecules of naphtenicnic oils have saturated ring structure.. (rom there.refining cleans the contaminants and used additives out of the dirty oil. (inally.ineral fluid lubricants are based on mineral oils.

8olid lubricants are also used in form of dry powder or as constituents of coatings. tungsten disulfide and polytetrafluorethylene &@T(E' are other solid lubricants.fluid lubricants &greases' are produced by emulsifying oils or fats with metallic soap and water at 3++.'. @olyglycols are water soluble. calcium. • Polyglycols (PAG) @olyglycols are produced by o-idation of ethylene and propylene. to top Synthetic lubricants • Polyalphaolefins (PAO) @olyalphaoleins are the most popular synthetic lubticant. animal fat'. etc. adhesives and as plasitice$ers in rubber and asphalt production. Frease properties are determined by a type of oil &mineral.*/G01'. vegetable. rolling mill bearings. etc.. . 8emi.fluid lubricants &greases' are used in variety applications where fluid oil is not applicable and where thick lubrication film is required: lubrication of roller bearings in railway car wheels.chained fatty acids' and additives &e-tra pressure. spindles. !et engine bearings and other various machinery bearings. steam turbines.G++0( &9+3. corrosion protection. type of soap &lithium. @olyalphaoleins &synthetic hydrocarbons' are manufactured by polymeri$ation of hydrocarbon molecules &alphaoleins'.o-idation. salts of long. sodium. 6romatic oils are dark and have high flash point. 6romatic oils are used for manufacturing seal compounds. The process occurs in reaction of ethylene gas in presence of a metallic catalyst. synthetic. The o-ides are then polymeri$ed resulting in formation of polyglycol.ost hydrocarbon molecules of aromatic oils have non. • Semi-fluid lubricants (greases) 8emi.saturated ring structure. • Solid lubricants 8olid lubricants possess lamellar structure preventing direct contact between the sliding surfaces even at high loads. @olyglycols are characteri$ed by very low coefficient of friction. 8olid lubricants are mainly used as additives to oils and greases. anti. Fraphite and molybdenum disulfide particles are common 8olid lubricants. =oron nitride. Typical mineral oil base grease is vaseline. @6"Ls chemical structure and properties are identical to those of mineral oils. They are also able to withstand high pressures without E@ &e-treme pressure' additives.

corn.linked molecules result in elastomer silicone. @). methyl2methyl & &1 *'9 '. castor. phenyl2phenyl & &1G 5'9 '. "ther e-amples of silicones are polymethylphenylsilo-ane and polydiphenylsilo-ane. Iiscosity of silicones depends on the length of the polymer molecules and on the degere of their cross. Ester oils are characteri$ed by very good high temperature and low temperature resistance. methyl2phenyl & 1 * 2 1G 5 '. to top Animal lubricants 6nimal lubricants are produced from the animals fat. Long cross. canola. The most popular silicone is polydimethylsilo-ane &@). The main disadvantages of vegetable lubricants are their low o-idation and temperature stabilities. Iegetable oils are environmentally friendly alternative to mineral oils since they are biodegradable. Two organic groups are attached to each 8ia" moiety: eg. 8hort non.• Ester oils Ester oils are produced by reaction of acids and alcohols with water.8 is produced from silicon and methylchloride. molecules of which represent a backbone structure built from repeated chemical units &monomers' containing 8ia" moieties. There are two main animal fats: hard fats &stearin' and soft fats &lard'. to top Classification of lubricants by application • • • • • • Engine oils Gear oils Hydraulic oils utting fluids (coolants) !ay lubricants ompressor oils . to top Vegetable lubricants Iegetable lubricants are based on soybean./++b( to 25E+b( &. • Silicones 8ilicones are a group of inorganic polymers. %ts monomer is &1 *'98i". cotton seed and rape seed oils.cross.E*b1 to *++b1'.linking. Lubrication properties of vegetable base oils are identical to those of mineral oils. 6nimal fats are mainly used for manufacturing greases. 8ilicone lubricants &oils and greases' are characteri$ed by broad temperature range: .8'.linked molecules make fluid silicone.

I%81"8%T#. in this case'.The viscosity of an oil is its tendency to resist flow. or TE@ added to a basic number indicate a primary specific usage within the general category. 6nother e-ample is symbol 9/*5 T . &5' auto. and light oil becomes too thin in hot weather. The first digit shows the series of oil according to type and useN the last three digits show the viscosity of the oil. T .ignition point.milliliter &ml' sample of oil to flow through a standard orifice at a certain temperature. for e-ample. T. for e-ample. &*' flash point. 6 liquid of high viscosity flows very slowly. . %t also shows that a G+. &3' fire point. &9' pour point. &G' demulsibility. %t also shows that a G+. which is suitable for use as a force. automobile owners change oil according to prevailing seasons.perature of an oil. Each identifying symbol consists of four digits and.• • • • • • "uenching and heat transfer oils #ust protection oils $ransformer oils (insulating oils) $urbine oils hain lubricants !ire rope lubricants to top Classification of lubricants by additi"es • • • • • • • • • • • • E%treme pressure (EP) Anti-&ear (A!) Friction modifiers orrosion inhibitors Anti-o%idants 'ispersants 'etergents ompounded Anti-foaming agents Pour point depressant • • • • CL!SSI#IC!$IO6 O# L7%5IC!$I61 OILS The Cavy identifies lubricating oils by number symbols. feed lubricant or as a hydraulic fluid. The viscosity digits indicate the number of seconds required for a G+. %n variable climates. &E' neutrali$ation number. shows that the oil is a series < oil which is specified for use in diesel engines. in some cases. P5OPE5$IES O# L7%5IC!$I61 OILS Lubricating oils used by the Cavy are tested for a number of properties. This symbol shows that the oil is a series 9 oil. appended letters. The properties of lube oil are briefly e-plained in the following paragraphs. "n a cold morning. 8tandard test methods are used for each test. 8ymbol <95+. /. The letters . "il changes are necessary because heavy oil becomes too thick or sluggish in cold weather. These include &/' viscosity. it is the high viscosity or stiff.milliliter sample should flow through a standard orifice in 95+ seconds when the temperature of the oil is 9/+0(. the lower its viscosity becomesN lowering the temperature increases the viscosity. The higher the tem.milliliter sample should flow through a standard orifice in /*5 seconds when the oil is at a certain temperature &/*+0(. and &7' precipitation number.

and &*' demulsibility of the oil with respect to fresh water and salt water.the volume of separated solids equals the precipitation number.The pre. "ils are graded by their viscosities at a certain temperature. 6ll petroleum products deteriorate &o-idi$e' in air and heat.viscosity curve. This test detects the presence of foreign materials in used oils. The viscosity inde. 3. E. 6 low inde.The fire point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil will continue to burn when it is ignited. &9' galvani$ed surfaces. This test is not applicable to <95+ oil. "-idation produces organic acids which.=E:. oil congeals or solidifies.?L8%=%L%T#. friction will increase. @"?: @"%CT. 7. This kind of burning will occur without the application of a spark or flame. %n general. of an oil is its ability to separate cleanly from any water present. the temperatures of the oils are always far below *++0( under normal operating conditions. The right grade of oil. an important factor in forced.figure means a flatter slope. 6t a temperature below the pour point.of deterioration and is measured as a part of the work factor test. Every oil has a viscosity inde. @:E1%@%T6T%"C C?. its viscosity or body will change less when the temperature of the engine increases. G.figure means a steep slope of the curve. CE?T:6L%X6T%"C C?. 6?T"%FC%T%"C @"%CT. or emulsion characteristic. The number is reached when a known amount of oil is diluted with naphtha and the precipitate is separated by centrifuging.The auto. (%:E @"%CT. an oil of high viscosity will have a higher pour point than an oil of low viscosity. will cause deterioration of &/' alloy bearings at elevated temperatures. 9. "therwise. )E. owever.The neutrali$ation number of an oil indicates its acid content and is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydro-ide &H" ' required to neutrali$e / gram of the oil. The viscosity must always be high enough to keep a good oil film between the moving parts. The minimum flash points allowed for Cavy lube oils are all above *++0(. therefore. means oil of the proper viscosity. (L68 @"%CT. The increase in acidity with use is an inde.ignition point of an oil is the temperature at which the flammable vapors given off from the oil will burn. if present in sufficient concentrations.=E:. %f you are using an oil with a high viscosity inde-.• • • • • • • • • ness of the lube oil that makes an automobile engine difficult to start.based on the slope of the temperature. Frading is set up by noting the number of seconds required for a given quantity &G+ ml' of the oil at the given temperature to flow through a standard orifice.cipitation number of an oil is a measure of the amount of solids classified as asphalts or carbon residue contained in the oil.The flash point of an oil is the temperature at which enough vapor is given off to flash when a flame or spark is present. &C"TE: The pour point is closely related to the viscosity of the oil. (or most lubricating oils. resulting in power loss and rapid wear on the parts.' *. 5. or a great variation of viscosity with a change in temperatureN a high inde. #ou should keep water &fresh or salt' out of oils. this temperature is in the range of 3G50 to 7/50(. or lesser variation of viscosity with the same changes in temperatures. Lube oils used in cold weather operations must have a low pour point.The demulsibility.depends on the rate of change in viscosity of a given oil with a change in temperature.The pour point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which the oil will barely flow from a container. 6n oil with a high .feed systems.

precipitation number may cause trouble in an engine. %t could leave deposits or plug up valves and pumps.ineral  8ynthetic  6nimal Lubricants Lubricants 'ith animal origin8 ` Tallow ` Tallow oil ` Lard oil ` CeatLs foot oil ` 8perm oil ` @orpoise oil These are highly stable at normal temperatures  6nimal lubricants may not be used for internal combustion because they produce fatty acids Vegetable . ) SYSTEM COMPONENTS It must be remembered that the lubricating system is actually an integral part of the engine and the operation of one depends upon the operation of the other Thus the lubricating system! in actual practice! cannot be considered as a separate and independent system" it is part of the engine The lubricating system basically consists of the follo#ing$ Oil Pan%reser&oir or storage area for engine oil Oil 'e&el (auge%chec)s the amount of oil in the oil pan Oil Pump%forces oil throughout the system Oil Pic)up and Strainers%carries oil to the pump and remo&es large particles Oil *ilters%strains out impurities in the oil Oil (alleries%oil passages through the engine Oil Pressure Indicator%#arns the operator of lo# oil pressure Oil Pressure (auge%registers actual oil pressure in the engine Oil Temperature Lubrication Systems Classification of Lubricants  6nimal  Iegetable  .

Lubricants  E-amples of vegetable lubricants are: ` 1astor oil ` "live oil ` 1ottonseed oil  6nimal and vegetable oils have a lower coefficient of friction than most mineral oils but they rapidly wear away steel Mineral Lubricants  These lubricants are used to a large e-tent in the lubrication of aircraft internal combustion engines  There are three classifications of mineral lubricants: ` 8olid ` 8emisolid ` (luid Synthetic Lubricants  =ecause of the high operating temperatures of gas. it became necessary to develop lubricants which would retain their characteristics at .turbine engines.

temperatures that cause petroleum lubricants to evaporate and break down  8ynthetic lubricants do not break down easily and do not produce coke or other deposits Lubricating Oil Properties  Fravity  (lash @oint  Iiscosity  1loud @oint  @our @oint  1arbon.of the weight of a measured volume of this product  There are two scales generally used by petroleum . :esidue Test  6sh Test  @recipitation Cumber  1orrosion and Ceutrali$ation Cumber  "iliness  E-treme. @ressure & ypoid' Lubricants  1hemical and @hysical 8tability  Fravity  The gravity of petroleum oil is a numerical value which serves as an inde.

bodied oil is high in viscosity and pours or flows slowly Cloud Point  The cloud point is the temperature at which the separation of wa- . it is the resistance an oil offers to flowing  eavy.engineers: ` 8pecific. gravity scale ` 6merican @etroleum %nstitute gravity scale #lash Point  The flash point of an oil is the temperature to which the oil must be heated in order to give off enough vapor to form a combustible mi-ture above the surface that will momentarily flash or burn when the vapor is brought into contact with a very small flame Viscosity  Iiscosity is technically defined as the fluid friction of an oil  To put it more simply.

becomes visible in certain oils under prescribed testing conditions  When such oils are tested, the cloud point is slightly above the solidification point Pour Point  The pour point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil will !ust flow without disturbance when chilled 1arbon.:esidue Test  The purpose of the carbon. residue test is to study the carbon. forming properties of a lubricating oil  There are two methods: ` The :amsbottom carbon.residue test ` The 1onradson test  6sh Test  The ash test is an e-tension of the carbon. residue test  %f an unused oil leaves almost no ash, it is regarded as pure  The ash

content is a percentage &by weight' of the residue after all carbon and all carbonaceous matter have been evaporated and burned Precipitation 6umber  The precipitation number recommended by the 68T, is the number of milliliters of precipitate formed when /+ mL of lubricating oil is mi-ed with <+ mL of petroleum naphtha under specific conditions and then centrifuged Lubricant 5e9uirements and #unctions  1haracteristics of 6ircraft Lubricating "il  (unctions of Engine "il  8traight ,ineral "il  6sh.less )ispersant "il  ,ulti. viscosity "il Characteristics of !ircraft Lubricating Oil

 %t should have the proper body &viscosity'  igh antifriction characteristics  ,a-imum fluidity at low temperatures  ,inimum changes in viscosity with changes in temperature  igh antiwear properties  ,a-imum cooling abilities  ,a-imum resistance to o-idation  Concorrosive #unctions of Engine Oil  Lubrication, thus reducing friction  1ools various engine parts  8eals the combustion chamber  1leans the engine  6ids in preventing corrosion  8erves as a cushion between impacting parts Straight Mineral Oil  8traight mineral oil is one of many types of oil used in

base stocks  These oils do not contain additives.viscosity.ost aircraft oils other than straight mineral oils contain a dispersant that suspends contamination such as carbon. weather starts. point depressant for improved fluidity at cold temperatures !shless )ispersant Oil  . all single. e-cept for a small amount of pour. lead compound and dirt  The dispersant helps prevent these contaminants from gathering into clumps and forming sludge or plugging oil passageways Multi"iscosity Oil  %n certain circumstances.aircraft reciprocating engines  %t is blended from selected high.grade oils have short comings  %n cold. . inde.

a mechanical pump supplies oil under pressure to the bearings  "il flows into the inlet of the pump through the pump and into an oil manifold which distributes it to the crankshaft bearings  8plash .ultigrade oils have viscosity characteristics that allow for better flow characteristics at engine start  1haracteristics of Lubrication 8ystems Pressure Lubrication  8plash Lubrication and 1ombination 8ystems  @rincipal 1omponents of a Lubrication 8ystem  "il 1apacity  %n a pressure lubrication system.single grade oil generally flows slowly to the upper reaches and vital parts of the engine  .

some engines use splash lubrication also  8plash lubrication is never used by itself  6ll lubrication systems are pressure systems or combination pressure4splash systems Components of Lubrication Systems  @lumbing for Lubrication 8ystems  Temperature :egulator &"il 1ooler'  "il Iiscosity Ialve  "il @ressure :elief Ialves  "il 8eparator  "il @ressure Fuage  "il Temperature Fuage  "il @ressure @umps  8cavenge @umps .Lubrication and 1ombination 8ystems  6lthough pressure lubrication is the principle method of lubrication on all aircraft engines.

aluminum tubing is used  8ynthetic hose is often used near the engine and other places on the aircraft that are sub!ect to vibration or other movement $emperature 5egulator :Oil Cooler. "il )ilution 8ystem Plumbing for Lubrication Systems  "il plumbing is essentially the same as is used in oil and hydraulic systems  When the lines will not be sub!ect to bending.  6n oil temperature regulator is designed to maintain the temperature of the oil for an operating engine at the correct level  These regulators are often called oil coolers since cooling of engine oil is one of their main functions Oil Viscosity .

Val"e  The oil viscosity valve is generally considered a part of the oil temperature regulator unit and is employed in some oil systems  The viscosity valve consists essentially of an aluminum alloy housing and a thermostatic control element  The oil viscosity valve works with the oil cooler valve to maintain a desired temperature and keep the viscosity within required limits Oil Pressure 5elief Val"es  The purpose of the oil pressure relief valve is to control and limit the lubricating pressure in the oil system  This is necessary to prevent damage caused by e-cessive system pressure and to ensure that engine parts are not deprived of .

fuel due to a system failure "il 8eparator  6ir systems where oil of oil mist is present may require the use of an oil separator  These are often used on vacuum pump outlets  The oil separator contains baffle plates which cause the air to swirl and it deposits on the baffles Oil Pressure 1auge  6n oil pressure gauge is an essential component of any engine oil system  These gauges generally use a bourdon tube to measure the pressure  They are designed to measure a wide range of pressures Oil $emperature 1auge  The temperature probe for the oil temperature .

aps Cews "rkut %ooks Fmail more ▼ Translate 8cholar =logs :ealtime #ouTube 1alendar @hotos )ocuments :eader 8ites Froups even more c .y library W elp W 8ign in .gauge in the oil inlet line or passage between the pressure pump and the engine system  "n some installations the temperature probe is located in the oil filter housing  These are normally electric or electronic  "il @ressure @umps  "il pressure pumps may either be of the gear type or vane type  The gear type pump is used in the ma+ority of reciprocating engines and uses close fitting gears that rotate and push the oil through the system Web %mages .

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the sump is an aluminum alloy casting with fins and ribs to assist in this heat transfer. 8ome high performance vehicles have a windage tray fitted to prevent churning of the oil by the rotation of the crankshaft. or storage container. =affles prevent oil from surging away from the pickup during cornering. The sumpLs large e-ternal surface area helps heat transfer from the oil to the outside air.@review page scans @review page scans @review page scans Engine Lubrication 8 Lubrication system components • • • • • • • • • • 8ump "il collection pan "il tank @ickup tube "il pump "il pressure relief valve "il filters 8purt holes e galleries "il indicators "il cooler Sump The sump is bolted to the engine under the crankcase. and a collector for oil returning from the engine lubricating system. The oil pickup tube and strainer are located in this deep section to ensure they stay submerged in oil. braking and accelerating. and to prevent air being drawn into the oil pump. and shaped to ensure that oil will return to its deepest section. The sump can be formed as a thin sheet metal pressing. for the engine lubricating oil. %t is a reservoir. Oil collection pan . %n some designs.

%t replaces the sump in the wet sump system. Pickup tube . 8ince no oil is stored in the engine in this system. Oil tank The oil tank is part of the dry sump lubrication system. %t receives oil from the scavenge pump and allows it to settle and cool. but it is much smaller. The main oil pump then pumps it back through the lubrication system. %t is usually positioned away from the heat of the engine. a dipstick that is normally used to check oil levels in the sump is not needed. 6 dipstick is often provided to measure the oil level.The oil collection pan is part of the dry sump system which is used in some motorcycles. and the large surface area improves cooling.up strainer on the scavenge pump. and directs it to the pick. %t collects the oil after it has circulated through the engine.

and carry oil around the chamber. "il is then taken through the intake port. the volume between them increases. The gears rotate. oil is squee$ed out through the outlet.shaped part of the pump housing. their teeth separate. The spaces between the teeth fill with oil. and oil is forced from the outlet toward the oil filter. creating a low pressure area. 6n e-ternal toothed gear meshes with this inner one.=etween the sump and oil pump is a pickup tube with a flat cup and a strainer immersed in the oil. The crescent pump uses a similar principle. "utside atmospheric pressure is then higher. the driving gear meshes with a second gear. %n a rotor. This forces oil into the pump. igher atmospheric pressure outside forces oil up into the inlet. 6s the lobes of the inner rotor move into the spaces in the outer rotor. The increasing volume between gear teeth causes pressure to fall. The pickup tube leads to the inlet of the oil pump. 6s they turn. 6s both gears turn. Oil pressure relief "al"e . This larger volume lowers the pressure at the pump inlet. 8imilarly in a geared oil pump. then discharged to the outlet port. and it fills the spaces between the rotor lobes. The inner gear is on the end of the crankshaft which then drives the pump directly.type oil pump. 8ome gear teeth are meshed but others are separated by the crescent. on the low pressure side of the pump. and carried around between the gears and crescent. %t is mounted on the front of the cylinder block. The strainer stops large particles of dirt and carbon entering the pump and damaging it. Oil pump "il pumps may be driven from the camshaft or the crankshaft. an inner rotor drives an outer one. The teeth mesh again.

%ts filter uses pleated filtering paper in a metal housing.filters on diesel engines are larger than those on similar gasoline engines. )iesel engines produce more carbon particles than gasoline engines.6 normal pump is capable of delivering more oil than an engine needs. so the oil filter can have a full. it can starve an engine of oil.flow type filters all of the oil before delivering it to the engine. the volume of oil delivered also increases. %f the filter clogs. releasing !ust enough oil back to the sump to regulate the pressure of the whole system. 6s the pump rotates.pass system. it goes back to the sump. 6s a safety measure. The fi-ed clearances between the moving parts of the engine prevent oil escaping back to the sump.ost oil.flow. full. . Oil filters There are 9 basic oil. %n a by. this valve opens and directs unfiltered oil to the engine. but if the filter clogs up. The full. Cormally all oil goes through the filter before it gets to the engine. )irty oil is better than none at all.flow element to trap larger impurities. the bypass element filters only some of the oil from the pump by tapping an oil line into an oil passage. and some diesel engines have 9 oil filters. and by.filtering systems . Spurt holes = galleries .pass type only filters some of the oil. The by. 6n oil pressure relief valve stops e-cess pressure developing. %t collects finer particles than a full.pass.flow type is the more common. %tLs a safety measure to ensure the engine is never starved for oil. 6fter this oil is filtered.flow filter. and pressure builds up in the system. %tLs like a controlled leak. full.flow filters have a bypass valve. and engine speed increases. and a bypass element to collect sludge and carbon soot. The full. to collect harmful particles.

it also gathers heat from the engine so its temperature keeps rising. %f oil pressure falls too low. (inally it drains back to the sump to cool.train. a pressure sensor in a gallery can light up a warning light. "f course. or it may have been burned. rings and pins are lubricated by oil thrown onto the cylinder walls from the connecting rod bearings. and also cools the underside of the piston. the simplest indicator of oil level is still the dip stick. and start again. "il can then spurt out at the point in the engine cycle when the largest area of cylinder wall is e-posed. %t lubricates the walls and gudgeon pin. Too little oil in the engine is a problem but so is too much. 6s well as lubricating these moving parts. and through a gallery to the camshaft bearings and valve. Low oil pressure can mean a lack of oil. Oil cooler . 8ome connecting rods have oil spurt holes. "il feeds to the cylinder head.out that turns off the engine if oil pressure falls too low. and cause leaks by flooding the seals. The crankshaft can whip it into foam. or register on a gauge. Oil indicators %f a lubrication system fails itLs serious. This can be caused by worn piston rings which let oil into the combustion chamber.. so itLs crucial to know itLs working. 8ome engines even use an automatic cut.@istons. %t may have leaked away. These holes are positioned to receive oil from similar holes in the crankshaft.

The oil cooler is a heat e-changer. %t transfers heat from the oil to coolant from the cooling system. :ead more: http:44www.systemfi-$$/%eE%gw(/ The Dry Sump System .com4topic4dry. heat is removed from the oil. 1oolant circulates through tubes in the cooler. The pumping capacity of scavenge pumps is higher than that of the engine. %n another design.driven pumps supplying oil to the system.lubrication.Engines which operate under severe conditions may use an oil cooler to cool the oil in the engine. The opposite of a wet sump system.answers.sump.to air heat e-changer. on the cylinder block. and oil fed from the lubrication system surrounds the tubes. The sump is kept relatively free from oil by scavenging pumps. %t is called an oil. %n diesel engines. which return the oil to the tank after cooling. the oil cooler is mounted in the airstream at the front of the vehicle. 6n engine lubrication system in which the lubricating oil is carried in an e-ternal tank and not internally in a sump. the oil cooler and oil filter are often on the same mounting . 6s the coolant circulates. This type of oil cooler uses the flow of air passing across its fins to cool the air circulating through it.

let&s first e'amine the #et sump system. depending on the engine. The remaining stages 2sca%enge3 the oil out of the dry sump pan and return the oil 6and air7 to the top of the tank or reser%oir. The dry sump oil pump is a minimum of . -uarts to . The dry sump pump is designed #ith multiple stages. S. at appro'imately one half crank speed. I #ill discuss other ad%antages later. (e ha%e also increased these ad%antages further through ad%anced designs of #indage trays. shallo#er oil pan allo#ing engine to be lo#ered in chassis. timing belt and pulleys.The dry sump lubrication system is the ultimate oiling system for internal combustion engines. stages. Increased engine reliability from the consistent oil pressure pro%ided by the dry sump system is the reason dry sumps #ere in%ented. and along #ith an ad1ustable pressure regulator. 0side from the si+e of the pan. etc. and sca%enge pickup designs and locations. (et sump oiling systems are used on ))* of all street cars. e !ans and Sports "acing cars as #ell as Super Speed#ay Stock $ars use dry sumps. The simple fact that all Formula One. The main purpose of the dry sump system is to contain all the stored oil in a separate tank. this also results in a reduction in horsepo#er as #ell as oil aeration. The dry sump pump is usually dri%en by a Gilmer or :T./ -uarts or more. pro%es this point. 0side from the ob%ious pressure loss.0. the oil is sub1ected to e'treme cornering forces in racing. The oil is sucked up a pickup tube into the stock oil pump. These are the reasons dry sumps #ere de%eloped. and the oil simply 2cra#ls3 up the sides of the pan and a#ay from the pick4up. to insure that all the oil is sca%enged from the pan. off the front of the crankshaft. and an oil outlet 6supply7 at the %ery bottom for uninhibited oil supply. or reser%oir. horsepo#er increase due to less %iscous drag 6oil resistance due to sloshing into rotating assembly7 and cooler oil. 0lthough there are many good designs. The many other benefits I mentioned earlier are. #here the oil is stored and supplied to the oil pump. This also results in remo%ing e'cess air from the crankcase. This reser%oir is usually tall and round or narro# and specially designed #ith internal baffles. racing cars generate lateral and acceleration5deceleration forces that o%ercome the best #et sump designs. #here it is filtered and supplied to the engine under pressure. and necessity of a deep sump. #hich add stiffness to the block and afford better sealing. They utili+e a con%entional oil pan #ith dipstick. 0ll in all. The pans capacity can range from . If an oil cooler is used usually it is mounted inline bet#een the sca%enge outlets and the tank. and e%ol%ed into a %ery sophisticated system #hich increases reliability as #ell as horsepo#er #hile allo#ing the engines to be mounted #ith the lo#est center of gra%ity. supplies the oil under pressure through the filter and into the engine. Indy cars. #ith trap doors. In order to ha%e a good understanding of the dry sump system. as #ell as our utili+ation of precision machined alloy castings. it presents problems under racing conditions. One stage is for pressure and is supplied the oil from the bottom of the reser%oir. #ith as many as 8 or 9. (hile this system is %ery ade-uate for high#ay use.< +et Sump "s( )ry Sump Oiling Systems . the dry sump system came out of necessity to maintain oil pressure. and is the reason they are called 2dry sump3 meaning the oil pan is essentially dry.. Gary 0rmstrong.

all but one of the stages is used to scavenge oil from the pan. The primary advantage of a dry sump system is its ability to make more power.mounted pump. and send it back through the engine.oroso Wet 8ump "il @ans include the capacity of the pan only. the ability to easily add remote coolers. 6 single pressure stage is normally used to return oil from the tank to the engine. . is used to QscavengeQ or remove oil from the pan. This allows the engine builder to select the best combination of equipment and avoid the costly problems that often occur when Qmi-ing and matchingQ components from various manufacturers. ?nlike a wet sump system where oil is stored in the pan. Heeping the rotating assembly free of windage allows it to spin freely and make more power. generally with three or four stages. %n addition. measured at or below the normal fill mark on a stock dipstick. all of which are engineered to be fully compatible with one another. coolers. etc. leaving the pan essentially Qdry.oroso manufactures a full range of )ry 8ump "iling 8ystem components. it can be relatively shallow in depth to allow lower engine placement for improved weight distribution and handling. the windage tray or screen which serves to isolate sump oil from the rotating assembly.Q 6n e-ternally. more consistent oil pressure. "ther advantages of a dry sump system include increased oil capacity. deliver it to the storage tank. and can be enhanced 'ith certain components to impro"e oil control and increase po'er( The use of a wet or dry sump oiling system is often determined by the level of competition and the racerLs budget. 6nd because there is no internal pump.! 'et sump system is based on the original e9uipment oiling system. the e-tra crankcase vacuum created by the dry sump pump helps to improve ring seal for additional power gain. 6nd because the pan doesnLt store oil. is allowed to run the full length of the pan. 6 dry sump system is designed for the top levels of racing where ma-imum power and oil control are absolutely essential. %n a typical setup. 6dditional oil must be added to compensate for filters. the rotating assembly is not burdened with the weight of e-cess oil &a phenomenon commonly referred to as QwindageQ'. Oil Pan Capacities 1apacities listed for . tanks. With very little oil in the pan. and ad!ustable oil pressure. a )ry 8ump "iling system stores oil in a separate tank . 6 wet sump system is based on the original equipment oiling system. and can be enhanced with certain components to improve oil control and increase power. ..

use a QslingerQ &basically a paddle wheel' to perform the same function.GG to 9. . . but that is dependent on the engine design. (our. 8ince the sump is internal. 6n internal oil pump is generally more difficult to replace.any are designed with . %n most cases a pressure pump or system furnishes oil to the engine to be lubricated and cooled. the oil is collected in a * to /+ litres &+. and thereafter allowed to drain to the base of the engine under gravity.ost systems will include a heat e-changer &air or fuel' to cool the oil. C&!P$E5 > L7%5IC!$I61 S?S$EMS 6lthough the oil system of the modern gas turbine engine is varied in design and plumbing most have units which perform similar functions. 6 wet sump offers the advantage of a simple design.oroso "il @an.odern small engines. as this allows the engine to be mounted lower in the frameN and a remote oil tank can permit better lubricant cooling. where it is pumped back up to the bearings by the oil pump. as a bike leans into corners and the oil is not displaced sideways. known as the sump or oil pan. 6 scavenging system returns the oil to the tank for reuse. "il flow which would normally have cooled the bearings has stopped.6ote8 "il pan rules vary from track to track. as the large g force pulled by drivers going around corners causes the oil in the pan to slosh. %n most production automobiles and motorcycles.E< to 9. Tech Tip courtesy of 'oroso.stroke piston internal combustion engines which uses a built. 1heck with your race track and4or sanctioning body before selecting your . as opposed to an e-ternal or secondary reservoir used in a dry sump design. eat stored in the turbine wheel will raise the bearing temperature much higher than that reached during operation.G ?8gal' capacity pan at the base of the engine. . such as those used in lawnmowers.stroke engines are lubricated by oil which is pumped into various bearings. using a single pump and no e-ternal reservoir. The problem of overheating is more severe after the engine has stopped than while it is running. racing motorcycles usually benefit from dry sump lubrication. there is no need for hoses or tubes connecting the engine to an e-ternal sump which may leak. 6 wet sump design can be problematic in a racing car. briefly starving the system of oil and damaging the engine. internal to the engine. 6 'et sump is a lubricating oil management design for four.up. owever.9 imp galN +. gravitating away from the oil pick. on a motorcycle this difficulty does not arise. Cevertheless. Early stationary engines employed a small scoop on the e-tremity of the crankshaft or connecting rod to assist with the lubrication of the cylinder walls by means of a splashing action.in reservoir for oil. which use a wet sump system.

pressuri$ed sumps. 8ome incorporate a pressuri$ed oil tank. This ensures a constant head pressure to the pressure.lubrication pump to prevent pump cavitation at high altitude. "il consumption in a gas turbine engine is low compared to that in a reciprocating engine of equal power. "il consumption on the turbine engine is affected by the efficiency of the seals. owever, oil can be lost through internal leakage and on some engines by malfunction of the pressuri$ing or venting system. "il scaling is very important in a !et engine. 6ny wetting of the blades or vanes by oil vapor will encourage the accumulation of dust and dirt. 6 dirty blade or vane represents high friction.to.airflow. This decreases engine efficiency, and results in a noticeable decrease in thrust or increase in fuel consumption. 8ince oil consumption is so low, oil tanks can be made relatively small. This causes a decrease in weight and storage problems. Tanks may have capacities ranging from l49 to 7 gallons. 8ystem pressures may vary from /5 psig at idle to 9++ psig during cold starts. Cormal operating pressures and bulk temperatures are about 5+ to /++ psig and 9++o(, respectively.
GENERAL

%n general, the parts to be lubricated and cooled include the main bearings and accessory drive gears and the propeller gearing in the turboprop. This represents again in gas turbine engine lubrication simplicity over the comple- oil system of the reciprocating engine. The main rotating unit can be carried by only a few bearings. %n a piston power plant there are hundreds more moving parts to be lubricated. "n some turbine engines the oil may also be used..
• • •

To operate the ser&o mechanism of some fuel controls To control the position of the &ariable area e,haust-no..le &anes To operate the thrust re&erser

=ecause each bearing in the engine receives its oil from a metered or calibrated orifice, the system is generally known as the calibrated type. With a few e-ceptions the lubricating system used on the modem turbine engine is of the dry.sump variety. owever, some turbine engines are equipped with a combination dry. and wet.type lubrication system. Wet.sump engines store the lubricating oil in the engine proper. )ry.sump engines utili$e an e-ternal tank usually mounted on or near the engine. 6lthough this chapter addresses dry.sump systems, an e-ample of the wet.sump design can be seen in the 8olar %nternational T.G9 engine. %n this engine the oil reservoir is an integral part of the accessory.drive gear case. 6n e-ample of a combination dry. and wet.sump lubrication can be found in the Lycoming T.55.series engines.

$75%I6E E61I6E )5? S7MP L7%5IC!$IO6
%n a turbine dry.sump lubrication system, the oil supply is carried in a tank mounted e-ternally on or near the engine. With this type of system, a larger oil supply can be carried and the oil temperature can be controlled 6n oil cooler usually is included in a dry.sump oil system &(igure 5.l'. This cooler may be air.cooled or fuel.cooled. The dry.sump oil system allows the a-ial.flow engines to retain their comparatively small diameter. This is done by designing the oil tank and the oil cooler to conform to the design of the engine.

The following component descriptions include most of those found in the various turbine lubrication systems. owever, not all of these components will be found in any one system. The dry.sump systems use an oil tank which contains most of the oil supply. owever, a small sump usually is included on the engine to hold a supply of oil for an emergency system. The dry. sump system usually contains..
• • • • • • •

Oil pump Sca&enge and pressure inlet strainers Sca&enge return connection Pressure outlet ports Oil filter Mounting bosses for the oil pressure transmitter Temperature bulb connections

6 typical oil tank is shown in (igure 5.9. %t is designed to furnish a constant supply of oil to the engine. This is done by a swivel outlet assembly mounted inside .the tank a hori$ontal baffle

mounted in the center of the tank, two flapper check valves mounted on the baffle, and a positive.vent system.

The swivel outlet fitting is controlled by a weighted end, which is free to swing below the baffle. The flapper valves in the baffle are normally open. They close only when the oil in the bottom of the tank rushes to the top of the tank during deceleration. This traps the oil in the bottom of the tank where it is picked up by the swivel fitting 6 sump drain is located in the bottom of the tank. The airspace is vented at all times. 6ll oil tanks have e-pansion space. This allows for oil e-pansion after heat is absorbed from the bearings and gears and after the oil foams after circulating through the system. 8ome tanks also incorporate a deaerator tray. The tray separates air from the oil returned to the top of the tank by the scavenger system. ?sually these deaerators are the QcanQ type in which oil enters a tangent. The air released is carried out through the vent system in the top of the tank. %nmost oil tanks a pressure buildup is desired within the tank. This assures a positive flow of oil to the oil pump inlet. This pressure buildup is made possible by running the vent line through an ad!ustable check.relief valve. The check.relief valve normally is set to relieve at about 3 psi pressure on the oil pump inlet. There is little need for an oil.dilution system. %f the air temperature is abnorrnally low, the oil may be changed to a lighter grade. 8ome engines may provide for the installation of an immersion.type oil heater.

$75%I6E E61I6E +E$ S7MP L7%5IC!$IO6

.sump type.sump reservoir: • • • • • / bayonet-type gage indicates the oil le&el in the sump T#o or more finger strainers 0filters) are inserted in the accessory case for straining pressure and sca&enged oil before it lea&es or enters the sump These strainers aid the main oil strainer / &ent or breather e1uali.sump system are similar to many of a dry.sump system. "il from the front compressor bearing in the accessory.sump pressure systems are variable.amined closely during inspections The presence of metal particles may indicate gear or bearing failure / temperature bulb and an oil pressure fitting may be pro&ided This system is typical of all engines using a wet.sump type of oil system.%n some engines the lubrication system is the wet. The oil reservoir location is the ma!or difference. there are few engines using a wet. :egardless of configuration reservoirs for wet. The oil is then pumped by the scavenge element through a finger screen into the reservoir.pressure systems in which the pump outlet pressure depends on the engine :@. The following components are included in the wet.sump oil system may be the accessory gear case. which consists of the accessory gear casing and the front compressor bearing support casing.sump lubrication system. The scavenged oil is returned to the reservoir &sump' by gravity and pump suction.. . The reservoir for the wet. The components of a wet. sump systems are an integral part of the engine and contain the bulk of the engine oil supply.es pressure #ithin the accessory casing / magnetic drain plug may be pro&ided to drain the oil and to trap any ferrous metal particles in the oil This plug should al#ays be e.ost wet. • • • • • • • Tan)s Pressure pumps Sca&enger pumps *ilters Oil coolers 2elief &al&es 3reathers and pressuri.ing components . %t passes through a filter to !et no$$les that direct the oil into the rotor bearings and couplings. =ecause only a few models of centrifugal.flow engines are in operation. "il from the turbine coupling and the remaining rotor shaft bearings drains into a sump. "r it may be a sump mounted on the bottom of the accessory case.drive coupling shaft drains directly into the reservoir. The bearing and drive gears in the accessory drive casing are lubricated by a splash system. OIL S?S$EM COMPO6E6$S The oil system components used on gas turbine engines are. The oil for the remaining points of lubrication leaves the pump under pressure.

Oil Tanks Tanks can be either an airframe or engine.• • • • • Pressure and temperature gages lights Temperature-regulating &al&es Oil-+et no. )ifferent capacities can be provided for each system despite the common driving shaft speed. The inner element has one less tooth than the outer.type pump may sometimes be used.. The engine. The Ferotor pump has two moving parts: an inner. =ut a ma!ority of the parts listed will be found in most engines. it provides a storage place for the oil. :otation causes the oil to pass around the outside of the gears in pockets formed by the gear teeth and the pump casing. ?sually constructed of welded sheet aluminum or steel. up to the time the relief valve opens. toothed element.accessory section drives the rotation of the pump.supplied unit.type pumps are used in the lubricating system of the turbine engine.. 6 vane.le *ittings! &al&es! and plumbing Chip detectors Cot all of the units will be found in the oil system of any one engine. .ible oil pic)up Coarse mesh screens 4arious oil and air inlets and outlets Pressure Pumps =oth gear.*'. The missing tooth provides a chamber to move the fluid from the intake to the discharge port.type pump consists of a driving and a driven gear. • • • • • • 4enting system 5eaerator to separate entrained air from the oil Oil le&el transmitter or dipstic) 2igid or fle. The gear. %n most engines the tank is pressuri$ed to ensure a constant supply of oil to the pressure pump. This is accomplished by varying the diameter or thickness of the gears to vary the volume of the tooth chamber. 6fter that any further increase in engine speed will not result in an oil pressure increase. The relief valve may be located in the pump housing or elsewhere in the pressure system for both types of pumps. The pressure developed is proportional to engine :@. =oth elements are mounted eccentrically to one another on the same shaft. and Ferotor. Scavenger Pumps These pumps are similar to the pressure pumps but have a much larger total capacity.toothed element meshing with an outer. The tank can contain. 6n engine is generally provided with several scavenger pumps to drain oil from various parts of the engine.manufacturer. "ften one or two of the scavenger elements are incorporated in the same housing as the pressure pump &(igure 5.

G'. 8creens or strainers are placed at pressure oil inlets to bearings in the engine. The cartridge filter is most commonly used and must be replaced periodically. This aids in preventing foreign matter from reaching the bearings. 5. The three basic types of oil filters for the !et engine are the cartridge screen.disc and screen &(igures 5.5 and 5. The other two can be cleaned and reused. filters and screens or stainers are provided in the engine lubricating system. The filters are mounted on a common tube and arranged to provide a space between each circular element. %n the screen. .Oil ilters an! Screens "r Strainers To prevent foreign matter from reaching internal parts of the engine.3.type filters. Lube oil passes through the circular mesh elements and into the chamber between the two layers of mesh. This chamber is ported to the center of a common tube which directs oil out of the filter. Each filter is comprised of two layers of mesh forming a chamber between mesh layers.disc filter there are a series of circular screen.

.

Their purpose is to connect apart into a system or to connect one part to another to complete a system.ost engines utili$e an electrical chip detector. Oil Pressure 'n!icating System %n a typical engine oil pressure indicating system the indicator receives inlet oil pressure indications from the oil pressure transmitter and provides readings in pounds per square inch . but most filters will stop particles of appro-imately 5+ microns. They are used to detect and attract ferrous material &metal with iron as its basic element' which may come from inside the engine. located in the scavenger pump housing or in the accessory gearbo-. Magnetic #hip $etect"r "ne or more magnetic chip detectors are installed on gas turbine engines. and fittings are used throughout the lubricating system. This prevents reverse flow or flow through the system when the engine is stopped (iltering characteristics vary. the chip detectors may be collected and analy$ed to determine the condition of the engine. When the pressure differential reaches a specified value &about /5 to 9+ psi'. Whenever there is a requirement. This causes the warning light on the caution panel to come on. the valve opens and allows oil to bypass the filter. Tubing% &"se% an! ittings Tubing. the detector will catch some of them. hose. 8ome filters incorporate a check valve.To allow for oil flow in the event of filter blockage. . 8hould the engine oil become contaminated with metal particles. all filters incorporate a bypass or relief valve as part of the filter or in the oil passages. This ferrous material builds up until it bridges a gap.

ost gas turbine engine lubricating systems incorporate an engine oil. the fuel is able to absorb a considerable amount of heat. @ower is supplied by the 97. Oil(Pressure(L") #auti"n Light . The airflow into the sump minimi$es oil leakage across the seals in the reverse direction. "il coolers are also cooled by air forced through them by a blower4fan.volt )1 system.type thermocouple or thermobulb. Oil #""lers The oil cooler is used to reduce oil temperature by transmitting heat from the oil to another fluid usually fuel.volt 61 system. This reduces the si$e and weight of the cooler.low caution light warning device into the system for safety purposes. 8ince the fuel flow through the cooler is much greater than the oil flow. . When pressure drops below a safe limit. These are located in the pressure pump oil inlet side to the engine.pressure.E'. Oil Temperature 'n!icating System %n a typical engine oil temperature indicating system. @ower to operate this circuit is supplied by the 97. the switch closes an electrical circuit causing the caution light to burn. The light is connected to a low.volt )1 system.Electrical power for oil pressure indicator and transmitter operation is supplied by the 97.pressure switch. the indicator is connected to and receives temperature indications from an electrical resistance. *reathers an! Pressuri+ing Systems %nternal oil leakage is kept to a minimum by pressuri$ing the bearing sump areas with air that is bled off the compressor &(igure 5.sensitive valves control the oil temperature by determining whether the oil passes through or bypasses the cooler. Thermostatic or pressure.

check valves in the sump and tank pressuri$ing valves open and allow ambient air to enter the system. The scavenge pumps and sump. 8ump and tank pressures are maintained close to one another by a line which connects the two. air flows from the .vent check valve functions result in relatively low air pressure in the sumps and gearbo-es. This airflow minimi$es lube oil leakage across the seals. =ecause the pumps area constant. The valve allows flow only into the tankN oil or tank vapors cannot back up into the sump areas. %f the sump pressure e-ceeds the tank pressure.The oil scavenge pumps e-ceed the capacity of the lubrication pressure pump They are capable of handling considerably more oil than actually e-ists in the bearing sumps and gearbo-es. These low internal sump pressures allow air to flow across the oil seals into the sumps. the sump vent check valve opens.pressure may be caused by seal leakage. %f that occurs. ?nder other conditions. %f the seal leakage is not sufficient to maintain proper internal pressure. the ability of the scavenge pumps to pump air forms a pressure low enough to cavitate the pumps or cause the sump to collapse. allowing the e-cess sump air to enter the oil tank. %nadequate internal sump and gearbo. Tank pressure is maintained little above ambient. too much air can enter the sump through worn seals. ?nder some conditions. (or this reason it is necessary to maintain sump pressures low enough to ensure seal.displacement type. they make up for the lack of oil by pumping air from the sumps. Large quantities of air are delivered to the oil tank.air leakage into the sumps.

7'. .oil mist to the main shaft bearings in the 6. %t consists of the following subsystems and components: • • • • • • • • • • Oil supply and sca&enge pump Seal pressuri.sump system.vent check valve. Tank pressure is always maintained a few pounds above ambient pressure by the sump and tank pressuri$ing valve. through the sump.ation and sump &enting Emergency lube system Oil filtration and condition monitoring Tan) and air-oil cooler Oil cooler Oil pressure monitoring Cold oil-relief and cooler-bypas &al&es Chip detector Integral accessory gearbo.E+/ engine distributes oil to all lubricated parts &(igure 5.sumps. %n emergencies it supplies an air.series engine.E++. and =. the oil tank.contained. The following addresses two types of lubrication systems used in the 6rmy today: the Feneral Electric T.G9. $?PIC!L OIL S?S$EM #O5 $ @A* The lubrication system in the T. the tank and sump pressuri$ing valves to the atmosphere.sumps. The system is a self.FE. recirculating dry.E+/ turboshaft engine and the %nternational48olar T.

There it enters the pump tangentially in alignment with pump rotational direction. The stack of pump elements is retained in a cast tubular hosing having an integral end plate.casing. coarse.* quarts of oil &(igure 5.debris screen. "il from the supply pump flows to the lube . "il from the pickup screen enters a cast passage in the mainframe. gravity.Lube Supply System The oil tank. 6 coarse pickup screen located near the tank bottom keeps si$able debris form entering the lube supply pump inlet. 6 short connector tube transfers the oil from the mainframe to the accessory gearbo. a Feroter. holds appro-imately E. The complete pump slides into a precision bore in the gearbo. integral with the mainframe.fill port on the right. 8iscavenge elements are also located in tandem on the common drive shaft.<'.type pumping element assembly.inch. The lube supply pump. The connector tube contains a domed. The element assembly is located ad!acent to the drive spline end of the pump. %t is then conducted to the top of the engine to a point beneath the lube supply pump.hand side. 6 drain plug is located at the bottom of the tank.pump inlet port. The screen keeps foreign ob!ects out of the passage when the accessory module is not installed on the mainframe. This is a sufficient quantity to lubricate the required engine parts without an e-ternal oil supply. "il flows through the connector tube to the pump inlet. The tank is filled using a *. Iisual indication of oil level is supplied by a fluid level indicator installed on each side of the tank. is comprised of an inner and outer element.

When open.loaded poppet./+'. the scavenge system returns it to the oil tank &(igure 5.loaded poppet from its seat. "il leaving the filter branches in three directions.filter inlet and through the filter. This valve prevents e-cessive supply pressure during cold starts when high oil viscosity creates high line pressures.sumps.type.micron filter element. apart of the lube flow is discharged into the 6F= where churning in the gears will assist in reducing warm. 1racking pressure is set for /9+.oil coolers and a chip detector are located in the scavenge return path. This screen is designed to protect the pumps from foreign ob!ect damage and to provide for fault isolation.outlet passage. the 6F=.oil and air. "il flow passes from outside to inside of the filter element. %cavenge %ystem. %cavenge Inlet %creens. Each scavenge pump inlet is fitted with a relatively coarse screen &(igure 5. 6fter the oil has lubricated and cooled the parts. fuel.7+ psi across the filter will actuate this sensor. %n addition. 6 differential pressure of G+.up time. %t goes to the to of the emergency oil reservoirs in the 6 and =.//'. and 1. 8cavenge oil &and air' enters the bore of each screen a-ially on the . 6n electrical bypass sensor for cockpit indication of filter bypass tits into an 6F= boss ad!acent to the lube filter. cold oil relief valve is incorporated in this system. 6 spring. The filter bowl contains an impending bypass warning button which will provide an indication for filter servicing. a *.sump !ets. =ypass valve opening occurs when filter differential pressure unseats a spring. %t then passes through the open bore of the bypass valve and into the gearbo./7+ psid and reset is //5 psid minimum.

8i.scavenge pumps are in line with the lube supply pump on a common shaft &(igure5. The discharge .scavenge pumps is cast into the gearbo. These screens may be removed for inspection if chip generation is suspected %cavenge pumps.sump! 3-sump! and C-sump elements %cavenge <ischarge *assage.open inner end.at the top of the pump cavity. %t e-its into a cast annulus which discharges directly into the scavenge pump inlet. Top discharge facilitates priming by clearing air bubbles and by wetting all pumping elements from the discharge of first pumps to prime. The common discharge of all si. coring determines relati&e positions of /.perience on other engine sca&enge pumps sho#s that ad+acent pumps tend to cut each other off due to interelement lea)s at &ery lo# speed Therefore! the t#o /-sump elements are placed ad+acent! as are the three C-sump elements! to reduce the possibility of both elements in a sump being inoperati&e simultaneously Porting simplification for the gearbo. @ositioning of the pump elements is determined by these factors: • • • • The lube supply element is placed in the least &ulnerable location and isolated from sca&enge elements at one end The 3-sump element is placed at the other end of the pump to help isolate it from the other sca&enge elements This element is the only one #ith an ele&ated inlet pressure Pump #indmilling e./+'.

The oil tank vents to the 6F=.oil cooler. the system provides for operation if the normal oil supply from the primary system is interrupted. 6ir for the particle separator is pulled across the vanes by the scavenge air blower providing the oil cooling process. The Co.oil cooling is an integral part of the mainframe casting. This keeps discharge velocity relatively constant.cavity is tapered to enlarge as each pump enters the flow steam. Emergency Oil System The T.sectioned hub.circuit pumping at windmilling speeds. a bypass valve is provided which bypasses both coolers.oil cooler is through three holes at the top of the tank. To promote faster warm. The 6F= and 1. The emergency oil system forms part of the normal full.FE./9'.oil mist systems located in each sump. %t then flows in a serpentine fashion in and out through the hollow scroll vanes and bo-. 8cavenge oil enters a manifold at the tank top. sump and the bearings and gears in the 6. 3 bearing in the =. 6ir. These outlets disperse the oil over the tank surfaces on both sides to settle in the tank. E-it from the air. (low leaving the chip detector passes to the fuel.sump components can continue to operate at least G minutes with residual oil present. %t also tends to avoid air traps which could short. This discharge plenum flows into the core to the chip detector.up and guard against plugged coolers.time lubrication system and incorporates one full set of main bearing oil !ets operating in parallel with .E+/ engine is designed to have two oil !ets to provide each main bearing with oil for lubricating and cooling &(igure 5. %n addition to being designed for normal engine operation.sump are provided with emergency air.E++.oil cooler in series with the air.

!et system also provides redundancy to minimi$e the effect of oil !et plugging. and =.ring groove which seals inlet to outlet leak paths at each end. 8econdary !ets are only located at points where lubrication is vital for short. The air !ets aspirate oil mist when normal oil supply pressure is lost.the primary !ets. 6 perforated steel tube in the bore also adds rigidity and retains the circular shape of the element. .bonded to formed sheet metal and caps. squee$e film damper. retains a sufficient amount of oil to provide air. These end caps include an ". @rimary oil !ets./*' consists of three subassemblies: • • • *ilter element 3o#l and impending bypass indicator 3ypass &al&e and inlet screen !ilter Element.oil mist when normal lubrication is interrupted The total sump oil supply is fed into the reservoir at the top. Each secondary oil !et has a companion air !et or air source which flows over the end of the oil !et and impinges on the lubricated part. This mesh provides mechanical support to resist collapse when pressure loads become high. @leating of the faced media adds surface area and mechanical rigidity.edia used in this filter are high. .temperature materials containing organic and inorganic fibers. The dual. 8econdary or emergency !ets are similarly connected to the lowest point in the tank. The media and support tube are epo-y.sumps. They are pressuri$ed from the seal pressuri$ation cavities and operate continuously with no valving required. #"mp"nent $escripti"n The oil filter &(igure 5. 6 small reservoir. The layered media are faced on both sides with stainless steel mesh. Top feed prevents reservoir drainage if the supply line is damaged.duration emergency operation. and uncritical lube !ets are connected to a standpipe at the top of the tank. curved to tit the 6.

there is no cold lockout. The switch connects 97. the indicator will trip when the temperature e-ceeds the /++ to /*+0( lock.I)1 aircraft power when tripped and reopens the circuit at /5 psi minimum differential Co latch is used in the sensor so resetting is automatic.out level.loaded sleeve which restrains the filter a-ially. . 8ensor tolerance range is set slightly below the tolerance range of bypass valve cracking pressure. The indicator is installed from the inside of the bowl. bypassing will not occur without pilot warning.pressure switch which senses filter inlet minus outlet pressure. 6n aluminum bowl houses the element and contains the impending bypass indicator at the end.! a springloaded slee&e around the indicator mo&es aft and pulls the piston assembly to a tripped position This causes the button to trip if operation is attempted #ith no filter in the bo#l To react the indicator! the bo#l is held &ertically so the button latch ball can roll out of the latched position The button is then manually reset %f the bowl is reassembled with no filter. . The sensor consists of a spring. :esetting must be done with the bowl removed from the accessory gearbo.and held vertically. This sensor provides backup warning if maintenance action is not taken. %t is retained in place with an e-ternal retaining ring. 8upport of the filter element is provided by the bypass valve on one end and the impending bypass indicator on the other. The indicator end has a spring.<7 inch to &isually indicate an impending bypass condition 3utton is physically reattained from tripping by a cold loc)out bimetallic latch if temperature is less than <88 to <:8=* This pre&ents a false trip during cold starts /s the button is released! a small spring-loaded ball also mo&es out of position to latch the button and bloc) reset The internal piston assembly automatically resets on shutdo#n" ho#e&er! the indicator remains latched out /fter remo&ing the filter element and the bo#l from the gearbo. button up. "il !ilter :ypass %ensor. The switch is in a sealed cavity separated from the oil and is wired to a hermetically sealed electrical connector. Therefore. =asic mechanics of operation are as follows: • • • • • • 5ifferent pressure bet#een filter inlet and outlet acts to mo&e a piston against a spring at 66 to 78 psi Piston contains a magnet #hich normally attracts a redbutton assembly and holds it seated against its spring 9hen the piston mo&es! the button is released It e. The oil filter bypass sensor is a differential. to release the latch.tends :. The internal latch mechanism prevents resetting the button without disassembling the bowl.(iltration level selected is /++ percent of all particles three microns or larger and is disposable when saturated with debris.change filter elements.loaded piston which moves aft at high filter differential pressure &G+ to 7+ psi' and magnetically releases a microswitch lever.to. The impending bypass indicator will show need.ounting is hori$ontal to fit the space available and provide ready access for servicing %mpending bypass indication is provided by a small unit which is part of the bowl assembly. The pilot will be informed of filter bypassing during cold start warm. 6lso.ups. :owl and :ypass Indicator.

The fuel. The valve includes a Co. %t cools the combined output of the scavenge discharge oil that is ported through gearbo-.oil cooler is a tube and shell design &(igure 5. /+'. Ferotor elements are similar to male gear inside a female &internal' gear with one less tooth on the inner member. The cold oil relief valve protects the oil supply system from overpressure during cold starts &refer back to (igure 5.casing. /+. %t is a conventional poppet. 1./3'.(ubrication and %cavenge *ump. (uel is used as the coolant. The oil is e-pelled when the cavity contracts appro-imately /7+0 away. This allows for the use of a bolt as a pulling handle during valve removal from the 6F=. fuel filter./7+ psi.*9 threaded hole on the outside. The cover bolt holes are arranged to orient the pump assembly in the gearbo. They match the appropriate locations of the mating passages in the engine gearbo. 1. oil is drawn into an e-panding cavity between teeth on one side.sump )elta scavenge elements.sump aft. The entire stack of port plates is retained in the housing with the retaining rings at the spline end. There are seven different elements in the pump from the spline end forward. miltipass cooler design is used to minimi$e pressure drop while obtaining ma-imum cooler effectiveness.&refer back to (igure 5. "il and fuel porting enter on the same end via face porting to the gearbo-. Ialve tolerances are held sufficiently close to achieve the desired sacking pressure without ad!ustment shims or selective fitting of parts. and hydromechanical control unit. 6 counterparallel flow.sump forward.boost pump on the forward side of the gearbo-.sump aft.sump cover. (uel flows through the tubes.type valve with a cracking pressure of /9+.<'. located on the forward side of the accessory gearbo. while the oil flows over the tubes resulting in the counterparallel flow arrangement.sump forward. The lube and scavenge pump is a Ferotor. 1. The oil suction and discharge pas. "il 2ooler. %t is provided to the cooler via the boost pump.cored passages to the cooler. They are shaped and positioned to fill and empty at proper timing for ma-imum volumetric efficiency and resistance to inlet cavitation.casing. and =. The inner Ferotors are keyed to the drive shaft. . The cooler is mounted ad!acent to the fuel. They are the lube supply element. %nlet and discharge ports are cast into the port plates. 68 the assembly rotates. The Ferotor.housing during installation. 6.type pump of cartridge design. The port plate eccentric rings and Ferotors are assembled into a surrounding concentric aluminum tubular housing The housing maintains all elements in proper alignment.type pump was chosen because of its wear resistance and efficiency. and the outer Ferotors are pocketed in individual eccentric rings. 2old "il +elief ?alve. 6. %t fits into a precision bore in the gearbo.sages from the Ferotors are brought radially through the housing. The outermost end of the housing has an integrally cast cover.

ousing modifications prevent inadvertent interchange with the cold oil relief valve.97 psi./5'."il 2ooler :ypass ?alve. 2hip <etector. )esign of the oil cooler bypass valve is identical to the cold oil relief valve with an e-ception &refer back to (igure 5. . The chip detector in the common scavenge line is the engine diagnostic device most likely to provide first warning of impending part failure &(igure 5.<'. 6 lighter spring is utili$ed to obtain a lower cracking pressure of 99.

+<+ inch in length or longer will be indicated if magnetically attracted to bridge the pole pieces. The chip detecting gap has a magnetic field induced in tapered pose pieces at each end of a cylindrical permanent magnet.The chip detector magnetically attracts electrically conductive ferrous chips. The chips bridge the gap between the detector>s electrodes and close a circuit in series with the aircraft cockpit indicator &warning light'.locking inserts in the gearbo. The centrifugal air.reference tube and out the aft end of the engine through the 1. &ent 0no air sources) 3-sump center&ent flo# #hich passes through the intershaft seal @ath of this vent is into the bore of the power turbine shaft and torque.+/5 inch are trapped inside the screen for visual e-amination. 8maller particles will be found either in the lube tank or in the lube supply filter.oil separator vent holes in .ensure retention of these bolts if assembly torque is improperly low.%t is retained by two captive bolts used in common with other accessories.oil separation and overboard venting from these sources: • • • • /-sump seals and emergency air system Sca&enge pumped air from the lube tan) /ccessory gearbo.sump cover. The detector housing pushes into the accessory gearbo. The 6. The local mangetic field is intense at the gap and tends to orient particles in the bridging direction. 8elf. 6 single ferrous chip +. 8maller particles tend to form chains until the pole pieces are bridged Conconductive particles greater than +. Venting System $)%ump.sump centervent handles air.

reference tube.sump.sump. 6 centervent on the forward side of the Co. and 6.oil cooler passages into the oil tank.sump housing removes remaining oil accumulation from the centerventing process during locked @T rotor operation and normal operation. 3 bearing accommodates air entering the sump at the labyrinth seals at each end Two rows of small holes are drilled in a radially thickened section of the forward seal runner. These small holes also reduce effective window area for any droplets which may have a tra!ectory aimed directly at the holes. 6ny additional accumulated oil is then scavenged through the 1.8ump if it has condensed in transit.speed shafts. The accessory gearbo. $ccessory 1earbox. The air then enters the annulus between the high. air from the scavenge pumps flows down the radial drive shaft passage &6-is 6' into the 6. "il Tank. Weep holes are provided through the reference tube. This airflow keeps the compressor tiebolt relatively cool and uniformly clamped. :)%ump.sensor teeth and in the annulus between the reference tube and the standpipe will return oil droplets to the sump. 6fter the air is inside these holes.the power turbine shaft are located under the forward end of the high.sump. The air must flow forward in the annulus between the power turbine shaft and the torque. 1enterventing occurs after air enters the 6.is vented through the 6-is 6 pad via the mainframe oil tank and eventually through the 6. These weep holes keep oil out of the rotor by returning it to the sump. shaft.and low.sump centervent.sump cover scavenging through the 1.speed shaft. 1enterventing the 1. They either flow back into the sump at the centervent or at small weep holes forward of the @T shaft spline. .sump is a passage between the aft end of the @T shaft and a stationary standpipe built into the 1.ovement of air is blocked by a standoff ring on the reference tube "). remaining oil is spun back into the sump. The remaining *+ percent of =. 6bout E+ percent of =. Windage from @T" gear locknut wrenching slots assists in turning oil back into the sump.sumps to enter the 1. 6ir from the sump and intershaft seal flows inward radially through these holes in the power turbine shaft. it follows a tortuous path through additional rows of holes in the turbine shaft and compressor rear shaft. %t e-its aft under the gas generator turbine wheels.sump essentially operate at the same pressure levels since they are interconnected. The 6F=.sump centervent flow moves forward through the bore of the compressor tiebolt and intershaft seal.sump. %t e-its at the 6. tank.sump cover. sump cover. The forward a-ial passage of the air centrifuges oil droplets outward to the bore of the power turbine shaft.or 6. 2)%ump. )ried air then e-its through multiple rows of holes in the reference tube and out the aft 1. "il weep holes are provided near the aft end of the compressor tiebolt. ?se of many small holes increases the surface area of metal in contact with e-iting oil droplets. Windage at the torque and speed. and bearing spacer to allow oil from 1.sump cover. L7%5IC!$IO6 S?S$EM #O5 $ B< . 8ome remaining oil in this air is spun into the 1. 6 rotor seal is provided hereto keep any weepage out of the seal air. 6fter being routed through air.sump centervent air !oins the inner balance piston seal leakage flow. 1. %n doing this.

oil mist created when oil strikes the planetary gears and high. When the switch contacts close. The remaining gears and bearings are lubricated by air. • • • • • • • Pump Internal oil passages Oil filter assembly *ilter bypass relief &al&e Pressure s#itch 0mounted e. aiding in cooling the oil. %t then flows out the housing through a passage in the filter element cap. the low oil pressure circuit is deenergi$ed. %f the filter element becomes clogged.speed pinion.The lubrication system consists of. Through electrical circuitry. "il under pump pressure enters the bottom of the filter housing and passes through the filter element &from outside to inside'. contains three of these !ets. oil passages. The oil is carried between the pump gear teeth and pump housing wall. The valve regulates pressure by bypassing e-cessive pressure directly into the reduction drive housing. . =ypassed oil returns to the sump by gravity flow through an opening in the bottom of the planet carrier.speed pinion to create a mist for lubrication of the rotor shaft bearings. "ne !et directs a spray between the end of the output shaft and the high. the valve will open and allow oil to bypass the filter element. %t sprays oil to the points where the high. Two oil separator plates are installed on the accessory drive gear. The normally open contacts of the low oil pressure switch close on increasing oil pressure at 5 to E psi.speed input pinion. 8ystem pressure is maintained at /5 to 95 psi by a system relief valve.ternally) Oil +et ring Sump The oil filter cavity. The oil !et ring.sump system. the drop in oil pressure will also close the main fuel solenoid valve and shut down the engine.speed input pinion meshes with the three planetary gears. which encircles the high.. "il is drawn out of the sump into the pump housing. Lubrication system capacity is * quarts and is a wet. %t is then forced through drilled passages to the oil filter housing. through a passage in the filter element cap. The bypassed oil strikes the inside surface of the air inlet housing. to the filter outlet passage. and oil sump are built into the reduction drive housing. 6 relief valve in the filter element cap unseats at a differential pressure of /5 to 95 psi. (rom the filter. This allows oil to flow from outside the filter element. 6t rated engine speed a drop in oil pressure below 5 to E psi will open the low oil pressure switch contacts. oil is forced into a passage to the system relief valve and to four oil !ets.