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Exercises of ship hydromechanics

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**Exercises on Ship and Offshore Hydromechanics
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J.M.J. Journée

Contents:

Exercise 1. Regular Waves in a Towing Tank.................................................................................... 3 Exercise 2. Fluid Motions in a Rectangular Tank. ............................................................................. 4 Exercise 3. Wave Spectra Characteristics. ......................................................................................... 5 Exercise 4. Spectrum of a Combined Sea and Swell. ........................................................................ 6 Exercise 5. Radii of Inertia of the Ship's Solid Mass......................................................................... 7 Exercise 6. Estimation of Natural Periods of Ships. .......................................................................... 8 Exercise 7. Free Roll Decay Tests...................................................................................................... 9 Exercise 8. Scaling Data from Model Scale to Full Scale. .............................................................. 10 Exercise 9. Equations of Motion of a Pontoon................................................................................. 13 Exercise 10. Wave Spectra Transformation. ...................................................................................... 15 Exercise 11. Ship Motion Trial. ......................................................................................................... 16 Exercise 12. Superposition of Motions and Spectra. ......................................................................... 17 Exercise 13. Resistance and Drift Forces in Irregular Waves. ........................................................... 19 Exercise 14. Estimation of Mean Second-Order Wave-Drift Forces. ................................................ 20 Exercise 15. Turning Circle Manoeuvre. ........................................................................................... 21 Exercise 16. Directional Stability. ...................................................................................................... 22

J.M.J. Journee

Page 1

08-05-02

Hydromechanics_Exercises.doc

www.shipmotions.nl

J.M.J. Journee

Page 2

08-05-02

The phase velocity.00 m. 3.651 m/s. p max = 6020 N/m2 . 3. ω . ω = 3. Suppose now this regular wave being a shallow water wave in a tank with a water depth of 2.doc www. The path of a fluid particle in the surface of the wave.000 m and wmax ( z = −2. The phase of the wave elevation 2. The time between passing an observer along the tank side of two successive wave crests. 6. 8.252 m. The circular wave frequency. umax = wmax = 0.200 m and wave period T = 2.000 meter.000 m/s. 8.563 m/s. the wave number. The maximum fluid particle velocities umax and wmax in x and z directions in the fluid in the tank. of these waves. Journee Page 3 08-05-02 . Regular Waves in a Towing Tank. The path of a fluid particle at 0. z max ( z = 0 ) = 0. Solution: 1.0 s . The energy in the waves per unit surface area. t = 96. The velocity potential of the wave is given by: ζ ⋅ g k ⋅z Φw = a ⋅ e ⋅ sin (k ⋅ x − ω⋅ t ) with: ρ = 1000 kg/m3 and g = 9.0 s.171 m/s z max ( z = −2.200 m and wmax (z = 0) = 0. Circular motion with a radius of 0.0 0 . 6.Hydromechanics_Exercises. t = T = 2. 9. k = 1. 7.628 m/s. The maximum pressure at 0. E / A .500 meter below the still water level. c = 3.14 2 rad/s.000) = 0. 7.0 s. λ . and the group velocity.00 m and a wave maker in one end that generates long-crested regular waves.J. a width of 5.000) = 0. The time needed by this generated wave train to reach the other end of the tank. 5. c . 11. Assume in this tank a generated regular deep water wave with amplitude ζ a = 0.81 m/s2 . 5.207m and umax ( z = 0) = 0. A towing tank has a length of 150. k .shipmotions. 2. 11. E / A = 196 N/m. 10.nl Exercise 1. and the wave length. 4. J. x max ( z = −2. Circular motion with a radius of 0.200 m. 2. xmax ( z = 0 ) = 0.M.500 meter (average) below the still water level. described by: ζ ⋅ g cosh{k ⋅ (h + z )} Φw = a ⋅ ⋅ sin (k ⋅ x − ω⋅ t ) ω cosh{k ⋅ h} Determine the maximum fluid particle displacements xmax and z max as well as velocities umax and wmax in x and z directions at the surface of the fluid as well as at the bottom of the tank.000) = 0. 9. 4.005 m-1 and λ = 6. 10.000) = 0. cg .055 m and u max ( z = −2.126 m/s and c g = 1.121 m.500 meter closer to the wave maker relative to the position of an observer. ω Exercise: Determine: 1. ε = −144.628 m/s.

6. b 4. ζ = ζa ⋅ sin (ω ⋅ t ) with : ζa = ω ⋅ A ⋅ cosh (k ⋅ h ) ⋅ cos(k ⋅ y ) g J.. Derive an approximating formula for Tn when h / b → 0 . =0 ∂z z = − h π 3. are possible to satisfy the boundary conditions on the two side walls of the tank? 4.Hydromechanics_Exercises. Show that this velocity potential satisfies the Laplace equation. + 2 =0 ∂y 2 ∂z ∂Φ 2.nl Exercise 2. 3.shipmotions. Solution: ∂2 Φ ∂ 2 Φ 1. … 2⋅b 5.3. Which values of the wave number. T = g ⋅h 6.J.doc www.2. Show the boundary condition at the bottom of the tank.. Show from the free surface condition that fluid motions are possible for the natural periods of the tank. Fluid Motions in a Rectangular Tank. k = n ⋅ for : n = 1. z ) plane with the y axis in the still water plane and the z axis vertically upward. 2. π⋅ g π ⋅h n⋅ ⋅ tanh n ⋅ b b 5.3. The 2-D velocity potential of the wave in this tank is given by: Φ = A ⋅ cosh{k ⋅ (h + z )} ⋅ cos (k ⋅ y ) ⋅ cos(ω ⋅ t ) Exercise: 1... 2. k .M. The fluid is moving in the ( y. Tn . Describe the fluid particle motion at the free surface as a function of location and time. Consider a fixed rectangular tank with a breadth 2b partly filled with water until a level h .. only and that these periods are given by: 2⋅π Tn = for : n = 1.. Journee Page 4 08-05-02 .

Transform the wave spectrum on basis of circular wave frequencies.68 m .00 0. A histogram of wave heights or by spectral analysis.43 1.5 0. 4. as given above. 8. H1 / 3 = 2. A simplified wave spectrum is given by: Figure 1: Sketch of a wave spectrum ω Sζ (ω) (s-1) (m s) 2 0. Uncertain tail of spectrum can have a large influence. 3. 7. of exceeding a wave height of 4. N = 6 times per hour . Determine the probability. and the mean wave periods T1 and T2 . Sζ ( f ) . Determine also the number of times per hour that this wave height will be exceeded. P = 0.0 meter in this wave spectrum by using the Rayleigh probability density function. P = 0. 6. Wave Spectra Characteristics. P .012 . J.nl Exercise 3.J.1 0.3 0.0 s and T2 = 6.135 . 3. 2.M.9 0. What is the probability that the significant wave height. Explain the term m0 in the Rayleigh probability density function. Measure for the amount of energy of the considered variable. Journee Page 5 08-05-02 . H1 / 3 . What is the disadvantage of the use of T2 when analyzing a measured wave spectrum? Solution: 1.00 Exercise: 1. 2. 5. Sζ (ω) .9 s . … 8.5 0. Calculate (by using the trapezoid rule) the significant wave height. Give a physical explanation of each of these phenomena. H1 / 3 . 4. on basis of frequencies in Herz ( f = 1 / T ) and give a sketch of this spectrum.doc www.Hydromechanics_Exercises. to a wave spectrum. How can this m0 be determined (2 methods) when a wave elevation record (during for instance half an hour) is available? 6. T1 = 7. will be exceeded? 7.95 1.shipmotions.75 0.7 0.12 1. Which restriction should be kept in mind when using this probability density function? 5.

nl Exercise 4.0 s = 5.0 m = 12. T1 and T2 of the combined sea and swell.0 m T1 combined = 8.0 m = 6. Spectrum of a Combined Sea and Swell.Hydromechanics_Exercises. Sketch of spectra: 4 Spectal value Sζ (ω) (m s) 3 2 2 C omb ine d Sea a nd Swe ll Swe ll 1 Se a 0 0 0.5 1 .5 2.5 s and H1 / 3 T1 T2 swell swell swell = 4.shipmotions.0 s Exercise: 1. Journee Page 6 08-05-02 .M. A fully developed sea and swell are defined by: H1 / 3 T1 T2 sea sea sea = 3.0 Figure 2: Sketch of sea and swell wave spectra 2. 2.J.0 s = 11.6 s J.8 s T2 combined = 7. Calculate the characteristics H1 / 3 .doc www. Characteristics: H1 / 3 combined = 5. Solution: 1. Sketch the spectra of this sea and swell and of the combined sea and swell.0 W ave fre qu ency ω (1 /s) 1 .

J. Discuss the considerations when obtaining the actual values for ships.shipmotions. breadth B and depth H .29 ⋅ L k zz = 0. Demonstrate the validity of these three propositions.nl Exercise 5. When the solid mass distribution of a ship is approximated by the mass of a homogeneous long slender rectangular beam with length L . Radii of Inertia of the Ship's Solid Mass.doc www. 2.Hydromechanics_Exercises.M. Journee Page 7 08-05-02 . the three radii of inertia of the ship's solid mass can be approximated by: k xx = 0.30 ⋅ L Exercise: 1.J.30 ⋅ B k yy = 0.

J.0 s T0 θ ≈ 9.doc www. Journee Page 8 08-05-02 .00 10.Hydromechanics_Exercises. Estimation of Natural Periods of Ships. Required unknown parameters may be estimated. Solution: T0 z ≈ 7.. roll and pitch motions of the ship.nl Exercise 6.shipmotions. The following dimensions of a ship are known: Length Breadth Draught Block coefficient Water plane area coefficient Initial metacentric height L B d CB CW GM 200.M.9 s T0 φ ≈ 24.9 s J.00 30.00 m m m m Exercise: Estimate the natural periods for the heave.60 0.75 1.00 0.

414 s and the successive roll amplitudes.81 ms -2 .has a transverse initial metacentric height GM = 1...Hydromechanics_Exercises..J.with mass of displacement m = 4000 ton . A ship . The uncoupled roll equation of motion during the free decay tests is given by: && + b ⋅ φ & + c ⋅φ = 0 (I xx + aφφ ) ⋅ φ φφ φφ Exercise: Deduce all (hydro)mechanical coefficients .. +4. were: . The inertia of the ship's solid mass moment of inertia for roll can be estimated by k xx = 0.6. length L = 90 m and beam B = 15 m . degrees..35 ⋅ B ...8. -3. .shipmotions. as the motion of the model was allowed to die down.. The measured natural rolling period was T0 model = 1. +6.including dimensions .7. Journee Page 9 08-05-02 .5..M.50 m ..in the ship's uncoupled equation of motion for roll. Solution: I xx = 110250 kNms 2 aφφ = 38995 kNms 2 bφφ = 12334 kNms cφφ = 58860 kNm J. Free roll decay tests have been carried out with a 1:50 model of this ship.doc www. -5.nl Exercise 7.. Free Roll Decay Tests. Note: Use g = 9.

M. Hydrodynamic coefficient d zθ J. Radius of inertia k yy 19. Volume of displacement ∇ 17. Wave length λ 6.J. Angular acceleration θ 12. Exercise: Determine the dimensions (in N. Scaling Data from Model Scale to Full Scale. Wave moments M and M a 14. Forward speed V 3. εθζ . Hydrodynamic coefficient a zz 20. Phase lags εz ζ . Frequencies ω and ωe 4. Wave forces F and Fa 13. Angular displacements θ and θa & 10. Solid mass moment of inertia I xx 18. Angular velocity θ && 11.Hydromechanics_Exercises. Consider the coupled equations of motion for heave and pitch of this ship model during experiments in regular head waves with forward speed: ζ = ζa ⋅ cos (ω⋅ t ) && + ez θ ⋅ θ & + f zθ ⋅ θ = (m + a zz ) ⋅ & z & + bzz ⋅ z & + czz ⋅ z + d zθ ⋅ θ yy (I && + b ⋅θ & + c ⋅θ + d ⋅ & & θz ⋅ z & + fθz ⋅ z = M a ⋅ cos (ω⋅ t + εM ζ ) + aθθ ) ⋅ θ θθ θθ θz z + e z = z a ⋅ cos (ω⋅ t + εz ζ ) Fa ⋅ cos (ω⋅ t + εF ζ ) θ = θa ⋅ cos (ω ⋅ t + εθζ ) These experiments have been followed by another set of experiments in irregular waves. Solid mass m 16. Displacements z and z a 7. Wave surface elevations ζ and ζa 5. Hydrostatic coefficient c zz 22.shipmotions. Hydrodynamic coefficient bzz 21. A ship model is scaled by scale 1 : α . m and s) and the scale factors ( 1 : αx ) of: 1.nl Exercise 8. εF ζ and εM ζ 15. Time t and natural periods T0 z and T0 θ 2.doc www. The wave and ship motions have been measured and the data have been stored for further use as wave and motion spectra. Journee Page 10 08-05-02 . Velocity z & 8. Acceleration & z & 9.

Spectral value of heave velocity S &z (ωe ) 35.J. 6. Hydrodynamic coefficient bzz 21.shipmotions.Hydromechanics_Exercises. εF ζ and εM ζ 15. Wave forces F and Fa 13. Wave moments M and M a 14. Solid mass m 16. Phase lags εz ζ .5 1 : α2 7. Spectral value of pitch acceleration Sθ&& (ωe ) Solution: 1.nl s ms-1 s-1 m m m ms-1 ms-2 s-1 s-2 N Nm Ns2 m-1 m3 Ns2 m m Ns2 m-1 Nsm-1 Nm-1 1 : α0 . Angular acceleration θ 12. Hydrodynamic coefficient eθ z 30. Spectral value of wave elevation Sζ (ω) 33.doc 23. Journee Page 11 08-05-02 .M.5 1 : α−0 .5 1 : α0 . Forward speed V Frequencies ω and ωe Wave surface elevations ζ and ζa Wave length λ Displacements z and z a www.5 1:α 1:α 1:α 1 : α0 . Solid mass moment of inertia I xx 18. 4. 3. 5. Spectral value of pitch displacement Sθ (ωe ) 37. Velocity z & 8. Angular displacements θ and θa & 10. Hydrodynamic coefficient a zz 20. Hydrostatic coefficient cθθ 28. Spectral value of pitch velocity Sθ& (ωe ) 38. Acceleration & z & 9.5 1: 1 1: 1 1 : α−0 .5 1 : α−1 1 : α3 1 : α4 1: 1 1 : α3 1 : α3 1 : α5 1:α 1 : α3 1 : α2 . Hydrostatic coefficient c zz J. εθζ . Hydrodynamic coefficient e z θ 24. Spectral value of heave acceleration S&z& (ωe ) 36. Hydrodynamic coefficient aθθ 26. Volume of displacement ∇ 17. Angular velocity θ && 11. Hydrodynamic coefficient bθθ 27. Time t and natural periods T0 z and T0 θ 2. Spectral value of heave displacement S z (ωe ) 34. Hydrostatic coefficient f zθ 25. Mean added resistance in regular waves Raw 32. Radius of inertia k yy 19. Hydrodynamic coefficient dθ z 29. Hydrostatic coefficient fθz 31.

Hydromechanics_Exercises.J. Mean added resistance in regular waves Raw 32. Spectral value of pitch displacement Sθ (ωe ) 37.5 1 : α1 .doc 22. Spectral value of heave acceleration S&z& (ωe ) 36. Hydrodynamic coefficient d zθ 23.5 1 : α2 . Spectral value of heave velocity S &z (ωe ) 33.5 1 : α0 .5 1 : α−1 . Hydrodynamic coefficient dθ z 29. Spectral value of heave displacement S z (ωe ) 35. Hydrostatic coefficient f zθ 25.5 www. Spectral value of wave elevation Sζ (ω) 34.M.5 1 : α3 1 : α3 1 : α2 . Journee Page 12 08-05-02 . Spectral value of pitch acceleration Sθ&& (ωe ) Ns2 Ns N Ns2 m Nsm Nm Ns2 Ns N N m2 s m2 s m2 s-1 m2 s-3 s s-1 s-3 1 : α4 1 : α3 . Hydrodynamic coefficient aθθ 26.5 1 : α4 1 : α4 1 : α3 . Hydrodynamic coefficient bθθ 27.5 1 : α−0 . Spectral value of pitch velocity Sθ& (ωe ) 38.nl J. Hydrostatic coefficient cθθ 28.shipmotions. Hydrodynamic coefficient eθ z 30.5 1 : α3 1 : α5 1 : α4 . Hydrostatic coefficient fθz 31. Hydrodynamic coefficient e z θ 24.5 1 : α0 .

2 2.0 kn) in irregular bow waves ( µ = 1500 ). j ⋅ x j } = Fa i ⋅ cos ωi t + εF ζ i + ai . j c i. j J. are given by: ∑ {(M 6 j =1 i.3 1.6 Sway: i.3 2.3 3. j ) ⋅ & x ( ) i = 1. a draught of 1. j a i.1 2.shipmotions.50 m and the center of gravity at 3. A laden rectangular pontoon (with a length of 40. j c i. j bi . j c i.nl Exercise 9. j a i.J.6 Exercise: Determine in these equations: • the potential coefficients which have to be zero..j 3.M. j & j + bi . j ⋅ x & j + ci . a depth of 2.1 3.6 Heave: i. Journee Page 13 08-05-02 . • the spring terms which have to be zero. Equations of Motion of a Pontoon.2 1.4 3.25 m.j 2. j bi .j 1.6 a i.5 3. a breadth of 7.. The equations of motion for six degrees of freedom of this pontoon.1 1. Mark these zero values with "0" and the non-zero values with "X" in the tables below and explain why some coefficients are zero.4 2.. at zero forward speed ( V = 0.5 1. Surge: i.00 m.5 2.00 m above the bottom) floats at even keel condition in seawater.50 m.Hydromechanics_Exercises.2 3.4 1.doc www. j bi .

for instance: When exerting a vertical force on G in still water.3 5. a swaying.J. j Solution: Ask yourself.5 6.5 4. questions like: • Is there any symmetry of the body? • How will potential coefficients being calculated or measured? Or.6 Pitch: i. j c i. j c i.4 4.nl c i.j 4.1 4. j a i. j bi .M. a rolling. j a i.2 6.2 5.j 6.4 6.Hydromechanics_Exercises.2 4.3 6. will this cause a surging. a pitching or a yawing pontoon? J.j 5.1 5.5 5.3 4.6 Yaw i. in other words. ask yourself questions like. j bi . what are the environmental conditions? • Also.shipmotions. Journee Page 14 08-05-02 .1 6.4 5. j www. when doing this exercise. j bi .doc Roll: i.6 a i.

821 0.Hydromechanics_Exercises. Solution: ωe (rad/s) (m s) 2 0.5144 m/s) and in a direction such that the velocity vectors for ship and waves incline at 1200 .789 2.631 2.6 3.5 4.223 0.4 1. as a wave probe moving forward with the speed of the ship would measure it.shipmotions. Exercise: Calculate the wave spectrum Sζ (ωe ) .228 0.347 0. The spectrum of an irregular long-crested wave system.doc www.30 0.J.nl Exercise 10.90 0. as measured at a fixed point.332 Sζ (ωe ) J. is given by: ω Sζ (ω) (rad/s) (m s) 2 0.30 0.M.484 1.3 0. Wave Spectra Transformation. Journee Page 15 08-05-02 .80 A ship heads into this wave system at 20 knots (1 knot = 0.

4 0.doc www.663 0.85 0.6 0. z a / ζa .8 1.68 0.93 0.8 0.03 0.7 0. obtained by accelerometers on the ship when sailing at 12 knots (1 knot = 0.5144 m/s) on a course of 1500 relative to the wave direction.6 2.29 0.3 0.4 1.62 0.shipmotions.23 0.9 0.5 3.90 0.9 0. A ship motion trial has been carried out in a long-crested irregular wave system.6 1. Solution: ωe z a / ζa (rad/s) (-) 0.M.J.15 J. is defined as follows: ωe S z (ωe ) (rad/s) (m2 s) 0.4 1.032 Exercise: Derive the transfer function for heave.576 0.8 0.40 The heave energy spectrum.nl Exercise 11. over the given range of frequencies of encounter.5 1.756 0.30 0.5 1. ωe . Journee Page 16 08-05-02 .Hydromechanics_Exercises.7 2. Ship Motion Trial.10 0.624 0.149 0. The spectrum of the wave system as measured by a wave buoy at a stationary point is defined in the following table: ω Sζ (ω) (rad/s) (m2 s) 0.7 0.

. AMPL PHASE (-) (deg) 0.057 1. AMPL PHASE (-) (deg) 0.9 0.8 0.2 0..376 203.414 102.134 102.. J.700 0.208 98.100 1.2 0.0 0.00 meter.203 0.0 0.500 1..021 185.173 0.039 239.7 0.644 229... . ..SURGE.6 0.634 0. .8 0.040 103.1 0.112 1.1 0..Hydromechanics_Exercises.5144 m/s and g = 9.529 217..doc www.500 1.2 0.2 0.158 2.135 0.623 106.9 0.. A ship.9 0.5 0.198 1.5 ..nl Exercise 12.0 0... based on the wave frequency and on the frequency of encounter: • For the horizontal longitudinal absolute displacement x at λ / L = … • For the horizontal lateral absolute displacement y at λ / L = … • For the vertical absolute displacement z at λ / L = … • For the vertical relative displacement s relative to the undisturbed wave surface elevation at λ/L = … Remarks: • 1 knot = 0. AMPL PHASE (-) (deg) 0.7 0.HEAVE.1 0.900 0. . WL/SL (-) 1.200 1...6 0.028 1.269 95. AMPL PHASE (-) (deg) 0. the not-filled column with ω 's and the column with Sζ (ω) values.073 242..771 249.041 250.7 0.2 0.744 244.7 0.7 .1 0.240 96.134 5. AMPL PHASE (-) (deg) 0...428 341.00 m z B = +15.189 0.056 265.205 347.4 .0 0.049 120. .000 0..209 193..013 109.015 245.1 0.034 244.529 344. FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF CoG MOTIONS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ WL/SL (-) 1.000 0.7 0. with a length ( L ) of 100.800 0.1 0.9 0. Superposition of Motions and Spectra..044 50.420 3.028 284.092 108.149 258. .700 0..4 0.7 0.. AMPL PHASE (-) (deg) 0.300 1.044 225..4 FORWARD SPEED = 10.853 1.033 122.3 0..417 The co-ordinates of a point B at the port side of the ship's bridge (in an axes system with the origin at G ) are given by: x B = −40.3 0.PITCH..081 38.4 0.3 0. SPECTRAL VALUE (m2s) 3.4 0.611 347.300 1..200 1.400 1.8 0.190 0. sails with a forward speed of 10.538 2.5 0...003 343.400 1.1 0.513 1.YAW.00 m Exercise: Determine the spectral values of the motions of this point B .0 0. A part of the by the strip-theory program SEAWAY of Journée computed non-dimensional amplitude characteristics and the phase characteristics of the motions of the center of gravity G of the ship are given below a function of the wave length over ship length ratio WL/SL ( λ / L ).4 .102 250.708 238.031 127.00 m y B = +10.806 m/s2 .3 0...M.shipmotions.012 190.7 0..086 1.. .SWAY.500 OMEGA (rad/s) . Journee Page 17 08-05-02 .166 260.9 0.107 25.9 0.ROLL.9 0.084 197.8 A part of the energy spectrum of the irregular waves is given below in the column with λ / L (= WL/SL) ratios.9 0.5 0.100 1.267 100.6 0.9 0.862 2.800 0.7 0.7 0.681 349.00 kn WAVE DIRECTION = +150 deg off stern .0 knots in bow waves ( µ = 150 0 ) in deep water.5 0.083 104.300 342.155 0.9 0.014 302.040 274.128 255.600 0. .3 0.6 0.4 0.023 212.500 .035 245.4 0.J.026 176. • Answers have to be given with 3 decimals.900 0....8 0..178 262.160 100.. .044 244.600 0.2 0.4 0. ..895 0.026 93.173 100.

904 0.513 0.785 0.shipmotions.670 WAVE (m2s) 2.455 0.003 0.330 0.760 1.098 0.042 0.480 1.063 0.059 0.105 0.005 0.513 1.063 0.110 0.204 0.103 4.674 0.222 0.862 2.007 0.566 2.Hydromechanics_Exercises.420 3.938 1.081 0.003 0.027 0.173 0.822 0.160 1.237 4.009 0.356 0.864 0.101 0.181 0.429 0.140 0.853 1.717 0.641 0.286 0.950 1.483 0.290 0.002 Z-abs (m2s) 2.003 Z-abs (m2s) 4.207 X-abs (m2s) 0.264 0.436 0.181 0.260 0.190 0.227 1.039 0.554 2.286 0.429 0.231 J.152 3.198 1.225 0.818 0.004 0.413 0.doc www.249 0.015 0.971 1. Journee Page 18 08-05-02 .J.878 0.662 0.008 0.827 0.404 0.203 0.895 0.002 0.114 0.417 X-abs (m2s) 0.001 Y-abs (m2s) 0.464 The energy spectra of the waves and the four motions of point B based on the frequency of encounter are: ENC FREQ (r/s) 0.748 0.537 1.022 0.245 0.056 0.863 0.138 1.105 0.002 Y-abs (m2s) 1.828 0.008 0.001 Z-rel (m2s) 0.004 0.643 2.013 1.005 0.593 2.158 0.M.538 2.271 0.nl Solution: The energy spectra of the waves and the four motions of point B based on the wave frequency are: WAVE FREQ (r/s) 0.793 0.308 1.125 0.161 1.158 2.688 0.370 0.188 0.602 0.002 Z-rel (m2s) 0.329 0.005 0.964 0.521 0.065 1.013 0.338 1.005 0.129 0.412 0.359 1.023 0.110 WAVE (m2s) 3.634 0.704 0.155 0.471 0.003 1.663 0.

Caused by the combined action of wind.75 seconds. Resistance and Drift Forces in Irregular Waves. The wind speed just above the water surface is 1. this wind results in a significant wave height H1 / 3 of 0. Solution: Vsphere ≈ 0. a little storm rises. Pinkster. After a while.doc www. this floating body has a transfer function of the mean second-order horizontal drift forces as given in Figure 3 (with g = 9. De density of air is 1/800 of the density of water ( ρair = ρwater / 800 ).00 m/s. waves and water. Suddenly.M. The drag coefficient C D of the hemisphere is 0.00 meter floats exactly half-immersed (hemisphere) in a deep fresh water lake ( ρwater = 1000 kg/m 3 ) with still water.16 m/s. Journee Page 19 08-05-02 .shipmotions. A sphere-shaped structure with a radius R = 1.10 meter and an average zero- crossing period T2 of 0.nl Exercise 13.J. the sphere reaches after some time a mean translation velocity Vsphere . The energy spectrum of these little waves Sζ (ω) is presented in Figure 3. Figure 3: Wave spectrum and transfer function of the mean second-order horizontal drift forces on a hemisphere Exercise: Determine the approximated final mean velocity Vsphere of the sphere. According to the diffraction program DELFRAC of Prof.Hydromechanics_Exercises.81 m/s2 ). J.40 (based on the front area).

The vessel is subject to irregular deep-ocean beam waves. A dynamic positioned FPSO has a length Lpp = 232.Hydromechanics_Exercises.M.00 m and a draught d = 14. Journee Page 20 08-05-02 . (Hint: Consider the hull of the tanker being a vertical wall of infinite depth.00 m and T2 = 7.nl Exercise 14.25 m. a breadth B = 42. Exercise: Give a rough estimation of the mean second-order wave-drift forces on the vessel.shipmotions. J. Estimation of Mean Second-Order Wave-Drift Forces.00 m.J.0 s. defined by H1 / 3 = 2.doc www.) Solution: F drift ≈ 583 kN.

00 m Breadth B = 18. GPS measurements on the ship show a drift angle of 8. The main dimensions of a general purpose cargo vessel are: Length L = 140. The drift velocity. 8.20 . J.J.97 m/s 5.90 . 6.Hydromechanics_Exercises.20 m Draught d = 7. * 6.0 knots (1 knot = 0. 2. v . 8.673 Projected rudder area AR = 14. v R .nl Exercise 15. the ship has reached a steady rate of turn with ψ the forward ship speed has dropped to 11. The local (or kinematic) drift velocity near the rudder ( x R =-70 m). Journee Page 21 08-05-02 . 3. The rudder will be set from initially 00 to a constant rudder angle of 200 .shipmotions.82 m Block coefficient Cb = 0. The turning circle diameter for a rudder angle of 300 . The first order Nomoto coefficients. Solution: 1. 7. Exercise: Determine from these data: 1. P . The ship sails with a constant initial speed of 17. 7. G . at which an applied force (ignoring transient effects) does not cause the ship to deviate from a constant heading. 4. v = -0. Dc = 520 m. 3.90 0 /s and After turning 3600 at t = t 2 = 460 s. The local (or kinematic) drift angle near the rudder. is supposed to be situated at half the ship's length. The centre of gravity. 2. All effects of currents. δ * = 2.M. & = 0.doc www. of the so-called neutral or pivoting point. LP = 56 m. reached at t = t1 . K and T . At time t = t 0 . The turning circle diameter. forward half the ship length. β* = 17. wind and waves may be ignored. Dc = 780 m.10 .87 m/s. v R = -1. LP . The effective rudder angle. K = 0. * 5. βR .60 m2 . δ . The position. the ship's captain starts a turning circle manoeuvre. along the length of the ship. Turning Circle Manoeuvre.9 knots. according to Nomoto.5144 m/s) in calm deep water. Dc .045 s-1 and T = 50 s. 4. with an almost constant rudder speed of 2. This is that point.0 0 /s.

12 0.M. Equations of motion: & − X u ⋅ ∆u = 0 (m − X u& ) ⋅ u & − YV ⋅ v − Yr& ⋅ r & − (Yr − m ⋅ U ) ⋅ r = Yδ ⋅ δ (m − Yv& ) ⋅ v − N v& ⋅ v & − NV ⋅ v + (I z − N r& ) ⋅ r & − N r ⋅ r = Nδ ⋅ δ & − X ⋅u (m − X ) ⋅ u (m − Y ) ⋅ v& − Y ⋅ v − Y ⋅ r& − (Y − m ) ⋅ r & − N ⋅ v + (I − N ) ⋅ r & − N ⋅r − N . of the two ships forward half the ship's length? Solution: 1. J. P . G . 4.06 0. the ship length L and the forward ship speed U . for judging the directional stability and comment on the directional stability of each of these two ship designs. Give the three dimensional linear equations of motion in the horizontal plane of the steered ship(s) at a straight course. Design B: x P = 76.01 Nr' -0.J.10 ' Yr ' 0. Give these equations in a non-dimensional form.07 -0.v ' ' ' ' u & ' u ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' v & V r & r ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' v & V z r & r 2. Suppose that the centres of gravity. Design B is unstable: σ1 < 0 and σ 2 .0012) in equation A ⋅ σi ' 2 + B ⋅ σi '+C = 0 . Journee Page 22 08-05-02 . 2 . 2. Exercise: 1.3 > 0 because A < 0 . How far are the neutral (or pivoting) points.shipmotions. Design A is stable: 2 σ1 < 0 and σ 2 .90 m. forces by 1 2 ρU 2 L2 and moments by 1 2 ρU 2 L3 . have each length L = 200 m. 4.03 The terms in the equations of motion are made non-dimensional with the density of water ρ .07 -0.26 ' Nv -0. Derive the conditions that have been fulfilled.3 < 0 because A < 0 .Hydromechanics_Exercises.90 m. 3.doc www.nl Exercise 16. All three stability roots σ1. B > 0 and C > 0 (= +0. Design A: x P = 38. B > 0 and C < 0 (= -0. 3 ' should be negative. Model experiments have provided (among others) the following manoeuvring coefficients: m' Design A Design B 0. as they will be used in stability analyses. Two different ship designs.0210) in equation A ⋅ σi ' + B ⋅ σi '+C = 0 .10 Yv -0. Equations of motion: ' ' ' =0 =0 =0 3.36 -0. A and B. are situated at half the ship length. Directional Stability.

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