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Pathophysiology

Predisposing Factors: Age Gender Race Family HIstory Precipitating Factors:  exposure to radiation and certain chemicals  having a sibling with leukemia  HT !"# virus  genetic abnormalities  chromosomal translocations

ETIOLOGY: Unknown

$omatic mutations in the %&A

Activate oncogene' deactivate tumor" supppresor gene

(alignant trans)ormation o) lymphoid stem cells s/sx: bone pain *oint pain

Uncontrolled proli)eration o) lymphoblast in the bone marrow Diagnostic Test: +( aspiration +( biopsy

Treatment: Analgesic

ymphoblast replace the normal marrow elements

Treatment:  Remission Induction Therapy  ,onsolidation and (aintenance Therapy  +( Transplantation  CNS prophylaxis

%ecreased production o) normal blood cells

$F leukocytes s/sx: cranial nerve palsies con)usional states optic neuropathy cerebellar dys)unction papilledema 8xtra cells cause the liver'spleen to rupture Diagnostic Test: $pinal Tap leukocyte cells compresses spinal' cranial nerves bleeding Hypovolemic shock s/sx: hepatomegal y splenomegaly elevated A T -># u' 5 s/sx: hypotension tachypnea tachychardia ./012 x #3 4' 5 %ecreased production o) normal blood cells s/sx: )ever: chills sei7ure In)ection $pillage o) lymphoblast into the bloodstream s/sx:  presence o) petechiae  bruise 6 bleed easily  anemia  )atigue  di77iness  palpitations  dyspnea Treatment:  +lood trans)usion  8poetin and hemapoetic stimulants 9rgan in)iltration If treated: Antibiotic Ig eukapheresis If not treated $epticemia .$F s/sx: = .rogress to coma . eukopenia -.Diagnostic Test: .revention o) complications Death <idneys s/sx:  ittle' no U9  =RR  Flank pain  Restless  n'v  legs and )eet swelling  uremia  azotemia Diagnostic Test: (RI Treatment: Intrathecal chemotherapy CNS s/sx: h'a: weakness: blurred vision: balance di))iculty: vomiting: lethargy iver ' $pleen Diagnostic Test: Ultrasonography Renal )ailure leukocyte cells impairs the circulation o) .+.

ompress the $uperior !ena . syndrome s/sx:  swelling o) head: neck and arms  obstruction o) blood )low Treatment:  9? administration  +ronchodilators s/sx: cough: whee7es: respiratory tract obstruction +ronchial'tracheal obstruction 8sophageal compression s/sx: dysphagia 8rosion o) node into a bronchus' trachea s/sx: hemoptysis $evere hypoxia %8ATH .ava s/sx: shortness o) breath cough su))ocation .9vergrown thymus .hysical 8xam Diagnostic test: ymph node biopsy Lymph nodes (ediastinal lymphadenopathy s/sx: lymphadenopathy $!.