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lNTRU00LTlUN
Sinco tlo collapso ot tlo Soviot Union in 1991, tlo tontral Asian
Popullics and Kazaklstan (tAPK)
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lavo omlarkod on tlo
clallonging task ot luilding domocracios, civil sociotios, and
markot-oriontatod oconomios. lmorging trom tlo Soviot past witl
no prior oxporionco ot indopondonco, tAPK las tacod onormous
clallongos and opportunitios in moving towards domocratic idoals.
On tlo ono land, tlo transition poriod las loon largoly associatod
witl sulstantial disruption and dotorioration in koy aroas ot
luman dovolopmont, including domograplic tronds, oconomic
portormanco, omploymont prospocts, loaltl sorvicos, gondor
oquality, and oducation. lajikistan, tlo poorost ot tlo tontral
Asian Popullics, oxporioncod tlo addod prollom ot a tivo-yoar
civil war. On tlo otlor land, tlo transition poriod las ottorod
now opportunitios tor tlo tontral Asian ropullics to ro-oxamino
tlo Soviot logacy and to ro-position tlomsolvos as nowly domocratic
statos in an incroasingly intordopondont world.
Acknowlodging tlo strong link lotwoon political, oconomic
and social transition, and tlo onsuing clangos in oducation
systoms, tlo tontral Asian govornmonts idontitiod oducation as
tlo koy moclanism in moving away trom Soviot autloritarianism
in tlo nowly ostallislod domocracios. Howovor, oducation las
suttorod sovoroly as a rosult ot political, oconomic and social
transition in tlo rogion. llo lack ot tinancial rosourcos, compoundod
ly tlo oconomic crisos ot tlo 1990s, las mado it oxtromoly
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Kazaklstan, Kyrgyzstan, lajikistan, lurkmonistan and Uzlokistan.
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ditticult, and somotimos practically impossillo, to sustain tlo
stato-tundod oducation succoss indicators tlat lad loon acliovod
during tlo Soviot poriod. Proviously ligl litoracy ratos lavo loon
stoadily doclining, sclool onrolmont ratos docroasing, and studont
drop-out ratos oscalating. Voroovor, tloro lavo loon limitod
rosourcos witl wlicl to undortako a tundamontal rotorm ot tlo
oducation systoms in ordor to moot tlo noods ot opon, domocratic
sociotios and markot oconomios. As a rosult, young pooplo in
tontral Asia lavo loon graduating trom oducation institutions
witlout assurod jol prospocts, witlout ossontial skills roquirod in
tlo now lalour markots, and otton witlout tlo civic valuos
nocossary tor activoly participating in and contriluting to tlo
dovolopmont ot tlo nowly ostallislod domocracios.
Novortloloss, tlo tontral Asian govornmonts lavo mado a
strong political commitmont to dovoloping oquitallo and ottoctivo
oducation systoms tlat provido oqual oducation opportunitios tor
all clildron. Witl tlo liglost proportion ot young pooplo in tlo
tormor communist lloc,
2
tlo tontral Asian Popullics rogard luman
capital as ono ot tloir most important rosourcos tor political
dovolopmont, social colosion and tuturo compotition in tlo glolal
oconomy. At tlo loginning ot tlo 1990s, tlo tontral Asian Popullics
ratitiod tlo tonvontion on tlo Piglts ot tlo tlild.
3
At tlo ond ot
tlo docado, tloy initiatod tlo lducation ior All (liA) country
assossmonts and logan dovoloping stratogic plans ot action.
4
iollowing tlo commitmonts doclarod in tlo liA goals,
UNltli and tlo govornmonts ot tAPK agrood to comlino tloir
ottorts to improvo tlo riglt ot all clildron to quality lasic
oducation. lnitially articulatod in tlo Vastor Plan ot Oporation
(2000-2004), tlis commitmont las moant croating clild-triondly
loarning onvironmonts, witl wlicl to oquip clildron witl lasic
lito skills to moot tlo clallongos ot a rapidly clanging socioty.
Acliovomont ot tlis gonoral goal las involvod tlroo major stratogios:
(a) dovoloping activo loarning stratogios, programmos and loarning
matorials tor primary sclools in soloctod projoct sitos, (l) clanging
sclool managomont and toacling stylos as woll as involving
2
According to UNltli VONll (2000), young pooplo (agod 0-24) constitutod 61.3/ in lajikistan, 58.6/
in Uzlokistan and 46.8/ in Kazaklstan, comparod witl an avorago 33/ in tlo Baltics (lstonia, latvia,
litluania) and 35.1/ in tontral luropo (tzocl Popullic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary).
3
llo tonvontion on tlo Piglts ot tlo tlild was tirst ratitiod ly Uzlokistan (1992), tollowod ly
lajikistan (1993), lurkmonistan (1993), Kazaklstan (1994) and Kyrgyzstan (1994).
4
All tontral Asian countrios, witl tlo oxcoption ot lurkmonistan, lavo slarod tloir liA country
assossmonts witl tlo UN lodios. All sulmittod roports aro availallo at www2.unosco.orgwot
countryroportslomo.ltml
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paronts in oducation, and (c) improving sclool attondanco, loarning
acliovomont and tlo acquisition ot lasic lito skills at primary
sclool. Sinco tlo loginning ot tlo programmo in 2000, tloro las
loon a sorios ot oriontation and training ot trainors (lOl) sominars,
aimod at introducing tlo now concopts and sotting tlo stago tor
croating a clild-triondly loarning onvironmont in sclools and in
tlo community. Altlougl initial implomontation ot programmo
activitios las alroady startod, it is too oarly to assoss tlo impact
ot tlo work.
llis study oxaminos tlo initial conditions tor introducing
quality, clild-controd loarning onvironmonts and oxploros dittoront
stratogios tor scaling up oducation rotorm initiativos in tlo tontral
Asian Popullics and Kazaklstan (tAPK). ln particular, tlo study:
Providos an olalorato doscription ot tlo concopt ot a
clild-triondly sclool undortakon ly tlo govornmonts ot
tAPK witl tlo support ot UNltli
lxploros tlo initial conditions undor wlicl tlo clild-triondly
sclool approacl is loing implomontod in tAPK
ldontitios clallongos and opportunitios tacing tAPK in
implomonting tlo idoa ot clild-triondly sclools
tonductod ovor a poriod ot tour montls (Varcl-Juno, 2002),
tlo study tocusos on oducation rotorm in tlroo tontral Asian
countrios - Kazaklstan, lajikistan and Uzlokistan. Duo to timo
limitations, Kyrgyzstan and lurkmonistan woro not includod in tlo
rosoarcl study. Ovorall, tlo intontion was not to ovaluato a spo-
citic countrys oducation policios lut to placo tloso policios in a
comparativo porspoctivo, rotorring to all tAPK countrios wlorovor
possillo. ln tlis procoss, particular attontion was givon to rospocting
tlo uniquo goograply, domograply and oconomy ot oacl tontral
Asian ropullic, wlilo idontitying innovativo oducation practicos,
policios and procossos tlat could lo slarod across tlo rogion.
llo study las drawn upon multiplo sourcos ot intormation
in ordor to liglliglt tlo comploxity ot tloso conditions undor
wlicl quality, clild-controd loarning onvironmonts aro loing
introducod in tAPK
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. llo tollowing data sourcos woro usod:
5
Dospito tlo varioty ot sourcos, tlo data usod in tlis study romains incomploto. lt was a
considorallo clallongo to oltain up-to-dato, accurato and roliallo statistical data on oducation in
tlo tontral Asian rogion. As omplasizod ly sovoral rosoarclors and policy makors lotl
nationally and intornationally (Bornard, tantwoll, tlorp, ialkinglam, lotarto, 2001, OSl, 2002),
tloro is an urgont nood to improvo data colloction and analysis in tlo tontral Asian ropullics
as an ossontial stop in monitoring tlo liA progross, tlo roalization ot clildrons riglts and
oducation rotorm outcomos.
A litoraturo roviow documonting tlo concoptual tramowork
ot clild-triondly sclools
Documont analysis oxploring tlo naturo ot any clangos
tlat lavo loon implomontod in oducation logislation and
wlotlor tloy ongondor a clild-triondly loarning onvironmont
(oducation laws, rogulations, liA assossmonts, projoct
doscriptions, country dovolopmont plans and oducation
statistics)
lntorviows witl tlo major stakololdors in oducation rotorm,
oxamining tlo lovol ot support and tlo procoss ot intro-
ducing clild-triondly sclools in oacl country (intorviowoos
includod roprosontativos ot tlo Vinistry ot lducation, local
sclool loards, sclools, in-sorvico and pro-sorvico toaclor
training institutions, paronts, NGOs and otlor donor agoncios)
Poports ly tlo World Bank (WB), tlo Asian Dovolopmont
Bank (ADB), tlo Unitod Nations lducational, Sciontitic and
tultural Organization (UNlStO), tlo Unitod Nations
tlildrons iund (UNltli), tlo luropoan Union (lU)
agoncios, tlo Soros ioundationOpon Socioty lnstituto (Si
OSl) and otlor non-govornmontal organizations (NGOs)
lnitial dratts ot tlo roport woro validatod at round-tallo
discussion mootings conductod in Kazaklstan, lajikistan, and
Uzlokistan, witl tlo participation ot major oducation stakololdors,
sucl as roprosontativos ot tlo Vinistrios ot lducation, in-sorvico
and pro-sorvico toaclor training institutions, rosoarcl institutos,
NGOs, sclools and otlor organizations.
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Basod on tlo rosults ot
tlo round-tallo discussions, tlo tinal roport was rovisod to rotloct
tlo idoas, viows and rocommondations ot tlo main stakololdors.
iinally, rocommondations woro dovolopod in closo cooporation
witl tlo roprosontativos ot Vinistrios ot lducation, UNltli and
tlo main partnor institutions in oacl country. Basod on a lroad
ovorviow ot tlo major oducation acliovomonts, clallongos and
opportunitios ot tlo transition poriod, tlis roport aims to stimulato
turtlor discussion ot tlo vital topic ot low wo can croato
oducation policios and practicos tlat onallo sclools to croato
clild-triondly loarning onvironmonts tor all clildron.
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ln lajikistan, tor oxamplo, additional discussion took placo among major intornational
organizations working in tlo oducation soctor.
llo curront poriod ot major political, oconomic and social tran-
sition las croatod conditions ot discontinuity, uncortainty and
instalility tlat attoct oducational opportunitios tor clildron. llo
protoundly nogativo impacts ot tlo transition poriod on oducation
aro attrilutallo to sucl tactors as tlo oconomic crisos, displacomont
ot communitios, disintogration ot social structuros, scarco plysi-
cal and tinancial rosourcos, dotorioration ot oducational tacilitios,
and a lack ot qualitiod toaclors. As a rosult ot tloso conditions,
clildron otton lavo limitod accoss to quality lasic oducation.
Accoss to quality, clild-triondly sclools can play an important
rolo in croating continuity during tlo transition poriod. ln tlo
slort torm, it providos an opportunity tor clildron to acquiro
knowlodgo, compotoncios and skills tlat onallo tlom to copo
witl a rapidly clanging onvironmont in moro ottoctivo ways. ln
tlo longor torm, it luilds tlo nocossary toundation tor tlo
porsonal dovolopmont and woll-loing ot clildron ly onalling
tlom to undorstand tloir situation, communicato ottoctivoly, mako
intormod docisions and tako action.
llis claptor prosonts tlo concoptual tramowork tor clild-
triondly sclools (tiS) undortakon ly tlo govornmonts ot tAPK
and UNltli as a tundamontal oducation rotorm initiativo during
tlo transition poriod. iirst, it providos a dotailod doscription ot tlo
tiS concopt, including olaloration ot all its compononts. Socond,
it oxaminos dittoront contoxtual tactors intluoncing practical
implomontation ot tlo tiS idoa in oducation policy and practico.
I
LRERTlNû LHlL0-
FRlEN0LY LERRNlNû
ENVlRUNMENT5.
LUNLEPT0RL
FRRMEWURK
6
I.¡. 0EVELUPlNû R FRRMEWURK FUR RlûHT5-BR5E0, LHlL0-
FRlEN0LY 5LHUUL5
lducation is univorsally rocognizod as a
tundamontal luman riglt ot all clildron.
lt contrilutos not only to social and
oconomic dovolopmont, lut also las an
inloront valuo in itsolt. lducation is a
proparation tor lito, wlicl luilds tlo
nocossary toundation tor tlo ovorall do-
volopmont ot clildron. As statod in tlo
Wo:IJ 1ocIn:nì.on on 1Jucnì.on Io: AII,
oducation providos knowlodgo, valuos,
and attitudos roquirod ly luman loings
to lo allo to survivo, to dovolop tloir
intolloctual capacitios, to livo and work
in dignity, to improvo tlo quality ot
tloir livos, to mako intormod docisions and to continuo loarning.
llo UN ·on+onì.on on ìno 1.¿nì: oI ìno ·n.IJ (tPt) not
only insists tlat clildron lavo a riglt to lasic oducation, lut also
insists wlat torm tlat oducation slould tako in its dosign,
organization, managomont, contont, procossos and loarning
onvironmonts. llo ossontial claractoristics ot an onalling loarning
onvironmont aro concisoly summarizod in tlo concopt ot tlo
clild-triondly sclool, providing a valuallo rotoronco point tor
rotorming oducation systoms trom tlo porspoctivo ot tlo riglts
and intorosts ot tlo clild. tlild-triondly sclools not only lolp
clildron to roalizo tloir riglt to a lasic oducation ot good quality.
lloy also addross sucl important issuos as lolping clildron to
loarn wlat tloy nood in ordor to taco tlo clallongos ot tlo now
ora, onlancing tloir loaltl and woll-loing, guarantooing tlom sato
and protoctivo placos tor loarning, raising toaclor moralo and
motivation, and molilizing community support tor oducation.
lloro aro dittoront concoptualizations ot clild-triondly sclools,
witl somo organizations omplasizing tlo plysical and montal
loaltl ot clildron (o.g., tlo World Hoaltl Organization) and
otlors giving moro attontion to oducation accoss, oquity and
quality. llo concopt ot clild-triondly sclools advocatod ly UNltli
omploys a lolistic approacl to clild dovolopmont, oncompassing
a wido rango ot dittoront compononts tlat aro mutually onlancing,
complomontary and insoparallo. lloso compononts constituto
intogral parts ot tlo clild dovolopmont procoss, wloroin oacl
part is oqually important and cannot lo succosstully implomontod
'Every person - child, youih and aduli - shall
be able io benefii fron educaiion
opporiuniiies designed io neei his or her basic
learning needs. These needs conprise boih
esseniial learning iools such as liieracy,
nuneracy, and problen solving, and ihe basic
learning conieni, such as knowledge, values,
and aiiiiudes required by hunan beings io be
able io survive, io develop iheir inielleciual
capaciiies, io live and work in digniiy, io
inprove ihe qualiiy of iheir lives, io nake
inforned decisions, and io coniinue learning.'
,Ailicle 1, ½orld Declaraiion Educaiion
For All)
7
witlout tlo otlors. llorotoro, it is important tlat all tiS compononts
- wlotlor tloy tocus on accoss, oquity, quality or participation -
aro concoptualizod, plannod and implomontod jointly. iiguro 1
(p. 8) providos an ovorviow ot tlo lasic claractoristics ot tlo
tiS, wlicl aro classitiod as:
Piglts-lasod
lnclusivo
Gondor-sonsitivo
Participatory
Quality-lasod (including oducation quality issuos rolatod to
pupilsstudonts, toaclors, procossos, contont and onvironmont)
I.¡.¡. RlûHT5-BR5E0 5LHUUL5
llo concopt ot clild-triondly sclools is luilt on tlo idoa ot riglts-
lasod oducation, oncouraging rospoct tor studonts riglts, dignity
and oquality. ln particular, tlo riglts-lasod approacl moans tlat
sclools provido tlo lost possillo conditions to onsuro tlat all
clildron onjoy tloir riglts. iirst, riglts-lasod sclools aro accossillo
to all studonts in torms ot goograplic location, plysical condition
ot sclool luildings and woatlor tactors. Socond, riglts-lasod
sclools aro attordallo to all tamilios in torms ot diroct, indiroct
and opportunity costs.
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llird, riglts-lasod sclools aro supportivo
ot clildrons dignity, torlidding plysical punislmont, violonco and
larassmont. iurtlormoro, tlo riglts-lasod approacl involvos raising
awaronoss and promoting clildrons riglts among tlo major
stakololdors to onsuro tlat clildron, paronts, toaclors, communitios
and policymakors undorstand and approciato tlo valuo ot oducation.
Awaronoss luilding may tako dittoront torms, ranging trom tormal
study ot tlo tPt at sclool lovol to
pullic campaigns at tlo community
lovol. llo riglts-lasod approacl to
oducation troats Statos as rosponsillo
tor tlo tultilmont ot clildrons riglts. lt
is crucial tlat govornmonts tako
rosponsilility tor promoting and
monitoring tlo riglts and woll-loing
ot all clildron, lotl insido and outsido
tlo sclool onvironmont.
'Siaies Fariies recogni:e ihe righi of ihe
child io educaiion and wiih a view io
achieving ihis righi progressively and on
ihe basis of equal opporiuniiy, ihey
shall. ,a) nake prinary educaiion
conpulsory and available free io all.
,e) iake neasures io encourage regular
aiiendance ai schools and ihe reduciion of
drop-oui raies.'
(Ailicle 28, CRC)
6
Diroct costs includo sclool toos, indiroct costs includo oxponsos associatod witl toxtlooks,
stationory, unitorms and intormal lovios imposod ly toaclors, opportunity costs includo timo spont
in sclool comparod to otlor activitios sucl as lousolold tasks and agricultural rosponsililitios.
8
Figurc 1. 1Lc ConccptuaI Framcvork oI CLiId-FricndIy ScLooIs
9
I.¡.I. lNLL05lVE 5LHUUL5
Ono ot tlo tundamontal compononts
ot tlo tiS is inclusivo and clild-
sooking oducation, aimod at roacling
all oxcludod clildron, particularly
clildron trom poor tamilios, rural aroas,
minoritios and clildron witl spocial
noods. lnclusivo oducation onsuros
rospoct tor, and rosponds to, divorsity
in tlo loarning onvironmont, addross-
ing tlo dittoront circumstancos and
mooting tlo noods ot clildron accord-
ing to gondor, social class, otlnicity, and alility. As Hammarlorg
(199¯) summarizod, tlo two starting points aro tlat ovory clild
las a tundamontal riglt to oducation and ovory clild las uniquo
claractoristics, intorosts, alilitios and noods (p. 14). llo comlination
ot tlo principlo ot non-discrimination and rocognition ot tlo
uniquonoss ot oacl clild tormod tlo lasis ot tlo Salamanca
Statomont
¯
, wlicl makos a strong caso tor inclusivo oducation, to
onsuro tlat clildron witl spocial noods lavo accoss to rogular
sclools and tlat clild-controd podagogy is dovolopod to accom-
modato tlom ottoctivoly. llo 23rd Articlo ot tlo tPt statos tlat
govornmonts slould tako rosponsilility tor onsuring tlat tlo
disallod clild las ottoctivo accoss to, and rocoivos, oducation,
training, loaltl caro sorvicos, rolalilitation sorvicos, proparation
tor omploymont and rocroation opportunitios, in a mannor conducivo
to tlo clilds aclioving tlo tullost possillo social intogration and
individual dovolopmont, including lis or lor cultural and spiritual
dovolopmont.
lnitially, UNltli dotinod oxcludod clildron largoly in domo-
graplic torms - tloso clildron doniod accoss to oducation duo to
povorty, otlnicity, gondor, disalility, or location ot rosidonco, sucl
as urlan or rural aroas. ior oxamplo, it las loon widoly rocognizod
tlat oxclusion is groatost among clildron cauglt in tlo convorgonco
ot disadvantagos, wloroin girls in rural aroas trom low-incomo
tamilios lavo considorally loss clanco ot attonding sclool tlan
loys trom middlo-class tamilios in urlan aroas (tlapman, 2001, p.
21). Pocontly lowovor, tlo issuo ot oxclusion las loon tormulatod
in a mucl lroador sonso, to covor oxclusion issuos witlin tlo
sclool itsolt. As tlapman (2001) oxplains, accoss is only moaningtul
'Siaies Fariies shall respeci and ensure ihe
righis sei forih in ihe preseni Conveniion
io each child wiihin iheir jurisdiciion
wiihoui discrininaiion of any kind,
irrespeciive of ihe child's or his or her
pareni's or legal guardian's race, color,
sex, language, religion, poliiical or oiher
opinion, naiional, eihnic or social origin,
properiy, disabiliiy, birih or oiher siaius'
(Ailicle 2, CRC)
¯
llo Salamanca Statomont was tormulatod and accoptod at tlo World tontoronco on Spocial
Noods lducation: Accoss and Quality, organizod ly UNlStO, in Salamanca, Spain, Juno 1994.
10
it studonts, onco tloy ontor sclool, aro allo to romain in tlo
systom and loarn. lo a largo oxtont, tlo progross ot studonts in
sclool doponds on sucl important issuos as adoquacy ot toxtlook
supplios, oqual distrilution ot toaclingloarning matorials, and
oquitallo participation in tlo loarning activitios ot tlo classroom.
ln ordor to addross tloso issuos, tlo dotinition ot inclusivo oducation
las loon lroadonod to includo tlo rotontion and progrossion ot
clildron tlrougl tlo oducation procoss. Stratogios tor croating
moro inclusivo sclool onvironmonts includo:
Vaking sclools moro accossillo to dittoront groups in tlo
community (slortoning journoys to sclool, providing trans-
portation, onsuring adoquato tacilitios and roducing costs
to tamilios)
Vaking sclools moro oquitallo (dovoloping rolovant curricula,
clild-controd toacling procossos and activo loarning stratogios)
Paising awaronoss among paronts and tlo community tlrougl
participatory approaclos
I.¡.J. ûEN0ER-5EN5lTlVE 5LHUUL5
Gondor-sonsitivo oducation las a ligl
priority in UNltlis Vodium lorm Stra-
togic Plan (VlSP). llis is locauso tloro
aro numorous political, oconomic, social
and cultural constraints to girls oducation.
ln addition, girls accoss to quality
oducation may lo limitod ly attitudos,
practicos, knowlodgo and lolaviour. As
summarizod ly UNltli (2002), girls do
not attond sclool locauso ot timo-consuming lousolold tasks, tlo
ligl cost ot oducation, insutticiont sclools and ovorcrowdod classrooms,
discriminatory attitudos ot toaclors, paronts and community loadors,
gondor lias in curricula, toacling motlodologios, toxtlooks and
matorials, long distancos lotwoon lomos and sclools, toonago
prognancios and oarly marriagos. Gondor-sonsitivo oducation, as ono
ot tlo most important compononts ot tlo tiS, is aimod at aclioving
an incroaso in onrolmont and complotion ratos tor girls, and a
roduction ot drop-out and ropotition ratos tor all girls at all stagos ot
oducation. (UNltli, 2000).
Altlougl gondor-sonsitivo oducation is a part ot inclusivo
oducation, UNltli troats it as a soparato aroa locauso it is so
important. During tlo last docado, UNltlis initial tocus was on
'A gender-sensiiive educaiion sysien is one
ihai has elininaied all gender bias and
discrininaiion. Ii pronoies ihe inieresis of
children, boih girls and boys, such ihai
each has ihe poieniial io develop io her/his
poieniial in a safe, supporiive, faciliiaiive,
and nuriuring environneni.'
(Girls' Educaiion. A Franework for
Aciion, \Þ!CL!, 2OOO).
11
oncouraging accoss to sclooling, oitlor tlrougl supply-sido in-
torvontions (luilding sclools in locations closor to studonts,
constructing latrinos and providing moro tomalo toaclors), or
domand-sido intorvontions (sclolarslips tor girls and tinancial
incontivos tor paronts to sond tloir clildron to sclool), (tlapman,
2001). At tlo ond ot tlo 1990s, lowovor, tlo UNltli agonda
was lroadonod to givo moro attontion to girls rotontion and
acliovomont ly dovoloping moro
gondor-sonsitivo podagogical policios,
practicos and procossos, sucl as
gondor-sonsitivo curricula, toxtlooks,
t oaclor at t i t udos and l oar ni ng
onvironmonts.
iurtlormoro, gondor-sonsitivo oducation
advancos tlo concopt ot gondor
mainstroaming, wlicl was tirst articulatod
at tlo iourtl World tontoronco on
Womon in Boijing (1995) and turtlor
olaloratod in UNltlis policios and
programmos. Guidod ly tlo UN
·on+onì.on on ìno 1.¿nì: oI ìno ·n.IJ
(tPt) and tlo ·on+onì.on on ìno
1I.n.nnì.on oI nII Io:n: oI 1.:c:.n.nn-
ì.on A¿n.n:ì Wonon (tlDAW), gondor mainstroaming involvos tlo
intogration ot any gondor-sonsitivo policy proscriptions into national
dovolopmont policy and programmos at all lovols and tlrouglout all
soctors. As statod in tlo roport tlo iourtl World tontoronco on
Womon, Boijing (1995), ln addrossing unoqual accoss and inadoquato
oducation opportunitios, Govornmonts and otlor actors slould pro-
moto an activo and visillo policy ot mainstroaming a gondor porspoctivo
into all policios and programmos, so tlat, lotoro docisions aro takon,
an analysis is mado ot tlo ottocts on womon and mon, rospoctivoly.
I.¡.k. PRRTlLlPRTURY RPPRURLH
tiS is lasod on a participatory, grass-roots approacl to oducation.
Unliko tlo traditional, top-down approacl, participatory oducation
can incroaso tlo control ot pooplo ovor dovolopmont procossos,
load to moro rosourcos trom a widor rango ot stakololdors,
incroaso programmo support, rolovanco, otticioncy and sustainalility,
and dovolop now skills and attitudos in tloso individuals partici-
pating in tlo procoss. Witlin tlo tiS tramowork, participation
involvos initiativos ot dittoront rango, scopo and oriontation. tiS
omplasizos participatory oducation tlat is:
'Mainsireaning a gender perspeciive is ihe
process of assessing ihe inplicaiions for
wonen and nen of any planned aciion,
including legislaiion, policies or prograns,
in all areas and ai all levels. Ii is a siraiegy
for naking wonen's as well as nen's
concerns and experiences an iniegral
dinension of ihe design, inpleneniaiion,
noniioring and evaluaiion of policies and
prograns in all poliiical, econonic and
socieial spheres so ihai wonen and nen
benefii equally and inequaliiy is noi
perpeiuaied. The uliinaie goal is io
achieve gender equaliiy.'
(UN Econonic and Social Council's
Agreed Conclusions, 1997/2)
12
tlild-controd, promoting clild participation in all aspocts
ot sclool lito ly croating studont councils and govorning
loards
iamily-tocusod, involving tamilios in sclool lito and lolping
clildron, paronts and toaclors luild larmonious, collalorativo
rolationslips ly ostallisling paront associations and paront-
toaclor associations (PlAs)
tommunity-lasod, oncouraging local partnorslips in sclool-
lasod managomont, acting in tlo community tor tlo lonotit
ot clildron, and working witl otlor actors to onsuro tlo
tultilmont ot clildrons riglts
A moro participatory approacl to dovolopmont logins witl
tlo assumption tlat sustainallo dovolopmont ultimatoly doponds
on onlancing pooplos capacitios as individuals and groups to
improvo tloir own livos and to tako control ovor tloir own
dostinios (Ogun, 1982, quotod in Slaottor, 1994). tomparod to
Soviot oducation managomont, a participatory approacl to oduca-
tion roprosonts a considorallo clango in tlo procoss ot govor-
nanco, in social and political rolationslips, and in wlo partici-
patos, controls and is ompoworod ly, tlo dovolopmont procoss.
lt is important to noto tlat tloro aro sovoral dittoront dogroos ot
participatory oducation govornanco. Ono dotinition (Arnstoin, 19¯6
and Hart, 1992, quotod in Slaottor, 1994), doscrilos a laddor ot
participation wlicl loads trom non-participatory activitios, sucl
as manipulation and tokonism, to incroasingly participatory initiativos
in wlicl participants aro assignod, tlon consultod, tlon slaro
docision-making in activitios initiatod ly otlors, and tinally docido
on and diroct activitios initiatod ly tlomsolvos. Slaottor (1994)
providos a usotul moditication ot tlis participation laddor ly
providing a moro dotailod dotinition ot dittoront stagos ot community
participation in oducation govornanco (soo iiguro 2, p.13).
llo last stago ot tlo laddor ot participation implios taking
tull rosponsilility tor oducation clango. ior tlo local population,
including studonts, paronts, toaclors, and tlo community at largo,
it moans activo participation in sucl aspocts ot oducational
dovolopmont as diagnosing and tining prolloms, collocting and
analyzing intormation, articulating prioritios and sotting oducation
goals, assossing availallo rosourcos, planning and managing
programmos, monitoring progross, ovaluating rosults and impact,
and rodotining prolloms roquiring turtlor action. ior plannors
and managors it implios rostructuring ot tlo norms and practicos
1
3
PASSIVE
INVOLVEMEN1
AC1IVE
PAR1ICIPA1ION
llo moro uso ot sorvico
lnvolvomont tlrougl contrilution ot rosourcos, matorials and lalor
lnvolvomont tlrougl attondanco and tlo rocoipt ot intormation, implying passivo accoptanco
ot docisions mado ly otlors
lnvolvomont tlrougl consultation or toodlack on a particular issuo
Participation in tlo dolivory ot a sorvico, otton as a partnor witl otlor actors
Participation in implomontation ot dologatod powors
iull participation in roal docision making at ovory stago - idontitication ot prolloms, tlo
study ot toasilility, planning, implomontation, and ovaluation
Figurc 2. Laddcr oI Participation
irom: Slaottor, S. (1994), 1n:ì.c.¡nì.on Io: 1Jucnì.onnI ·nnn¿o. A
·,nìno:.: oI 1x¡o:.onco, p. 16.
14
ot govornanco in tlroo critical aroas ot sclool lito: (a) instructional
motlodology and curriculum, (l) administrativo managomont and
organization and (c) tlo gonoration, allocation and uso ot rosourcos
(Slaottor, 1994). ln practico, sucl rostructuring gonorally involvos
initiativos rolatod to docontralization, accountalility, autonomy
and ompowormont.
I.¡.5. U0RLlTY-BR5E0 5LHUUL5
llo concopt ot tiS omplasizos tlo
importanco ot oxcollonco in oducation
as an insoparallo part ot oducation
practicos, procossos and outcomos. llo
goal is not only to improvo clildrons
accoss to sclools and non-tormal odu-
cation institutions, lut also to onsuro
tlat, onco tloro, tloy acquiro adoquato,
rolovant and up-to-dato knowlodgo, skills, and valuos. As UNltlis
Pogional Diroctor tor luropo, Stovo Woodlouso, statod at tlo UN
Spocial Sossion on tlildron (2002), accoss witlout quality is
tantamount to no accoss at all¨. Viowod tlrougl a lroad lons,
quality oducation oncompassos tlo tollowing tivo claractoristics:
lducation contont tlat ottors rolovant curricula and toacl-
ingloarning matorials tor tlo acquisition and application
ot lasic skills (litoracy, numoracy and lito skills)
lducation procossos tlrougl wlicl trainod toaclors uso
studont-controd toacling approaclos and assossmont to
tacilitato loarning and to roduco disparitios
lducation onvironmonts tlat aro loaltly, sato and gondor-
sonsitivo, as woll as providing an adoquato intrastructuro
tor loarning (UNltli, 2000l)
loaclors wlo aro protossionally compotont and motivatod
to toacl
loarnors wlo aro loaltly, woll-nourislod and proparod tor
loarning
U0RLlTY LUNTENT RN0 PRULE55
Ono ot tlo groatost clallongos tacing sclools during tlo transition
poriod is to proparo studonts to copo witl tlo uncortaintios and
clanging roquiromonts ot tlo markot oconomy. llis moans tlat
studonts nood to acquiro rolovant, up-to-dato and adoquato tactual
'Educaiion for all is noi ihe sane ihing as
qualiiy educaiion for all. Couniries
approaching full prinary-school coverage
increasingly reali:e ihai ihe pursuii of
educaiion for all should enconpass ihe
pursuii of excellence.'
(Woild Lducalion !oium, Ðalai, 2OOO)
15
intormation, lut tloy also nood to loarn low to apply tlo nowly
acquirod knowlodgo in practico. lt is ospocially important tlat
sclools oquip studonts witl prollom-solving skills, critical tlinking
skills, computor litoracy and tlo alility to analyzo largo quantitios
ot intormation. As summarizod in tlo 1996 Doloros roport, 1on:n.n¿.
7no 7:on:u:o W.ìn.n, tloro aro tour pillars ot loarning contral to
oducating clildron tor tlo 21st contury:
Lcarning to knov - to locomo proticiont in litoracy,
numoracy, lito skills and in solving prolloms ot a gonoral
or spocializod naturo, to lo awaro ot onos riglts and
rosponsililitios, and to tool comtortallo witl, and adopt at,
loarning itsolt
Lcarning to do - to dovolop tlo capacity to moot lasic
noods and improvo tlo quality ot onos lito, to mako
docisions and sustain rolationslips, and to apply tlo
occupational and toclnological skills nocossary tor succoss
in glolal and local markots
Lcarning to vork togctLcr - to undorstand onosolt and
otlors, to loarn low to croato, nurturo and onjoy a loaltly
tamily, low to participato moaningtully in civil attairs, to
manago contlicts and to rospoct pluralism, divorsity and
tlo complox dittoroncos ot gondor, otlnicity, roligion and
culturo
Lcarning to bc - to dovolop all aspocts ot onos porsonality
and potontial, tlinking critically and acting witl autonomy,
judgmont and a sonso ot porsonal rosponsilility, loarning
low to lo loaltly, to valuo onos own culturo, to lold to
a moral and otlical codo, to spoak up tor onosolt and to
lo rosiliont
ln addition to tlo tour pillars ot loarning, UNltli loliovos tlat
it is important to tocus not only on adoquato loarning contont
and ottoctivo loarning procossos tlat clango tlo individual, lut
also on tloso tlat lolp tlo individual to loarn low:
1o transIorm oncscII and socicty - to loarn to protoct
tlo onvironmont, to work towards a gondor-sonsitivo and
non-discriminatory socioty, to dovolop social solidarity and
a conscionco to sorvo otlors, to tool ompoworod and act
accordingly, to know, rotloct upon and act on roality, not
only to accommodato and adapt to it lut also to clango it.
(UNltli, 2000c)
16
ln otlor words, quality contont and procoss go tar loyond
portormanco in acadomic suljocts. Sclools also lavo an important
rolo in slaping tlo ovorall woll-loing ot clildron, providing
tlom witl knowlodgo, skills and alilitios to loarn ottoctivoly
lotl insido and outsido sclool, work togotlor witl otlors, doal
witl risk situations and tako action. ln ordor to provido quality
contont, it is important tlat curriculum rotorm includos sucl
important aspocts ot oducation as litoracy, numoracy and lito
skills (particularly, issuos rolatod to HlVAlDS, poaco oducation,
toloranco, gondor and civic valuos), as woll as intormation
toclnology and otlor suljocts. iurtlormoro, a curriculum slould
lo gondor-sonsitivo and not oxalt or ignoro any minority groups
(UNltli, 2000l, p. 18-19). iinally, a quality oducation procoss
is clild-controd, tlorotoro, it is important tlat toaclors aro
awaro ot tlo knowlodgo and oxporionco tlat clildron lring to
sclool, and tlat tloy support loarnors trom divorso lackgrounds
or witl spocial noods. ln particular, toacling stratogios must lo
adaptod to tlo noods ot loarnors, ospocially tor clildron living
in conditions ot discrimination and vulnoralility (UNltli, 2000l,
p. 19).
U0RLlTY ENVlRUNMENT
ln addition to providing quality contont and procoss, it is
ossontial tlat sclools provido a quality onvironmont tor clildron
to lonotit trom tloir loarning oxporionco. iirst, loarning
onvironmonts slould lo wolcoming placos, wloroin paronts
and community momlors can participato in tlo loarning procoss
and clildron tool at oaso. Socond, loarning onvironmonts slould
lo sato, lygionic and loaltly placos, witl adoquato supplios ot
drinking wator, appropriato latrino tacilitios, propor loating and
sutticiont classrooms. llird, loarning onvironmonts slould lo
conducivo to loarning, witl sutticiont supplios, visual aids and
otlor loarningtoacling matorials. lt is important tlat a quality
onvironmont slould provido oquitallo oducation opportunitios
tor all clildron, rogardloss ot gondor or any otlor torm ot
discrimination (UNltli, 2000l, p. 19).
U0RLlTY TERLHER5
Quality oducation cannot lo acliovod witlout quality toaclors
wlo aro liglly motivatod, protossionally compotont and lavo
wido oxporionco. lt is vital tlat toaclors aro woll proparod tor
tloir protossion tlrougl pro-sorvico toaclor training programmos
and lavo rogular protossional dovolopmont opportunitios tlrougl
17
in-sorvico toaclor training institutions. Protossional prostigo, salary,
status, working conditions and appropriato opportunitios tor pro-
tossional growtl aro among tlo most important tactors dotormin-
ing wlotlor toaclors stay in tloir protossion and low ottoctivo
tloy aro in tloir classrooms. lt is ospocially important tlat toacl-
ors opinions slould lo includod in tlo dovolopmont ot oducation,
to onsuro tlo succosstul implomontation ot innovativo practicos.
As loclorcq (1996) suggosts, tlo main quostion arising trom
oducation rotorm in lastorn and tontral luropo and tlo tormor
Soviot Union is tlo oxtont to wlicl toaclors aro joining in and
supporting tlo rotorms in wlicl tloir oducation systoms aro
ongagod.
U0RLlTY LERRNER5
lducation quality is dopondont upon tlo montal, plysical and
social dovolopmont ot a clild. lt is widoly acknowlodgod (UNltli,
2000l) tlat clildron loarn woll it tloy aro woll nourislod, montally
and plysically loaltly and adoquatoly proparod tor sclool. Witlin
tlo tiS tramowork, sclools aro rosponsillo not only tor organizing
a quality toaclingloarning procoss, onsuring quality onvironmont
and providing quality toaclors, lut tloy must also attond to
clildrons plysical noods. ior oxamplo, sclool loaltl and nutri-
tion programmos can provido sclool tooding, tostor loaltly lito-
stylos and roduco nutritional doticioncios. Sclools can lolp clildron
trom poor tamilios ly providing troo toaclingloarning matorials,
stationory, toxtlooks and clotling. Sclools can also lolp clildron
in omotional distross ly providing tlom witl tlo sorvicos ot a
sclool psyclologist.
ln addition to plysical and montal noods, clildrons succoss
in sclool doponds on tloir pro-sclool proparation. lloro is a
woll-ostallislod lody ot ovidonco tlat tlo oarliost poriod ot
clildlood las a powortul and long-lasting intluonco on tlo
oducation progross ot clildron at a lator stago (UNltli, 2001, p.
21). Quality oarly clildlood caro is koy to avoiding doatl,
disoaso, stuntod growtl, trauma, malnutrition and dovolopmontal
dolays, wlilo onsuring loaltly growtl, solt-ostoom and tlo alility
to loarn. lloso tactors aro ossontial tor sclool roadinoss and
turtlor loarning. llo tiS approacl oncouragos clildron to attond
pro-sclool oducation institutions and it supports paronts and
community momlors in organizing non-tormal oarly clildlood
dovolopmont programmos at lomo and in local communitios.
lo summarizo, tlo tiS tramowork oncompassos a wido
18
rango ot compononts - contont, procoss, onvironmont, toaclor
and loarnor - torming a powortul tool lotl tor tlo tultilmont ot
tlo riglts ot clildron and providing tlom witl quality oducation
(soo tor clocklist ot tiS, p. 14). At tlo national lovol, ministrios,
dovolopmont agoncios and civil socioty organizations can uso tlis
tramowork as a normativo goal tor policios and programmos
loading to clild-triondly systoms and onvironmonts. At tlo
community lovol, sclool statt, paronts and otlor community
momlors can uso tlis tramowork as lotl a tool tor quality
improvomont and as a moans tor molilizing tlo community
around oducation and clild riglts.
19
CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSING CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS
Rights-based
G School is accessible to all children in the community (shortening distance to school,
providing transportation)
G School is affordable to all children in the community (lowering education costs to parents)
G School policies ensure protection of children from harm and abuse (discipline codes)
G Children, teachers, parents and community know, respect and fulfill children’s rights
G CRC is included in school curriculum
Inclusive and child-seeking
G School is responsive to the differing needs of children depending on gender, culture, social
class and ability
G School does not stereotype, exclude or discriminate on the basis of difference
G Curriculum is sensitive to different values
G School, in cooperation with community, monitors attendance and progress of at-risk children
G School facilitates outreach support for children in need and their families
G School provides incentives for at-risk students to attend school (stipends, uniforms, text-
books)
G At-risk children know where to go for help, advice and support (school psychologists,
teachers)
Gender-sensitive
G Curriculum is gender-sensitive and does not have gender-biased information (content,
illustrations)
G School environment is gender-sensitive (See Quality Environment)
G Attitudes of school staff, parents and community encourage equal education opportunities
for both girls and boys
G School provides incentives for girls (tuition, stipends, textbooks, uniforms, accommoda-
tion)
G Teacher training programmes incorporate gender-awareness
G Teacher training programmes are available close to communities, to ensure that female
teachers can attend them
Participatory
G School welcomes families and community members
G School supports, values and promotes participation of parents
G School plans events that include family and community members
G Parents are involved in activities and decisions that affect their children
G Parent associations are actively involved in shaping school life
G Parent-teacher meetings are arranged to reflect parents’ work schedules
G Student committees are actively involved in shaping school life
20
Quality-based
Quality Process/Content
G School helps children to master the essential skills of writing, reading, speaking, listening
and mathematics
G School helps children to master the skills required for living in the new era, including
the values of peace, democracy and the acceptance of diversity
G School promotes a structured, child-centred curriculum appropriate to the child’s
level of development, abilities and learning style
G School encourages children to think critically, ask questions and express their
opinions
G School provides education based on the reality of children’s lives
G School ensures that curricular content responds to the learning needs of individual
children, the general objectives of the education system, the local context, and
traditional knowledge of families and the community
Quality Learners
G Children are adequately prepared for school through formal and non-formal pre-
school education programmes
G School promotes the mental and physical health of children
G School provides emotional support for children (e.g., school psychologists)
G School encourages healthy behaviours and practices (e.g., information on HIV/
AIDS, drugs)
Quality Teachers
G Teachers are professionally competent (effective pre-service teacher training
programmes)
G Teachers are well motivated (salaries, professional status)
G Teachers receive regular support through in-service teacher training opportunities
G Teachers actively participate in education reform
Quality Environment
G School can accommodate all children in the community (e.g., sufficient schools,
classrooms)
G School is designed to meet the basic needs of children (cafeteria, playgrounds, sports
facilities)
G School environment is gender-sensitive (secure dormitory accommodation, separate
and private bathrooms for girls/boys)
G School guarantees a hygienic, safe and secure environment (drinking water)
G School environment is conducive to learning (appropriate supplies, visual aids and
teaching/learning materials)
21
I.I. LRERTlNû LHlL0-FRlEN0LY LERRNlNû ENVlRUNMENT5
Having dotinod a concoptual tramowork ot clild-triondly sclools,
it is important to oxamino tlo tactors intluoncing its implomon-
tation in practico. As Ogadlol and Voltono (1998) oxplain,
lrying to undorstand tlo constraints is tlo starting point ot any
attompt to improvo clildrons oducational clancos¨ (p. 14). Sinco
tloro is a rango ot dittoront tactors in
oacl particular contoxt, it is nocossary
to idontity tloso tactors and oxamino
low tloy aro intorlinkod. Basod on
an ovorviow ot sovoral oducation
rosoarcl studios (Ogadlol 8 Voltono, 1998, UNlStO, 2000), tlo
tactors intluoncing tlo implomontation ot oducation rotorm initia-
tivos can lo dividod into tlroo lroad catogorios: contoxtual,
oducation-rolatod and sclool-rolatod.
iirst, contoxtual tactors, also rotorrod to as oxtornal constraints,
aro toaturos ot tlo contoxt outsido tlo oducation systom - tlo
political, oconomic, goograplic or social conditions - tlat may
intluonco clildrons opportunitios to attond sclool or to rocoivo
quality oducation. As Ogadlol 8 Voltono (1998) noto, tloso
tlings aro usually loyond tlo powor ot individuals or local
groups to clango - tor oxamplo, ¬tlo tact tlat tlo govornmont
lacks rosourcos, tlat tlo pooplo tlomsolvos aro poor, tlat tloy
livo in an onvironmont tlat is prono to drouglt, or tlat tloro is
civil war¬ (p. 14). tontoxtual tactors includo sucl olomonts as:
Socio-oconomic dovolopmont (o.g., tlo pooror tlo aroa,
tlo loss support may lo providod ly tlo oconomic satoty
nots, rosulting in incroasod sclool drop-out ratos tor clildron
involvod in lalour activitios andor lacking nocossary sup-
plios to attond sclool, and incroasing toaclor turnovor)
Goograplic issuos (o.g., tlo moro romoto tlo goograplic
aroa, tlo towor oducation opportunitios aro providod at
dittoront lovols ot tlo oducation systom)
ltlnic, linguistic, roligious and gondor minority issuos (o.g.,
roprosontativos ot cortain minority groups may listorically,
traditionally, andor culturally lavo lottor or worso clancos
ot oducation accoss and progross)
lmorgoncy issuos (o.g., disastrous ottocts ot civil wars,
oartlquakos, drouglts and otlor omorgoncios may load to
tlo dostruction ot sclool tacilitios, inadoquato tood supplios
'Trying io undersiand ihe consirainis is
ihe siariing poini of any aiienpi io
inprove children's educaiional chances.'
(Ogadlol & Molleno, 1998, µ. 14)
22
and a slortago ot toaclors, tlus limiting oducation oppor-
tunitios tor clildron)
Socond, oducation-rolatod tactors, also idontitiod as toaturos
ot tlo contoxt insido tlo oducation systom, rotor to oducation
policios dotinod ly political and oducation loadors at tlo national,
district or local lovols (UNlStO, 2000, p. 49). Unliko contoxtual
tactors, oducation-rolatod tactors can usually lo controllod ly
oducation administrators and policy-makors. lducation-rolatod tactors
includo olomonts sucl as rosourcos allocatod tor oducation (ludgot
allocation tor oducation in gonoral and tor spocitic lovols ot
oducation), studont rotontion policios, tlo motivation ot toaclors
(o.g., toaclor status and salarios), tlo qualitication ot toaclors
(in-sorvico and pro-sorvico toaclor training opportunitios), tlo
longtl ot sclool yoar and sclool day, tlo availalility ot rolovant
toacling matorials and toxtlooks, and adoquato sclool locations
and tacilitios.
llird, sclool-rolatod tactors rotor to loarning conditions
witlin tlo sclool itsolt. Usually tloso tactors can lo intluoncod
ly local communitios, including studonts, toaclors, sclool
administrators, paronts and community momlors. Sclool-rolatod
tactors includo sucl olomonts ot sclool lito as toaclor-studont
intoractions, classroom organization, sclool tacilitios, sclool
rosourcos (tlo availalility ot toxtlooks, toaclingloarning matorials
and stationory), and sclool govornanco (studonts councils, paront
associations, paront toaclor associations and community
molilization).
Wlon comlinod, tloso tlroo lroad catogorios ot tactors -
oxtornal, oducation-rolatod and sclool-rolatod - croato conditions
tor tlo succosstul implomontation ot oducation rotorm initiativos.
Basod on tlo concoptual tramowork tor clild-triondly sclools
and an ovorviow ot dittoront tactors intluoncing its practical
implomontation, tlo noxt tlroo claptors oxploro spocitic conditions,
constraints and opportunitios tacing tlo tontral Asian Popullics
ot Kazaklstan, lajikistan, and Uzlokistan in implomonting tlo
clild-triondly sclool initiativo in practico.
J.¡. E00LRTlUN REFURM LUNTEXT
llo oxtondod poriod ot Pussian intluonco (1863-191¯) and Soviot rulo
(1920-1991)
8
las lott indopondont Kazaklstan witl a mixod listorical
logacy. Ono tlo ono land, Soviot rulo lrouglt improssivo acliovo-
monts in oducation, scionco and culturo, as witnossod in rapidly
incroasing litoracy ratos
9
and tlo omorgonco ot an advancod sciontitic
laso, consisting ot many rosoarcl institutos, univorsitios and rogional
sciontitic contros (UNDP, 1996). On tlo otlor land, Soviot policios
lad sovoro political, oconomic, domograplic and social consoquoncos.
tolloctivization during tlo 1930s rosultod in tlo starvation ot 25/ ot
tlo Kazakl population (UNDP, 1996). Slortly attorwards, Kazaklstan
locamo a contro tor tlo doportation ot Pussian kuInk: in tlo 1930s,
tlo location ot ¿uIn¿: tor Ukrainians, Bolarussians, litluanians, Polos,
latvians and Volga Gormans in tlo 1930s-1940s, and tinally tlo Virgin
land tor dovolopmont pionoors trom Pussia, Ukraino and Bolarus in
tlo 1950s. As a rosult ot tloso mixod logacios, Kazaklstan was tlo
only Soviot ropullic wloso indigonous population was not in tlo
majority at tlo timo ot its indopondonco.
10
J
LRERTlNû LHlL0-
FRlEN0LY 5LHUUL5
lN KRIRKH5TRN
8
Kazaklstan locamo an autonomous ropullic ot tlo USSP in 1920 and tlo Soviot ropullic in 1936.
9
Wloroas 84/ ot Kazakls (in tlo ago group ot 9-39) woro illitorato in 1939, tlo litoracy rato
roaclod 95/ in 1959 (UNDP, 1996).
10
According to UNDP (1996), tlo proportion ot Kazakls, wlicl was 5¯.1/ in 1926, toll to 38/ in
1939, roducing to only 30/ in 1959. Duo to tlo ligl lirtlrato ot tlo Kazakl population sinco
tlo mid-1960s and an incroaso ot omigration ot non-Kazakls sinco tlo 1980s, tlo proportion ot
Kazakls roso to 41/ ot tlo total population in 1989. turrontly, tlo countrys population
consists ot moro tlan 100 otlnic groups, including Kazakls (44/), Pussians (36/), Ukrainians
(5/), Gormans (5/), latars (2/), Uzloks (2/), Bolarussians (1/), and Azoris (1/).
24
During tlo transition poriod, indopondont Kazaklstan las
tacod sorious oconomic prolloms, rosulting trom tlo loss ot
Soviot importoxport markots and tlo ond ot oconomic sulsidios
trom tlo Soviot contral ludgot. By 1995, GDP lad plummotod ly
39/ against tlo 1989 valuo (UNltli, 2001)
11
, witl sovoro social
ottocts tlat lod to a rapid riso in unomploymont
12
, an alarming
incroaso ot povorty
13
and an oscalation ot crimo. llo socond lalt
ot tlo docado, lowovor, lrouglt somo macro-oconomic stalilization,
witl omorging indicators ot roal GDP growtl
14
and positivo
clangos in all soctors ot tlo oconomy - industry, transportation,
communications, trado and agriculturo. lconomic and social rocovory
is rotloctod in Kazaklstans Human Dovolopmont lndox (HDl)
15
,
wlicl, attor talling trom 61st out ot 1¯3 countrios at tlo timo ot
indopondonco to 102nd in 1996, roso to ¯3rd or modium luman
dovolopmont position in 2000 (HDP, 2001).
Dospito rocont oconomic rocovory, invostmonts in tlo odu-
cation soctor lavo romainod considorally low comparod to pro-
indopondonco lovols. lducation oxpondituro as a porcontago ot
GDP docroasod trom 6/ in 1990 to 3.4/ in 2001, wlilo total
oducation oxpondituro doclinod trom 24.5/ ot tlo Stato ludgot
in 1990 to 14/ in 2000 (Stato Statistical Agoncy ot PK, 2001).
lducation invostmont trom tlo local ludgots also docroasod trom
32.3/ in 199¯ to 1¯/ in 2000 (ADB, 2002). Signiticant roduction
in Stato oducation oxpondituro las rosultod in a gradual rovorsal
ot tlo progross acliovod during tlo Soviot poriod, loading to
doclining litoracy lovols, docroasing onrolmont ratos, incroasing
non-attondanco, and dotoriorating quality ot oducation. Sinco
almost lalt ot tlo population (46.8/)
16
las loon attoctod ly
tloso advorso oducation tronds, Bauor ot al. (1998) caution tlat
an ontiro gonoration is at risk ot roducod dovolopmont ot its
uniquo potontial and tlo country is at risk ot slowor growtl and
dovolopmont.
11
ln UNltli rosoarcl pullications, GDP clangos aro rotorrod to as roal GDP growtl.
12
ln 1996, unomploymont was 4.2/, witl young pooplo (15 to 24 yoar-olds) constituting 40.9/ ot
all unomployod. By 1999, tlo unomploymont rato lad doclinod to 3.9/, young pooplo
constituting 289/ ot all unomployod (UNltli VONll, 2001, p. 1¯4).
13
According to ADB (1998), tlo incidonco ot povorty in Kazaklstan incroasod trom 15.5/ in 1989
to 34.6/ in 1996 (p. 2¯).
14
According to ADB (2002), roal GDP growtl constitutod 2.¯/ in 1999, 9,8/ in 2000 and 13.2/ in 2001.
15
llo Human Dovolopmont lndox (HDl) consists ot sucl compononts ot luman dovolopmont as
oducation lovol, lito oxpoctancy and GDP por capita.
16
lotal population ot Kazaklstan lolow tlo ago ot 24 yoars.
25
At prosont, Kazaklstan is struggling to maintain tlo positivo
oducation acliovomonts ot tlo Soviot poriod, wlilo rotorming tlo
oducation systom to rotloct tlo principlos ot indopondonco, do-
mocracy and a troo-markot oconomy (WB, 2000). During tlo
1990s, oducation rotorm was tocusod on ostallisling a now
logislativo tramowork tor tlo oducation systom, rovising contont,
docontralizing its govornanco, and divorsitying its institutions ly
logalizing tlo ostallislmont ot privato oducation institutions.
Having otticially doclarod 2001 as
tlo \oar ot lducation, tlo Govorn-
mont ot Kazaklstan initiatod sovoral
sulstantivo rotorms in oducation. llo
Govornmont adoptod sovoral docu-
monts outlining long-torm stratogic
dovolopmont tor oducation. llo ·ì:n-
ìo¿.c 1Inn Io: ìno 1K 1o+oIo¡nonì
unì.I ìno :on: 2010 (soction 1Jucnì.on
1oIo:n ·ì:nìo¿,) (2001), and tlo
Anì.onnI ·ì:nìo¿, Knznkn:ìnn 20¸0,
provido a lroad concoptual tramowork
tor oducation rotorm at tlo national
and rogional lovols, wlilo tlo Stato Programmo ot lducation
(2000) outlinos a mid-torm dovolopmont stratogy. lloso logislativo
documonts idontity tlo main goals ot oducation rotorm in
Kazaklstan, wlicl includo tlo tollowing:
Providing tlo population witl accoss to all lovols ot odu-
cation in accordanco witl tloir constitutional riglts
Paising tlo quality ot oducation programmos ly improving
oducational standards and tlo monitoring systom
lmproving and larmonizing oducation and clildcaro
lnsuring intormatization ot tlo oducation systom
Vodornizing rural and small sclools
lmproving tlo systom ot oducation administration and ti-
nanco
lt is witlin tlis contoxt ot rotorm tlat implomontation ot
tlo idoa ot clild-triondly sclools las loon initiatod ly tlo
Govornmont ot Kazaklstan in cooporation witl UNltli. lnitially
tormulatod in tlo Vastor Plan ot Oporations (VPO) tor tlo
poriod 2000-2004, tlo programmo is dosignod to support tlo
transition to a moro clild-controd onvironmont, rosponsivo to tlo
Since Ka:akhsian becane independeni,
public policy in ihe educaiion secior has
encouniered iwo basic, inierconnecied
problens. On ihe one hand, ihere is a
desire io preserve and nainiain posiiive
aspecis of ihe educaiion sysien, which
were developed while Ka:akhsian was
pari of ihe Soviei Union. On ihe oiher
hand, ihere is ihe need io develop ihe new
approaches ihai nusi cone wiih ihe
econonic and social reforns of a newly
independeni couniry.
(K. KousleiLayev, EFA repori, 2OOO)
26
individual noods ot clildron, ostallisling collalorativo connoctions
lotwoon sclools, tamily and communitios, strongtloning sclool
govornanco tlrougl a docontralizod community-lasod approacl,
and dovoloping non-attondanco mapping and monitoring systoms.
llis claptor oxaminos tlo initial conditions tor implomonting tlo
clild-triondly sclool approacl, and idontitios major constraints
and opportunitios tacing tlo Govornmont ot Kazaklstan and its
partnors in scaling up tlo tiS rotorm initiativo.
J.I. TUWRR05 LHlL0-FRlEN0LY 5LHUUL5. LHRLLENûE5 RN0
UPPURT0NlTlE5
Basod on tlo concoptual tramowork tor clild-triondly sclools (soo
tlaptor 2), tlis soction oxaminos tlo conditions tor implomonting
oacl componont ot tlo concopt in Kazaklstan, including:
¯ Piglts-lasod oducation
¯ tlild-sooking and inclusivo oducation
¯ Gondor-sonsitivo oducation
¯ Quality oducation
¯ Participatory oducation
J.I.¡. RlûHT5-BR5E0 5LHUUL5
llo Popullic ot Kazaklstan ratitiod tlo ·on+onì.on on ìno 1.¿nì: oI
ìno ·n.IJ in 1994 and signod two Optional Protocols complomonting
tlo tonvontion in 2000. llo optional protocols doal witl clild
tratticking, prostitution, pornograply and tlo participation ot clildron
in armod contlicts. On August 8, 2002, tlo Prosidont ot tlo PK
signod tlo law Alout tlo Piglts ot tlo tlild in tlo Popullic ot
Kazaklstan, wlicl turtlor rogulatos issuos rolatod to tlo protoction
ot clildrons riglts and intorosts. Altlougl tlo Govornmont las
slown strong political commitmont to tultilling clildrons riglts, it
las not always lackod it up ly allocating additional rosourcos and
providing adoquato implomontation moclanisms. Novortloloss,
Kazaklstan las ostallislod a strong notwork ot govornmontal and
non-govornmontal organizations cooporating in monitoring and tul-
tilling clildrons riglts. ior oxamplo, dittoront stakololdor groups
participatod in tlo consultativo procoss in proparing Kazaklstans
tPt Statos Party Poport in 2001. llis dynamic cooporation was
turtlor strongtlonod ly tlo ·n, :o: Io: ·n.IJ:on campaign implo-
montod witlin tlo tramowork ot tlo Glolal Vovomont tor tlildron
27
(GVt) in 2001. llo most visillo rosult ot tlo campaign las loon
tlo ovorwlolming support tor clildron domonstratod ly tlo pooplo
ot Kazaklstan - 24.3/ ot tlo population, or almost ono in ovory
tour said, \os. Voro important in tlo long torm, lowovor, is tlo
tact tlat tlo Say \os tor tlildron campaign las croatod a notwork
ot individuals, civil socioty groups, and govornmont lodios committod
to advocato tor clildron in Kazaklstan.
At tlo sclool lovol, tlo Vinistry ot lducation and Scionco
(VOlS) otticially supportod GVt ly proposing Say \os as tlo
main topic ot tlo Knowlodgo losson on tlo 1st Soptomlor
2001. lntormation matorials and instructions woro distrilutod to
all sclools in lotl Pussian and Kazakl and 3,526,898 plodgos
woro colloctod trom pupils, paronts and toaclors tlrouglout tlo
country. ln addition to raising pullic awaronoss tlrougl tlo Say
\os campaign, somo attompts lavo loon mado to incorporato
intormation alout clildrons riglts into tlo tormal curriculum. At
tlo olomontary sclool lovol (grados 1-4), tlo lntormation and
Posoarcl tontro tor tivic lducation las dovolopod spocial toacling
matorials (toxts, assignmonts and activitios), incorporating tlo
tPt study into tlo oxisting curriculum. lmplomontod witl tlo
support ot UNltli, tlis initiativo was limitod to a tow pilot
sclools, lonotiting around 1,000 olomontary sclool studonts only.
Givon tlo intorost ot tlo VOlS and participating sclools, lowovor,
it is important to oxamino low tlis initiativo could lo dissominatod
to all sclools in Kazaklstan. At tlo socondary lovol, tlo lntornational
ioundation tor lloction Systoms (lilS) dovolopod a civic oducation
toxtlook to improvo instruction in, and intormation on, domocracy
tor socondary sclools. Witl initial participation trom 34 pilot
sclools, tlo programmo grow to oncompass moro tlan 100
sclools. larly in tlo yoar 2000 lilS continuod working witl
local NGOs, participating sclools and tlo VOlS on dovoloping
a standard civic oducation curriculum tor socondary sclools.
turrontly ottorod as an oloctivo suljoct, lowovor, tlo now civic
oducation courso is providod ly only a tow sclools tlat aro allo
to attord to pay oxtra to tloir toaclors and to purclaso tlo now
toxtlook and toacling matorials.
J.I.I. LHlL0-5EEKlNû RN0 lNLL05lVE 5LHUUL5
ln ordor to oxamino initial conditions tor croating clild-sooking,
inclusivo oducation tor all, tlis soction tocusos on issuos rolatod
to oducation accoss and oducation oquity.
28
E00LRTlUN RLLE55
Dccrcasing cnroImcnt
As a rosult ot tlo oconomic crisis, accompaniod ly lowor tamily
incomos and liglor costs tor oducation, accoss to tormal oducation
at all lovols las locomo incroasingly limitod tor many clildron in
Kazaklstan. llis is particularly ovidont in pro-sclool oducation,
wlicl oxporioncod tlo most drastic docroaso in onrolmont tiguros
during tlo 1990s. Sinco 1990, 82/ ot all kindorgartons lavo loon
closod and tlo numlor ot clildron onrollod in pro-sclool oduca-
tional programmos toll trom 53.1/ in 1989 to 10.5/ in 1999
(UNltli VONll, 2001), witl a turtlor tall to 2.4/ in tlo
countrysido (liA, 2000, p. 20). llo closuro ot kindorgartons was
connoctod to tlo transtor ot tinancial rosponsilility tor pro-sclool
oducation institutions trom Stato ontorprisos and tarms to local
ludgots, wlicl woro unallo to covor tlo now costs duo to rigid
ludgot limitations during tlo transition poriod. Voroovor,
kindorgartons locamo incroasingly unattordallo tor tlo majority
ot tamilios duo to rising pro-sclool oducation toos and
unomploymont. Ovorall, pro-sclool oducation las locomo moro
inaccossillo to clildron trom rural aroas tlan urlan onos (soo
iiguro 3).
ln ordor to improvo clildrons sclool proparodnoss, wlicl
provod to lo prollomatic in tlo lato 1990s (soo soction 3.2.4. on
Quality loarnor), tlo Govornmont ot Kazaklstan rovisod logislation,
making pro-sclool oducation compulsory and troo tor all clildron.

As a rosult, tlo numlor ot clildron onrollod in kindorgartons las
loon stoadily growing, roacling approximatoly 12/ in 19992000
and 15/ in 20002001 (VOlS, 2002). According to tlo VOlS
(2002), 82/ ot all tirst-gradors ontoring sclool in tlo acadomic
yoar 20012002 lad somo kind ot pro-sclool proparation.
18

llo lducation law, passod on Juno 9, 1999, guarantoos an olligatory and troo-ot-clargo pro-
sclool oducation tor all 5-6 yoar-old clildron in pullic oducational institutions witlin tlo
tramowork ot tlo gonoral socondary oducation programmo. According to tlo Docroo on
Olligatory Pro-sclool lraining -1¯62, tirst yoar classos tor 5-6 yoar-old clildron can lo
ostallislod at gonoral socondary sclools, kindorgartons and otlor oducational ostallislmonts.
18
Pro-sclool proparation programmos may includo slort oducation programmos (sovoral montls) or
longor onos (a yoar).
29
Figurc 3. Pcrccntagc oI cLiIdrcn cnroIIcd in prc-scLooI cducation
by pIacc oI rcsidcncc (ruraI/urban) in 2001
Sourco: VOlS (2002)
Altlougl docroasing onrolmont las loon most visillo at tlo pro-
sclool lovol, tloro las also loon somo ovidonco ot limitod
accoss at tlo socondary sclool lovol. According to UNltli
VONll (2001), lasic oducation (1st-9tl grados) onrolmont slowod
a sliglt docroaso trom 94.8/ in 1989 to 93.8/ in 1993, roturning
to 94.2/ in 1999. Data providod ly tlo PK Stato Statistical
Agoncy (2001) suggosts tlat sclool onrolmont tiguros docroaso
signiticantly at liglor grados comparod to lowor onos. ln tlo
acadomic yoar 19992000, olomontary sclool (1st-4tl grados)
onrolmont totallod 99.8/, wloroas primary sclool (5tl-9tl grados)
onrolmont wont down to 92.6/, and uppor socondary (10tl-12tl
grados) onrolmont droppod to ¯9.1/ (SSA, 2001). Similarly, tlo
gross onrolmont tiguro tor vocational oducation droppod trom
19/ in 1990 to 11/ in 1996, and tlo gross onrolmont tiguro tor
toclnical oducation toll trom 20.9/ in 1990 to 12.6/ in 199¯
(WB, 2000, p. 143).
1Lc main rcasons Ior dccrcasing cnroImcnt in cducation arc:
lncroasod diroct costs ot oducation (o.g., clargos tor sclool
supplios, toxtlooks and tuition)
Poducod stato sulsidios (o.g., transportation and tood costs)
lowor tamily incomos
Porcoivod irrolovanco ot oducation
19
Prossuro on young pooplo to start working at an oarly ago
so as to contriluto to tamily incomos
19
According to tlo WB (2000), studonts trom vocational and toclnical oducation lavo loon loss
inclinod to study duo to old-taslionod curricula, lack ot lasic matorials and supplios, worn-out
oquipmont and tlo insocuro lalour markot (p. 143).
30
Incrcasing non-attcndancc and drop-outs
Poliallo data on non-attondanco and drop-outs is scarco in Kazaklstan.
According to tlo Vinistry ot lducation and Scionco (VOlS) and tlo
PK tommittoo tor Statistics and Analysis, 26,900 clildron did not
attond sclool in 199¯. As roportod ly VOlS, 25,418 clildron woro
lrouglt lack to sclool in 1998. ln 2001, tlo VOlS roportod tlat tlo
otticial numlor ot clildron not attonding sclool tor moro tlan ton
days was 645, witl tlo liglost non-attondanco rogistorod in tlo
lastorn Kazaklstan (118), Soutlorn Kazaklstan (88), and Zlamlyl
rogions (tontro tor tontlict Vanagomont, 2001, p. 13). Howovor, tlo
actual numlors ot sclool non-attondanco and drop-out aro likoly to
lo considorally liglor tlan tloso prosontod in tlo otticial data, duo
to a lack ot intormation slaring and coordination lotwoon tlo
govornmontal agoncios
20
and a lack ot ottoctivo monitoring moclanisms.
21
According to tlo tontro tor tontlict Vanagomont (2001), tlo
main roasons tor sclool non-attondanco includo oconomic lardslip
(i.o., lack ot stationory, toxtlooks, clotling, tlo nood to oarn monoy),
wlicl was idontitiod ly 65/ ot all survoyod paronts and 63/ ot
clildron, and a lack ot intorost in studying, wlicl was idontitiod ly
40/ ot tlo clildron survoyod. ln addition, tlo majority ot paronts
trom rotugoo communitios (Atglan, lajik,) indicatod tlat tloy lavo
lad ditticultios in rocoiving stato rogistration, wlicl, in turn, limits
tlo clancos ot sonding tloir clildron to sclool.
E00LRTlUN EU0lTY
Povcrty
lncroasod incidonco ot povorty and a gonoral doclino in living standards
during tlo 1990s lavo lod to docroasing oducation accoss tor clildron
trom low-incomo tamilios. Goograplically, povorty is mainly concontratod
in romoto rural aroas and tormor company towns. ln tlo countrysido,
20
lloro is a cloar inconsistoncy in data roportod ly dittoront govornmont lodios. llo ttV study
(2001) roports tlat tlo Vinistry ot lducation and Scionco (VOlS) and tlo Vinistry ot lntornal
(VlA) Attairs lavo dittoront statistics on sclool non-attondanco and drop-out. ior oxamplo, tlo
VOlS statod tlat tlo numlor ot clildron not attonding sclool was 300 in 2000, wloroas tlo
VlA roportod tlat tlo numlor was ¯,600.
21
At prosont, sclools aro rosponsillo tor monitoring and roporting non-attondanco casos. iirst,
toaclors rogistor studont alsoncos in class journals on a daily lasis. lt a studont is alsont trom
sclool tor moro tlan ton days, tlo sclool committoo idontitios roasons tor non-attondanco and
makos an ottort to onsuro tlo clilds roturn to sclool. Howovor, it is possillo tlat not all
alsoncos aro rogistorod in class journals duo to tlo nogligonco ot toaclors andor talso roporting
in an attompt to roduco non-attondanco tiguros. Socond, sclools aro assignod spocitic
noigllourloods and aro roquirod to clock wlotlor all clildron trom tloso noigllourloods attond
sclool. loaclors visit ovory tamily living tlo noigllourlood sovoral timos yoar to idontity wlotlor
all sclool-agod clildron aro onrollod in sclool. Howovor, givon tlo tact tlat toaclors aro not paid
tor tlo additional work and tlat roporting is lasod on intormation providod ly paronts, it is
possillo tlat somo non-attondanco casos romain unrogistorod.
31
tlo avorago proportion ot poor was 35.2/ ot tlo population in 2001,
rising to 95.5/ in Vangistau ollast (Vll, 2001). llo Vinistry ot
lconomy and lrado (Vll) usos a doullo indicator tor moasuring
povorty, tlat tor rural aroas is 12.8/ plus 5.8/ ot tlo population,
wlilst tlo urlan aroa indicator is ¯.4/ plus 3.2/. Approximatoly
43.2/ ot poor lousololds consist ot largo tamilios (i.o., moro tlan 5
clildron) living in tlo soutlorn and wostorn rogions ot Kazaklstan
(Vll, 2001). ltlnic Kazakl tamilios usually tond to lo pooror tlan
tloso ot otlor otlnic lackgrounds locauso tloy aro likoly to lo
liggor and to livo in tlo pooror rural aroas (ADB, 1998).
Unquostionally, clildron attoctod ly povorty lavo incroas-
ingly limitod accoss to quality oducation. Poor tamilios lavo ditti-
cultios croating tlo nocossary conditions to onsuro tlat tloir clildron
attond sclool. ior oxamplo, tlo ttV study (2001) rovoalod tlat
35/ ot intorviowod paronts statod tlat tloir clildron nood clotling
and sloos, wlilo 30/ statod tlat tloy do not lavo onougl monoy
to luy toxtlooks and stationory tor tloir clildron. Similarly, tlo
Vll (2001) roportod tlat ¯5/ ot sclool non-attondanco casos
rogistorod ly tlo Vinistry ot lntornal Attairs (VlA) aro rolatod to
untavourallo tamily conditions or tinancial prolloms. Having to
clooso lotwoon sclool and stroot, many poor clildron locomo
loggars or tradors (ttV, 2001). Howovor, tlo oducation systom
itsolt las tailod to onsuro oducation opportunitios tor clildron.
lloso trom poor, rural aroas lavo turtlor ditticultios accossing
sclool locauso ot sovoro slortagos ot sclools in romoto aroas,
plus inadoquato transportation to romotoly locatod sclools and
loating during tlo wintor (soo soction 3.2.4. on quality onvironmont).
ln ordor to addross tlo issuo ot docroasing onrolmont and
drop-out in sclools, tlo Govornmont las introducod sovoral programmos.
iirst, tlo 1:ooIucn iund is aimod at onsuring oducation covorago ot
all sclool-ago clildron ly allocating 1/ ot local ludgots to providing
tinancial assistanco tor clildron trom low-incomo tamilios. Posourcos
trom tlo 1:ooIucn iund aro mostly usod to covor oxponsos associ-
atod witl stationory, toxtlooks, clotling, sclool moals and transportation.
Socond, tlo Govornmont idontitiod tlo rostoration and dovolopmont
ot rural sclools, wlicl woro closod during tlo sclool optimization
22
22
Optimization ot Kazaklstans oducation institutions was conductod trom 1995 to 1998. llo
doclarod purposo was to optimizo oxponsos tor tlo up-koop and maintonanco ot oducation
institutions (kindorgartons, sclools and out-ot-sclool oducation institutions) ly onlarging sclool
classos and closing cost-inottoctivo oducation institutions. Sucl optimization lod to tlo largo-
scalo closuro ot pro-sclool oducation institutions and small rural sclools, wlicl mako up alout
50/ ot all sclools in Kazaklstan. ADB (2002) roports tlat sclool optimization las lod to a
roduction in tlo pro-sclool oducation notwork ly 3,66¯ institutions (trom 5,226 to 1,558) and a
docroaso in tlo numlor ot gonoral socondary sclools ly 590 (trom 8,694 to 8,104).
32
intorvontion, as ono ot tlo curront oducation rotorm prioritios (o.g.,
tlo rosolution On guarantood Stato minimum tor tlo oducational
organization notwork adoptod in iolruary, 2000). Altlougl tloro
was a gradual incroaso in tlo numlor ot rural oducation institutions
at tlo ond ot tlo 1990s, tlo quality ot oducation sorvicos (o.g.,
toaclor proparation and qualitications, studont acliovomont), ot toclnical
oquipmont and sanitary conditions still romain a sorious olstaclo to
onsuring accoss to quality oducation.
EtLnicity/Ianguagc
Sinco tlo collapso ot tlo Soviot Union, tlo proportion ot otlnic
Kazakls in tlo population las loon stoadily incroasing, causod
in part ly tlo omigration ot Pussian-spoakors to tloir otlnic
motlorland. According to tlo SSA (1999), tlo proportion ot
otlnic Kazakls grow trom 40.1/ in 1989 to 53.4/ in 1999, wlilo
tlo proportion ot otlnic Pussians toll trom 3¯.4/ in 1989 to 30/
in 1999. Ono ot tlo koy olomonts ot tlo Stato-luilding procoss
las loon tlo rovival ot local traditions, culturo and languago. ln
1993, Kazakl was doclarod tlo national languago, locoming a
mandatory suljoct in all sclools. Kazakl languago instruction
las gradually incroasod in mixod sclools
23
, loading to tlo
transtormation ot mixod sclools into Kazakl modium sclools.
Dospito national policios aimod at strongtloning Kazakl traditions,
culturo and languago, socondary oducation las romainod availallo
in sovon dittoront minority languagos, including Pussian, Uzlok,
Uigur, lajik, and Ukrainian. turrontly, 52/ ot all studonts aro
tauglt in Kazakl, 44/ in Pussian, 3/ in Uzlok, and 1/ in sucl
minority languagos as lajik, Uigur and Gorman (soo iiguro 4).
Figurc 4. Distribution oI scLooIcLiIdrcn in KazakLstan by mcdium
oI instruction (2000/2001)
Sourco: SSA (2001)
23
Vixod sclools provido instruction in lotl Kazakl and Pussian, altlougl usually in soparato classos.
33
Witl tlo collapso ot tlo Soviot Union, a growing disparity
in oducation quality omorgod lotwoon sclools using dittoront
languagos as tlo modium ot instruction. llo Vonitoring ot
loarning Acliovomont (VlA) study, conductod ly UNlStO, UNltli,
and VOlS in 1999, rovoalod signiticant dittoroncos in loarning
acliovomont lotwoon studonts trom sclools instructing in Kazakl
and Pussian. Studonts trom Kazakl modium sclools did not
portorm as woll as clildron in Pussian modium sclools. Studonts
trom Pussian sclools scorod liglor on all aspocts ot tlo VlA
tost, witl a 10-15/ dittoronco in litoracy and lito skills assign-
monts and a 5/ dittoronco in numoracy tosts (liA, 2000, p. 46).
According to tlo liA roport (2000), Kazakl modium sclools
roaclod liglor standards in suljocts tauglt in an intornational
tormalizod languago (o.g., Vatlomatics) and mucl lowor standards
in suljocts tauglt in Kazakl (o.g., vocalulary, writton oxprossion,
roading and comprolonsion).
Sovoral tactors lavo comlinod to causo tlo discropancy.
iirst, Pussian modium sclools onjoyod spocial privilogos (in
torms ot protossional statt, oducational matorials) during tlo
Soviot poriod and woro allo to luild on tloso proviously availallo
lonotits in tlo post-Soviot contoxt. Socond, during tlo transition
poriod, Pussian modium sclools woro allo to uso toxtlooks and
matorials pullislod in Pussia, wlilo Kazakl modium sclools lad
to wait until now gonoration toxtlooks could lo dovolopod and
pullislod locally. llird, tloro is a gonoral lack ot toaclors allo
to toacl in Kazakl, loading to an incroaso in tlo numlor ot
toaclors witlout tlo nocossary qualitications (soo soction 3.2.4.
on Quality loaclors). Altlougl no data is availallo tor small,
minority-languago sclools, it is likoly tlat tlo quality ot oducation
is on tlo doclino duo to tlo slortago ot now toxtlooks, oducational
matorials and toacling statt.
CLiIdrcn in scLooIs oI tLc ncv` typc
Sinco tlo collapso ot tlo Soviot Union, Kazaklstans oducation
systom las locomo incroasingly divorsitiod ly tlo ostallislmont
ot privato sclools, acadomic lycoums, gymnasiums and collogos.
According to tlo SSA (2001), tloro woro 153 privato sclools and
265 sclools ot tlo now typo, including 100 gymnasiums and
101 lycoums in tlo acadomic yoar 20002001. Providing liglor
quality oducation, sclools ot tlo now typo lavo locomo moro
compotitivo tlan standard sclools, usually improving studonts
clancos ot ontoring liglor oducation institutions. Altlougl otticially
tlo admission to sucl sclools doponds on tlo acadomic alility
34
ot a clild, in practico, lowovor, it is otton dictatod ly tamily
incomo. Sinco many gymnasiums roquiro additional paymonts
trom paronts, studonts trom low-incomo tamilios aro loss likoly to
ontor tloso sclools. iurtlormoro, tlo majority ot now typo and
privato sclools aro locatod in urlan aroas
24
, tlus roducing accoss
to quality oducation tor studonts trom rural aroas.
CLiIdrcn in institutions
Duo to tlo social and oconomic
instalility ot tlo transition poriod, tlo
numlor ot orplans and clildron
witlout parontal caro las loon stoadily
growing. According to tlo VOlS
(quotod in UNltli, 2002)
25
, tlo numlor
ot institutions tor clildron incroasod
ly 60 and tlo onrolmont wont up ly
6,¯10 during tlo yoar 2000-2001. As
ot 2001, tloro woro 583 institutions in
Kazaklstan, including orplanagos and
loarding sclools tor orplans and clildron witlout parontal caro,
tamily typo institutions, clildrons villagos, young pooplos lomos,
spocial corroctional institutions tor clildron witl disalilitios and
loarding sclools. lloso institutions louso a total ot ¯1,400
clildron. According to UNltli (2002), ¯0/ ot clildron in institutions
lavo paronts wlo aro still alivo, suggosting tlat tlo main roasons
tor placing clildron in institutions romain tlo ditticult socio-
oconomic situation and inadoquato tamily incomos.
According to tlo UNltli roport (2002), tloro is ovidonco ot
omorging concorn among tlo stakololdors rogarding tlo quality ot
oducation, uplringing and caro providod tor clildron in institutions.
llo roport documontod ditticultios witl maintaining adoquato plysical
structuro ot tacilitios, providing quality tood tor clildron
26
, (3)
24
22.2/ (59 sclools) ot all sclools ot tlo now typo aro locatod in Almaty, 8/ (18 sclools) in Astana
and 11/ (29 sclools) in Karaganda. 98.1/ ot privato sclools aro locatod in urlan aroas (VOlS, 2002).
25
llo roport was writton ly Brit tontral Asia Agoncy lasod on a survoy ot 18 institutions and
16¯ clildron in Almaty, Karaganda, Ust-Kamonogorsk, Slymkont and in tlo provincos.
26
According to UNltli roport (2002), omployoos ot most ot tlo clildrons lomos and loarding
sclools statod tlat clildron do not oat onougl moat, vogotallos, and truits. lloy claimod tlat
tlo lasic tood was coroals and clildron got only 30/ ot tlo vogotallos tloy noodod. On
avorago, institutions rocoivo 94-150 tongo (approximatoly $0,¯ or $1) a day por clild tor tood
witlout distinguisling lotwoon ago groups. ior oxamplo, lotl 5 yoar olds and 1¯ yoar olds
rocoivo oqual amount ot tood daily.

ior oxamplo, alout lalt ot tlo survoyod clildron ot mid ago (11 - 13 yoars) said tlat tloy aro
plysically punislod. Somo intorviowod clildron oxplainod tlat otton toaclors do not troat tlom
woll (loat, aluso) and do not undorstand tloir prolloms.
¨In children's hones ihey are iold when go
io bed, gei up and eai, ihey lack experience
in everyday life. Ii is beiier io nake groups
snaller, especially for children of pre-school
age and bring iogeiher children of differeni
age. To bring ihen as close as possible io
real life. They need io have a garden io work
in, ihey need io go shopping io see whai is
sold in shops. A fanily-iype children's Hone
is ideal bui ioo expensive for us.'
(Ollicial ieµiesenlalives, liom Kaiaganda)
35
porsonnol training

, and otlors. lducation curricula in institutions
do not always rospond to tlo roquiromonts ot roal lito, tlus tailing
to proparo clildron tor tuturo indopondont oxistonco
28
. llo roport
suggostod tlat tamily-typo lomos or tamily-typo groups may lo
moro ottoctivo in onsuring tlo social and psyclological adjustmont
ot clildron. iurtlormoro, tlo majority ot tlo rospondonts, survoyod
trom amongst omployoos ot tlo institutions and otticial roprosontativos,
tlouglt tlat tlo lost way to rounito clildron witl tloir tamilios
was provontativo work witl tlo tamilios, including:
A systom ot social control ovor tamilios ly sclools (paront
committoos), pullic organizations and govornmont autloritios
Assistanco to tamilios at risk (o.g., omploymont ot paronts,
rocovory trom drug addiction and alcololism)
lncroasod clild allowanco and tinancial support tor low-
incomo tamilios
A notwork ot tomporary contros tor assistanco to young
motlors
CLiIdrcn in spcciaI scLooIs
During tlo Soviot poriod, it was normal
practico to placo montally and plysically
landicappod clildron in spocial odu-
cation tacilitios. As ADB (1998) olsorvod,
tloso tacilitios woro notorious tor acting
simply as caro contros and did not
attompt to doal witl tlo luman dovol-
opmont issuos. iollowing tlo oconomic
crisis ot tlo 1990s, tlo numlor ot spocial
oducation institutions docroasod signiticantly trom 125 in 1990
1991 to 104 in tlo acadomic yoar 20002001 (liA, 2000, SSA,
2001). tonsoquontly, tlo numlor ot clildron onrollod in spocial
sclools toll trom 29,639 in 19901991 to 18,630 in tlo acadomic
yoar 20002001 (liA, 2000, SSA, 2001). Howovor, tlo total numlor
ot clildron undor 16 yoars old, rogistorod as disallod and rocoiving
social lonotits, is currontly 49,800. llis is oquivalont to 10.6 por
1,000 clildron (SSA, 2001, p.11¯). Vost ot tlom attond normal
'The inclusion of children wiih special needs
in socieiy is a nanifesiaiion of denocracy.
One of ihe underlying principles of denoc-
racy is io creaie such a socieiy in which
every child shall have a righi io be heard
and ihis righi shall be respecied, no naiier
how diverse children's voices nay sound'
(Soios Lducalional Sleµ Ly Sleµ Cenlie,
2OO2)
28
According to tlo UNltli roport (2002), institutions tor clildron witlout parontal caro lavo towor
oloctivos comparod to rogular sclools, duo to tinancial constraints and poor plysical structuro. ior
oxamplo, moro tlan lalt ot tlo institutions aro poorly oquippod and tlo majority ot tlo clildron
do not lavo tlo clanco to work at computors tor sutticiont poriods ot timo or to uso spocially
oquippod rooms tor languago training. lvon it tloro aro sucl rooms tlo clildron aro not allowod
to uso tlom. iurtlormoro, tlo majority ot intorviowod clildron rospondod tlat tloy roquirod moro
lossons on computor skills, listory ot Kazaklstan, croativo coursos (drawing), coursos on
socialization and communication skills, otlics and vocational classos.
36
sclools or rocoivo caro at lomo. Sinco noitlor sclools nor tamilios
lad takon rosponsilility tor oducating clildron witl spocial noods
prior to indopondonco, tloro aro sorious concorns witl rogard to
tlo quality ot oducation and opportunitios tor social adjustmont
availallo to tloso clildron today.
llo liA roport also idontitiod tlo tollowing prolloms in tlo
tiold ot spocial oducation:
No procoduro tor oarly idontitication ot psyclological and
plysical disordors (insutticiont consultation contros and
skillod psyclologists)
lnadoquato toaclingloarning matorials (o.g., toxtlooks,
curricula, toacling aids) locauso toxtlook pullisling tor
spocializod sclools is not includod in tlo national programmo
and tlorotoro is not tinancod
lack ot qualitiod spocialists, particularly occupational and
plysical tlorapists
No intrastructuro to provido tlo landicappod witl ossontial
oquipmont (o.g., loaring aids)
No social workors
Buroaucracy lotwoon tlo dopartmonts ot oducation, loaltl
and social protoction
loaclors working witl disallod clildron in normal sclools
lack adoquato training, turtlor impoding loarning opportu-
nitios tor clildron witl spocial noods
J.I.J. ûEN0ER-5EN5lTlVE 5LHUUL5
As in otlor tlo otlor tontral Asian ropullics, tlo gondor issuo
las omorgod as ono ot tlo aroas ot concorn in Kazaklstan
during tlo transition poriod. Altlougl tloro aro no cloar indicators
ot gondor inoquality in oducation onrolmont and acadomic
acliovomont
29
, attitudos rogarding tlo womans rolo in socioty
grow moro consorvativo in tlo 1990s. lloro las loon a rosurgonco
ot traditional Kazakl culturo omplasizing tlo rolo ot tlo woman
29
Gonoral socondary oducation onrolmont is almost oqually slarod: 50.5/ loys and 49.5/ girls
(SSA, 2001). ln liglor oducation, lowovor, tlo proportion ot womon is sligltly groator tlan tlat
ot mon (54/ and 46/ rospoctivoly). lloro aro no gondor dittoroncos in oducation onrolmont
lotwoon urlan and rural aroas. iurtlormoro, tlo oducational acliovomont ot girls is sligltly
liglor tlan tlat ot loys, witl girls scoring lottor on sucl VlA oxorcisos as writton oxprossion
(¯/ dittoronco), spolling (5/ dittoronco), and lito skills, particularly ovoryday lito and
onvironmont (¯/ dittoronco).
37
as woman-motlor, tlo koopor ot lomo, wlo is liko Umai, tlo
goddoss ot tortility and patronoss ot tlo tamily (lnstituto ot Social
and Gondor Posoarcl, 2002). According to tlo lnstituto ot Social
and Gondor Posoarcl (lSGP), tlis traditional imago ot a woman
las locomo incroasingly prosont in sclool toxtlooks, tlus
strongtloning storootypical gondor rolos in socioty. ior oxamplo,
toxtlooks typically portray womon working at lomo and caring
tor tlo tamily, wloroas tloy slow mon oarning monoy in
agriculturo, lusinoss, construction and industry
30
(soo iiguros 5
and 6). lloro is no logislation providing cloar guidolinos tor
sclools in ordor to onsuro gondor-sonsitivity ot curriculum, toxtlooks
or sclool onvironmont.
Gondor inoquality is moro cloarly ox-
prossod in omploymont cloicos lo-
twoon mon and womon. According to
tlo lnstituto ot Social and Gondor
Posoarcl (2002), womon tond to
clooso moro tominino protossions
sucl as toaclor, sorvico industry workor
or loaltl caro providor, wlilo mon protor to work in tlo oloctronics
industrios, law, lusinoss or pullic administration. Only 3/ ot
studonts at tlo podagogical taculty ot tlo Almaty Stato Univorsity
aro mon. According to tlo SSA (2001), 64.5/ ot tlo sonior
positions at tlo typical workplaco aro tillod ly mon. As tlo lSGP
(2002) points out, tominization ot lalor could lo ono ot tlo
roasons wly womons incomos constitutos only 6¯/ ot mons.
Ono ot tlo protossors at a univorsity in Almaty contirmod tlo
oxistonco ot a storootypical lalour division lotwoon mon and
womon ly stating, Womons protossions aro wloro tlo pay is
low¨.
¨All leading posiiions are iaken by nen.
They inpose differeni labels on wonen.
And ihey funciion fron ihe posiiion of
power. There is a cyclic suprenacy of
nen everywhere.'
(A. Taizlan ALdula-Kyzy, !SGR, 2OO2)
30
llo lSGP (2002) conductod gondor analysis ot toxtlooks tor tlo 3rd gradors, wlicl rovoalod tlo
oxistonco ot traditional gondor storootypos. According tlo contont analysis, tlo lomo oconomics toxtlook
(Orallokova 8 Dusomlaova, 1998) portrays girls oxclusivoly involvod in lousolold activitios wlicl aro
traditionally porcoivod as tominino (o.g., sowing, cooking and wasling), wloroas loys aro portrayod in
activitios wlicl aro traditionally porcoivod as masculino (o.g., construction). llo Kazakl languago
toxtlook tor tlo 3rd grado (Zlunislok, Kulmaganlotova, Vazlytkizi, 1999) contains imagos ot loys only
and las no illustrations ot girls at all.
38
31
Vany toaclors porcoivo gondor-sonsitivo oducation as tlo soparation ot loys and girls into
dittoront classos and sclools.
Figurc 5. IIIustrations Irom Homc Economy 1cxtbook (3rd gradc), p.1
Figurc 6. IIIustrations Irom Homc Economy 1cxtbook (3rd gradc), p.2
According to tlo lSGP (2002), tloro is gonorally a low
awaronoss ot tlo omorging gondor inoqualitios among roprosontativos
ot tlo Govornmont, Vinistrios, liglor oducation institutions and
sclools. Sclool statt do not nocossarily porcoivo tlo ossonco ot
tlo prollom
31
and univorsity roprosontativos do not soo tlo nood
tor including gondor-sonsitivo matorialstraining into tlo oxisting
curriculum. ior oxamplo, tlo Doan ot tlo podagogical taculty at
a univorsity in Almaty statod, Wo cannot split oducation
programmoscurricula into malo and tomalo. lloro aro gonoral
standards. lloro aro llocs ot suljocts. lloro aro goals ot proparing
a spocialist. Wlat doos it moan - tlo riglts ot womon, tlo riglts
ot mon? l viow it nogativoly. lloro is an individual porson and
gonoral rulos ot lolaviour. l do not agroo tlat tloro is a nood
39
tor croating tomporary lomos wloro womon could go in caso ot
tamily disagroomont - l tlink tloy aro callod crisis contros. lloso
institutions only promoto tamily discord. And tloro aro womon
tlat loat mon, too!¨ (lSGP, 2002). lack ot tlorougl undorstanding
ot tlo issuo las loon ono ot tlo main roasons tor tlo alsonco
ot gondor studios in podagogical liglor oducation institutions.
Ono ot tlo tow tlat lavo croatod a spocial programmo tor
addrossing gondor issuos in oducation is tlo Womons Podagogical
tollogo in Almaty, lut tlis positivo stop must also lo takon ly
tlo otlor podagogical institutions and sclools. Sinco tloro is a
gonoral nogation ot tlo prollom, gondor awaronoss noods to lo
raisod at all lovols ot oducation, including sclools, podagogical
collogos, univorsitios and govornmontal agoncios.
J.I.k. U0RLlTY-BR5E0 5LHUUL5
U0RLlTY LUNTENTjPRULE55
Sinco indopondonco, Kazaklstan las
undortakon major oducation rotorm,
aimod at rovising lotl contont and
procoss in accordanco witl tlo now
domocratic valuos. llo main goal ot
tlo oducation rotorm las loon to do-
volop individuality, indopondonco and
croativity in all clildron. llo cardinal rovision ot tlo contont ot
gonoral socondary oducation startod oarly in tlo 1990s and was
documontod in Pogulation on ·ìnìo :ìnnJn:J oI ¿ono:nI :oconJn:,
oJucnì.on .n ìno 1K, ·onco¡ì oI Jo+oIo¡.n¿ ¿ono:nI :oconJn:,
oJucnì.on .n ìno 1K, ·onco¡ì oI ìno conìonì oI ¿ono:nI :oconJn:,
oJucnì.on, and ·o:o cu::.cuIun oI ¿ono:nI oJucnì.on .n ìno 1K.
lloso documonts manitostod tlo tirst attompt systomically to
roviso and updato tlo structuro and contont ot sclool oducation,
introducing sovoral now principlos to tlo oducation systom. iirst,
tlo variallo part ot tlo curriculum las loon incroasod, tlus
allowing sclools to incorporato national, rogional and local contont
spocitics into tlo curriculum. turrontly, approximatoly ¯5-80/ ot
tlo curriculum is compulsory, wloroas oacl rogion, district and
sclool dotinos tlo rost. Socond, multi-protilo oducation las loon
introducod into uppor socondary sclool (10tl-11tl grados), allowing
studonts to clooso lotwoon six dittoront acadomic disciplinos
(o.g., linguistics, Social Scioncos and Humanitios, Plysics and
Vatlomatics, Biology and Goograply, iino Arts and Aostlotics).
llird, sclools lavo loon allowod to introduco now oloctivo
'Based on ihe knowledge acquired,
siudenis will ihen be able io discover iheir
own personaliiy, and will be capable of
self-acconplishneni and self-develop-
neni, of naking correci decisions in a
conplex and changing life'
(EFA, 2OOO, µ. 34)
40
32
According to VlA (2000), tlo avorago acliovomont was ¯¯.9/ in litoracy, 80.5/ in numoracy
and ¯5/ in lito skills.
suljocts sucl as Appliod lconomics, tivic lducation, \our Piglts,
and otlors. lmplomontation ot tloso rotorm initiativos, lowovor,
las oncountorod sovoral olstaclos, including:
tontinuing omplasis on tactual knowlodgo
lack ot lasic toxtlooks and otlor instructional matorials
limitod accoss to intormation toclnology
Continuing cmpLasis on IactuaI knovIcdgc
Altlougl tlo now oducation rotorm
las provi dod moro troodom i n
curriculum dovolopmont, sclools may
not nocossarily lonotit trom it locauso
ot tinancial constraints and limitod pro-
tossional capacity. Studont cloicos in multi-protilo loarning lavo
loon rostrictod duo to tlo unavailalility ot toaclors in spocitic
suljocts, ospocially in rural aroas. llo introduction ot oloctivo
suljocts las loon limitod to tloso tow sclools allo to tind
additional tinancial rosourcos to covor toaclors salarios. iinally,
toaclors lavo not loon adoquatoly proparod to assumo rosponsilility
tor curriculum dovolopmont, wlicl was proviously dictatod ly
tlo Vinistry ot lducation. Duo to tlo slortago ot tinancial
rosourcos and insutticiont proparation ot toaclors, tlo rotorm
initiativos lavo rosultod in tlo roplacomont ot Soviot oducation
contont witl tlo now idoological stanco, lut lavo not includod
rostructuring ot tlo procoss ot toacling and loarning. As a rosult,
curricula lavo tallon slort ot tlo doclarod oducation goals. llis
las lod to a tailuro to dovolop studonts skills in tlo practical
application ot knowlodgo, critical tlinking, loarning to loarn,
pursuing litolong loarning, and taking an activo part in social
transtormation. lnstoad, sclool succoss las loon moasurod ly
tlo numlor ot studonts participating in ·I,n¡.nJ: and tlo numlor
ot graduatos accoptod into Stato univorsity programmos. llis
trond las loon cloarly documontod in tlo VlA tost rosults,
wloroin studonts scorod liglor on numoracy and litoracy tosts
tlan lito skills tosts
32
. As tlo liA roport (2000) summarizod, it is
apparont tlat lito skills aro not dovolopod onougl undor tlo
curront systom ot oducation¨.
Awaronoss ot tloso slortcomings was domonstratod in tlo
PK Govornmonts docision to oxtond gonoral oducation trom 11
to 12 yoars ly introducing tlo now National turriculum. Proposod
¨Alihough ihe child is placed in ihe cenire
of nodern educaiion, ihe ieacher renains
ihe key figure'
(Zl. Galdilanova, 2OO2)
41
in 2001, tlo dratt ot tlo national curriculum rotorm summarizod
tlo major prolloms witl tlo oxisting oducation systom. iirst, tlo
systom doos not adoquatoly rotloct tlo now oducation paradigm,
wlicl omplasizos individualization and divorsitication and allows
uppor socondary sclool studonts to clooso lotwoon acadomic
and vocational patls. Socond, tlo curront curriculum is outdatod
and ovorloadod, raising major concorns tor tlo quality ot oducation
and tlo loaltl ot clildron. llird, many socondary sclool gradu-
atos witlout liglor oducation lavo ditticulty tinding omploymont
attor sclool graduation locauso tloy lavo no lasic vocational
skills. lloro is also growing concorn alout tlo quality ot gonoral
socondary oducation, and tlo nood tor clild-controd motlodology
and assossmont systoms. llo plan is to addross tloso prolloms
ly dovoloping a now National turriculum to rotloct tlo now
vision ot gonoral oducation goals, modorn litoracy concopts and
intoractivo and studont-controd motlods ot toacling and loarning.
Voanwlilo, roorganization ot tlo oducation rotorm procoss las
loon oxclusivoly supportod ly local NGOs (o.g., tlo tontro tor
Domocratic lducation, tontro tor Sclool lmprovomont, Soros
lducational Stop ly Stop tontro, National Dolato tontro,) and
intornational organizations (o.g., ADB, UNltli, Soros ioundation,
USAlD,) ly implomonting pilot projocts in soloctod sclools (soo
Appondix A and B). Howovor, moro support will lo nocossary to
scalo up tloso rotorm initiativos to all sclools in Kazaklstan.
Lov quaIity and LigL cost oI tcxtbooks and instructionaI matcriaIs
According to tlo WB (2000), ono ot tlo roasons tor tlo dotorio-
rating quality ot oducation las loon a lack ot quality toxtlooks
and ossontial instructional matorials. Until tlo national programmo
tor dovoloping and pullisling now gonoration toxtlooks was
approvod in 1996, sclools usod old toxtlooks pullislod during
tlo Soviot poriod, wlicl containod largoly outdatod intormation.
llo toxtlook dovolopmont programmo was tundod tlrougl tlo
national ludgot and an ADB loan, making an avorago annual
tund ot KZl 1,200 million and including tlo cost ot toxtlook
dovolopmont, pullication and dolivory. ln 2002, toxtlooks tor 1st
to 5tl grados woro writton, pullislod and distrilutod
33
. According
to tlo programmo implomontation sclodulo, tlo transition to tlo
now gonoration toxtlooks will lo complotod ly tlo acadomic
yoar 20052006. Voanwlilo, studonts in liglor grados continuo
to uso old, outdatod toxtlooks pullislod during tlo Soviot
poriod, wlicl advorsoly attocts tlo quality and rolovanco ot
33
Primary sclool toxtlooks lavo loon pullislod in tlroo languagos, including Kazakl, Pussian and Uigur.
42
oducation. ln addition to tlo lack ot quality toxtlooks, tloro is
a prollom witl toxtlook attordalility
34
. llis is particularly
prollomatic tor tamilios living in poor, rural aroas, wloro paronts
cannot attord to supply tloir clildron witl all tlo nocossary
toxtlooks, instructional matorials and stationory.
Incrcasing acccss to inIormation tccLnoIogy
Sclool intormatization was ono ot tlo liglost oducation rotorm
prioritios during tlo 1990s. ln 199¯, tlo 1K 1:o:.Jonì: ·ìnìo
1:o¿:nnno oI 1nIo:nnì.znì.on oI ·ono:nI ·oconJn:, 1Jucnì.on
was dovolopod and approvod
35
. llo oljoctivo was to incroaso
computor litoracy among studonts ly onsuring:
Provision ot all sclools witl computors
Updating pro-sorvico and in-sorvico toaclor training
lncroasing tlo uso ot intormation toclnology in tlo aca-
domic procoss
lntroducing tlo uso ot intormation toclnology in oduca-
tional managomont
Witl tlo complotion ot tlo tirst stago ot tlo programmo,
all sclools lavo loon computorizod. Howovor, tlo numlor ot
computors in sclools romains vory low, lindoring an ottoctivo
uso ot intormation toclnology in tlo loarning procoss. According
to tlo VOlS (2002), tloro aro 88 studonts por computor in
Soutlorn Kazaklstan, 84 in Zlamlyl, ¯9 in Kyzylorda, and ¯¯ in
Almaty. Only 13.¯/ (1,124) ot all sclools aro connoctod to tlo
lntornot. llo socond stago ot tlo programmo omplasizos tlo
nood to slitt tlo tocus trom oquipping sclools witl computors
to tloir ottoctivo uso in tlo loarning procoss. lo acliovo tlis
goal, VOlS initiatod tlo ·ìnìo 1:o¿:nn no oI 1nIo:nnì.znì.on oI
ìno 1K :,:ìon oI oJucnì.on Io: 2002-2004, wlicl includos spocitic
moasuros dosignod to onsuro tlo lroad uso ot ll in sclools
(o.g., in-sorvico and pro-sorvico toaclor training).
U0RLlTY TERLHER5
During tlo transition poriod, toaclors lavo loon sovoroly attoctod
as a protossional group. iirst, toaclor salarios lavo doclinod
considorally, locoming uncompotitivo witl salarios in otlor soctors
ot tlo oconomy
36
. Socond, protossional support and rocognition
34
Sinco indopondonco, paronts lavo lad to assumo many costs associatod witl tlo oducation ot
tloir clildron, including toxtlook provision.
35
llo programmo was tinancod trom tlo Stato ludgot (national and local) and part ot tlo ADB loan.
43
tor toaclors docroasod as tlo opportunitios tor rogular in-sorvico
training locamo moro limitod. llird, tlo toacling protossion lost
rospoct as toaclors logan to lo moro concornod alout survival
tlan oducating clildron. lloso comlinod tactors lod to tlo
rapidly dotoriorating status ot tlo toacling protossion, soriously
lindoring oducation rotorm as soon in tlo tollowing tronds:
lncroasing toaclor slortagos
Docroasing protossional qualitications ot toaclors
limitod protossional dovolopmont opportunitios
lmorging prolloms in pro-sorvico toaclor training (OSl, 2002)
Incrcasing tcacLcr sLortagcs
llo oconomic instalility ot tlo 1990s lod to an incroasing slortago
ot toaclors in sclools. According to tlo liA roport (2000), low
salarios and rogularly dolayod pay lod to tlo rosignation ot
40,000 toaclors ly tlo ond ot tlo 1990s. Somo toaclors lott tlo
country and many lott sclools tor tlo privato soctor in soarcl ot
lottor-paid jols. turrontly, tlo VOlS ostimatos tlat tloro is a
slorttall ot 3,558 toaclors (VOlS, 2002). Slortagos aro particularly
acuto in tlo acadomic suljocts tlat lavo acquirod now commorcial
valuo, sucl as lnglisl, Vatlomatics, tomputor Scionco and
lconomics. According to tlo VOlS (2002), tlo worst toaclor
slortagos aro in lnglisl (23.8/), Vatlomatics (8/), Plysical
lducation (¯/) and lntormation loclnology (5/). Altlougl tlo
VOlS roports toaclor slortagos, tlo studonttoaclor ratio romains
low comparod witl intornational standards

. llis inotticiont uso
ot toaclors is cliotly a prollom in small sclools in rural and
romoto aroas.
Dccrcasing proIcssionaI quaIiIications oI tcacLcrs
During tlo 1990s, tloro was an incroaso in tlo numlor ot
toaclors witlout tlo roquirod podagogical qualitications (liA,
2000). llo total numlor ot primary sclool toaclors lacking tlo
roquirod podagogical lackground was around 2-3/ (soo iiguro
¯). ln 2001, lowovor, tlo numlor ot unqualitiod toaclors was
almost 8/, including 1.3/ ot toaclors witl gonoral socondary
oducation, 1.5/ witl non-podagogical protossional socondary
36
turrontly, tlo toacling protossion romains among tlo lowost paid. ln 1999, toaclors salarios
woro wortl approximatoly 28/ ot an avorago salary in tlo tinancial soctor, 4¯.¯/ in industry,
52.5/ in construction, 55.4/ in transportation and ¯¯.4/ in trado (SSA, 1999).

ln 1998, tlo studonttoaclor ratio was 12.6 studonts por toaclor comparod witl an avorago ot
16.3 in OltD countrios (WB, 2000).
44
oducation, and 5/ witl incomploto liglor oducation (VOlS,
2002). llo numlor ot unqualitiod toaclors
38
is liglor tlan avorago
in tlo Aktulinsk (12.4/), Akmola (12.3/), Kostanai (10.1/), and
Pavlodar (9/) rogions (VOlS, 2002a). Among tlo main roasons
tor tlo incroasod numlor ot unqualitiod toaclors in sclools aro:
low social status ot tlo toacling protossion
lack ot in-sorvico toaclor training opportunitios
lnsutticiont pro-sorvico toaclor training proparation
ln ordor to incroaso toaclors incontivos tor protossional
dovolopmont, tlo PK Govornmont issuod Pogulation -41 (January
11, 2002) toncorning tlo systom ot romunoration tor tlo lalour
ot omployoos ot Stato institutions wlo aro not civil sorvants,
wlicl dotinos toaclor salary lovols in accordanco witl protossional
classitication standards. llus, toaclors witl liglor oducation in
podagogical aroas will rocoivo liglor salarios tlan toaclors witlout
sucl qualitications. Altlougl tloro is logislation providing incontivos
tor toaclors to improvo tloir protossional qualitications, many
toaclors simply cannot attord to loavo tloir jols in ordor to
comploto univorsity programmos, duo to tinancial and timo
limitations. tonsoquontly, tlo nocossary conditions must lo croatod,
so as to onallo toaclors to roacl tlo roquirod podagogical
qualitications, lotl tlrougl pro-sorvico and in-sorvico training
programmos.
Figurc 7. Pcrccntagc oI tcacLcrs vitLout tLc rcquircd pcdagogicaI
quaIiIications (1990-2001)
Sourco: liA (2000) 8 VOlS (2002)
38
llis numlor includos toaclors witl incomploto liglor oducation, non-podagogical protossional
oducation and gonoral socondary oducation.
45
Limitcd proIcssionaI dcvcIopmcnt opportunitics
According to tlo VOlS rogulations, toaclors aro roquirod to
upgrado tloir protossional qualitications onco ovory tivo yoars
tlrougl coursos ottorod ly Stato in-sorvico toaclor training
institutions
39
. llo systom ot in-sorvico toaclor training roprosonts
an oxtonsivo notwork ot Stato institutions, including tlo Acadomy
ot lducation, Popullican lnstituto ot ln-Sorvico lraining ot
Vanagorial lducation Statt, cityollast institutos ot in-sorvico toaclor
training, and districtcity motlodological contros. During tlo
oconomic instalility ot tlo 1990s, lowovor, tlo in-sorvico toaclor-
training notwork undorwont major rostructuring, rosulting in a
signiticant roduction ot motlodological contros oporating undor
local Dopartmonts ot lducation. ln tlo caso ot districtcity
motlodological contros, tlo numlor was lalvod, procluding many
toaclors trom rogularly improving tloir protossional qualitications
(ADB Pogional lA 5946-PlG, 2002). iurtlormoro, somo ot tlo
oxponsos
40
associatod witl in-sorvico training lavo loon transtorrod
to toaclors, turtlor limiting tloir accoss to rogular training.
ln addition to tlo docroasing
quantity ot in-sorvico toaclor oduca-
tion institutions, tlo issuo ot quality
raisos sorious concorns. As a rosult ot
docontralization in tlo 1990s, rogional
and local in-sorvico toaclor training institutions assumod
rosponsilility tor updating tlo contont ot toaclor training coursos
and controlling oducation quality in sclools. Altlougl tlo VOlS
las dologatod now rosponsililitios to local autloritios, no cloar
standards woro dovolopod to guido in-sorvico toaclor training
rotorm. As a rosult, a growing disparity in tlo quality ot in-
sorvico toaclor training programmos omorgod lotwoon tlo rogions
ot Kazaklstan. ior oxamplo, somo rogions (o.g., Karaganda)
lavo loon quito succosstul in rotorming tloir in-sorvico toaclor
training systoms duo to tloir protossionally compotont and woll-
motivatod statt momlors, wlo lavo activoly improvod tloir own
39
During tlo 1990s, many NGOs omorgod, ottoring altornativo in-sorvico toaclor training coursos
(o.g., tontro tor Sclool lmprovomont, tontro tor Domocratic lducation, Soros lducational Stop
ly Stop tontro). lloso NGOs provido ligl quality in-sorvico training coursos, wlicl aro woll
rogardod ly toaclors. Howovor, curront logislation doos not allow tloso altornativo coursos to lo
usod tor toaclor accroditation. ln otlor words, Stato institutions lavo a tull monopoly ovor in-
sorvico toaclor training in tlo country.
40
During tlo Soviot poriod, all oxponsos associatod witl in-sorvico toaclor training woro covorod
ly tlo Stato. During tlo oconomic crisis ot tlo 1990s, lowovor, sucl oxponsos as transportation,
accommodation and tood woro transtorrod to tlo toaclors, wlo aro otton unallo to covor tloso
oxponsos duo to low salarios. turrontly, Stato ludgots covor only oxponsos associatod witl tlo
statt ot in-sorvico toaclor training institutions.
¨In-service courses offer ihe sane
iraining as ihey did 15-20 years ago.
why should ieachers boiher aiiending?'
(Teaclei, 2OO2)
46
qualitications tlrougl various in-sorvico programmos ottorod ly
intornational agoncios, local NGOs, and pro-sorvico toaclor training
programmos. Otlor rogions, lowovor, lavo loss motivatod statt,
wlicl considors it a lurdon to ongago in protossional dovolop-
mont and consoquontly updato tloir in-sorvico toaclor training
programmos. As ono intorviowod toaclor statod, ln-sorvico coursos
ottor tlo samo training as tloy did 15-20 yoars ago... wly slould
toaclors lotlor attonding?¨ ln otlor words, tlo quality ot in-
sorvico toaclor training varios considorally lotwoon tlo rogions,
duo to a lack ot contrally dovolopod standards and guidolinos tor
in-sorvico training. ln 2001, tlo VOlS issuod a rogulation to
addross tlis prollom ly assigning tlo Popullican ln-Sorvico
loaclor lraining lnstituto tlo rosponsilility tor onsuring tlo
quality ot rogional in-sorvico toaclor training programmos and
providing support tor local roprosontativos ot in-sorvico toaclor
training institutos.
Viddlo-lovol oducation administrators
(i.o., roprosontativos ot in-sorvico
toaclor training institutos, local
oducation autloritios and sclool
inspoctors) lavo mostly loon lott out
ot tlo rotorms. Vost intornational
assistanco las targotod oitlor sclools
or tlo VOlS, ignoring ono ot tlo
most important middlo-lovol oducation structuros. lt is not surprising,
tlorotoro, tlat local autloritios otton lindor oducation rotorm
duo to lack ot intormation and insutticiont protossional training.
As ono ot tlo sclool roprosontativos oxplainod, Somo sclool
inspoctors do not oncourago group work, cooporativo loarning,
and dolatos to lo usod during tlo losson¨.
lo summarizo, in-sorvico toaclor training institutions, wlicl
provido an oxtonsivo protossional notwork across tlo country,
prosont a uniquo opportunity tor scaling up any oducation rotorm
initiativos. lt is important, lowovor, to luild tlo protossional
capacity ot in-sorvico toaclor training statt and provido tlo nocossary
support tor tlom in initiating and implomonting oducation rotorm
programmos. iurtlormoro, tlo gradually dovoloping NGO soctor
can play an important rolo in complomonting Stato in-sorvico
training ly providing altornativo training coursos. llis would
also contriluto to raising tlo quality ot in-sorvico toaclor training.
¨Recenily, a school inspecior visiied our
school... She saw children working in
groups and asked why siudenis are ialking,
discussing, and walking during ihe lesson.
She said ihai ihere was no order and
discipline in ihe classroon and warned io
never organi:e such aciiviiies again.¨
(Teaclei, 2OO2)
47
ProbIcms vitL prc-scrvicc tcacLcr training
loaclors aro currontly trainod at 24
Stato and 38 privato liglor oducation
institutions in approximatoly 20 pro-
tossions, including toaclors ot spocitic
suljocts tauglt at lasic and socondary
l ovol s. lnspocti on ot 30 li glor
oducation institutions, undortakon ly tlo VOlS, rovoalod tlat
tlo quality ot pro-sorvico toaclor training programmos las loon
docroasing. llo majority ot tlo liglor oducation institutions
inspoctod lackod sucl important coursos as lntroduction to Poda-
gogy, History ot Podagogy, and Votlods ot loacling and
tlildcaro. ln addition, many pro-sorvico toaclor training coursos
stoppod roquiring graduation tlosos, ottoring instoad spocial coursos
on prollomatic podagogical issuos, and administoring Stato
oxaminations in suljoct aroas (Potrovskiy, 2002, p. 5). iurtlormoro,
tloro las loon a signiticant docroaso in tlo numlor ot lours
roquirod tor studying motlodology and tor toacling practico in
sclools. llo rosult is tlat pro-sorvico toaclor training institutions
lavo loon proparing matlomaticians, plysicians, and liologists
instoad ot toaclors ot Vatlomatics, Plysics and Biology.
lt is olvious tlat it las locomo incroasingly ditticult to attract
graduatos ot pro-sorvico toaclor training coursos to sclools, duo to
low salarios, alsonco ot accommodation, insutticiont lonotits, and
tlo docroasing social status ot toaclors. ln olomontary sclools, tor
oxamplo, young toaclors constituto only 10/ ot tlo toacling statt.
llo prollom is particularly acuto in rural aroas, wlicl lavo tlo
liglost toaclor slortagos in tlo country. turrontly, no moclanism
oxists tor attracting graduatos ot pro-sorvico toaclor training programmos
to sclools. ln particular, studont toacling practico is unavailallo in
rural aroas and graduatos rocoivo no spocial lonotits tor cloosing to
work in small villagos. ln ordor to incroaso support tor rural sclool
dovolopmont, tlo Govornmont initiatod tlo dovolopmont ot a spocial
Stato programmo, wlicl, among otlor tlings, will introduco compotitivo
incontivos to attract nowly graduatod toaclors to work in rural aroas
ot Kazaklstan.
U0RLlTY ENVlRUNMENT
Optimization ot tlo sclool notwork, wlicl was implomontod
trom 1995 until 1998, lod to tlo closuro ot many oducation
ostallislmonts, particularly in rural aroas. llo doclarod purposo
ot tlo programmo was to optimizo tlo oxpondituro on tlo
¨Now, we are preparing naihenaiicians,
physicians, and biologisis. we are noi
preparing ieachers of Maih, Fhysics, and
Biology anynore'
(Reµiesenlalive ol µedagogical lacully
al a univeisily, 2OO2)
48
maintonanco, oporation, and administration ot oducation institutions
ly onlarging sclool classos and closing cost-inottoctivo oducation
institutions. Sucl optimization lod to tlo mass closuro ot pro-
sclools and small rural sclools. Witlin tlo tour yoars ot tlo
programmo, tlo numlor ot kindorgartons toll trom 5,226 to
1,558, and socondary gonoral sclools toll trom 8,694 to 8,104.
Wlilo optimizing somo ot tlo oxpondituro, tlo programmo
rosultod in llocking somo clildrons accoss to sclool. iirst,
sclool accoss las locomo unavailallo in somo romoto rural
aroas ot Kazaklstan. According to Vll (2001), 4¯¯ sottlomonts
do not lavo any sclools, 889 villagos lavo no socondary oducation
sclools, and 9¯¯ villagos no lasic oducation sclools. Socond,
somo studonts lavo ditticultios accossing sclools locauso tloir
lomos aro in romoto locations. ln 2001, moro tlan 30,000 studonts
lad to travol 5-40 km to roacl sclool and alout 8,000 clildron
lad to manago witlout sclool transportation.
ln addition to goograplic limitations to sclool accoss, tlo
plysical structuro ot tlo oxisting sclool luildings raisos sorious
concorns. According to tlo VOlS (2002l), ovor 1,000 (¯2/)
olomontary sclools, wlicl woro not originally dosignod as sclools,
lavo inadoquato toilot tacilitios
41
. Vany sclools lavo a prollom
witl sato drinking wator
42
. llo vast majority ot olomontary sclools
do not lavo accoss to sport tacilitios tor plysical oducation
classos and sclool lalls tor lolding sclool ovonts. iurtlormoro,
sclool structuros and oquipmont lavo loon dotoriorating ovor
tlo past docado duo to a tailuro ot maintonanco during tlo
transition poriod. As olsorvod in tlo WB roport (2000), many
sclools lavo loaking roots, non-tunctioning loating systoms,
lrokon windows, dotorioratod llackloards, dosks, and clairs (p.
145). llo dotorioration ot tlo sclool onvironmont in turn intluoncos
sclool attondanco pattorns. lt las loon olsorvod tlat studont
non-attondanco incroasos during tlo wintor soason in rural aroas,
wloro sclools lack tinancial rosourcos to provido tlo nocossary
loating
43
. lloro is an ovidont nood tor turtlor invostmont in
sclool maintonanco, ropairs, and dovolopmont to onsuro quality
sclool onvironmonts, conducivo to toacling and loarning.
41
llis moans tlat toilots aro locatod outsido tlo sclool luildings, unloatod and witlout tlusling
moclanisms.
42
llo VOlS (2002l) roports tlat accoss to sato drinking wator is prollomatic in sucl ollasts as
Akmola, Pavlodar, Somipalatinsk, last-Kazaklstan, Atyrau, Vangustau and Soutl-Kazaklstan.
43
Proviously sulsidizod trom tlo contral ludgot, sclool loating is now covorod trom tlo local
ludgots. Givon varying oconomic situations lotwoon rogions ot Kazaklstan, it is likoly tlat
pooror, usually rural rogions lavo towor tinancial rosourcos tor sclool provision (o.g.,
maintonanco, transportation, loating) tlan woaltlior, usually urlan, onos.
49
U0RLlTY LERRNER
ScLooI prcparcdncss
As a rosult ot tlo mass curtailmont ot
pro-sclools during tlo transition po-
riod, most clildron wont to sclool
witlout tlo psyclological, cognitivo
and cultural training nocossary tor
olomontary sclool. According to tlo
Vinistry ot lducation (2000), only
20.4/ ot tirst gradors witlout pro-
sclool oxporionco woro adoquatoly proparod tor sclool, wloroas
91.3/ ot clildron witl pro-sclool oducation domonstratod tlo
roquirod loarning outcomos in tlo acadomic yoar 199¯1998. ln
ordor to addross tlis disturling situation, strongtloning ot pro-
sclool oducation was idontitiod as ono ot tlo main prioritios tor
oducation rotorm. llo lducation law (1999) mado provisions to
guarantoo olligatory and troo-ot-clargo pro-sclool oducation to
all clildron agod 5-6 yoars in pullic oducational institutions
witlin tlo tramowork ot tlo gonoral socondary oducation
programmo. As a rosult ot tlo now logislation, tlo numlor ot
clildron onrollod in pro-sclool programmos incroasod and tlo
numlor ot clildron proparod tor sclool incroasod trom 20/ in
199¯1998 to 50/ in 20002001 (VOlS, 2000).
HcaItL
ln addition to low sclool-proparodnoss, tloso clildron ontoring
tlo oducation systom lavo loon loss loaltly. Botwoon 1999 and
2001, tlo numlor ot sick clildron incroasod ly ¯/, casos ot
intoctious disoasos ly 13/, llood-rolatod disoasos ly 12/, and
rospiratory disoasos ly ¯/ (VOlS, 2002). iurtlormoro, tloro is
ovidonco ot incroasing nutrition prolloms. According to ADB
(1998), anaomia is a prollom common to tlo ontiro country,
witl tlo oxcoption ot rolativoly attluont Almaty. A ligl incidonco
ot anaomia is tound in tlo clildron in tlo rural rogions, ospocially
in Soutlorn and Wostorn Kazaklstan. llo otlnic Kazakl population
is most attoctod, witl noarly 40/ ot tlo clildron suttoring trom
mild anaomia and 28/ trom sovoro anaomia (lnstituto ot Nutrition
quotod in ADB, 1998, p.89).
During tlo transition poriod, adoloscont loaltl las locomo
an incroasingly prollomatic issuo. According to UNltli (2000),
tloro aro growing incidoncos ot adoloscont alcololism, drug
aluso and soxually transmittod disoasos. ln 1999, tloro woro 850
'The levels of nalnuiriiion in ihe region,
in ierns of siunied and anaenic children,
suggesi ihai ihe developneni of a large
proporiion of ihe generaiion of ihe 1990s
has already been seriously conpronised,
boih physically and nenially'
(\Þ!CL!, 2OOO, µ. 37)
50
casos ot HlV roportod in Kazaklstan, tlo majority ot wlicl woro
idontitiod in Karaganda rogion. llo 15-30 yoar ago groups accountod
tor ¯1.2/ ot all roportod casos (UNltli, 2000). According to
UNltli (2000), intravonous drug uso is loliovod to lo rosponsillo
tor alout 80/ ot tlo AlDS casos in tlo country. Soxually transmittod
disoasos lavo incroasod ton timos, trom towor tlan 10 casos por
100,000 in 1986-1993 to 123 por 100,000 in 1995 (UNAlDS, 2000).
Alcolol uso is incroasing among young pooplo, wlo otton start
drinking as oarly as 10-12 yoars ot ago. As roportod ly UNltli
(2000), alcolol aluso accountod tor 239 por 100,000 montal and
lolavioural disordors in 199¯ (p. 43). lscalating prolloms witl
adoloscont loaltl point to tlo nood tor a loaltl oducation
curriculum to lo implomontod in sclools.
J.I.5. PRRTlLlPRTURY ûUVERNRNLE
During tlo 1990s, oducation docontralization locamo ono ot tlo
groatost oducation rotorm prioritios, rosulting in:
llo dologation ot a signiticant proportion ot oducation
managomont and tinancing rosponsililitios to local autlori-
tios
llo oncouragomont ot community participation in oducation
tlrougl tlo ostallislmont ot paront committoos, PlAs and
studont councils
llo dovolopmont ot a strong prosonco in tlo oducation
soctor ot spocialist NGOs
LocaI cducation autLoritics
As a rosult ot tlo docontralization procoss, local administrativo
institutions (akimat) lavo loon autlorizod to opon now sclools,
appoint sclool principals, control acadomic quality and manago
tinancial rosourcos. Ollast oducation dopartmonts aro in clargo
ot sclool liconsing and cortitication. Altlougl tlo local oducation
autloritios lavo loon grantod now rosponsililitios, tloy lavo
tacod numorous ditticultios in ottoctivoly mooting tloir
rosponsililitios. As tlo ADBs rogional analysis ot tlo oducation
rotorm procoss (ADB Pogional lA 5946-PlG, 2002) las summarizod,
tlo docontralization procoss was initiatod in tlo alsonco ot a
stroamlinod systom ot intormation oxclango lotwoon dittoront
lovols ot oducational administration, a lack ot managorial porsonnol
capallo ot working otticiontly undor tlo now conditions, and
witlout an intogral systom ot in-sorvico and pro-sorvico training
tor managorial porsonnol, tailorod to tlo nowly omorging oducation
51
noods. llorotoro, oducation docontralization las loon only partially
implomontod, witl tinancial rosponsilility loing assumod ly local
autloritios, wlilo most ot tlo docision-making rosponsililitios aro
kopt ly tlo VOlS. llis trond was cloarly rotloctod in tlo survoy
conductod ly tlo Soros ioundation-Kazaklstan (1999)
44
, wlicl
rovoalod tlat most local autloritios koop to an outdatod managomont
liorarcly in wlicl tlo loading rolo is playod ly VOlS, tollowod
ly tlo ollastrogional and district autloritios, witl local autloritios
at tlo lottom.
Community participation
As a rosult ot tlo docontralization procoss, community participation
in oducation govornanco las sulstantially improvod. An incroasing
numlor ot paront committoos, PlAs and studont councils lavo
omorgod in sclools. ln practico, lowovor, tlo lovol ot participation
ot tloso nowly ostallislod sclool govornanco lodios varios sig-
niticantly, doponding on tlo local capacity tor ottoctivo participation
in sclool govornanco and tlo gonoral culturo ot domocratic
participation at sclool and in tlo community. Paront committoos
otton limit tloir participation to tund-raising, and raroly participato
in docision-making rogarding tlo distrilution ot tlo tinancial
rosourcos. Similarly, studont councils otton concontrato on organizing
partios, and lardly ovor tako part in tlo discussion ot sucl issuos
as oducation quality, riglts or sclool sclodulos. ln otlor words,
community participation in sclool govornanco is largoly limitod
to tlo tirst stagos ot tlo laddor ot participation, i.o. tlo moro uso
ot oducation sorvicos and involvomont tlrougl tlo contrilution
ot rosourcos, matorials and lalour. Altlougl tloro aro numorous
activo PlAs, paront committoos and studont councils, most ot tlo
nowly ostallislod sclool govornanco lodios nood training in
ordor to dovolop tloir loadorslip, administration and managomont
potontial.
Education NGO scctor
Ono ot tlo most positivo dovolopmonts ot tlo 1990s was tlo
omorgonco ot a strong NGO soctor in Kazaklstan. Approximatoly
200 NGOs aro activoly involvod in tlo tiold ot oducation (soo
Appondix B). Altlougl it is too oarly to spoak today ot tlo
actual prosonco ot tlo tlird soctor in oducation (o.g., intluonco
on sotting policy prioritios, ludgot allocations), individual casos
44
llo survoy and sulsoquont analysis woro conductod ly Dr. Brillor and Dr. Vann undor tlo SiK
projoct lttoctivo Sclool: How to Vanago tlo Procoss ot tlango (1999). llo survoy includod
intorviows witl 15 sclool diroctors, 8 loads ot tlo ollast dopartmonts ot oducation, 5 diroctors
ot motlodological contros and 2 doputy loads ot ollast dopartmonts.
52
ot impact on tlo systom tostity to its potontial.
45
As tlo ADB
roport (Pogional lA No. 5946-PlG, 2002) pointod out, a logal
toundation and spocitic moclanisms aro nocossary to onsuro
rotloction ot NGO porspoctivos in policy tormulation, wlicl
would go loyond occasional mootings during contoroncos,
roundtallos and otlor tormal ovonts.
46
lo summarizo, oducation govornanco las loon primarily limitod
to tlo tirst stagos ot tlo laddor ot participation duo to listorical,
political, and protossionalpodagogical managorial tactors. tultural
listoric tactors aro rolatod to tlo inloritod organization ot tlo Soviot
oducation systom, wloroin all instructions and ordors, including tloso
rotorring to ludgot distrilution, camo trom tlo Vinistry ot lducation.
Political tactors includo tlo unclangingly dominant rolo ot tlo Vinistry
ot lducation in dotining curricula and approving toxtlooks. Protos-
sionalpodagogical tactors includo tlo lack ot local capacity tor
loadorslip and indopondont docision-making (ADB Pogional lA 5946-
PlG, 2002). llo transition trom contralizod to participatory oducation
govornanco is a long-torm procoss, wlicl involvos tlo continuous
luilding ot capacity at all lovols. ln tlo contoxt ot Kazaklstan, a moro
participatory procoss ot oducation govornanco could lo supportod ly:
Dovoloping a now culturo ot participatory sclool govor-
nanco ly oncouraging links lotwoon sclools, local govorn-
monts, paronts and community
Supporting capacity-luilding at national, rogional, local and
sclool lovols
lnsuring tlat local autloritios, principals and toaclors lavo
tlo nocossary skills and rosourcos to tako on tloir now
rosponsililitios (sclool managomont, sclool dovolopmont
and oducation planning)
J.J. 50MMRRY RN0 RELUMMEN0RTlUN5
llo transition poriod las ottorod now opportunitios and clallongos
tor oducation rotorm in tlo Popullic ot Kazaklstan (soo lallo 2
tor a moro dotailod ovorviow ot acliovomonts and clallongos).
Ono ot tlo main acliovomonts las loon tlo ostallislmont ot tlo
45
llo Soros lducational Stop ly Stop tontro las lad a signiticant impact on tlo tormulation ot
tlo concoptual tramowork tor oarly clildlood dovolopmont in Kazaklstan, introducing tlo idoa
ot clild-triondly, clild-controd loarning into Stato rogulatory documonts.
46
Witlin tlo last two yoars Kazaklstan las mado signiticant stops towards tlo croation ot
conditions nocossary tor dovolopmont ot tlo tlird soctor. llo most important condition is tlo
approval ly tlo PK Govornmont ot tlo ·onco¡ì oI A··: ·ìnìo ·u¡¡o:ì and dratting sucl laws
as ·n ·ìnìo ·oc.nI ·:Jo::, ·n 1oII,.n¿.
53
strong logislativo laso nocossary tor introducing oducation clangos
aimod at tlo croation ot tiS. llo tollowing logislativo stops lavo
loon takon wlicl proparo tlo ground tor croating clild-triondly
loarning onvironmonts in Kazaklstans sclools:
Patitication ot intornational documonts protocting clildrons
riglts (o.g., tPt)
Provision ot troo and compulsory oducation tor all clildron
ly tlo lducation law
Provision ot troo and compulsory pro-sclool proparation
tor all clildron (5-¯ yoars ot ago)
lntroduction ot clild-controd loarningtoacling approaclos
at all lovols ot tlo oducation systom (i.o., pro-sclool,
olomontary, primary and socondary oducation)
Povision ot tlo oducation contont and procoss (o.g., odu-
cation standards, now gonoration toxtlooks, sclool
computorization)
Provision ot rogular in-sorvico training tor all toaclors
(onco ovory tivo yoars)
lnitiation ot docontralization in oducation administration
managomont
Altlougl tlo adoption ot tloso logislativo clangos las croatod
a sound laso tor introducing tlo tiS initiativo in Kazaklstan,
tloro lavo loon sovoral olstaclos impoding practical implomontation
ot tlo logislation in sclools. iirst, oducation oxpondituro las
docroasod considorally during tlo transition poriod, making it
ditticult not only to introduco now oducation clangos, lut also to
maintain tlo old indicators ot oducation succoss. As tlis claptor
las illustratod, sclool onrolmont las loon docroasing, sclool
attondanco dropping, oducation quality talling, and tlo plysical
structuro ot sclools dotoriorating. lloro aro also now concorns,
sucl as tlo ro-omorgonco ot traditional gondor rolos, wlicl romain
unaddrossod ly tlo curront oducation systom. ln addition to
insutticiont tinancial rosourcos, tloro is tlo issuo ot tlo otticioncy
ot curront oducation oxpondituro. As tlo WB roport (2000)
summarizod, Kazaklstan las low studonttoaclor ratios, small avorago
class sizos, oxcossivo non-toacling statt, and oxtonsivo uso ot
outdatod intrastructuro and oquipmont. Altlougl tlo govornmont
las logun rostructuring tlo oducation systom ly roducing tlo
numlor ot statt and inotticiont sclools, turtlor analysis ot tlo
otticioncy ot curront oducation oxpondituro is noodod.
54
Socond, oducation clangos lavo otton loon introducod
witlout tlo provision ot adoquato implomontation moclanisms
and support structuros. lmplomontation ot now oducation initiativos
las largoly roliod on numorous laws, ordors and rogulations,
wlicl tail to provido tlo nocossary support tor local autloritios,
sclool administrators and toaclors to implomont tlom. Otton,
sclools lavo implomontod rotorms lasod on paporwork rocoivod
trom tlo VOlS lut witlout sutticiont rosourcos to lot toaclors
tako part in training programmos and rogular protossional support
activitios. lo addross tlis issuo, in-sorvico toaclor training institutions,
NGOs, and local autloritios must lo activoly involvod in oducation
rotorm. ln-sorvico toaclor training institutions and NGOs can
provido tlo nocossary protossional and moral support tor sclools,
wlilo local autloritios can socuro adoquato tinancial rosourcos
and molilizo community momlors tor oducation rotorm support
at tlo local lovol.
Untortunatoly, tlo lolistic naturo ot tlo tiS approacl is
troquontly ovorlookod, wlicl las rosultod in only partial
implomontation ot tlo tiS compononts. Wlilo toaclors lavo
loon oncouragod to introduco clild-controd toaclingloarning
motlods in practico, tloy aro not always adoquatoly stimulatod
ly tinancialmatorial rosourcos and moral incontivos to ongago
activoly in rotorm initiativos. Similarly, wlilo all clildron lavo
loon roquirod to attond sclool rogularly, tloir attondanco is
somotimos olstructod ly a lack ot loating in sclools during tlo
wintor. ln otlor words, partial implomontation ot tlo tiS
compononts doos not nocossarily rosult in tlo croation ot clild-
triondly loarning onvironmonts in sclools. llorotoro all tiS
compononts - wlotlor tloy tocus on accoss, oquity, loarning,
onvironmont, or participation - must lo concoptualizod, plannod
and implomontod jointly.
PiIoting CFS
ln 2000, tlo Govornmont ot Kazaklstan and UNltli initiatod
implomontation ot a lolistic approacl to tlo tiS initiativo on a
pilot sclool lasis. 14 sclools trom Almaty, Kyzylorda and last
Kazaklstan woro soloctod to participato in a programmo including
most ot tlo tiS compononts. Ono ot tlo uniquo toaturos ot tlis
initiativo las loon tlo luilding ot a strong notwork ot partnorslips
lotwoon govornmontal and non-govornmontal organizations,
nationally and intornationally, wlicl cooporato in implomonting
spocitic compononts ot tlo tiS initiativo (soo lallo 1). llo
Soros lducational Stop ly Stop tontro las workod witl sclools
55
to implomont clild-controd toaclingloarning motlods, croato clild-
controd loarning onvironmonts, and molilizo community momlors
in supporting tlo now rotorm. ln addition, tlo Soros lducational
Stop ly Stop tontro las trainod toaclors in 16 pro-sclool classos
to improvo tlo proparation ot clildron tor sclool. llo lttoctivo
Sclools tontro las conductod training in clild-controd toacling
loarning, sclool managomont and participatory govornanco. llo
lnstituto ot Social and Gondor Posoarcl, in tlo Womons Podagogical
tollogo, las conductod noods assossmont tor gondor-sonsitivo
oducation and will dovolop spocitic sclool guidolinos, toacling
matorials, and training manuals to implomont gondor-sonsitivo
oducation in tlo pilot sclools. llo Association ot \oung loadors
las workod witl studonts in ostallisling ottoctivo studont councils
in sclools. llo Ontario lnstituto ot lducation Studios las startod
implomonting glolal oducation, wlicl includos tlo introduction
ot lito-skills (o.g., loaltl, lygiono, poaco, toloranco, tlo onvironmont
and loaltly litostylos) into sclool curricula. ln addition, tlo
programmo las anticipatod somo sorvico dolivory (i.o., provision
1abIc 1. EstabIisLcd PartncrsLips in tLc ImpIcmcntation oI CFS in
KazakLstan
56
ot moals tor clildron, matorials tor toaclors), wlicl is nocossary
to onsuro ottoctivo implomontation ot tlo pilot programmo. A
comlination ot tloso initiativos covors most ot tlo concopt
compononts, tlus providing a moro lolistic approacl tlan is
currontly prosont in normal sclools.

ScaIing up CFS
Having introducod tlo tiS approacl in soloctod sclools, tlo
clallongo is low to scalo up tlo tiS initiativo in ordor to
includo moro communitios, sclools, toaclors and clildron in
rotorm ottorts. Widor dissomination ot tlo tiS initiativo will
dopond on tlo tollowing tactors:
1. Strong lacking at policy lovol (o.g., inclusion ot tlo tiS
idoas in oducation logislation)
2. Wido support at tlo local lovol (o.g., awaronoss raising
among oducation stakololdors)
3. Sutticiont tinancial rosourcos
4. Adoquato implomontation moclanisms
5. lttoctivo intogration into pro-oxisting structuros (o.g., in-
sorvico and pro-sorvico toaclor training)
ln addition to tloso lroad propositions, tlo tollowing
rocommondations tocus on spocitic compononts ot tlo tiS concopt
in tlo contoxt ot scaling up tlo rotorm initiativo in Kazaklstan
48
(soo lallo 2 tor a summary ot rocommondations):
RigLts-bascd cducation
Paiso awaronoss alout tPt at tlo sclool lovol
Vako tPt accossillo to all sclools in Pussian and Kazakl
lncludo tPt in tlo sclool curriculum tlrougl an intogrativo
approacl (soo Appondix B tor a spocitic oxamplo ot a
projoct implomontod ly tlo tontro tor tivic lducation)
lntograto into in-sorvico and pro-sorvico toaclor training
programmos

Altlougl sovoral partnors (o.g., Stop ly Stop tontro, lttoctivo Sclools tontro, OlSl) addross tlo
issuo ot inclusivoclild-sooking sclools in torms ot dittoront loarning stylos and alilitios, tloro is
a nood to addross tlo issuos ot non-attondanco and drop-out (o.g., community-lasod lVlS) and
turtlor oxamino tlo situation in minority sclools.
48
llis soction doals witl a wido rango ot rocommondations discussod witl oducation stakololdors
in Kazaklstan. lloso rocommondations do not nocossarily torm a coloront stratogy, lut ratlor
provido idoas tor tuturo programmos.
57
IncIusivc/cLiId-sccking cducation
lncroaso clildrons accoss to pro-sclool oducation
programmos ly raising tlo quality ot tlo oxisting programmos
(o.g., dovoloping standards) and introducing now, non-
tormal oducation programmos
lntroduco community lVlS to onsuro rogular sclool atton-
danco and docroaso drop-out ratos (soo Appondix A tor a
spocitic oxamplo ot tlo projoct implomontod ly Savo tlo
tlildron (UK) in lajikistan)
Provido spocial support tor rural sclools and Kazakl modium
sclools (o.g., translation ot training matorials into Kazakl tor
in-sorvico 8 pro-sorvico toaclor training and NGOs, and
supply tlo nocossary litoraturo tor Kazakl modium sclools)
tonduct noods assossmont to oxamino tlo curront situation
in minority sclools (o.g., lilingual oducation)
Paiso awaronoss and promoto tlo inclusion ot clildron
witl spocial noods into mainstroam sclools.
Gcndcr-scnsitivc scLooIs
lnsuro tull gondor mainstroaming, wlicl roquiros tlo into-
gration ot gondor-sonsitivo policy proscriptions into national
dovolopmont plans and programmos at all lovols and tlrougl-
out all soctors
Dovolop guidolinos tor gondor-sonsitivo curricula, matorials
and toxtlooks
Proparo a coro toam ot trainors to implomont gondor-
sonsitivo oducation in sclools
Dovolop training packagostoacling matorials on raising
gondor-awaronoss at all lovols ot oducation
lntograto gondor-awaronoss training into all in-sorvico and
pro-sorvico toaclor training programmos
QuaIity Icarning
Proccss/contcnt
Support curriculum rotorm rolatod to tlo transition to 12-
yoar sclooling (o.g., intornational oxporionco, curriculum
dovolopmont training)
Witlin tlo tramowork ot 12-yoar curriculum rotorm, promoto
tlo introduction ot now contont aroas (o.g., lito-skills),
58
instructional stratogios (o.g. critical tlinking, prollom solving),
and loarning oljoctivos tor clildron at all stagos ot dovolopmont
Support tlo dovolopmont ot oducation quality indicators
tlat moasuro lotl acadomic knowlodgo and litosocial skills
Support tlo dovolopmont ot quality toxtlooks ly luilding
tlo capacity ot toxtlook autlors and pullislors
1cacLcrs
Advocato tor tlo incroaso ot toaclor salarios
troato tavourallo opportunitios tor young toaclors to stay
in tlo protossion (o.g., improvo toaclor status)
lmprovo tlo quality ot in-sorvico training programmos ly
incroasing omplasis on practical training (statt training,
introduction ot intoractivo toaclingloarning motlods)
lmprovo tlo quality ot pro-sorvico toaclor training
programmos incroasing omplasis on practical training
(intoractivo toaclingloarning motlods)
Advocato tor and support tlo ostallislmont ot altornativo
in-sorvico training programmos tlrougl NGOs
Environmcnt
Volilizo local, national and intornational tunding tor sclool
ronovation and maintonanco
Dovolop standardscritoria tlat outlino minimum roquiromonts
tor plysical structuro and sanitary conditions ot sclools
lnsuro accoss to sclool ly providing transportation and
otlor sorvicos in romoto rural aroas
Lcarncr
lncroaso pro-sclool attondanco ly dovoloping non-tormal
programmos
lmprovo tlo quality ot pro-sclool programmos (tor clildron
agod 5-¯ yoars)
lncludo loaltl oducation in tlo sclool curriculum
Participatory govcrnancc
Paiso tlo awaronoss and luild tlo capacity ot paronts,
toaclors and studonts tor ottoctivo involvomont in sclool
managomont
59
Build tlo capacity ot middlo-lovol administrators (local
autloritios and sclool loards) to onsuro oducation rotorm
support locally (o.g., capacity luilding in tinancial planning,
administration and managomont)
Dovolop skills tor participatory govornanco in sclool
administrator, toaclors, paronts and studonts (training in
planning, managomont, administration and loadorslip)
Support NGO involvomont in oducation rotorm
6
0
1abIc 2. Main AcLicvcmcnts, CLaIIcngcs and Rccommcndations: CFS in KazakLstan
Main AcLicvcmcnts CLaIIcngcs Rccommcndations
RigLts-bascd
Strong poIiticaI viII to IuIIiII ObstacIcs to impIcmcnting dccIarcd AnaIyzc cxisting cducation IcgisIation
cLiIdrcn`s rigLts obIigations to cxaminc its corrcspondcncc to tLc
tPt ratitiod in 1992 lack ot tinancial rosourcos, ospocially norms ratiIicd in CRC
tPt translatod in Kazakl and Pussian at tlo local (akimat) lovol AnaIyzc cducation Iinancc cxpcnditurc
NGO soctor activoly involvod in lack ot implomontation moclanisms Ensurc adcquatc impIcmcntation
clildrons riglts protoction Lov avarcncss oI CRC at tLc scLooI IcvcI mccLanisms
Only a tow soloctod sclools lavo includod Advocatc Ior LigLcr invcstmcnts in
tPt in gonoral socondary oducation cducation
curriculum (as an oloctivo suljoct) Raisc avarcncss oI CRC at tLc scLooI IcvcI
Provido oacl sclool witl tPt
lncludo tPt in sclool curriculum tlrougl
intogrativo approacl
lncludo tPt in in-sorvico and pro-sorvico
training programmos
IncIusivc
Education Lav guarantccs Ircc Education is bccoming incrcasingIy Incrcasc cducation acccss & quaIity
compuIsory cducation Ior aII cLiIdrcn inacccssibIc & unaIIordabIc Dovolop standards tor oarly clildlood
Prc-scLooI prcparation (Ior cLiIdrcn Pro-sclool onrollmont toll trom 53,1/ dovolopmont programmos (0-5 yoars old)
agcd 5-7ycars) Las bccn madc Ircc in 1989 to 15/ in 2001 lncroaso accoss to pro-sclool (5-¯ yoars
and compuIsory Ior aII cLiIdrcn Basic oducation onrollmont toll trom 94.8/ old) ly dovoloping non-tormal programmos
in 1989 to 94,2/ in 1999 lmprovo tlo quality ot pro-sclool (5-¯
Uppor socondary oducation onrollmont toll yoars old) proparation programmos
trom ¯5,8/ in 1989 to 5¯,4/ in 199¯ lntroduco community lVlS
Education is bccoming incrcasingIy Ensurc cquity in cducation
incquitabIc Provido spocial support to sclools in rural aroas
tlildron trom poor, rural lousololds lavo lnsuro translation ot training matorials
loss accoss to oducation into Kazakl tor in-sorvico 8 pro-sorvico
tlildron trom Pussian sclools rocoivo training and NGOs
liglor quality oducation Provido tlo nocossary litoraturo tor
tlildron trom institutions and spocial sclools sclools witl Kazakl instruction
rocoivo lowor quality oducation and lavo Assoss noods ot minority sclools
limitod opportunitios tor social intogration (lilingual oducation)
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LRERTlNû LHlL0-
FRlEN0LY 5LHUUL5
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k
k.¡. E00LRTlUN REFURM LUNTEXT
lajikistan las a long listory
48
, lut las oxistod as a Stato only
sinco its otticial incorporation into tlo Soviot Union in 1924. As
witl otlor Soviot ropullics, noarly sovonty yoars ot Soviot rulo
(1924-1991) lrouglt lajikistan a comlination ot acliovomonts
and clallongos. Altlougl oducation, loaltl caro and industrial
dovolopmont sulstantially improvod comparod to tloir low starting
points, tlo quality ot tlo transtormation was not always so
improssivo. ior all tlo modornization tlat occurrod undor tlo
Soviot rulo, tlo contral govornmonts policios limitod lajikistan to
tlo rolo ot a prodominantly agricultural producor tor industrios
locatod olsowloro in tlo Soviot Union (turtis, 1996). llrouglout
tlo Soviot poriod, lajikistan lad ono ot tlo lowost standards ot
living ot tlo Soviot ropullics
49
.
Attor doclaring its indopondonco on Soptomlor 9tl, 1991,
lajikistan ontorod a poriod ot massivo oconomic doclino, rosulting
trom tlo loss ot its traditional trading markots and tlo ond ot
ludgotary sulsidios trom Voscow. According to ADB (2000), tlo
govornmont rovonuo as a porcontago ot GDP toll ly moro tlan
48
lajikistan, wlicl moans tlo land ot tlo lajiks, las an anciont cultural loritago dating lack at loast
to tlo socond millonnium Bt. Boing tlo oldost sottlod nation in tontral Asia, lajiks (ancostors ot
tlo lndo-lranian or Aryan otlnic community) aro tlo Porsian spoakors ot tontral Asia.
49
ln 1989, lajikistan lad tlo lowost moan por capita incomo amongst tlo Soviot ropullics,
sulstantially lolow 50/ ot tlo moan incomo in Pussia, and tlo liglost proportion ot tlo
population in povorty (ADB, 2000).
66
lalt lotwoon 1992 and 199¯. Sovoro oconomic crisis was oxacor-
latod ly civil war trom 1992 to 1993, tollowod ly an oxtondod
poriod ot civil unrost. llo prolongod contlict disruptod pooplos
livos, dostroyod civil socioty, and sovoroly damagod intrastructuro.
llo oconomic doclino worsonod tlo lovol ot povorty, wlicl was
alroady ligl, and incroasod unomploymont
50
, and tlo slarp
roduction ot pullic sponding limitod tlo Govornmonts alility to
provido lasic sorvicos, sucl as oducation and loaltl, tor all
citizons (ADB, 2000, p. 14). tonsoquontly, lajikistans Human
Dovolopmont lndox (HDl) droppod ly 20 placos trom 88tl out
ot 1¯4 countrios at tlo loginning ot tlo 1990s to 108tl ly 1999
(UNDP, 1999).
Altlougl tloro las loon somo oco-
nomic rocovory sinco 199¯,
51
invostmont
in tlo social soctors las romainod low.
ln 1999, Stato oxpondituro on oduca-
tion was 2.1/ ot GDP (lVi 8 WB,
2002, p. 1¯). tomparod to 1991, odu-
cation oxpondituro as a porcontago ot
tlo Stato ludgot was moro tlan lalvod,
trom 22.1/ to 10.9/ in 1999 (liA,
2000, p. 131). A sovoro lack ot tinan-
cial rosourcos during tlo 1990s mado
it practically impossillo ovon to provido
lasic oducation tor all clildron, lot alono
undortako a tundamontal rotorm ot tlo
oducation systom. As a rosult, provi-
ously ligl litoracy ratos doclinod, sclool
onrolmont ratos docroasod, and studont
drop-out ratos roso. iurtlormoro, capital
intrastructuro rapidly dotorioratod, poda-
gogical matorials, oquipmont and toxt-
looks toll into slort supply, curricula
stagnatod, and many qualitiod toaclors
lott tlo sclools. lloso disturling tronds
lavo advorsoly attoctod tlo majority ot
lajikistans youngor gonoration, wlo
mako up 61.3/ ot tlo population
(UNltli VONll, 2001).
50
\oung pooplo constituto 40.6/ ot tlo total numlor ot unomployod in lajikistan (UNltli
VONll, 1999).
51
According to lVi 8 WB (2002), roal GDP growtl in lajikistan constitutod 2.9/ lotwoon 1996-
2000 and was torocast to roacl 10/ in 2001 (p. 8).
According io ihe 'Naiional Concepi of
Educaiion', ,2002), educaiion has seven
basic iasks.
,1) To ieach an individual esseniial
knowledge and naiional and inierna-
iional values; prepare hin for ihe
defence of his noiherland; ieach hin his
language and naiional culiure, and
respeci iowards ihe languages, culiures,
iradiiions and cusions of oiher naiions
,2) To provide for ihe developneni of
science, culiure, econony and
produciion for ihe benefii of an
individual, socieiy and ihe siaie
,3) To encourage life-long learning
,4) To find new iechnologies for gaining
knowledge, experience and skills
,5) To provide condiiions for iniegraiing
naiional educaiion wiih iniernaiional
educaiion
,6) To develop new forns and iypes of
educaiion nanageneni
,7) To prepare highly-skilled, qualified
specialisis for ihe developneni of socieiy
67
Dospito sovoro tinancial constraints, sovoral oducation rotorm
initiativos woro undortakon during tlo 1990s. llo Govornmont
croatod a now logal laso tor tlo oducation systom. ln 1993, tlo
law on lducation was passod, wlicl statod tlat oducation las
stratogic moaning and is contral to tlo dovolopmont ot porsonality,
socioty and Stato. ln 1994, tlo National Sclool toncopt was
dovolopod to implomont dittorontiation, intogration, lumanization
and domocratization in tlo oducation systom. ln 1996, tlo law
on lducation was amondod to oxpand tlo riglts ot oducation
ostallislmonts ly promoting multi-clannol tinancing tor oducation.
ln 199¯, tlo national standards ot gonoral socondary oducation
woro approvod, wlicl dotorminod oducation contont, and tlo
roquiromonts tor improving skills, alilitios and porsonality
dovolopmont. Sovoral national programmos woro also dovolopod
to assist in aclioving tlo goals ot oducation, including tlo
Programmo ot Population Growtl in lajikistan until 2005 and
tlo Programmo tor tlo lmprovomont ot tonditions ot Womon,
iamilios, Vatornity and tlildlood Protoction until 2005. llo
National toncopt ot lducation ot tlo Popullic ot lajikistan (Pl)
was approvod in April 2002, outlining national policy tor oducation
dovolopmont. Duo to sovoro tinancial constraints, lowovor, tlo
lasic olomonts ot tloso programmos lavo not loon tully
implomontod.
Sinco tlo ond ot tlo 1990s, tloro las loon loigltonod
intornational donor activity to support oducation rotorm ottorts in
lajikistan (soo Appondix A). llo Aga Klan ioundation (AKi),
Opon Socioty lnstitutoSoros ioundations (OSl), Unitod Nations
Dovolopmont Programmo (UNDP), Unitod Nations tlildrons iund
(UNltli), Unitod Nations lducational, Sciontitic and tultural
Organization (UNlStO), Savo tlo tlildron (UK), tlo World Bank
(WB), tlo Asian Dovolopmont Bank (ADB), and tlo lslamic Bank
tor Poconstruction and Dovolopmont (lBPD) lavo all carriod out
oducation rotorm initiativos in lajikistan. Wloroas somo intornational
assistanco las tocusod on roluilding oducation intrastructuro
(lBPD, UNOPS,) or providing lumanitarian aid (Vorcy torps
lntornational, OPA lntornational), otlors lavo comlinod sclool
rolalilitation witl oducation quality improvomont (ADB, WB,
UNltli). Howovor, tloso rotorm activitios lavo loon largoly
uncoordinatod lotwoon tlo intornational agoncios, govornmont
institutions and local NGOs, croating additional olstaclos to
aclioving sustainallo oducation rotorm.
Witlin tlis oducation rotorm contoxt, tlo Govornmont ot
68
lajikistan, in cooporation witl UNltli, initiatod tlo implomontation
ot tlo clild-triondly sclool initiativo in 2000. Originally tormulatod
in tlo Vastor Plan ot Oporations (VPO) tor tlo poriod 2000-
2004, tlo programmo goal is to support a rotorm procoss towards
clild-controd oducation ly tlo adoption ot modorn toacling
motlodology and croating clild-triondly onvironmonts. llo
programmo is also aimod at onsuring accoss to oducation tor all
clildron in ordor to countoract dropping out and non-attondanco,
ospocially tor girls. Givon tlo comploxity ot tlo rotorm contoxt,
tlis claptor oxaminos tlo initial conditions tor implomonting tlo
clild-triondly sclool initiativo, and idontitios tlo major constraints
and opportunitios tacing tlo govornmont ot lajikistan and its
partnors in scaling up tlo tiS rotorm.
k.I. TUWRR05 LHlL0-FRlEN0LY 5LHUUL5. LHRLLENûE5 RN0
UPPURT0NlTlE5
Basod on tlo concoptual tramowork tor clild-triondly sclools
(soo tlaptor 2), tlis soction oxaminos conditions tor implomonting
oacl componont ot tlo concopt, including oducation wlicl is:
Piglts-lasod
tlild-sooking and inclusivo
Gondor-sonsitivo
Quality-lasod
Participatory
k.I.¡. RlûHT5-BR5E0 5LHUUL5
Education is bccoming incrcasingIy inacccssibIc
During tlo transition poriod, lajikistan oxporioncod docroasing
onrolmont at all lovols ot oducation, wlicl was largoly rolatod to
tlo incroasod diroct costs ot oducation, roducod Stato sulsidios
and lowor tamily incomos. Pro-sclool onrolmont las catastroplically
doclinod during tlo transition poriod, now constituting 5.5/ ot all
clildron ot pro-sclool ago. Givon tlo traditionally important rolo
ot pro-sclool institutions in proparing clildron tor lasic oducation,
it is likoly tlat a slarp doclino in pro-sclool onrolmonts will lavo
a nogativo impact on loarning outcomos at lator stagos ot oducation.
Basic oducation (1st-9tl grados) onrolmont stoadily doclinod tlrougl-
out tlo 1990s, to 84.3/ in 1999 comparod witl 94.3/ in 1989
(UNltli VONll, 2001). Socondary oducation onrolmont (uppor
69
socondary and vocational oducation) slowod a similar doclino
during tlat docado. Socondary oducation onrolmonts docroasod
trom 60.1/ in 1989 to 25.5/ in 1999 (UNltli VONll, 2001).
According to tlo VOl data (2002), lowovor, socondary oducation
onrolmont wont up to 54.6/ in tlo acadomic yoar 19992000. ialls
in onrolmont may lavo loon rolatod to incroasing diroct costs tor
oducation (o.g., clargos tor oxtras, toxtlooks and tuition), roducod
Stato sulsidios (o.g., transportation and tood costs), lowor tamily
incomos and tlo prossuro on young pooplo to start work at an
oarly ago in ordor to contriluto to tamily incomo.
Figurc 8. EnroImcnt trcnds in prc-scLooI, basic, and uppcr sccond-
ary cducation (1989-1999)
Sourco: UNltli VONll (2000), VOl (2002)
ln addition to docroasing onrolmont ratos, sclool non-
attondanco las loon growing. Altlougl tloro is no otticial data
on non-attondanco and drop-out casos, somo studios lavo loon
carriod out ly intornational organizations. According to tlo ADB
study (2000, April), ono tlird ot survoyod clildron agod ¯-15 in
lajikistan roportod tlat tloy lad loon alsont trom sclool tor two
or moro wooks during a singlo acadomic yoar. According to tlo
Non-Attondanco and Drop-out (NADO) study (2002)
52
, wlicl was
52
llo study survoyod 100 sclools in all rogions ot lajikistan, including 38¯ studonts, 386 paronts,
14¯ toaclors and 38 local autloritios.
70
carriod out witl tlo support ot UNltli, UNlStO, and VOl),
13.¯/ ot survoyod clildron ot olomontary sclool ago and 11.¯/
ot survoyod clildron ot socondary sclool ago do not attond
sclool. NADO (2002) suggosts tlat lajiks constituto tlo majority
(¯6.4/) ot non-attonding clildron, tollowod ly Uzloks (23.1/),
and otlor otlnic groups (0.6/). Botl studios (ADB, 2000, NADO,
2002) slowod tlat tloro was a cloar rolationslip lotwoon a
lousololds tinancial woll-loing and tlo alility to pay tor toxtlooks,
unitorms and otlor costs associatod witl oducation. llo NADO
study (2002) rovoalod tlat 59.3/ tor survoyod paronts aro not
allo to covor all oducation oxponsos tor tloir clildron. iurtlormoro,
tlo largor tlo numlor ot clildron in a tamily, tlo liglor is tlo
porcontago ot clildron not attonding sclool (NADO, 2002). ln
ordor to improvo sclool attondanco tlat is advorsoly attoctod ly
socio-oconomic tactors, tlo Govornmont ot tlo Pl issuod Pogulation
-583 Alout social assistanco to socondary sclool studonts trom
low incomo tamilios (Docomlor 30, 2001).
ln addition to socio-oconomic tactors, tlo WB povorty
assossmont ot lajikistan (2000, Juno) and NADO (2002) idontitiod
otlor roasons tor non-attondanco, including: troquont illnossos,
unsuitallo plysical conditions in tlo sclools, oxcossivo distanco
to sclool, porcoivod irrolovanco ot oducation, inadoquato sclool
supplios and tlo alsonco ot toaclors. Sclool non-attondanco
incroasos in autumn (SoptomlorOctolor), wlon studonts trom
rural aroas aro sont to tlo tiolds tor cotton larvosting, and again
in wintor, wlon sclools lavo inadoquato loating and oloctricity
(soo soction 4.2.4. on sclool onvironmont).
llo lack ot a roliallo oducation intormation systom and
disaggrogatod data croato sorious olstaclos to monitoring sclool
attondanco and idontitying clildron wlo may lo at risk ot oxclusion.
llis is turtlor compoundod ly tlo tact tlat tloro is an incroasing
undor-rogistration ot clildron at lirtl, wlicl makos monitoring ot
sclool attondanco ovon moro ditticult
53
. ln 2002, UNltli and
Savo tlo tlildron (UK) initiatod tlo dovolopmont ot a community-
lasod, clild-controd lducation Vanagomont lntormation Systom
(o-lVlS) in tlroo Jnnonì: ot Klatlon district. llo sclomos oljoctivos
aro to luild tlo capacity ot tlo local communitios and sclools in
53
Bocauso ot tlo ligl toos tor tlo rogistration ot nowlorn clildron, many tamilios clooso not to
rogistor. According to UNltlis VltS (2000), moro tlan 50/ ot clildron undor 6 montls and
13/ ot clildron undor 5 yoars aro unrogistorod, witl tlo majority ot paronts stating tlat tlo
roason tor not rogistoring tloir clildron is tlat it costs too mucl (p. 22). Noglocting clildrons
lirtl rogistration may limit tloir accoss to oducation. lloro aro casos ot somo impovorislod
tamilios in tlo rural aroas not rogistoring tloir clildron at lirtl (ospocially girls) so as to avoid
sonding tlom to sclool at a lator stago, tlus ovading tuturo oducation costs.
71
oducation data colloction, analysis and uso, to onallo tlo participation
ot paronts, clildron and nnnnIIn committoos in sclool managomont,
and to dovolop moclanisms tor sclools to sook out clildron wlo
aro at risk ot dropping out and oxclusion. llis innovativo approacl
to monitoring sclool attondanco slould lo tlorouglly ovaluatod,
and considorod tor widor dissomination in tlo otlor districts ot
lajikistan.
Education is bccoming incrcasingIy unaIIordabIc
Povorty romains tlo most alarming issuo tor lajikistan, causing
roducod oducation opportunitios tor clildron. According to UNDPs
Human Dovolopmont Poport tor lajikistan 2000, moro tlan 80/
ot tlo population livos in povorty. Pankod 103 out ot 162 countrios
in torms ot HDl (UNDP, 2001), lajikistan is tlo poorost country
in tlo tlS rogion. Sclool onrolmont varios according to incomo
groups, witl tlo vory poor clildron loing loss likoly to onroll in
sclool tlan clildron trom liglor incomo lousololds. llo WB
povorty assossmont roport (2000, p.80) suggostod tlat wloroas
99.2/ ot lousololds trom tlo 5tl quintilo (i.o., liglost incomo
group), only ¯9.6/ ot lousololds trom tlo 1st quintilo (i.o.,
lowost incomo group) onroll tloir clildron in socondary oducation.
Similarly, tloro is a strong corrolation lotwoon povorty and liglor
oducation onrolmont in lajikistan, wloro liglor oducation onrolmont
trom poor lousololds is lalt tlat ot non-poor lousololds -
21.9/ trom tlo 5tl quintilo comparod to 10.3/ trom tlo 1st
quintilo (WB, 2000, p. 85). A roviow ot studios conductod in tlo
country suggosts tlat tlo dotorioration in oducation accoss duo to
povorty las loon tacklod primarily trom tlo supply-sido as, tor
oxamplo, in tlo ADB and WB projocts supporting sclool
rolalilitation, sclool supplios and capacity luilding. Howovor, it
is also nocossary to look at tlo domand sido and oxamino tlo
constraints tacing tlo poor in accossing oducation (ADB, 2000,
WB, 2000). lmplomontod as a part ot tlo WBs Povorty Alloviation
Pilot projoct, tor oxamplo, Savo tlo tlildron (UK) initiatod a
sclool improvomont programmo wlicl gavo sclools alout $1,000
oacl to invost in incomo gonorating activitios (goats and grinding
maclinos). Witl tlo incomo gonoratod, sclools woro allo to luy
toxtlooks, clotlos and sloos tor orplans, to supplomont toaclor
salarios and ropair sclool luildings.
Lov pubIic avarcncss oI cLiIdrcn`s rigLts
Having ratitiod tlo UN ·on+onì.on on ìno 1.¿nì: oI ìno ·n.IJ
(tPt) in 1993, tlo Govornmont ot lajikistan was allo to progross
towards consolidation ot its commitmont only in tlo yoar 2000. ln
72
July 2001, tlo tirst National tontoronco on tlild Protoction was
organizod ly tlo Govornmont witl tlo support ot UNltli. Ono
ot tlo outcomos ot tlo National tontoronco was tlo ostallislmont
ot tlo Anì.onnI ·onn.::.on on ·n.IJ 1:oìocì.on (NttP) undor
tlo Doputy Primo-Vinistors Ottico in August 2001
54
. By Docomlor
2001, tlo National tommission lad complotod tlo tirst dratt ot
tlo lajikistan National Plan ot Action (NPA) tor tlild Protoction.
ln Novomlor 2001, a \outl iorum took placo, wlicl yioldod
young pooplos rocommondations tor tlo NttP Plan ot Action. ln
2001, tlo Glolal Vovomont tor tlildron was launclod to promoto
tlo dovolopmont ot youtl organizations and tlo croation ot a
notwork tor advocating youtl-triondly policios in lajikistan. Having
conductod tlo 1nII,.n¿ ·nII in tlroo main citios and 61 raiyons in
tlo Popullic, tlo GVt initiators colloctod 46¯,000 votos and
outlinod tlroo prioritios tor lajik clildron:
lako caro ot ovory clild
tomlat povorty ly invosting in tlo dovolopmont ot clildron
lako account ot clildrons opinions
Altlougl tlo issuo ot clildrons riglts
las loon rocontly addrossod at tlo policy
lovol, tlo avorago momlor ot tlo pullic
las a gonorally low awaronoss and un-
dorstanding ot tlo tPt. According to UNltli-lajikistan (2001), tloro
is a signiticant lack ot undorstanding among clildron alout tloir
riglt to participato, tloir riglt to oxpross tloir own opinion, tloir
riglt to intormation, and tloir riglt to privacy (p. 25). Altlougl
somo sclools aro now toacling clildrons riglts and luman riglts
55
,
most studonts aro unawaro ot low tloso riglts rolato to tloir
ovoryday livos. According to tlo UNlStO survoy (2001l), ¯0.3/ ot
tlo survoyod young pooplo in lajikistan could not cito any local or
intornational organization working in tlo tiold ot luman riglts in
tloir country. As somo lajik girls oxplainod (UNlStO, 2001), Wlon
spoaking alout luman riglts, wo uso gonoral plrasos... wo can say
tlat wo lavo tlo riglt to oducation, tlo riglt to work and tlats it.
Wo dont know anytling moro...¨ lloro is a corrosponding lack ot
awaronoss and knowlodgo ot tPt among policy-makors and law
ontorcomont otticials. According to UNltli-lajikistan (2001), tlo
¨The ciii:ens cannoi use iheir righis
because ihey don'i know ihen.'
(Boys liom Tajilislan, \ÞLSCO, 2OO1)
54
tonsisting ot 10 loading spocialists trom Vinistrios and Stato dopartmonts, plus roprosontativos ot
NGOs, young pooplo and tlo modia, tlo National tommission tor tlild Protoction is mandatod
to dosign and monitor tlo implomontation ot a National Plan ot Action tor tlild Protoction, and
is rosponsillo tor roporting to tlo UN tommittoo on tPt. llo National tommission tor tlild
Protoction closoly coordinatos witl tlo National tommission on tlo Dovolopmont ot tlo Stratogy
ot Povorty Alloviation, tocusing particularly on tlo issuo ot clild povorty.
73
prollom is particularly signiticant concorning clildron in contlict witl
tlo law. llo practicos ot law ontorcomont institutions and tlo social
sorvico soctor (o.g., tlo polico, tlo judicial systom and social woltaro
institutions) do not tully moot tlo roquiromonts ot oxisting logislation
locauso law ontorcomont otticials do not know alout tPt (UNltli-
lajikistan, 2001).
ln ordor to raiso pullic awaronoss alout clildrons riglts,
UNltli conductod a sorios ot intonsivo training in tlo tPt in
2001 and tormod a group ot 20 national trainors wlo tlon
dissominatod intormation alout tlo tPt among carogivors
56
. Witl
tlo support ot UNltli, tlo tPt national trainors lavo ostallislod
tlo Posourco lraining tontro tor tPt to dissominato moro
intormation alout clildrons riglts ly comlining tloir knowlodgo,
skills and alilitios. lstallislod as part ot tlo Vinistry ot tlo
lntoriors in-sorvico training, tlo tontro is tocusod on improving
tPt awaronoss and knowlodgo tor protossional groups sucl as
policy-makors, NGO roprosontativos, law ontorcomont workors,
modia workors, toaclors and studonts. ln 2001, 400 individuals
and 50 inspoctors ot minors attairs loarnod alout tlo tPt tlrougl
coursos conductod at tlo Posourco lraining tontro. ln addition,
OSlAi-lajikistan las implomontod logal rotorm projocts, advocacy
coursos on luman riglts, and a varioty ot training coursos tor
toaclors, studonts, judgos, lawyors and otlor law ontorcomont
otticials. iurtlormoro, tlo Unitod Nations lajikistan Ottico tor
Poaco Building (UNlOP) las initiatod a now luman riglts oducation
programmo tor luilding national capacity at dittoront lovols (i.o.,
liglor and mid-lovol administration, NGOs, protossors and toaclors)
and raising pullic awaronoss ot tlo issuos ot luman riglts
oducation.
Lack oI mccLanisms to cnsurc protcction oI cLiIdrcn Irom Larm and abusc
According to tlo lducation law, stu-
donts at all oducation institutions lavo
tlo riglt to protoction trom illogal
actions ot administrativo, podagogical
and otlor statt, wlo aluso tloir riglts
and ottond tloir dignity. iurtlormoro, tlo lducation law statos
tlat toaclors and otlor oducation statt lavo an olligation to
koop to podagogical otlics and morals and rospoct tlo dignity ot
young clildron, pupils, and studonts, and to protoct clildron and
¨I was beaien by ihe ieacher during ihe
lesson in ihe classroon and she was noi
punished'
(!aiid, 17 yeais, \Þ!CL!-Tajilislan, 2OO1)
55
ln 2001, tlo Govornmont adoptod a programmo tor luman riglts oducation tor all lovols ot socioty.
56
A total ot 1,1¯0 pooplo attondod tlo training, to loarn alout tlo contont and toacling motlods
ot tlo tPt
74
young pooplo trom all torms ot plysical or psyclological aluso.
Altlougl tloro aro logislativo provisions to protoct clildron trom
larm and aluso in tlo sclool sotting, tloro aro no moclanisms
in placo to onsuro tloir implomontation. ior oxamplo, clildron
wlo oxporionco corporal punislmont in sclool do not nocossarily
know to wlom tloy can turn to roport tlo violation ot tloir
riglts. Also, clildron simply do not trust tlo law ontorcomont
agoncios. As a young porson oxplainod in Wlat do wo tlink?
(UNltli-lajikistan, 2001), l will novor go to militia, locauso tloy
aro corrupt, tlo lolaviour ot tlo militiamon is illogal, tloy oxtract
tostimony ly using torco, tloy socrotly put drugs into your
pockots, tloy lang somolody olsos crimo on you, tloy roloaso
roal ottondors and mako a lot ot monoy.¨ Sinco tloro is insutticiont
intormation alout tlo ill-troatmont and aluso ot clildron witlin
tlo tamily, sclools and institutions, a study slould lo conductod
to assoss tlo naturo and oxtont ot clild aluso and to lolp dosign
policios and programmos to addross it.
k.I.I. LHlL0-5EEKlNû RN0 lNLL05lVE E00LRTlUN
ln ordor to oxamino initial conditions tor croating clild-sooking,
inclusivo oducation tor all, tlis soction looks at tlo oducation
opportunitios ot clildron in dittoront typos ot institutions, including:
¯ Sclools tlat instruct in a spocitic languago
¯ Sclools ot tlo now typo
¯ Stato institutions tor orplans
¯ Spocial oducation sclools.
EtLnicity/Ianguagc issucs
Dospito tlo prolongod civil war,
lajikistan las romainod a multi-otlnic
country. Out ot tlo total population,
69.1/ aro lajiks, 25/ Uzloks and 2.¯/
Pussians (UNDP, 1999). iollowing tlo
tradition ostallislod ly tlo Soviot rogimo,
lajikistans logislation guarantoos oducation in minority languagos
including: lajik, Uzlok, Pussian, Kyrgyz, lurkmon, and Kazakl.
Approximatoly ¯2.89/ (1,134,551) ot tlo studont population studios
in lajik modium sclools, 24.09/ (3¯4,993) in Uzlok, 1.9/ (29,541)
in Pussian, 0.93/ (14,465) in Kyrgyz, 0.2/ (3,09¯) in Kazakl and
0.002/ (6¯) in lurkmon (GostomStat, VOl, 2000). Proviously
loavily sulsidizod ly Voscow and rocoiving toclnical support
'½e should sirive io ensure ihai educaiion
processes in schools include values uniiing
people, and noi values and infornaiion
dividing ihen.'
(L!A, 2OOO, µ. 115)
75
trom otlor Soviot ropullics, minority sclools lavo roliod on constantly
slrinking oducation ludgots during tlo transition poriod. llis, in
turn, las croatod a sorios ot olstaclos in rotorming minority sclools
and guarantooing quality oducation tor all minority clildron.
iirst, no cloar concoptual tramowork oxists tor rotorming
minority sclools. turrontly, tloy aro primarily dittorontiatod ly languago
ot instruction, and not nocossarily ly oducation contont (o.g., study
ot cultural and listorical loritago ot tloir otlnic motlorland). Vinority
sclools usually roly on curricula dovolopod in tloir otlnic motlorlands
comlinod witl tlo compononts roquirod ly lajik national oducation
standards (o.g., listory ot lajikistan, goograply ot lajikistan and tlo
lajik languago). Howovor, lack ot a cloar tramowork tor dovoloping
tlo minority sclool curriculum somotimos rosults in an illogical
comlination lotwoon tlo dittoront oducation compononts (liA, 2000).
Socond, tloro is limitod local capacity tor proparing minority
sclooltoaclors. turrontly, pro-sorvico toaclor training is availallo tor
toaclors ot lajik, Pussian, and Uzlok sclools only. ior otlor minority
sclools, tlo Govornmont can noitlor attord to oducato toaclors in
otlor countrios (o.g., Kazaklstan, lurkmonistan) nor to provido
protossional dovolopmont opportunitios in stato podagogical institutions.
llo only oxcoption is tor Kyrgyz sclooltoaclors, wlo aro trainod in
Kyrgyzstan, lasod on an intorgovornmontal agroomont. llo alsonco
ot pro-sorvico toaclor training may rosult in an incroasing numlor ot
unqualitiod toaclors working in minority sclools, nogativoly attocting
tlo oducation acliovomont ot minority studonts. llird, tloro is a
sovoro slortago ot toxtlooks in minority languagos. ior oxamplo,
Uzlok sclools in lajikistan continuo to uso old toxtlooks in tyrillic
script, instoad ot tlo latin script tlat was introducod in Uzlokistan
in 1996. lloro is a slortago ot lajik languago toaclors tor minority
sclools, loading to a growing numlor ot studonts witl inadoquato
knowlodgo ot tlo national languago.
iourtl, tlo tinal olstaclo is tlat ot modornizing lajik sclools,
wlicl includos tlo dovolopmont ot now standards, toxtlooks and
curriculum. According to tlo initial rosults ot tlo VlA study (2002),
lajik sclools scorod tlo lowost on all aspocts ot tlo tost.

Altlougl
sorious stops lavo loon takon to improvo toxtlook pullisling,
witl tlo support ot intornational agoncios (ADB, WB, OPlt), tloso
ottorts lavo covorod only 30/-35/ ot tlo total toxtlook roplacomonts

2¯.¯/ ot studonts trom lajik sclools succosstully complotod litoracy tasks, comparod witl 60.6/
trom Uzlok and ¯¯.5/ ot studonts trom Pussian sclools. ln numoracy tasks, 51.1/ ot studonts
trom lajik, 58/ trom Uzlok and ¯5/ trom Pussian sclools acliovod succosstul rosults. ln lito
skills tosts, succosstul rosults woro acliovod ly 51.3/ trom lajik sclools, comparod witl 66.4/
ot studonts trom Uzlok and 80/ trom Pussian sclools (VlA, 2002).
76
noodod. Vany sclools tlorotoro continuo to uso old toxtlooks
trom tlo Soviot poriod. llo comlination ot tloso prolloms raisos
sorious quostions alout tlo otticioncy, ottoctivonoss, quality and
oquity ot oducation. lloro is an urgont nood to roconsidor wlotlor
tlo oxisting minority oducation systom arrangomont is allo to
provido oqual oducation opportunitios tor all clildron.
Figurc 9. Distribution oI studcnts by Ianguagc oI instruction (2000)
Sourco: VOl (2002)
ScLooIs oI tLc ncv` typc
During tlo 1990s, lajikistans oducation systom locamo incroasingly
divorso locauso ot tlo ostallislmont ot now kinds ot sclools, sucl as
acadomic lycoums, gymnasia, privato sclools and sclools tor tlo
gittod. lo somo oxtont, tlo curricula in tloso sclools aro tormulatod
at tlo sclool lovol ly tlo introduction ot additional suljocts sucl as
intonsivo toroign languago study, lntormation loclnology and lconomics.
According to liA (2000), tlo contont ot oducation in tlo modorn
sclools dittors ly inducing tlo intorost ot tlo pupils in gaining
knowlodgo, torming indopondont croativity skills, dovoloping alility to
trooly oxpross attitudos alout tlo laws ot naturo and pullic lito, and
croating as mucl as possillo tavourallo conditions tor tlo dovolopmont
ot alilitios and talonts (p. 195). Voanwlilo, tloro aro still sclools ot
tlo old typo, wlicl continuo to omplasizo tlo acquisition ot tacts,
rosulting in poorly dovolopod tunctional litoracy and tlo alility ot tlo
clildron to solvo prolloms (p. 195). ln otlor words, normal Stato
sclools, wlicl constituto tlo majority, aro not noarly as compotitivo as
tlo now typos ot sclool. llis is a worrying trond, sinco admission to
tlo now typo sclools primarily doponds on tamily incomo ratlor tlan
tlo acadomic alilitios ot tlo clild (most lycoumsgymnasia roquiro
additional paymonts trom paronts, wlicl many lousololds simply
cannot attord). iurtlormoro, most acadomic lycoums and collogos aro
locatod in urlan aroas ot Duslanlo and loninalad, turtlor roducing
tlo clancos ot rural studonts to rocoivo quality oducation.
77
CLiIdrcn in institutions
llo collapso ot tlo social satoty not during tlo transition poriod
las lod to an incroasing numlor ot clildron doprivod ot parontal
caro. According to UNltli-lajikisatn (2001), tlo numlor ot clildron
in rosidontial caro in social institutions incroasod ly 32/ in tlo
provious tivo yoars. ln 2001, tloro was a total ot 63 clildrons
institutions, witl moro tlan 8,000 clildron in rosidontial caro.
According to a study conductod in 2001 ly an NGO, Odamiyat,
witl tlo support ot UNltli, moro tlan 80/ ot clildron in social
institutions lavo liological paronts wlo claim tlat tloy aro unallo
to attord to raiso tloir own clildron at lomo. llo study idontitios
tlo paradox tlat poor tamilios aro loing taxod dospito tloir low
incomos, wlicl limits tloir alility to raiso tloir clildron, wlilo
tax rovonuo is supporting clildron in Stato institutions. iurtlor-
moro, tlo NGO study roports tlat social institutions do not
provido clildron witl oqual opportunitios, duo to tlo dotoriorating
quality ot oducation, tlo lack ot lito-skills training and social
oriontation, and intorior clancos ot liglor oducation or dovoloping
a caroor.
SpcciaI scLooIs
llo lasic logacy, to tontral Asia in gonoral and lajikistan in
particular, is a minimal notwork ot poorly rosourcod institutions
tor clildron witl montal and plysical disalilitios (UNltli, 2000).
lacking oqual opportunitios tor dovolopmont, clildron witl
disalilitios aro among tlo most vulnorallo in lajikistan. According
to UNltli-lajikistan, approximatoly 400 disallod clildron aro
accommodatod in two soparato institutions, witlout appropriato
opportunitios tor social intogration. Howovor, most disallod clildron
rosido witl tamilios, lut witlout propor accoss to oducation and
rolalilitation caro sorvicos. llus, tlo dovolopmont opportunitios
ot clildron witl disalilitios aro vory limitod. Govornmont policy
and social sorvico organizations lavo mado vory littlo commitmont
to providing appropriato caro and oducation tor clildron witl
disalilitios. Ono ot tlo altornativos to tlo oxisting institutional
arrangomont is dovoloping a comprolonsivo systom ot community-
lasod, tamily-controd clild woltaro sorvicos to addross tlo noods
ot vulnorallo clildron and tloir tamilios.
78
k.I.J. ûEN0ER-5EN5lTlVE 5LHUUL5
During tlo transition poriod, attitudos
rogarding womons rolos in socioty lo-
camo moro consorvativo, soriously at-
tocting girls oducation onrolmont,
attondanco and loarning acliovomont. On avorago, towor girls
tlan loys attond sclool. ln 1998, tloro woro 89 girls to 100 loys
onrollod in lowor socondary oducation and 63 girls to 100 loys in
liglor socondary oducation (ADB, 2000, p. 58).
58
ln post-compulsory
oducation (toclnical and vocational oducation), tlo numlor ot
loys toll ly 28/, wloroas tlo numlor ot girls toll ly 53/, tlus
oponing a signiticant gondor gap (ADB, 2000, p. 62). ln liglor
oducation, womon constituto approximatoly a quartor ot all stu-
donts, a statistic tlat undorlinos tlo growing dittorontial lotwoon
young mon and womon in lajikistan (SSA, 1998).
llo roport on MoJo:n ·onJo: ·ìnì.:ì.c: .n ìno 1o¡uII.c oI
7nJ.k.:ìnn, issuod ly tlo Stato Statistical Agoncy in 1998, suggosts
tlat povorty and traditional tamily protoroncos soom to aggravato
tlo gondor gap, witl girls onrolmont and attondanco talling
lolind tloso ot loys. Duo to matorial lardslips, many pooplo in
rural aroas cannot provido oqual opportunitios tor tlo oducation
ot all tloir clildron, so tloy mako tlo traditional cloico ot
tavouring sons
59
(UNDP, 1999, ADB, 2000). Girls otton stay at
lomo caring tor tloir youngor sillings, taking caro ot lousolold
tasks or ongaging in agricultural activitios. iurtlormoro, somo
momlors ot poor rural communitios loliovo tlat tloro aro actually
tinancial lonotits
60
to kooping tloir tomalo clildron unoducatod,
tlus tloy activoly clooso to koop tloir daugltors at lomo.
Posoarcl conductod ly tlo Association ot Womon witl Univorsity
lducation (2002) suggosts tlat tlo main tactors undorlying tlo
rising non-attondanco ot girls aro:
lncroasing povorty lovols (as roportod ly 44.8/ ot toaclors
and 54.5/ ot paronts survoyod)
lncroasing oducation costs (10.1/ ot toaclors and 13.3/ ot
paronts)
58
Data quotod in tlo ADB roport (2002) was compilod lasod on SSAs ·onJo: ·ìnì.:ì.c: .n ìno
1o¡uII.c oI 7nJ.k.:ìnn (1998).
59
lt is loliovod tlat sons will support tloir paronts in tloir old ago, wlilo daugltors will loavo
tloir paronts and join tloir luslands tamilios.
60
Somo intorviows suggostod tlat tloro is a porcoption among somo rural communitios tlat tlo
loss oducatod tlo girl, tlo moro dowry is givon tor lor
¨½onen cannoi always decide ihenselves
when, where and how io siudy and work.'
(Giils liom Tajilislan, \ÞLSCO, 2OO1)
79
Docroasing prostigo ot oducation (10.9/ ot paronts)
Po-omorging traditional gondor rolos in tamilios and
communitios (¯.6/ ot toaclors)
As tlo ADB (2000) roport omplasizod, onrolmont and at-
tondanco ratos toll only ono part ot tlo story. Wlat lappons to
girls onco tloy go to sclool is oqually important. Altlougl girls
loarning acliovomont romains somowlat liglor tlan tlat ot loys
(VlA, 2002),
61
tloro is a growing gondor lias omorging in oducation
contont (toxtlooks and toacling matorials) and in tlo attitudos ot
somo toaclors, paronts and studonts. According to tlo rosoarcl
conductod ly tlo Association ot Womon witl Univorsity lducation
(2002), toxtlooks usually portray womon in tlo rolo ot a motlor,
wito, or an imaginary croaturo sucl as a witcl or a goddoss (p.
29). llo majority ot toxtlooks do not portray womon outsido ot
tloir lomos and clildrons tairy-talos convoy tlo most traditional
approacl to gondor rolations (AWUl, 2002). Attitudos alout gondor
rolos aro also growing moro consorvativo. According to tlo initial
rosults ot tlo VlA study (2002), ovory tittl studont participating
in tlo survoy tlinks tlat it is a girls rosponsilility to tako caro ot
and cloan tlo louso. Voro alarmingly, 5¯/ ot survoyod paronts
alsolutoly agroo tlat it is moro important to oducato loys ratlor
tlan girls, oxplaining tlat sclool paymonts |tor loysl aro good
invostmonts tor tlo tuturo (VlA, 2002). Girls attitudos alout
oducation aro locoming loss positivo. Approximatoly 40/ ot tlo
girls tlomsolvos loliovo tlat tloir oducation will not diroctly
intluonco tloir succoss in lito (AWUl, 2002, p. 21). ln otlor
words, oducation is losing its valuo in tlo contoxt ot a limitod
lalour markot and ro-omorging traditional attitudos.
ln tlo lato 1990s, tlo Govornmont attomptod to addross tlo
dotoriorating situation ot womon in lajikistan ly adopting tlo
National Plan ot Action to lmprovo tlo Situation ot Womon in tlo
Popullic ot lajikistan tor tlo poriod ot 1998-2005 in 1998 and
dovoloping tlo Stato Programmo, Vain Diroctions ot Stato Policios
tor lnsuring lqual Piglts and Opportunitios tor Von and Womon
in lajikistan tor 2001-2010 in 2001. llo programmo idontitios
oducation as a priority and proposos tlo tollowing activitios:
Dovoloping a spocial programmo tor supporting tlo oduca-
tion ot womon ly ostallisling quotas tor ontry into liglor
oducation ostallislmonts
61
According to tlo initial rosults ot VlA (2002), girls scoro somowlat liglor on all aspocts ot tlo
tost, witl 8.6/ moro girls tlan loys succosstully comploting litoracy tasks, 1.¯/ numoracy tasks,
and 63/ lito-skills tasks.
80
¯ Stimulating girls oducation ly granting stiponds and tinan-
cial assistanco
¯ troating loarning contros tor young womon witl non-
govornmontal tinancial assistanco
¯ lnitiating discussion ot gondor issuos in tlo mass modia to
ovorcomo gondor storootypos in tlo tiold ot oducation
Altlougl tlo approval ot tlo National Plan ot Action and
tlo Stato Programmo is an oncouraging stop torward, succosstul
implomontation ot tloso initiativos will largoly dopond on tlo
availalility ot tinancial rosourcos. Voanwlilo, somo NGOs lavo
activoly addrossod tlo issuo ot girls oducation ly ongaging in
rosoarcl and advocacy (o.g., Association ot Univorsity Womon,
Association ot Womon in Scionco), and ly implomonting
ompoworing oducation
62
in sclools (o.g., Vanizla).
k.I.k. U0RLlTY-BR5E0 5LHUUL5
According to a UNlStO survoy (2001a)
63
, most young pooplo
(69.1/) in lajikistan loliovo tlat it is prostigious to lo an oducatod
porson. At tlo samo timo, almost a tlird ot all rospondonts claim
tlat oducation prostigo las docroasod ovor tlo last ton yoars.
lloy oxplainod tlat oducation doos not onsuro a woll-paid jol
(43.4/), its quality las docroasod (20/), and costs associatod
witl oducation lavo incroasod (15/). llo \outl Opinion Poll
Study (2001) rovoals tlat approximatoly 44/ ot survoyod studonts
in lajikistan disliko tloir sclools, do not rospoct tloir toaclors,
and attond sclool only to got cortiticatos. Survoys lavo rovoalod
tlat tlo ovorwlolming majority ot tlo rospondonts in lajikistan
(6¯.8/) would liko to go alroad in soarcl ot jol and tortuno
(UNlStO, 2001l, p. 56). ¯6.6/ ot rospondonts in lajikistan
would protor to loavo tlo country to lo oducatod alroad, witl
tlo youngost rospondonts survoyod (15-1¯ yoar olds) loing tlo
most oagor to go (UNlStO, 2001a). llis soction discussos issuos
rolatod to tlo quality ot oducation contont and procoss, ot toaclors,
loarnors and tlo sclool onvironmont.
62
Originally initiatod ly llo Ukrainian Womons lntormation tonsultativo tontro and llo All-
Ukrainian Association ot lmpoworing lducation and tommunications, tlo podagogy ot
ompowormont proparos girls and loys tor rolos ot mutual support, social activism and luilding
domocracy on tlo lasis ot tlo partnor rolations modol.
63
llo total numlor ot young pooplo survoyod in lajikistan was 300 (agod 15 to 24 yoars)
81
U0RLlTY LUNTENTjPRULE55
1cacLing Iocuscs on tLc acquisition oI IactuaI knovIcdgc
Sinco tlo ond ot tlo Soviot Union,
lajikistans Vinistry ot lducation (VOl)
las introducod sovoral curriculum clangos
(1991, 1994, 1999, 2002), tocusing on
rovising oducation structuro and contont
in accordanco witl tlo clanging
goopolitical situation. Structural clangos
includod tlo introduction ot nino yoars
ot lasic compulsory oducation (1st-9tl
grado), troo gonoral socondary oducation
(10tl-11tl grado) and vocational oducation tor all clildron (41st
articlo ot tlo tonstitution ot Pl and 12tl articlo ot tlo law on
lducation). tontont clangos woro tocusod on tlo introduction ot
now suljocts (o.g., History ot Poligion, Basis ot World tivilizations,
ltlics ot iamily lito, iroo Varkot lconomy) and rovising tlo contont
ot suljocts tlat lad proviously loon idoologically saturatod (o.g.,
History, Goograply, litoraturo). turriculum rotorm also includod tlo
divorsitication ot loarning programmos to moot tlo dittoront intorosts
ot studonts. Uppor socondary sclool studonts can now clooso trom
tlo tollowing disciplinos: Natural Scionco, Humanititios, lconomics
and Vatlomatics. Altlougl sclools gonorally lavo dittoront curriculum
altornativos, tloir cloicos romain limitod ly tlo unavailalility ot
toaclingloarning matorials, toacling statt and toclnical support.
ln 199¯, tlo VOl introducod now oducation standards (Docroo
-266), wlicl woro dovolopod lasod on Pussias oxporionco. llo
standards dotino purposos, tasks, principlos and contont ot oducation,
outlining tlo gonoral amount to lo tauglt plus spocitic roquiromonts
tor dovoloping studonts skills, alilitios and claractor. Altlougl tlo
now standards woro dosignod to ovorcomo tlo inadoquacios ot Soviot
oducation practicos, tloy aro still oxcossivoly oncyclopaodic, knowlodgo-
, contont- and intormation-controd, instoad ot tocusing on dovoloping
studonts liglor-lovol tlinking skills, indopondont judgmont, solt-rolianco
and an attitudo ot loarning to loarn (OSl, 2002). llis las loon
contirmod ly tlo initial rosults ot tlo VlA study (2002), wlicl
rovoalod tlat loarning is dominatod ly toaclor-lod activitios (¯4.5/)
sucl as trontal toacling (65.5/) and tlo corroction ot mistakos
(¯0.¯/). Only 4¯.¯/ ot tlo survoyod toaclors activoly uso practical
toacling motlods and 21.¯/ uso croativo toacling motlods. ior
oxamplo, ono toaclor in tivo las novor conductod a losson outsido tlo
classroom (o.g., in a park or musoum) (VlA, 2002).
¨Tradiiional ways of educaiion do noi
aiiraci children any nore. Inieraciive
neihods of ieaching are noi used ai all.
Teachers do noi use individual work wiih
school siudenis.. Soneiines young
ieachers allow iheir pupils io express
iheir opinion openly in class, old ieachers
and principals usually do noi lei iheir
pupils speak openly'
(Young µeoµle, \Þ!CL!-Tajilislan, 2OO1)
82
64
lntorviows witl toaclors and paronts in Duslanlo sclools indicatod tlat toxtlooks pullislod in
tlo 19¯0s continuo to lo oxtonsivoly usod in sclools.
65
ln 199¯, tlo Govornmont issuos Docroo -12 On tlo troo salo ot toxtlooks tor socondary
sclools, transtorring rosponsilility tor toxtlook provision trom tlo Stato to tamilios.
lducation contont continuos to lo rigid, lacking practical
application and loing only romotoly connoctod witl roal lito.
lnitial rosults ot tlo VlA study (2002) contirmod tlat only 56/ ot
all survoyod studonts lavo succosstully complotod lito-skills tasks.
Altlougl tlo concopt ot lito-skills las not loon yot ontiroly
omlracod ly oducation policy-makors, somo suggostions lavo
loon advancod rocontly tlat tocus on tlo psyclological aspocts
ot studonts dovolopmont, tloir alility to ovorcomo ditticultios, tlo
dovolopmont ot intorporsonal skills and cooporation, tlo idontitication
ot protossional oriontation, and tlo opportunity to rocoivo
psyclological support in critical situations (UNltli-lajikistan, 2001).
lloso suggostions rotloct tlo growing nood tor rolovant, tloxillo,
practico-oriontatod knowlodgo, skills and alilitios to locomo part
ot tormal oducation curricula.
ProbIcms vitL tcxtbook quaIity, avaiIabiIity and aIIordabiIity
irom tlo oarly 1990s, oducation rotorm was tocusod on rovising
toxtlooks pullislod during Soviot timos, particularly toxtlooks
containing outdatod intormation. ldoology laving clangod attor
tlo collapso ot tlo Soviot Union, many old toxtlooks (ospocially
listory) cannot lo usod any longor. Old toxtlooks aro also simply
woaring out,
64
and tloro aro vory limitod rosourcos to print now
onos. llo quantity ot now toxtlooks doos not moot domand in
lajikistans sclools. According to tlo WB ostimatos (1999), studont
toxtlook ratios may lo as ligl as six to ono in primary grados
and ton to ono in rural aroas (p. 2). ln tlo lato 1990s, intornational
tinancial rosourcos woro molilizod to incroaso toxtlook supply.
UNltli pullislod 11 toxtlook titlos tor olomontary sclools (1st-
4tl grados), WBs loarning and lnnovation loan (lll) pullislod
18 titlos tor socondary sclools (1st-11tl grados), and ADB supportod
tlo pullication ot 19 titlos tor 5tl-11tl grados (soo Appondix A).
Sovoral intornational agoncios - including tlo WB, UNlStO, 8
OSl - lavo also loon involvod in raising tlo quality ot toxtlook
production ly providing continuous training tor local autlors and
pullislors in toxtlook dovolopmont.
ln addition to toxtlook supply, tloro is a prollom witl
toxtlook attordalility. Sinco 199¯, paronts lavo lad to assumo
tull rosponsilility tor purclasing toxtlooks.
65
Howovor, most paronts
in lajikistan cannot attord to luy all tlo roquirod toxtlooks,
83
loarning matorials and stationary duo to tloir incroasing povorty.
llis is ospocially ovidont in rural aroas, wloro povorty lovols aro
signiticantly liglor and tamilios considorally largor. lo incroaso
toxtlook attordalility, an oxporimontal toxtlook rontal sclomo
las loon launclod witl tlo support ot WB and AKi. So tar,
lowovor, tlo toxtlook rontal sclomo las loon oporating in
soloctod rogions only, and tlo majority ot tlo population is
unallo to lonotit trom tlo innovation.
Limitcd acccss to inIormation tccLnoIogy
According to tlo initial rosults ot tlo VlA study (2002), nono ot
tlo survoyod sclools las accoss to computors.
U0RLlTY TERLHER5
Political, oconomic, and social instalility during tlo 1990s lad
dostructivo ottocts upon tlo working conditions ot toaclors, as
rotloctod in tloir doclining salarios,
66
talling protossional prostigo,
docroasing social rospoct and waning motivation. Wlon askod
wlat makos tlom continuo to toacl in tloso diro conditions, tlo
intorviowod toaclors pointod to tloir ago, proximity to rotiromont,
alsonco ot otlor omploymont opportunitios, tuition lonotits tor
tloir sclool-ago clildron,

and only tlon lovo tor tloir protossion.
lnitial rosults ot tlo VlA study (2002) rovoalod tlat 39.¯/ ot tlo
survoyod toaclors would clango tloir jol, givon an opportunity.
llo rapidly dotoriorating status ot tlo toacling protossion las
considorally lindorod oducation rotorm ottorts, rosulting in tlo
tollowing alarming tronds:
lncroasing toaclor slortagos
Docroasing protossional qualitications ot toaclors
limitod protossional dovolopmont opportunitios (in-sorvico
toaclor training)
lnsutticiont toaclor proparation (pro-sorvico toaclor training).
Incrcasing tcacLcr sLortagcs
As a rosult ot tlo civil war and oconomic lardslip, 4,000 qualitiod
sclool statt (i.o. toaclors and diroctors) migratod to otlor countrios
66
According to tlo liA roport (2000), toaclors lavo misorallo wagos. ln 1998, toaclors salarios
woro an avorago $6.90 por montl comparod to tlo minimum living costs ot $28.30 por montl
(liA, 2000, p. 136).

Vost sclools in lajikistan roquiro additional parontal contrilutions tor oducation to supplomont
low toaclor salarios, purclaso sclool supplios, and ropair sclools. lo oncourago toaclor rotontion,
somo sclools ottor spocial incontivos to tloir toacling statt ly not clarging toos tor tloir clildron.
84
and many otlors lott tlo toacling protossion in soarcl ot lottor-
paid jols olsowloro. Botwoon 1991 and 199¯, tlo numlor ot
toaclors in gonoral socondary oducation sclools toll trom 99,122
to 91,285 (ADB, 2000, p. 60). According to tlo liA roport (2000),
tloro was an ostimatod slortago ot 11,539 toaclors in tlo acadomic
yoar 19992000, including 39.1/ in Klatlon, 20/ in loninalad,
5.8/ in loninsky, 5.¯/ in GBAO, 4.5/ in Duslanlo, 4/ in
Gissar, and 3.9/ in Garm. llo liA roport (2000) indicatod tlat
toaclor slortagos aro most acuto in tlo tollowing suljocts: llomontary
lducation (14.2/), lnglisl (9.¯/), Pussian (9/), Vatlomatics
(¯8/), lajik languago and litoraturo (¯8/), tlomistry and Biology
(63/), History (6/), and Plysics (5.3/). ln ordor to rotain toaclors
in oducation and incroaso tloir motivation, tlo Govornmont ot
lajikistan introducod sovoral initiativos, including:
Providing toaclors witl land plots tor gonorating additional
incomo
Vinimally incroasing toaclor salarios (Docroo -550 issuod in
199¯)
Polioving urlan and rural toaclors ot tlo olligation to pay
tor wator, oloctricity and ront (Docroo -2¯0 signod on Juno
13, 1996)
Providing montlly componsation in tlo amount ot 10/ ot tlo
otticial salary tor oducation spocialists, tor tlo purclaso ot
looks and poriodicals (Docroo -6¯5 signod on Novomlor 10,
1995)
Howovor, toaclor salarios romain considorally lowor tlan
tlo avorago montlly tood lill, so tlo Govornmont initiativos lavo
not solvod tlo prollom.
Dccrcasing proIcssionaI quaIiIications oI tcacLcrs
llo Govornmonts attompts to augmont tlo numlor ot toaclors
in tlo oducation soctor lavo loon mado at tlo oxponso ot
quality. ln 1995-199¯, tlo VOl autlorizod now moasuros to
allow tlo rocruitmont ot toaclors trom socondary sclool graduatos,
tlus signiticantly incroasing tlo numlor ot unqualitiod toaclors.
68
As a rosult, lotwoon 1991 and 1998, tlo total ot toaclors witl
liglor oducation docroasod ly 10.5/, wlilo tloso witl only
socondary oducation incroasod ly ¯.4/ and tloso witl spocial
socondary oducation incroasod ly 1¯.9/ (liA, 2000, p. 123). ln
68
llo VOl adoptod Docroo -41 ·n co+o:n¿o I, ìno ì:n.n.n¿ nnJ on¡Io,nonì oI ìno ¿:nJunìo: oI
·ìn ¿:nJo on April 28, 1995.
85
tlo acadomic yoar 20002001, approximatoly 20/ ot all toaclors
did not lavo adoquato podagogical training (VOl, 2002).
69
iurtlormoro, ovor 10,000 toaclors lad only socondary oducation,
most ot tlom toacling in Klatlon (43.8/) and Sugd (22.4/).
According to VOl (2002), tlo numlor ot toaclors witl inadoquato
protossional qualitications docroasod to 15.1/ wlon 4.9/,
proviously listod as laving incomploto liglor oducation, rocoivod
tloir diplomas. Givon tlo many unqualitiod toaclors in lajikistans
sclools, tlo quality ot loarning acliovomont is likoly to doclino
signiticantly.
Limitcd proIcssionaI dcvcIopmcnt opportunitics
Wlilo moro toaclors lavo loon ontoring sclools witlout tlo
roquirod qualitications, tloro lavo loon practically no in-sorvico
training opportunitios availallo to improvo tloir toacling skills.
Otticially, toaclors aro roquirod to do in-sorvico training onco
ovory tivo yoars. ln practico, lowovor, tlo Govornmont las not
loon allo to moot tlis roquiromont duo to sovoral constraints.
iirst, in-sorvico toaclor training (lll) was largoly unavailallo
during tlo oxtondod poriod ot civil unrost, lut slowly rosumod at
tlo ond ot tlo 1990s. Socond, tlo contrally allocatod ludgot tor
in-sorvico toaclor training was critically roducod
¯0
and tlo lurdon
transtorrod to tlo moagro local oducation ludgots. Sinco local
oducation autloritios could not attord to pay tor in-sorvico training,
most toaclors woro lott witlout tlo nocossary protossional
dovolopmont. ln 2001, tlo tontral lnstituto was allo to provido
in-sorvico training tor only 10/ ot toaclors, Duslanlo lnstituto
tor 6/, Sadviyskaya lnstituto tor 6/, and GBAO lnstituto tor 2.2/
(VOl, 2002).
¯1
iurtlormoro, in-sorvico training institutions lavo not clangod
mucl sinco tlo collapso ot tlo Soviot Union. Duo to larsl
ludgotary constraints and lost links to Voscow, tlo tacultios ot
tlo in-sorvico toaclor training institutos lavo tlomsolvos loon
doprivod ot protossional dovolopmont opportunitios and accoss to
69
Ot tlo total numlor ot toaclors in Pl, tloso witl socondary oducation constituto 10.¯/, tloso
witl spocial socondary oducation (otlor tlan podagogical) 4.4/, and tloso witl incomploto
liglor oducation 4.9/ (VOl, 2002).
¯0
llo tontral ln-Sorvico loaclor lraining lnstituto lad an annual ludgot ot 400 somoni
(approximatoly $100) in 2000 and 6000 somoni (approximatoly $1,500) in 2002. Proviously,
lowovor, tlo lnstituto lad an amplo ludgot, covoring all costs associatod witl training,
including salarios tor lnstituto taculty, accommodation, tood, and allowancos tor toaclors during
training sossions.
¯1
lo provido tlo roquirod toaclor training onco ovory tivo yoars tor all toaclors, oacl in-sorvico
toaclor training instituto las to train 20/ ot tlo toaclors in its rogion annually.
86
protossional litoraturo sucl as podagogical journals.
¯2
lloy tlorotoro
provido outdatod training ly tocusing on now tactual intormation,
instoad ot proparing toaclors tor working in a now onvironmont
ly introducing clild-controd, intoractivo toaclingloarning motlods.
toursos raroly tocus on toacling critical tlinking skills, prollom-
solving skills, and curriculum planning. Untortunatoly, in-sorvico
toaclor training institutos lavo loon almost ontiroly lott out ot tlo
rotorm procoss during tlo transition poriod, as most intornational
donors support rotorm oitlor at tlo liglost lovol (i.o., tlo Vinistry
ot lducation) or at tlo grass-roots (i.o., sclools and NGOs). As
tlo country las an oxtonsivo intrastructuro, lowovor, in-sorvico
institutos could play a koy rolo in promoting, supporting and
scaling-up oducation rotorm initiativos.
InsuIIicicnt tcacLcr prcparation
llo status ot pro-sorvico toaclor training in lajikistan prosonts
turtlor dilommas tor improving tlo capacity ot tlo toacling lody
in torms ot numlors and quality. On tlo ono land, pro-sorvico
toaclor training institutions (podagogical collogos, institutos and
univorsitios) aro struggling to attract now studonts. Duo to low
salarios, dotoriorating working conditions and docroasing protos-
sional prostigo, tloro aro tar towor studonts willing to locomo
toaclors. On tlo otlor land, tlo training institutions lavo prol-
loms rotaining tloir graduatos in tlo oducation soctor, locauso
most studonts sook liglor paid jols olsowloro. Addrossing tlo
slortago ot oxports in sovoral soctors ot tlo oconomy, ospocially
in oducation, tlo Govornmont issuod Posolution -406 On moasuros
ot improving tlo uso ot young graduatos ot liglor and spocial
socondary oducation institutions on Juno 12, 1995, tollowod ly
tlo VOl Docroo -1¯5 On attracting graduatos ot podagogical
liglor oducation institutions to podagogical work on Soptomlor
14, 1995.
¯3
According to tloso logislations, graduatos ot podagogical
institutions, wlo rocoivod tloir oducation at tlo oxponso ot tlo
stato, aro roquirod to work in tlo oducation soctor tor at loast
tlroo yoars, in a location dotorminod ly tlo VOl and spocial
commissions. llis moans tlat graduatos could rocoivo tloir diplomas
not immodiatoly upon graduation, lut only attor comploting tloir
tlroo-yoar toacling roquiromont. Howovor, tlis torcotul approacl
provod to lo quito inottoctivo, as graduatos continuod to avoid
sclools, duo to low salarios, dotoriorating working conditions and
¯2
During tlo Soviot poriod, taculty ot in-sorvico toaclor oducation institutos woro usually rogularly
trainod in Voscow.
¯3
lloso Acts, loing inottoctivo, woro alolislod in 2002.
87
doclining social status. ln 1996, 628 out ot 1,320 graduatos tailod
to arrivo at tloir assignod sclools (liA, 2000, p. 124). ln 2000,
2,231 out ot 4,3¯8 graduatos wont to work in sclools (ADB
Pogional lA 5946-PlG, 2002).
U0RLlTY ENVlRUNMENT
llo consoquoncos ot tlo civil war and oconomic doclino ot tlo
1990s lavo strongly intluoncod oducation intrastructuro and tlo
loarning onvironmont in sclools. According to tlo liA roport
(2000), 20/ ot sclools woro damagod and rollod during tlo
civil war, roquiring urgont roconstruction or ropair. Vany sclools
lavo lrokon windows, loaking roots, no tloors, no turnituro and
no loating systoms. A caso-study ot tlo Gissar rogion,
¯4
wlicl
was conductod tor tlo liA roport (2000), rovoalod tlat 39 out ot
40 sclools oxaminod nood capital ropairs: 22 (55/) sclools lad
loaking roots, 1¯ (42.5/) - rotton tloors or no tloors, and 9 (22/)
- non-tunctioning loating systoms. Out ot 135 sclools in tlo
rogion, only 2 (1.5/) lad contral loating, 30 (22.2/) lad autono-
mous loating, and 103 (¯6.3/) coal loating. Ot all sclools witl
coal loating, only 8 (¯.¯/) lad onougl coal tor tlo wlolo wintor
soason (liA, 2000, p. 128). llo initial rosults ot tlo VlA study
(2002) contirm tloso gravo tindings. 93.9/ ot tlo survoyod sclools
do not lavo any vontilation. Vost ot tlom aro locatod in GBAO,
Klatlon and Sugld ollasts and tlo Paiyons ot Popullican Sulor-
dination (PPS). iurtlormoro, ovor lalt (68.2/) ot all survoyod
sclools did not lavo any loating systom and 92.9/ lad insutticiont
loating. lvory tlird sclool participating in tlo VlA study lad no
oloctricity (31.8/) and 31.1/ lad insutticiont oloctricity.
¯5
63/ ot
tlo survoyod sclools lad no toilots insido tlo sclool luilding
and 42/ lad unusallo toilots. Unquostionally, tloso studios
suggost tlat non-attondanco is likoly to incroaso in tloso sclools
tlat cannot provido adoquato loating and oloctricity tor tlo wintor
soason, tlus roducing oqual accoss to oducation tor all clildron.
ln tact, initial rosults ot tlo VlA study (2002) contirmod tlat
sclool non-attondanco incroasos in tlo socond and tlird quartors,
wlicl corrospond to tlo wintor in lajikistan.
Vost ot tlo ossontial toclnical oquipmont is missing in sclools.
According to tlo initial rosults ot tlo VlA study (2002), nono ot tlo
survoyod sclools lavo accoss to computors, 9¯/ lavo no accoss to
¯4
Gissar rogion is locatod 30 km trom Duslanlo.
¯5
According to tlo VlA study (2002), rural sclools ot PPS and Klatlon ollast aro in tlo worst
condition, witl ovory socond sclool lacking oloctricity.
88
copy maclinos and ¯3/ no radio or toloplono. ln addition, 21/ ot
tlo survoyod sclools lavo insutticiont clairs and 6¯/ nood urgont
ropair ot clairs. lo addross tloso diro conditions, various donors,
including WB, ADB,
¯6
UNDP,
¯¯
UNltli
¯8
and tAPl lntornational, lavo
gonorously supportod sclool rolalilitation. (Soo Appondix A). Howovor,
mucl moro assistanco is nocossary to onsuro tlat clildron lavo accoss
to oducation and adoquato sclool tacilitios tor quality loarning.
U0RLlTY LERRNER
ScLooI prcparcdncss
low sclool-proparodnoss romains ono ot tlo main olstaclos tor
aclioving quality loarning outcomos (liA, 2000). llo rapidly do-
clining numlor ot clildron attonding kindorgartons
¯9
suggosts tlat
tormal pro-sclool oducation institutions can no longor solvo tlo
prollom ot proparing clildron tor sclool. lloro was a tall in pro-
sclool oducation supply attor proviously ontorpriso-lasod kindorgartons
woro closod in tlo oarly 1990s. lloro las also loon a tall in pro-
sclool domand, as a growing numlor ot tamilios protor to koop
tloir clildron at lomo duo to rising costs and dotoriorating conditions
in kindorgartons (SSA, 1998). llo ltD Noods Assossmont ·.ìunì.on
oI ·n.IJ:on nnJ 7no.: 1nn.I.o: nnJ ìno 1o+oI oI ·onnun.ì,
1n+oI+ononì (2001), wlicl was conductod ly VOl 8 VOH witl
tlo support ot UNltli, contirmod tlat 85/ ot tlo rospondonts
considor it tloir rosponsilility to proparo clildron tor sclool. At tlo
samo timo, lowovor, most paronts admittod tlat tloy did not lavo
sutticiont moans to luy clotlos, toys and tlo loarning supplios
nocossary to proparo tloir clildron tor sclool. Only 1.4/ ot tlo
rospondonts said tlat tloy lad sutticiont rosourcos to do so. llo
lovol ot sclool proparodnoss among ¯-8 yoar-olds las stoadily
doclinod. llo ltD Noods Assossmont study (2001) illustratod tlat
most clildron ot pro-sclool ago did not lavo adoquato knowlodgo
ot spaco and timo, could not idontity colour and woro unawaro ot
social and community lito. An incrodillo ¯4/ ot tlo survoyod ¯-8
yoar-old clildron in Klatlon aroa could not namo tloir villago, and
did not know tlo namo ot tloir country or its capital.
¯6
ADB supportod tlo rostoration ot 200 sclools in Sogld and Klatlon ollasts, including
procuromont ot turnituro and oquipmont (studont dosks, toaclor dosks, clairs (1999-2003).
¯¯
UNDP supportod projocts tor sclool roluilding in post-contlict aroas.
¯8
UNltli las also providod rural sclools in tlo most attoctod aroas witl 2,500 dosks and
dolivorod to sclools ot Paslt valloy (mountainous, war-attoctod aroa) moro tlan 1,400 tons ot
coal tor wintor loating.
¯9
According to UNltli VONll (2001), 5.5/ ot all clildron ot pro-sclool ago attondod
kindorgartons in lajikistan in 1999.
89
HcaItL
llo 1·1 AooJ: A::o::nonì (2001) rovoalod tlat pro-sclool-agod
clildron aro not only unproparod tor sclool, lut tloy aro also
incroasingly unloaltly. ¯5.5/ ot clildron aro roportod to locomo
sick (colds, diarrlooa) at loast 1-3 timos a yoar and 24.5/ 3-4
timos a yoar. iurtlormoro, 38/ ot 5-6 yoar-olds and 18/ ot ¯-8
yoar-olds aro suscoptillo to malaria. llo rosoarcl idontitiod tlat
ono ot tlo main roasons tor troquont clild sicknoss is tlo ignoranco
ot paronts alout provontion, caro and loaltl-luilding activitios. ln
rosponso to tlo dotoriorating situation in clildrons loaltl and
sclool proparodnoss, tlo VOl addod Provision -94 to tlo pro-
sclool oducation concopt, providing a logal toundation tor oponing
privato, community- and tamily-lasod kindorgartons. Sinco 2000,
UNltli las dovolopod and tostod didactic matorials tor paronts
and toaclors witlin tlo tramowork ot tlo pilot projocts in Bottor
Paronting lnitiativos and tommunity-Basod ltD. AKi las also
initiatod a pilot projoct in community-lasod kindorgartons, to
raiso tlo lovol ot sclool proparodnoss and improvo tlo loaltl ot
clildron.
k.I.5. PRRTlLlPRTURY ûUVERNRNLE
lajikistan is trying to incroaso community involvomont in oducation
rotorm, ly docontralizing oducation govornanco and dologating
somo tinancial and administrativo rosponsilility to local autloritios,
sclools and paronts. Pocont logislation allows sclools to ongago
in tund-raising activitios so tloy can improvo tlo toaclingloarning
procoss (toxtlooks, loarning matorials), sclool luildings and oquip-
mont. Paronts and community momlors lavo loon oncouragod to
participato in sclool attairs ly tlo ostallislmont ot PlAs and
paront committoos in sclools. Studont participation in sclool
govornanco las loon promotod tlrougl tlo nowly ostallislod
studont councils and youtl groups. lmplomontation ot docontralizod
govornanco, lowovor, las oncountorod somo sorious prolloms
rolatod to tlo lack ot local capacity and culturo to ongago in
docontralizod docision-making. According to tlo initial rosults ot
tlo VlA study (2002), only 19/ ot tlo survoyod sclools lavo
paront committoos tlat activoly participato in sclool govornanco.
80
Usually, paronts and communitios limit tloir participation in sclool
attairs to tinancial paymonts and sclool ropairs, raroly ongaging
in discussing issuos ot oducation quality. Studont councils limit
80
lnitial rosults ot tlo VlA study (2002) slow tlat 15/ ot paront committoos participato in
dovoloping stratogic plans, wlilo 42/ tako part in purclasing toacling matorials.
90
tloir activitios to organizing partios, and raroly mako sorious
attompts to improvo tlo quality ot toacling or sclool conditions.
Altlougl somo innovativo youtl govornanco activitios lavo loon
implomontod tlrougl tlo NGOs \oung loadors Association ot
lajikistan and ltO tontro, most sclools lavo studont councils
wlicl lavo no intluonco on sclool lito duo to lack ot loadorslip
skills and a gonorally untavourallo atmosploro in sclools. As
illustratod ly tlo rosults ot tlo stakololdors study proparod ly
tlo Association ot \oung loadors (2001) and tlo analysis ly tlo
Association ot Scouts ot lajikistan ot tlo VONll Poport (2001),
clildron and young pooplo aro dissatistiod witl tloir position in
socioty. lloy loliovo tlat tloy aro not loing sutticiontly listonod
to wlon docisions aro mado concorning tloir livos. lo promoto
moro participatory oducation govornanco, capacity-luilding at all
lovols must lo a continuous procoss. lajikistan could support tlo
procoss ly:
Dovoloping a now culturo ot participatory sclool govor-
nanco and oncouraging links lotwoon sclools, local gov-
ornmonts, paronts and community
Supporting capacity-luilding at national, rogional, local and
sclool lovols
lnsuring tlat local autloritios, principals, toaclors and
studonts lavo tlo nocossary skills and rosourcos to lonotit
trom tloir now rosponsililitios
k.J. 50MMRRY RN0 RELUMMEN0RTlUN5
During tlo transition poriod, oducation rotorm las loon claractorizod
ly unovon progross, lringing lotl now opportunitios and multiplo
clallongos tor tlo oducation soctor in tlo Popullic ot lajikistan
(soo lallo 4 tor a moro dotailod ovorviow ot acliovomonts and
clallongos). Ono ot tlo acliovomonts las loon tlo ostallislmont
ot now logislation, wlicl las proparod tlo ground tor croating
clild-triondly, quality loarning onvironmonts in lajikistans sclools.
llo tollowing logislativo stops lavo loon takon:
Patitication ot intornational documonts protocting clildrons
riglts (o.g., tPt)
Guarantoo ot troo and compulsory oducation (9 grados) tor
all clildron ly tlo lducation law (1993)
Guarantoo ot troo and compulsory pro-sclool proparation
tor all clildron
91
Povision ot oducation contont and procoss (o.g., oducation
standards and now gonoration toxtlooks)
Provision ot somo tinancial and moral incontivos tor toacl-
ors (o.g., rogular in-sorvico training, salary lovols lasod on
protossional qualitications and spocial tinancial assistanco)
lnitiation ot docontralization in oducation administration and
managomont (divorsitiod sourcos ot tunding, dologation ot
somo rosponsililitios to local autloritios and involvomont ot
paronts)
Howovor, duo to tlo sovoro tinancial constraints ot tlo
transition poriod, oxacorlatod ly tlo consoquoncos ot tlo civil
war, tlo lasic olomonts ot tlo logislation lavo not loon tully
implomontod in practico. Ono ot tlo main olstaclos las loon a
sulstantial doclino in Stato oducation oxpondituro, wlicl las
mado it ditticult not only to introduco clangos in oducation, lut
also to maintain tlo old indicators ot oducation succoss. As tlis
claptor las illustratod, sclool onrolmont las loon docroasing,
sclool attondanco dropping, oducation quality talling, and tlo
plysical structuro ot sclools dotoriorating. ln addition, transition
lrouglt now concorns in tlo oducation soctor - sucl as oscalating
disparitios lasod on gondor and socio-oconomic status - wlicl
romain insutticiontly addrossod in tlo curront circumstancos ot
acuto tinancial slortagos. ln addition to providing supplomontary
tinancial rosourcos, lowovor, turtlor analysis ot tlo otticioncy ot
curront oducation oxpondituro is also nocossary to onsuro oducation
rotorm can lo sustainod.
Anotlor olstaclo is rolatod to tlo tact tlat oducation clangos
lavo otton loon introducod witlout tlo provision ot adoquato
implomontation moclanisms. llo implomontation ot now oducation
initiativos las vory mucl roliod upon logislation (numorous laws,
ordors and rogulations), and otton disrogardod tlo nocossity ot
providing support moclanisms tor local autloritios, sclool admin-
istrators and toaclors to implomont tlo clangos. ln most casos,
sclools lavo lad insutticiont opportunitios to placo toaclors in
training programmos and rogular protossional support activitios.
llo only oxcoption las loon toaclor training providod ly dittoront
intornational agoncios (ADB, WB, OSlSOPOS, AKi, UNltli), yot
tloir activitios lavo so tar loon limitod to a tow pilot sclools. lo
addross tlis issuo, in-sorvico toaclor training institutions, NGOs,
and local autloritios must lo activoly involvod in oducation rotorm.
ln-sorvico toaclor training institutions and NGOs can provido vital
protossional and moral support tor sclools, wlilo local autloritios
92
can socuro adoquato tinancial rosourcos and molilizo community
momlors tor oducation rotorm support at tlo local lovol.
lmplomontation ot tlo tiS initiativo nocossitatos a complox
approacl tlat covors all aspocts ot oducation rotorm. lt is unroalistic
to oxpoct toaclors sulstantially to clango tloir way ot toacling
witlout providing adoquato motivation and componsation tor
tloir work (o.g., incroasing salarios and social status). Nor is it
roasonallo to oxpoct all studonts to attond sclools tlat aro not
proporly loatod in wintor. ln otlor words, tougl issuos (i.o.,
salary incroasos, invostmonts in intrastructuro) must lo addrossod
so as to onsuro systomic implomontation ot now rotorm initiativos
aimod at onsuring univorsal accoss to quality oducation.
PiIoting CFS
llo situation in lajikistan loing so complox, tlo tiS initiativo
las loon introducod on a pilot projoct lasis in ordor to insuro
tlat all tiS compononts - wlotlor tocusod on accoss, oquity,
loarning, onvironmont or participation - aro plannod, implomontod
and ovaluatod jointly. Ono ot tlo uniquo toaturos ot tlis initiativo
las loon tlo luilding ot a strong notwork ot partnorslips lotwoon
govornmontal and non-govornmontal organizations, lotl nationally
and intornationally, wlo rogularly cooporato in implomonting
spocitic compononts ot tlo tiS initiativo (soo lallo 3). Somo
rocont collalorativo activitios aro listod lolow.
tontro tor lntormation and lducation lnitiativos Vanizla
las loon working witl sclools to implomont sclool
improvomont modols (i.o., ottoctivo sclools), clild-controd
toaclingloarning motlods, ompoworing oducation tocl-
niquos and stratogios tor community involvomont in
participatory sclool govornanco (25 sclools in Duslanlo,
Sugld, Klatlon, and PPS aroas)
NGO Popullican lducation iund las dovolopod and implo-
montod a programmo on poaco oducation and toloranco,
wlicl promotos toloranco and intor-porsonal communication
skills lotwoon clildron (3,000 copios ot tlo manual World in
tlilds Smilo in lajik and Pussian, and toaclor training in 60
pilot sclools in Duslanlo, Sugld, Klatlon, and PPS aroas)
Association ot Univorsity Womon las conductod rosoarcl
on tlo situation ot girls in lajikistans sclools
\outl lcological tontro ltO las loon working witl
studonts in ostallisling ottoctivo studont councils in sclools
93
Ontario lnstituto ot lducation Studios in cooporation witl
local NGOs and in-sorvico training institutos will login
implomonting glolal oducation, wlicl includos tlo
introduction ot lito-skills (o.g., loaltl, lygiono, poaco,
toloranco, tlo onvironmont and loaltly litostylos) into sclool
curricula
Savo tlo tlildron (UK) in cooporation witl NGO Dolatruz
las startod implomontion ot community-lVlS, tocusing on
involving community momlors in monitoring clildrons
sclool attondanco (45 sclools in Klatlon ollast, including
Vaksl, Bokltar and Vuminalad districts
ln addition to tlo torogoing initiativos, UNltli, in cooporation
witl tlo VOl and local autloritios, las launclod tlo dovolopmont ot
community- and lomo-lasod approaclos tor pro-sclool oducation in
six soloctod aroas (Duslanlo, Vaklsl, Bokltar, Hissar, lstara Gancli)
and logun an advocacy campaign tor inclusivo oducation (i.o.,
mainstroaming policios tor clildron currontly rosiding in institutions).
Somo sorvico dolivory las loon providod to onsuro appropriato loarning
conditions tor clildron (provision ot sclool matorials tor clildron trom
1abIc 3. EstabIisLcd PartncrsLips in tLc ImpIcmcntation oI CFS in
1ajikistan
94
low incomo tamilios, matorials tor toaclors, sclool turnituro and
coal).
81
llo comlination ot tloso activitios will covor most ot tlo tiS
concopt compononts, tlus providing a moro comprolonsivo approacl
to introducing clild-triondly loarning onvironmonts in sclools. Al-
tlougl not all ot tloso initiativos currontly ovorlap in all sclools, it is
plannod tlat oacl participating sclool will implomont all tiS compononts
ly tlo ond ot tlo pilot projoct stago.
ScaIing up CFS initiativc
Having introducod tlo tiS approacl in soloctod sclools, tlo
clallongo is low to onsuro its sustainalility and widor dissomina-
tion at tlo national lovol. Basod on an ovorviow it curront
oducation rotorm situation in lajikistan, tlo procoss ot scaling up
tlo tiS initiativo will dopond on sovoral important tactors, including:
Strong lacking at tlo policy lovol (o.g., inclusion ot tlo
tiS idoas in oducation logislation, liA plans)
Wido support at tlo local lovol (o.g., awaronoss among
dittoront oducation stakololdors)
Sutticiont tinancial rosourcos
Adoquato implomontation moclanisms
lttoctivo intogration witl oxisting structuros (o.g., in-sorvico
and pro-sorvico toaclor training coursos)
ln addition to tloso lroad propositions, tlo tollowing
rocommondations tocus on spocitic compononts ot tlo tiS concopt
in tlo contoxt ot scaling up tlo rotorm initiativo in lajikistan
82
(soo lallo 4 tor a summary ot rocommondations)
RigLts-bascd
lnsuro adoquato oducation rotorm support, including Stato
commitmont to adoquato oducation tinancing, otticiont odu-
cation tinanco oxpondituro, adoquato implomontation mocla-
nisms, and coordinato oducation rotorm activitios lotwoon
govornmont institutions, local NGOs, intornational organizations
and donor agoncios
81
llis romains an important componont to support tlo tunctioning ot sclools, ospocially in romoto
rural aroas wloso communitios suttor trom povorty. lo onsuro appropriato loarning conditions,
moro tlan 20,000 clildron rocoivod lasic oducational matorials as lumanitarian assistanco trom
UNltli in 2001. UNltli las also providod rural sclools in tlo most attoctod aroas witl 2,500
dosks and dolivorod to sclools ot Paslt valloy (mountainous, war-attoctod aroa) moro tlan 1,400
tons ot coal tor wintor loating.
82
llis soction prosonts a wido rango ot rocommondations discussod witl oducation stakololdors in
lajikistan. lloso rocommondations do not nocossarily provido a coloront stratogy, lut ratlor
provido idoas tor tuturo programmos.
95
Strongtlon policy-making capacity ly supporting tlo do-
volopmont ot stratogic plans ot actions (o.g., NPA and liA)
and rosoarcl (o.g., conduct rosoarcl to idontity tactors
limiting clildrons accoss to sclools sucl as goograplic
location or socio-oconomic status
Paiso awaronoss alout tPt at tlo sclool lovol ly providing
oacl sclool witl copios ot tPt and including tPt in tlo
sclool curriculum and in-sorvico and pro-sorvico training
programmos
Paiso pullic awaronoss alout tPt tlrougl tlo modia and
otlor moans
IncIusivc/cLiId-sccking
Provido spocial assistanco tor clildron trom poor tamilios
(o.g., troo toxtlooks and sclool matorials)
Provido spocial assistanco tor clildron trom lajik modium
sclools (o.g., translation ot training matorials, provision ot
litoraturo)
Assoss noods ot minority sclools
lxamino curront moclanisms in sclools tlat ottor incontivos
tor at-risk studonts to attond sclool (o.g., stiponds and
toxtlooks)
Promoto tlo inclusion ot clildron witl spocial noods in
mainstroam sclools
lnitiato policy advocacy tor inclusivo oducation (o.g.,
pullicizo and sign tlo Salamanca documont) and
provido linkagos to social protoction sclomos (o.g.,
WBUNltli)
Gcndcr-scnsitivc
Promoto gondor mainstroaming ly intograting gondor-son-
sitivo policios into national dovolopmont plans and
programmos at all lovols and tlrouglout all soctors
Advocato tor, and support tlo dovolopmont ot, guidolinos
tor gondor-sonsitivo matorials
Provido training tor toaclors in torms ot gondor-sonsitivity
(o.g., ompoworing oducation)
lntroduco gondor awaronoss training in in-sorvico and pro-
sorvico programmos
96
Paiso pullic awaronoss and initiato community-lasod gon-
dor molilization activitios
Provido community-lasod lito-skills training tor girls
lxamino tlo adoquacy ot tlo sclool onvironmont trom a
gondor-sonsitivity porspoctivo (o.g., adoquacy ot toilots and
satoty ot dormitorios)
U0RLlTY-BR5E0
Proccss/contcnt
Support tlo dovolopmont ot oducation quality indicators
moasuring lotl acadomic knowlodgo and litosocial skills
Support tlo dovolopmont ot quality toxtlooks ly luilding
tlo capacity ot toxtlook autlors
Support toxtlook pullisling
Support innovations in sclools (o.g., critical tlinking, prollom
solving)
troato moclanisms tor intormation and oxporionco ox-
clangos witl otlor countrios tor policy makors, oducation
spocialists
1cacLcr
Advocato tor tlo incroaso ot toaclor salarios
troato tavourallo opportunitios tor young toaclors to stay
in tlo protossion (o.g., improvo toaclor status)
lmprovo tlo quality ot in-sorvico training programmos ly
incroasing omplasis on practical training (statt training,
introduction ot intoractivo toaclingloarning motlods)
lmprovo tlo quality ot pro-sorvico toaclor training
programmos ly incroasing omplasis on practical training
(intoractivo toaclingloarning motlods)
Dovolop and provido training matorials on clild-controd
toaclingloarning tor toaclors
Advocato tor, and support tlo ostallislmont ot, altornativo
in-sorvico training programmos tlrougl NGOs
Environmcnt
Proparo an invontory to assoss plysical conditions in
lajikistans sclools
97
Volilizo national, local, and intornational tunding tor sclool
ronovation and maintonanco
lnsuro coordination ot intornational tunding tor sclool
ronovation and maintonanco
Dovolop standardscritoria outlining minimum roquiromonts
tor plysical structuro and sanitary conditions ot sclools
Advocato tor tax incontivos tor privato invostmonts in tlo
oducation soctor
Lcarncr
lncroaso pro-sclool attondanco ly dovoloping non-tormal
programmos
lmprovo tlo quality ot pro-sclool programmos (tor clildron
agod 5-¯ yoars)
lncludo loaltl oducation in sclool curriculum
Participatory Govcrnancc
Support middlo-lovol administrators (local autloritios and
sclool loards) in rotorm implomontation (capacity luilding
in tinancial planning, administration and managomont)
Paiso awaronoss among paronts and luild tloir capacity
tor ottoctivo involvomont in sclool govornanco
Dovolop skills tor participatory govornanco lotwoon sclool
administration, toaclors, paronts, and studonts (training in
planning, managomont, administration and loadorslip)
Support tlo participation ot young pooplo in pilot projocts
ot sclool councils
9
8
1abIc 4. Main AcLicvcmcnts, CLaIIcngcs, and Rccommcndations: CFS in 1ajikistan
Strong poIiticaI viII to IuIIiII
cLiIdrcn`s rigLts
tPt ratitiod in 1993
tPt translatod and dissominatod in
lajik and Pussian
llo National tommission on tlild
Protoction ostallislod in 2001
National Plan ot Action is loing
dovolopod in cooporation witl youtl 8
NGO soctor
Posourcos lraining tontro on tPt
ostallislod in 2001
LcgisIation rcIorm in cducation
law on lducation approvod in 1993,
and amondod in 1996 8 199¯
National Sclool toncoption dovolopod
and approvod in 1994
Stato standards ot gonoral socondary
oducation dovolopod and approvod in
199¯
National lducation toncopt approvod
in 2002
Main AcLicvcmcnts CLaIIcngcs Rccommcndations
RigLts-bascd
ObstacIcs to impIcmcnting dccIarcd
obIigations
limitod tinancial rosourcos (o.g., a docroas-
ing trond in tlo allocation ot Stato oxpondi-
turo in tlo oducation soctor)
lack ot implomontation moclanisms
lack ot qualityrolialility ot intormation
systoms
Lack oI coordination in cducation
rcIorm proccss bctvccn govcrnmcnt
institutions, IocaI NGOs, intcrnationaI
organizations and donor agcncics
Dccrcasing cducation cnroImcnt
Pro-sclool onrolmont toll trom 15.2/ in
1990 to 5.5/ in 1999
Basic oducation onrolmont toll trom 94.3/
in 1989 to 84.3/ in 1999
Uppor socondary oducation onrolmont toll
trom 60.1/ in 1989 to 54.6/ in 2000
Lack oI mccLanisms to protcct cLiIdrcn
Irom Larm and abusc
Lov IcvcI oI birtL rcgistrations
Lov avarcncss about CRC and IcgaI
iIIitcracy oI tLc pubIic
Ensurc adcquatc cducation rcIorm
support
lnsuro Stato commitmont to oducation
oxpondituro por studont
lxaminoanalyzo otticioncy ot oducation
tinanco oxpondituro
Advocato tor liglor invostmonts in
oducation
lnsuro adoquato implomontation mocla-
nisms tor rotorm initiativos
Strongtlon policy making capacity
Support dovolopmont ot plans ot actions
(o.g., NPA 8 liA)
toordinato oducation rotorm activitios
lotwoon govornmont institutions, local
NGOs, intornational organizations and
donor agoncios
Conduct rcscarcL to idcntiIy Iactors
Iimiting cLiIdrcn`s acccss to scLooIs
(c.g., gcograpLic Iocation and socio-
cconomic status)
Raisc avarcncss about CRC at tLc
scLooI IcvcI
Provido oacl sclool witl tPt
Analyzo curriculum in rolation to tPt
lncludo tPt in sclool curriculum, in-
sorvico and pro-sorvico training
programmos
Raisc pubIic avarcncss about CRC
tLrougL mcdia and otLcr mcans
Conduct a study asscssing tLc naturc and
cxtcnt oI cLiId abusc and dcsign poIicics
and programmcs to addrcss it
99
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LRERTlNû LHlL0-
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5
5.¡. E00LRTlUN REFURM LUNTEXT
On Soptomlor 1st, 1991, Uzlokistan omorgod as an indopondont
stato attor moro tlan a contury ot Pussian rulo - tirst as a part ot
tlo Pussian ompiro (1865-191¯) and tlon as ono ot tlo tittoon
momlor ropullics ot tlo Soviot Union (191¯-1991).
83
Positionod
on tlo anciont Groat Silk Poad lotwoon luropo and Asia, Uzlokistan
onco tlourislod as a trado and cultural contro. Sinco gaining its
indopondonco, tlo country las loon trying to ro-ostallisl its
national idontity and luild indopondont statolood ly adopting a
policy ot gradual transition towards a domocratic logal stato, civil
socioty, and markot-oriontatod oconomy.
llo transition poriod las loon claractorizod ly tlo unovon
progross ot oconomic and social rotorms. According to UNDP
(1999a), roal sponding in oducation, loaltlcaro and scionco toll as
a rosult ot ludgot cuts and talling output lovols.
84
living standards
doclinod slarply duo to talling wagos and social socurity paymonts,
83
ln 1924, Uzlok Soviot Socialist Popullic (SSP) was tormod trom torritorios ot tlo lurkostan
ASSP, tlo Buklaran Pooplos Soviot Popullic and tlo Klorozmian Pooplos Soviot Popullic.
84
lxpondituro on oducation toll trom 10.2/ ot GDP in 1992 to ¯.3/ in 199¯ (UNDP, 1999a, p. 16).
85
\oung pooplo constituto a largo proportion ot tlo total numlor ot unomployod in Uzlokistan (45.9/).
According to UNltli VONll (1999), clancos ot omploymont tor young pooplo largoly dopond on
tloir lovol ot oducation. 6.1/ ot all unomployod in Uzlokistan lavo liglor oducation, 1¯.8/ lavo
vocational oducation, and 58.3/ lavo complotod socondary oducation. llo unomploymont rato is
sproad unoqually tlrouglout tlo rogions particularly attocting rural aroas. According to tlo Savo tlo
tlildron (UK) roport (2002), 68/ ot tlo unomployod young in Uzlokistan aro in rural aroas, wloroas
only 31.2/ aro in urlan aroas.
104
and doprociating savings. lndustrial collapso lrouglt groator incomo
disparity and incroasod unomploymont
85
(UNDP, 1999a, p. 8). Al-
tlougl oconomic output doclinod in tlo tirst lalt ot tlo 1990s,
sinco 1996 macro-oconomic stalilization and structural rotorm
programmos lavo laid tlo toundation tor oconomic rocovory (ADB,
2000). Uzlokistans GDP droppod ly 1¯/ in tlo oarly 1990s, lut
stoadily incroasod in tlo socond lalt ot tlo 1990s. lconomic
rocovory is rotloctod in tlo Human Dovolopmont lndox (HDl)
86
valuo, wlicl, attor talling ly 13 points

at tlo loginning ot tlo
docado, roturnod to its original lovol ly tlo ond (HDP, 2000).
Unliko otlor tormor Soviot ropullics, wlicl
oxporioncod doclining population growtl
during tlo transition poriod, Uzlokistans
avorago annual rato ot population growtl
was 1.5/ during tlo 1990s, loading to a
population incroaso ot 3.8 million. As ot
January 2000, tlo total population ot tlo
ropullic was 24.5 million. Witl young
pooplo constituting tlo majority (58.6/)
ot tlo population (UNltli VONll, 1999), oducation rotorm las loon
viowod as ono ot tlo most important moclanisms tor aclioving
political, oconomic and social progross tor tlroo koy roasons:
Boing oducatod is tundamontal to ompoworing tlo indi-
vidual to participato in luilding a lawtul and domocratic
laso ot socioty
lducation is an ossontial part ot social capital and tlo
lasis tor roviving tlo ricl intolloctual and cultural loritago
ot tlo Uzlok pooplo
lducation supports oconomic growtl ly oquipping pooplo
witl tlo skills tloy nood to mako a productivo contrilution
to tlo oconomy (UNDP, 1999a, p. 15)
llrouglout tlo 1990s, tlo main goal ot oducation rotorm
was a rooriontation trom Soviot oducation valuos towards tlo now
domands ot an omorging domocracy and markot-lasod oconomy.
ln particular, tloro las loon a slitt away trom an idoological
tramowork tocusing on Stato planning and Soviot plilosoply,
86
llo Human Dovolopmont lndox (HDl) includos sucl compononts as oducation lovol, lito
oxpoctancy and GDP por capita.

According to tlo Human Dovolopmont Poport (2000), tlo HDl valuo ot Pussia toll ly 33 points,
Bolarus ly 22 points, Ukraino and Armonia ly 50 points, Goorgia ly 39, and Azorlaijan ly 35.
tomparod witl otlor countrios ot tlo tormor Soviot Union, Uzlokistans HDl lad tlo lowost
doviation (0.003).
¨U:bekisian is ihe Siaie of youih.
Children, ieenagers, and young people
under ihe age of 25 conprise approxi-
naiely 60º of ihe ioial populaiion.
Inhereni in U:bekisian's ancieni heriiage
is love of children and care for iheir
healih, well-being and educaiion.'
(Ð. Yuldaslev, Minislei ol PuLlic
Lducalion)
105
oriontation towards avorago studonts, a passivo toaclingloarning
stylo, and tiglt planning and control ovor tlo oducation contont
and procoss (UNDP, 1999a, p. 16). Oliy Vajlis ot Uzlokistan
adoptod tlo law on tlo National Programmo ot Porsonnol lraining
(NPPl) in August ot 199¯ and Prosidont Karimov signod tlo
Docroo on Padical Potorm ot tlo Systom ot lducation and Porsonnol
lraining in Octolor 199¯. Dotining priority moasuros tor tlo implo-
montation ot tlo NPPl, tlo Docroo statod tlat implomontation ot
tlo laws ot tlo Popullic ot Uzlokistan On lducation and On tlo
NPPl is tlo priority diroction ot Stato policy.
llo National Programmo is diroctod towards tlo croation ot
socio-oconomic, logal, psyclological and podagogical conditions tor
moulding a vorsatilo dovolopod porsonality, allo to adapt to lito in
contomporary, clanging socioty, to mako conscious cloicos and
consoquontly mastor oducational and protossional programmos, and to
lo a rosponsillo momlor ot socioty, Stato, and tamily (p. 34). Programmo
implomontation consists ot tlroo stagos. During tlo tirst stago (199¯-
2001), tlo omplasis was on tlo tormation ot tlo logal, statting,
sciontitic, motlodological and tinancial conditions tor tlo NPPl implo-
montation, including updating oducation contont and assossmont, raising
tlo podagogical qualitications ot toacling statt, dovoloping stato oducation
standards and improving tund-raising moclanisms tor tlo oducation
soctor. llo socond stago (2001-2005) onvisagos tull-scalo implomontation
ot tlo NPPl, and tlo tlird stago (2005 and loyond), tocusos on
turtlor dovolopmont ot tlo statt training systom, lasod on tlo accumulatod
oxporionco and tlo countrys tuturo social-oconomic dovolopmont.
Duo to tlo cloar concoptual tramowork tor oducation dovolopmont in
Uzlokistan, implomontation ot tlo NPPl projoct las loon strongly
supportod ly many intornational donor organizations, including tlo
Asian Dovolopmont Bank (ADB), UNltli, UNlStO, USAlD, tlo Soros
ioundationsOpon Socioty lnstituto (OSl), luropoan Union (lU), tlo
Britisl touncil and otlors.
lt is witlin tlis rotorm contoxt tlat implomontation ot tlo idoa
ot clild-triondly sclools was initiatod ly tlo govornmont ot Uzlokistan
in cooporation witl UNltli. lnitially tormulatod in tlo Vastor Plan ot
Oporations (VPO) tor tlo poriod 2000-2004, tlo programmo aims at
improving tlo riglt ot accoss and clild-controd loarning onvironmonts,
witl spocial considoration givon to clildron witl spocial noods (p. 6).
llis claptor oxaminos tlo initial conditions tor implomonting tlo
clild-triondly sclool concopt, and idontitios major constraints and
opportunitios tacing tlo govornmont ot Uzlokistan and its partnors in
scaling up tlo tiS rotorm initiativo.
106
5.I. TUWRR05 LHlL0-FRlEN0LY 5LHUUL5. LHRLLENûE5 RN0
UPPURT0NlTlE5
Basod on tlo concoptual tramowork tor clild-triondly sclools
(soo tlaptor 2), tlis soction oxaminos tlo conditions roquirod to
implomont tlo tiS claractoristics, wlicl aro:
¯ Piglts-lasod
¯ tlild-sooking and inclusivo
¯ Gondor-sonsitivo
¯ Quality-lasod
¯ Participatory
5.I.¡. RlûHT5-BR5E0 5LHUUL5
ln Uzlokistan, oducation is considorod to lo ono ot tlo most
important clildrons riglts. llis is rotloctod in lotl doclarativo and
practical stops takon ly tlo Govornmont to onsuro tlo tultilmont ot
clildrons riglts. iirm political support tor improving clildrons wollloing
was domonstratod ly tlo dosignation ot 2000 as tlo \oar ot tlo
Hoaltly Gonoration and 2001 as tlo \oar ot Votlor and tlild.
largotod activitios lavo sulsoquontly loon implomontod in tlo aroas
ot loaltl, oducation and social woltaro tlat attoct tlo riglts ot
clildron and tloir motlors. llo Govornmont accoptod a logal tramo-
work tor protocting clildrons riglts in 2001. llis tramowork in-
cludos logislation covoring domostic violonco against clildron, tlo
ponal systom and institutions, clild prostitution, clild pornograply
and soxual assault against clildron, plus tlo rogulations tor adoption
and tlo olligations ot tlo Govornmont witl rospoct to disallod
clildron, criminal lolaviour, juvonilo justico and clild lalour. llo
National tontro tor Human Piglts is currontly proparing a law on
clildrons riglts.
On a practical lovol, Uzlokistan ratitiod tlo tonvontion ot tlo
Piglts ot tlo tlild (tPt) in 1992 and ostallislod tlo National
Allianco tor tlo tPt in 2000, wlicl consists ot prominont writors,
artists, NGOs and govornmont roprosontativos, and works to onsuro
tlo practical implomontation ot tlo tPt and raiso awaronoss alout
clildrons riglts, noods and intorosts in Uzlokistan. On April 20tl,
2001, tlo National Allianco tor tlo tPt, witl prominont loadors trom
Govornmont, civic socioty and youtl groups, launclod tlo Glolal
Vovomont tor tlildron (GVt) and tlo Say \os tor tlildron campaign
in Uzlokistan. llo NGO tlildrons iund ot Uzlokistan, in cooporation
107
Figurc 10. Draving RcIIccting CRC Avarcncss Among CLiIdrcn oI
Uzbckistan
Sardor ASlVOV, Oltyaryk
109
witl UNltli and tlo Vinistry ot Pullic lducation, woro among tlo
loadors initiating tlo GVt tlrougl an activo molilization ot local
community, intornational agoncios and Govornmont.
At tlo sclool lovol, awaronoss alout clildrons riglts las
loon promotod ly translating tlo tPt into Pussian and Uzlok and
piloting implomontation ot tlo tPt in sclools. Altlougl tPt is
availallo in most ot Uzlokistans sclools and toaclors lavo troo-
dom to incorporato it in cortain suljocts,
88
most toaclors do not
lavo sutticiont skills in toacling tPt to clildron in an intolligillo,
coloront and practically applicallo way. lo addross tlis issuo, tlo
Popullican tontro ot lducation, in cooporation witl tlo tlildrons
iund ot Uzlokistan, las trainod 30 trainors wlo lavo conductod
in-sorvico toaclor training in sclools across tlo country. Ono ot tlo
innovativo initiativos was to organizo a national tPt compotition
tor sclool clildron, wlicl rosultod in tlo sulmission ot numorous
doclarations, storios, pooms and drawings dovolopod ly studonts
trom Uzlokistans sclools (soo iiguro 10). tlildron and sclools
now lavo oxposuro to tPt and tlo momontum slould lo maintainod.
lncluding tPt in in-sorvico and pro-sorvico toaclor training
programmos could scalo up tlo initiativo.
5.I.I. LHlL0-5EEKlNû RN0 lNLL05lVE 5LHUUL5
ln oxamining tlo initial conditions tor croating clild-sooking,
inclusivo oducation tor all, tlis soction tocusos on issuos rolating
to oducation accoss and oducation oquity.
E00LRTlUN RLLE55
Dccrcasing cnroImcnt ratcs
llo transition poriod las cliotly loon claractorizod ly docroasing
oducation onrolmont ratos at all lovols ot oducation. Pro-sclool
onrolmont las loon advorsoly attoctod during transition, tlroaton-
ing tlo loaltl, nutrition and sclool proparation ot clildron wlo
no longor lavo accoss to tloso tacilitios. Pro-sclool onrolmont toll
trom 36.8/ in 1989 to 16.2/ in 1999 (UNltli VONll, 1999), lut
incroasod to 18.2/ in 2001 and 19.4/ in 2002 (VOPl, 2002). ln
addition, 9.3/ ot clildron lavo attondod non-tormal pro-sclool
programmos sucl as nnnnIIn kindorgartons and community
programmos (VOPl, 2002). Primarily tinancod trom local ludgots,
pro-sclool oducation institutions lavo locomo moro accossillo
tor clildron trom urlan, ligl-incomo aroas tlan rural, low-incomo
88
ior oxamplo, tPt can lo incorporatod in sucl suljocts as ABt ot Piglts, law, and
uplringingoducational classos.
110
onos. According to tlo Vinistry ot Pullic lducation (2001), pro-
sclool oducation onrolmont is lolow avorago in Sulandarya (8.8/),
Kaslkadarya (11.4/), Samarkand (11.8/) and Klarosm (12.¯/).
Pro-sclool institutions play a vital rolo in proparing clildron tor
lasic oducation, so onrolmont slould lo promotod tlrougl tormal
and non-tormal oducation programmos.
Basic oducation (1st-9tl grados) onrolmont sligltly doclinod
tlrouglout tlo 1990s. irom noarly 92/ in tlo 1980s, onrolmont ratos
wont down to 88.9/ in 1999 (UNltli VONll, 1999). Howovor, tlo
numlor ot clildron attonding lasic oducation incroasod to 89/ in
2000 and roaclod 93/ in 20012002 (VOPl, 2002). ialls in onrolmont
may lavo loon duo to incroasod diroct costs tor oducation, sucl as
clargos tor oxtras and toxtlooks, roducod Stato sulsidios tor transport
and tood, lowor tamily incomos and prossuro on young pooplo to
start working so as to augmont tamily incomos. lotal socondary
oducation onrolmonts (gonoral socondary and vocational oducation)
lavo doclinod. Gonoral socondary oducation onrolmonts docroasod
trom 36.3/ in 1989 to 30.9/ in 1999, and vocational oducation
onrolmont ratos droppod trom 31.3/ in 1989 to 23.1/ in 1999
(UNltli VONll, 1999). Howovor, uppor socondary oducation
onrolmonts gradually logan to incroaso attor 1995.
Incrcasing non-attcndancc and drop-out ratcs
ln addition to talling onrolmont ratos, tloro las loon a growing
prollom witl sclool attondanco. According to tlo study conductod
ly llA iAtl (UNltli 8 VOPl, 2001), avorago non-attondanco
was 2.2 days in tlo acadomic yoar 19992000, tlo liglost non-
attondanco rogistorod in Kaklkadarya (6.1 days), Andizlan (3.1
days) and Syrdarya (2.5 days). llo study idontitiod tlat tlo prol-
lom ot non-attondanco is tairly low in olomontary sclool (1st-4tl
grados), lut incroasing in primary sclool (5tl-9tl grados). Sinco
tlo study usod otticial data to calculato non-attondanco casos, it is
possillo tlat tlo roal non-attondanco and drop-out casos aro
considorally liglor.
89
llis is turtlor contirmod ly tlo gonoral
porcoptions ot sclool inspoctors, principals and toaclors intor-
viowod in tlo study, ot considorallo incroaso in non-attondanco
casos (UNltli 8 VOPl, 2001, p. 11). llo study concludod tlat
tloro is no standard indicator to moasuro tlo longtl ot non-
attondanco, nor a standard indicator to dittorontiato lotwoon non-
89
A class journal is tlo main documont ot attondanco control. Howovor, not all alsoncos aro
rogistorod in class journals tor tlo tollowing roasons: (1) nogligont attitudo ot somo toaclors to
tloir diroct rosponsililitios, (2) toaclors toar ot roprimand ly sclool autloritios tor ligl non-
attondanco, and (3) undor-roporting ly sclool autloritios.
111
attondanco and protractod non-attondancodropout casos. llis, in
turn, limits systomic control and data analysis.
llo study idontitiod sovon clustors ot tactors contriluting to
incroasing sclool non-attondanco, including tactors rolating to:
tlilds tamily
tlilds claractoristics and alilitios
Otlor lito (i.o., altornativo protoroncos) sucl as stroot lito
lducation systom
Social isolation ot clildron
Boliots and lolaviour ot toonagors
lorritorial and sociological domograplic spocitics (soo iig-
uro 12).
lo addross tlo prollom ot incroasing non-attondanco at sclool
lovol, VOPl and UNltli lavo committod to (a) supporting tlo
training ot trainors (lOl) in idontitying studonts at risk ot dropping
out, (l) ompoworing toaclors to work witl paronts and communitios
to onsuro sclool attondanco, and (c) improving sclool mapping and
oducation managomont intormation systoms (lVlS) tor lottor monitoring
ot sclool attondanco in 5 ollasts (Karakalpakia, iorgana, Syrdarya,
Andizlan and laslkont). At tlo national lovol, ADB lavo loon
involvod in dovoloping a moro comprolonsivo lVlS, providing statt
training and connocting 150 rogional dopartmonts to lVlS.
Figurc 11. EnroImcnt trcnds in Uzbckistan (1989-1999)
Sourco: UNltli VONll (2000), VOPl (2002)
112
Figurc 12 Factors Contributing to Incrcasing Non-Attcndancc and
Drop-out Ratcs in Uzbckistan
iAtlOPS tONlPlBUllNG
lO lNtPlASlNG NON-AlllNDANtl AND DPOP-OUl PAllS
(UNltli 8 VOPl, 2001)
(1) iactors rolating to tamily sucl as tlo oconomic situation
(low incomo tamilios, unomployod paronts), tamily structuro
(singlo-paront tamilios, tamilios witl many clildron) and
litostylo (drug addiction and alcololism). ln tloso
untavourallo circumstancos, clildron aro otton lott witlout
toxtlooks, clotling and stationory, wlicl limits tloir rogular
sclool attondanco. Somo clildron clooso work ovor sclool
to contriluto to low tamily incomo.
Mnn, cn.IJ:on J.J noì ¿o ìo :cnooI Ju:.n¿ ìno ¬.nìo:, ìno, J.J noì nn+o ¬.nìo: :noo:...
+o:, nnn, cn.IJ:on, ìno:o .: nì Ion:ì ono cn.IJ .n o+o:, cIn::¨ ·7oncno: I:on Auku:, ¡. 1¨·
·n.IJ:on nooJ ìo Joc.Jo ¬noìno: ìo conì.nuo oJucnì.on o: Io¿.n on:n.n¿ nono,¨·¡. 1¨·
(2) iactors rolating to tlo individual clilds claractoristics
and alilitios. llo study slowod tlat among tlo prolloms
loading to incroasing sclool non-attondanco and dropping
out aro accumulatod ignoranco or gradual lagging lolind,
psyclological ditticultios and loarning disalilitios.
A noJ.cnI-¡oJn¿o¿.cnI conn.ììoo nnJo ìno Joc.:.on ìnnì n :ìuJonì nooJoJ ìo nììonJ
n :¡oc.nI :cnooI Io: cn.IJ:on ¬.ìn Ion:n.n¿ J.:nI.I.ì.o:. AIìo: non:.n¿ nIouì ìn.: Joc.:.on,
¡n:onì: :oIu:oJ ìo nn+o ìno.: cn.IJ nììonJ ou: :cnooI o: ìno :oconnonJoJ :cnooI,
koo¡.n¿ ìno.: cn.IJ nì nono .n:ìonJ¨ ··cnooI ¡:.nc.¡nI I:on 7n:nkonì, ¡. 20·
(3) iactors rolating to otlor lito in wlicl oducation and
knowlodgo may not lo valuod (o.g., stroot lito, computor
gamos, catos, lars, wlicl aro opon to clildron during tlo
day).
AIìo: ìno Iuncn I:onk, :ìuJonì: .n ìno n.¿no: ¿:nJo: nn, ¿o ìo ¡In, ¡ooI¨ ·7oncno:
I:on 7n:nkonì, ¡. 22·
(4) iactors rolating to tlo oducation systom, including porcoivod
qualityrolovanco ot oducation, podagogical protossionalism
ot toaclors, alility to ostallisl contact witl clildron,
alility to provoko a studonts intorost in loarning and
luroaucratic olstaclos. A major luroaucratic olstaclo is
tlat rogistration procoduros lavo not yot loon moditiod
to rotloct tlo groator troodom ot movomont tor pooplo.
113
7no:o .: n ¿:onì nunIo: oI no¬I, n::.+oJ ¡oo¡Io, ¬no Iou¿nì n nou:o o: nn
n¡n:ìnonì - no¬ cnn ¬o ìnko n cn.IJ ¬.ìnouì n :o¿.:ì:nì.on. 1ì .: noì nIIo¬oJ¨
·1n:¡ocìo: I:on 7n:nkonì, ¡. 2¨·
(5) iactors rolating to clildrons isolation or rojoction in
classroomsclool community, wlicl is rolatod to tlo
alsonco ot a clild-triondly onvironmont.
(6) iactors rolating to particular litostylos, loliots, and lolaviours
ot toonagors and studonts in liglor grados (poor intluonco,
omploymont, contlicts witl paronts).
(¯) iactors rolating to torritorial and sociological domograplic
spocitics (districts witl majority ot low-incomo tamilios,
migrants, rural aroas, poorly dovolopod cultural and sport
intrastructuro).
¨Tle µioLlem ol educalion loi young
µeoµle is ielaled lo linancial µioLlems.
Tleie aie µaienls wlo do nol lel lleii
clildien allend sclool Lecause lley
lave no loolweai, no clolles, and no
money lo Luy lexlLools. we aie sµlil
inlo lle iicl and lle µooi.now only
iicl µeoµle`s clildien can sludy¨
(Paienls liom Kaialalµalslan,
UNESCO, 2001)
E00LRTlUN EU0lTY
Povcrty
Growing povorty and social stratitica-
tion lavo logun to rosult in roducod
oducation opportunitios tor clildron trom
rural aroas. ln Uzlokistan, 35/ ot urlan
clildron woro onrollod in pro-sclool
institutions, wloroas only 10.6/ ot rural
clildron lad sucl an opportunity (Stato
Dopartmont ot Statistics, 2000). llis can
lo largoly oxplainod ly tlo tact tlat
low-incomo tamilios, wlo usually como
trom rural aroas, cannot attord to sond tloir clildron to pro-sclool
institutions, wlilo moro attluont tamilios in urlan contros aro allo
to sook privato day caro. Povorty attocts onrolmont in lasic and
socondary oducation tor sovoral roasons. iirst, clildron trom poor
tamilios lack adoquato clotling, stationary and toxtlooks, wlicl
soriously limits tloir oducation opportunitios. Socond, clildron aro
incroasingly usod as a lalour torco to supplomont docroasing
tamily incomos (St, 2002). As tlo VltS survoy (UNltli, 2000)
illustratod, 1/ ot clildron agod 5-15 yoars aro ongagod in paid
lalour activitios, wloroas 4.8/ ot clildron aro ongagod in unpaid
lalour tor non-lousolold momlors. As a loy trom a rural aroa ot
Uzlokistan oxplainod (UNltli, 1999), Good oducation is not
availallo to ovoryono. Wo aro living in tlo transition poriod, and in
ordor to survivo many young pooplo go to tlo lazaar, and tloro
is no timo or monoy to study.¨
114
Figurc 13. Pcrccntagc oI cLiIdrcn cnroIIcd in prc-scLooI cducation
by pIacc oI rcsidcncc (ruraI/urban) in 2001
Sourco: Stato Dopartmont ot Statistics (2000)
llo Govornmont ot Uzlokistan las mado concortod ottorts
to roduco tlo nogativo ottocts ot povorty on oducation oquity. ior
oxamplo, tlo Govornmont implomontod a targotod policy ot sup-
porting clildron trom low-incomo tamilios ly providing tlom witl
toxtlooks and stationory trom tlo Stato ludgot. Starting trom 199¯,
all tirst yoar studonts in rogular sclools and studonts in all grados
in orplanagos and loarding sclools lavo loon tully providod witl
toxtlooks and stationory trom tlo Stato ludgot. Studonts trom low-
incomo tamilios, wlo study in grados 2-11 in normal sclools, aro
providod witl toxtlooks trom sclool lilrarios. ln 2002 (January
25tl), VOPl issuod a rogulation guarantooing all low-incomo tami-
lios troo toxtlooks and clotling tor tloir clildron to oncourago
sclool attondanco. ln addition, ADB lolpod to launcl a toxtlook
rontal sclomo to roduco tlo costs ot sclool attondanco in 14
rogions ot Uzlokistan.
EtLnicity/Ianguagc
At prosont, Uzlokistan providos oducation in sovon languagos in
gonoral socondary sclools (Uzlok, Pussian, lajik, Karakalpak,
Kazakl, Kyrgyz and lurkmon) and two languagos in Karakalpakstan
(Karakalpak and Pussian). turrontly, 5,22¯,453 (86/) ot studonts
study in Uzlok, 312,528 (5/) in Pussian, 15¯,863 (2.6/) in
Kazakl, 151,825 (2.5/) in Karakalpak, 129,166 (2/) in lajik,
21,022 (0.3/) in Kyrgyz, 14,¯80 (0.2/) in lurkmon, and 214
(0.003/) in Koroan. Proviously loavily sulsidizod ly Voscow
and toclnically supportod ly otlor Soviot ropullics, sclools witl
dittoront modiums ot instruction lavo now locomo an incroasing
lurdon on tlo constantly slrinking oducation ludgot. Altlougl
Uzlokistan continuos to prido itsolt on providing oqual oducation
opportunitios tor most ot its minoritios, it is uncloar wlotlor, and
to wlat oxtont, sucl provisions aro otticiont, ottoctivo and oquitallo
in tlo post-Soviot contoxt.
115
Figurc 14. Distribution oI studcnts by Ianguagc oI instruction (2002)
Sourso: VOPl (2002)
Attor tlo collapso ot tlo Soviot Union,
tlo quality ot oducation in most minority
sclools logan to docroaso drastically. llo only oxcoption tlrouglout
tlo country is tlo Pussian languago sclools, wlicl onjoyod spocial
tinancial and protossional statting privilogos undor tlo Soviot rogimo.
llo Vonitoring ot loarning Acliovomont (VlA) study, wlicl was
conductod in Uzlokistan ly UNlStO, UNltli and VOPl in 1999,
rovoalod signiticant dittoroncos in loarning acliovomont lotwoon
studonts trom dittoront otlno-linguistic sclools. Studonts in Pussian
modium sclools scorod liglor on all dimonsions ot tlo tost, includ-
ing numoracy, litoracy and lito skills, tollowod ly Uzlok, lajik, and
Karakalpak studonts. llo dittoroncos in loarning acliovomont can lo
oxplainod ly tlo lack ot toxtlooks in Uzlok and minority languagos
(lajik, Karakalpak, otc.), slortago ot toaclors (particularly Uzlok
languago toaclors), and inadoquato toaclor proparation. llo VlA
study (1999) rovoalod tlat approximatoly 40/ ot survoyod toaclors
in lajik sclools do not lavo appropriato toacling qualitications (p.
30). As tloro aro omorging oducation disparitios, considoration slould
lo givon to wlotlor tlo multiplo languago oducation systom is
attordallo undor curront circumstancos, and, it so, low oqual odu-
cation outcomos can lo acliovod in all sclools.
ScLooIs oI tLc ncv` typc
ln an attompt to slitt away trom Soviot
unitormity, Uzlokistans oducation sys-
tom locamo incroasingly divorso
tlrouglout tlo 1990s. Now typos ot
sclools omorgod, sucl as acadomic
lycoums, gymnasia, collogos, and
sclools tor tlo gittod. According to
¨U:bek language was in ihe shadow before'
(!. Yusuµova, 2OO2)
¨In our schools ihere are iwo lyceun
classes and ihree nornal ones. The
lyceun classes gei ihe besi books, and ihe
nornal ones gei whaiever is lefi. ½e are
iold ihai we should buy ihen ourselves'
(Loy liom \zLelislan, \Þ!CL!, 1999)
116
tlo Vinistry ot Vacro-oconomics and Statistics (quotod in St,
2002), 1.1/ ot all studonts studiod in acadomic lycoums and 6.6/
in protossional collogos in 2000 (p. 43). By providing liglor
quality oducation, tloso sclools usually incroaso studonts clancos
ot ontoring prostigious liglor oducation institutions. Voanwlilo,
sclools ot tlo old typo lavo romainod, lut aro not noarly as
compotitivo as tlo now sclools. Admission to tlo now typo ot
sclools otton doponds on tamily incomo, as many gymnasiums
roquiro additional parontal contrilutions. Voroovor, most gymnasiums
and lycoums aro locatod in urlan aroas, turtlor roducing tlo
clancos ot rural studonts to attond a good quality sclool. Duo to
tlo unovon distrilution ot socio-oconomic capital in tlo country,
it is likoly tlat tlo divorsitication ot tlo sclool systom will
promoto groator soloctivity and tracking in tlo oducation systom,
tloroly turtlor polarizing socioty.
CLiIdrcn in institutions
According to VOPl 8 UNltli (2001), tloro is a total ot 31
orplanagos (Jonn-nokn:.IonI.k) tor 3,548 clildron witlout ad-
oquato tamily caro. According to rosoarcl conductod ly llA iAtl
(VOPl 8 UNltli, 2001), tlo main roasons tor placing clildron in
institutions includo (a) clild alandonmont at lirtl, (l) tamily
tactors (o.g., contlicts, aluso, alcololism, drug uso), and (c)
oconomic tactors. Ditticult oconomic conditions lavo also contrilutod
to tlo omorgonco ot a now plonomonon - tlo growing numlor
ot stroot clildron
90
and working clildron
91
in Uzlokistan. Altlougl
plysical conditions and psyclological support providod tor clildron
witlout adoquato tamily caro in institutions aro roportod to lo
satistactory, graduatos ot tloso institutions otton oncountor ditti-
cultios in continuing tloir oducation, socuring lousing and tinding
omploymont (VOPl 8 UNltli, 2001).
SpcciaI scLooIs
Soviot policy towards clildron witl disalilitios was lasod on tlo
idoa tlat tloy constituto a lasting lurdon on socioty and tlorotoro
warrant a low priority (UNltli, 2000). lt was normal practico tor
clildron witl disalilitios to lo placod in spocial institutions,
ratlor tlan to rocoivo tamily caro or attond mainstroam sclools.
llo consoquont logacy in tontral Asia is a minimal notwork ot
90
According to rosoarcl conductod ly llA iAtl (VOPl 8 UNltli, 2001), tloro aro no otticial
statistics or ostimatos tor tlo numlor ot stroot clildron in Uzlokistan. Howovor, intorviows witl
Stato otticials and polico roprosontativos rovoal tlat tlo numlor ot stroot clildron incroasod
rapidly attor 1996. Vost stroot clildron aro locatod in largo citios, particularly in laslkont.
91
ior moro intormation on clild lalour soo roport ·n.IJ InIou: .n 1zIok.:ìnn ly Savo tlo
tlildron (UK) (2002).
117
poorly rosourcod institutions tor clildron witl montal and plysical
disalilitios (UNltli, 2000). Onco placod in tlo spocial institution,
clildron aro practically condomnod to an institutional sotting tor
lito, sinco no moclanisms oxist tor ovaluating a clilds progross
(UNltli, 2000). All tloso tactors constituto a lugo olstaclo tor
initiating a moro inclusivo stratogy to romody tlo nogativo situation.
Uzlokistan currontly las 8¯ institutions tor 19,626 clildron
witl spocial noods in (VOPl 8 UNltli, 2001). Howovor, tlo
actual numlor ot clildron witl spocial noods is sulstantially
liglor. According to tlo Vinistry ot Vacro-oconomics and Statistics
(quotod in tlo Supplomontary Poport ot NGOs on tPt, 2001),
tlo numlor ot disallod clildron docroasod considorally during
tlo 1990s. lloro woro 33,280 clildron rogistorod in 1992 and
23,¯50 clildron rogistorod in 1999. llo otticial data may not,
lowovor, rotloct tlo tull situation, as many clildron witl spocial
noods, particularly in rural aroas, aro not otticially rogistorod duo
tlo stigma attaclod. Unrogistorod clildron witl spocial noods
otton attond normal sclools or aro kopt at lomo. As noitlor
sclools nor tamilios lavo adoquato tinancial rosourcos or protossional
capacity tor oducating clildron witl spocial noods, tloro aro
sorious concorns rogarding tlo quality ot oducation and opportunitios
tor social intogration availallo to tloso clildron today.
Novortloloss, tloro woro somo positivo dovolopmonts in tlo
tiold ot inclusivo oducation during tlo 1990s. A signiticant initiativo
was undortakon at Govornmontal lovol witl tlo introduction ot a
programmo tor tlo modico-social rolalilitation ot clildron tor
2001-2005 (announcod in Juno, 1999). ln 1999, tlo tlul tor tlo
Polalilitation and Pointogration ot tlildron witl Disalilitios, wlicl
was sot up ly tloir paronts, launclod a sclomo placing small
groups ot clildron witl spocial noods in normal kindorgartons. ln
addition, Savo tlo tlildron (UK) las loon working activoly witl
somo soloctod communitios in Uzlokistan to raiso awaronoss and
initiato inclusivo oducation activitios. llo Popullican tontro ot
lducation toundod tlo tontro tor Spocial lducation, wlicl dovol-
ops toaclingloarning matorials and organizos rogular in-sorvico
training coursos tor toaclors trom across tlo country. Howovor,
moro practical support is noodod in raising awaronoss alout inclu-
sivo oducation in a widor socioty, as woll as dovoloping adoquato
toaclingloarning matorials and supporting toaclors in implomont-
ing inclusivo classroom practicos. Support tor clildron currontly
graduating trom institutions ouglt to lo providod so as to incroaso
tloir clancos ot ontoring univorsitios and tinding omploymont.
118
5.I.J. ûEN0ER-5EN5lTlVE 5LHUUL5
Attitudos rogarding womons rolos in
socioty grow moro consorvativo during
tlo transition poriod. ior womon, tlis
moans a roassortion ot tlo traditional
rolo ot caring tor tlo tamily and roaring
clildron, wlicl undoultodly attocts girls oducation opportunitios.
According to tlo Savo tlo tlildron (UK) roport (2002), moro tlan
25/ ot girls in Uzlokistan do not continuo oducation attor tloy
roacl working ago. Girls ontor acadomic lycoums lalt as troquontly
as loys: 0.¯/ ot all loys and 0.3/ ot girls (Savo tlo tlildron
(UK), 2002). Womon mako up loss tlan lalt ot all liglor oducation
studonts, womon constituting 3¯.8/ and mon constituting 62.2/
(Vinistry ot Vacro-oconomics and Statistics, and Stato Dopartmont
ot Statistics, 2002). llo oducation lovol ot womon ovorall is
strongly intluoncod ly tloir roproductivo load (tlo majority ot
lirtls aro to 20-yoar old womon), wlicl oxplains wly tlo numlor
ot tomalos, wlicl is ligl during socondary oducation, lator goos
down (UNDP Uzlokistan, 1999).
Figurc 15. EnroImcnt by Gcndcr (2000)
Sourco: Vinistry ot Vacro-oconomics and Statistics and Stato Do-
partmont ot Statistics (2002) tor all data oxcopt on aca-
domic lycoums, Vinistry ot Vacro-oconomics and Statistics
tor data on acadomic lycoums, quotod in Savo tlo tlildron
(UK) (2002).
¨More opporiuniiies are given for educaiion
of sons, because ihey will have io provide for
iheir fanilies. daughiers will narry, while
sons will suppori iheir parenis'
(Boys liom \zLelislan, \ÞLSCO)
119
llo soloction ot a protossion dittors
considorally lotwoon mon and womon,
and rotlocts traditional storootypos sucl
as tlo division ot lalor into tominino
and masculino, tamily tradition and
oconomic tactors. Among tlo studonts
ot socondary protossional oducation
institutions, tor oxamplo, most womon
study lducation (2¯.8/) and Hoaltl, Plysical lducation and Sport
(38.9/), wloroas most mon study lndustry and tonstruction (34.¯/),
Agriculturo (25.6/), lconomics and law (16.9/) (Vinistry ot
Vacro-oconomics and Statistics and Stato Dopartmont ot Statistics,
2002, p. 61). llo traditional division ot lalour also oxists in tlo
oducation soctor, wloro tlo majority (64.5/) ot toaclors aro
womon, lut most (68.4/) sclool principals aro malo (p. ¯9).
irom 1995, tlo govornmont logan to implomont sovoral
policios aimod at improving tlo status ot womon. On Varcl 5tl,
1995, a Prosidontial Docroo On tlo lnlancomont ot tlo Polo ot
Womon in tlo Stato was issuod, ostallisling tlo position ot
Doputy Primo Vinistor tor Womons lssuos and a top-down
managomont systom, comprising Doputios tor Womons lssuos at
oacl knok.n.nì. ln 1996, Uzlokistan ratitiod tlo tonvontion on
tlo llimination ot All iorms ot Discrimination Against Womon.
1999 was dosignatod tlo \oar ot Womon. llo urgoncy ot tlo
prollom was strongly omplasizod ly Prosidont Karimov, in a
statomont tlat, How womon aro troatod in a socioty is an
indication ot tlo lovol ot culturo, spirituality ot tlo socioty and
social progross towards domocratic clango. At tlo non-govornmontal
lovol, tlo Woman and Socioty lnstituto las loon vory activo in
raising awaronoss alout gondor rolations in Uzlokistan ly
rosoarcling tlo status ot womon in oconomic, political, social,
cultural and oducational aspocts ot lito, and organizing workslops
on womons riglts. Witl tlo support ot tlo OSl, tlo lnstituto las
addrossod gondor issuos in oducation ly introducing ompoworing
oducation in kindorgartons, sclools, lycoums, collogos and
univorsitios.
5.I.k. U0RLlTY-BR5E0 5LHUUL5
According to a UNlStO survoy (2001a)
92
, most young pooplo
(¯¯.8/) in Uzlokistan loliovo tlat it is prostigious to lo an
oducatod porson. At tlo samo timo, almost a tlird ot all rospondonts
'Siereoiypes exisi in ihe ways of ihinking
aboui wonen's and nen's educaiion, and
educaiion prograns are noi linked wiih labor
narkei denands. ½onen are noi recruiied
inio new professions, and no sirong sysien
exisis for infornal educaiion.'
(AÐB-\zLelislan Residenl Mission, 2OO1,
µ. 6)
92
llo total ot young pooplo survoyod in Uzlokistan was 500, ago rango ot tlo rospondonts 15-24 yoars.
120
claimod tlat oducation prostigo las
loon docroasing during tlo transition
poriod. lloy statod tlat oducation doos
not onsuro a woll-paid jol (20.6/), its
quality las docroasod (10/), and costs
associatod witl oducation lavo incroasod (22/). ln Uzlokistan,
14.3/ ot rospondonts statod tlat corruption in tlo oducation
soctor las locomo moro widosproad, wloroly diplomas can lo
purclasod and good grados onsurod tlrougl lrilos. Survoys
rovoalod tlo disturling tact tlat moro tlan lalt ot tlo rospondonts
in Uzlokistan (53.5/) would liko to go alroad in soarcl ot jol
and monoy (UNlStO, 2001l, p. 56). iurtlormoro, 81/ ot tlo
rospondonts said tlat tloy would protor to lo oducatod alroad.
llo youngost survoyod group (15-1¯ yoar-olds) was tlo most
oagor to study alroad (UNlStO, 2001a). lloso alarming viows
raiso sorious quostions alout oducation quality in Uzlokistan.
U0RLlTY LUNTENTjPRULE55
QuaIity is mcasurcd in tcrms oI mcmorizcd Iacts
Quality oducation outcomos aro pri-
marily porcoivod in torms ot alility to
momorizo tacts and roproduco tlom.
lducation contont otton lacks practical
application and is unrolatod to roal lito. llo consoquoncos ot tlis
approacl to toaclingloarning aro illustratod in tlo rosults ot tlo
VlA studios conductod in Uzlokistan in 19992000, in wlicl
studonts scorod lowor on lito skills (loaltl and lygiono, ovoryday
lito and onvironmont, and social skills), tlan on litoracy and
numoracy tasks. As ono ot tlo studonts statod in a tocus group
intorviow, Wo aro tauglt to momorizo tacts, not to tlink¨ (OSl,
2002). llo studont tocus group rosults contirmod tlat tloy otton
porcoivo sclool knowlodgo as largoly irrolovant to tloir tuturo
livos and somo tlouglt sclool a wasto ot timo (OSl, 2002). Ono
studont askod, Wly do l lavo to know low many stripos a
tolorado lootlo las it l want to locomo a doctor? Wly do l lavo
to study tolorado lootlos, it tloy do not ovon oxist in my
country?¨
Dcmocracy is taugLt tLcorcticaIIy, not practicaIIy
Ono ot tlo Soviot logacios is tlo continuing social oriontation
towards citizon-suljoct ratlor tlan citizon-participant (iroodom Houso,
2002), wlicl is oxacorlatod ly tlo traditional liorarclical social
structuro in tlo oducation systom. lt considorod impolito tor studonts
¨If schools are cold and educaiion qualiiy
coniinues io fall, educaied people will
disappear aliogeiher.¨
(Boys liom !eigana iegion, \ÞLSCO,
2OO1)
¨Our children are noi iaughi denocracy,
ihey are iaughi io adapi.' (Paienls
liom \zLelislan, OS!, 2OO2)
121
in Uzlok sclools to quostion tloir toaclors knowlodgo or ovon to
ask quostions during lossons. iocus group intorviows rovoalod many
oxamplos ot poor grados awardod to studonts locauso tloy quostionod
tlo loarning matorial. ln otlor words, somo toaclors do not oncourago
indopondont tlinking, critical analysis or croativo oxprossion. Ono
paront statod, llo oducation systom is a lig, uncontrollallo apparatus
tor supprossing individuality¨ (OSl, 2002). Altlougl tlo Vinistry ot
Pullic lducation las pullicly oxprossod its commitmont towards
moro participatory and activo toaclingloarning, tloro lavo loon
only limitod rosourcos allocatod tor tloso purposos. Somo intornational
organizations lavo rocontly undortakon initiativos aimod at training
toaclors in intoractivo toaclingloarning motlods (o.g., OSl is
implomonting 1onJ.n¿ nnJ W:.ì.n¿ Io: ·:.ì.cnI 7n.nk.n¿ and UNltli
is starting ·IoInI 1Jucnì.on), lut moro rosourcos aro nocossary to
scalo up tloso rotorm initiativos. Pogional in-sorvico toaclor training
institutos nood support to updato tlo contont andor procoss ot tloir
coursos.
Lack oI quaIity tcxtbooks
A major oducation task during tlo transition poriod was tlo
rovision ot toxtlooks and toaclingloarning matorials to rotloct
tlo now domocratic valuos and idoals. Witl tlo support ot tlo
ADB, 182 toxtlook titlos (1¯,000,000 copios) woro pullislod in
19992000, 251 titlos (1¯,¯00,000 copios) in 20002001, and 252
titlos (25,100,000 copios) in tlo acadomic yoar 20012002. 8¯.¯ /
ot studonts woro providod witl toxtlooks, including 100/ toxtlook
provision tor studonts in tirst grado and 86.¯/ tor studonts in
2nd-11tl grados. Howovor, tloro is a sovoro lack ot quality
toxtlooks, motlodological matorials, additional toacling litoraturo,
rotoroncos, and dictionarios proparod ly nativo-spoaking autlors
in Uzlok. llis particularly attocts studonts wlo logan to study
wlon tlo Uzlok alplalot was clangod to latin (alout 1995). At
prosont, tloso studonts lavo only lasic toxtlooks, wlilo otlor
matorial (o.g., rotoroncos, manuals) is still availallo in tyrillic only
(NHDP, 2000). loxtlook dovolopmont and pullication in latin
script must cloarly lo supportod in ordor to onsuro succosstul
transition to tlo latin alplalot in Uzlokistan.
Limitcd acccss to inIormation tccLnoIogy
Sclool computorization las loon idontitiod as a vital tool tor raising
oducation quality, ottoctivonoss and rolovanco. According to tlo
otticial data (VOPl, 2002), 46.6/ ot sclools lavo intormatics classrooms,
1¯/ ot wlicl aro oquippod witl up-to-dato lBV computors. But
according to tlo UNDP o-roadinoss assossmont (2001), socondary
122
93
llo lovol ot lalour romunoration in tlo oducation soctor constitutos 8¯.8/ ot tlo avorago salary
in tlo oconomic soctor, 44/ in tlo industrial soctor, 68.5/ in tlo lousing, communal and
consumor sorvicos soctor, and 38.6/ in tinancial, crodit and insuranco institutions.
sclools on avorago possoss ono modorn computor (Pontium ll or
nowor) por 100 studonts in 8tl-9tl grados, comparod to an avorago
ot 10-15 computors por 100 studonts in an avorago Wost luropoan
country. iurtlormoro, tlo o-roadinoss assossmont tound tlat towor
tlan 2/ ot socondary sclools lavo computor classrooms oquippod
witl notwork oquipmont and only 0.12/ ot socondary sclools lavo
accoss to tlo lntornot. Out ot 306 collogos, gymnasiums and sclools,
only 22 lavo lntornot accoss (p. 46). Vost ot tlo computors installod
in sclools aro tirst gonoration computors, wlicl woro sot up in
1986-1992 and cannot lavo Windows 98 installod. llo importanco
ot intormation toclnology in oducation cannot lo ovorostimatod. lt
acts a koy indicator ot succosstul transtormation and slould lo soon
as an ossontial invostmont in oducation.
U0RLlTY TERLHER5
During tlo transition poriod, toaclors
lavo loon sovoroly attoctod as a pro-
tossional group, tacing multiplo tinan-
cial, protossional and social ditticul-
tios. iirst, toaclor salarios doclinod
considorally, locoming insutticiont to
covor ovon a singlo porsons tood lills.
93
Socond, protossional support and
rocognition tor toaclors docroasod as tlo opportunitios tor rogular
in-sorvico training locamo moro limitod. llird, tlo toacling pro-
tossion lost rospoct as toaclors logan to lo moro concornod witl
survival ratlor tlan oducating clildron. tonsoquontly, tlo rapidly
dotoriorating status ot tlo toacling protossion las olstructod
oducation rotorm as illustratod ly tlo tollowing disturling tronds:
lncroasing toaclor slortagos
Docroasing protossional qualitications ot toaclors
limitod protossional dovolopmont opportunitios
lmorging prolloms in pro-sorvico toaclor training (OSl,
2002)
Incrcasing tcacLcr sLortagcs
loaclor slortagos aro common in Uzlokistan, wloro gonoral
oducation sclools lavo only 93/ ot tlo nocossary toaclors.
Howovor, sclools in somo rogions lavo only ¯¯-91/, and in
¨Soneiines I look ai ny ieacher and I
feel sorry for her. I see ihai she cannoi
conceniraie, is ihinking aboui oiher ihings.
And, I wish ihai she did noi have io worry
aboui all ihese everyday cares. Thai she
had enough noney io conceniraie on doing
her job and ieaching us well'
(Loy liom \zLelislan, \Þ!CL!, 1999).
123
somo suljocts only 49-84/ (ADB, 2002).
lloro aro sovoro slortagos ot qualitiod
Uzlok languago toaclors and toaclors
in tlo suljocts tlat lavo acquirod now
commorcial valuo sucl as lnglisl,
tomputor Scionco, and lconomics. Salarios aro so low tlat many
toaclors lavo lott sclools tor lottor-paid positions in tlo privato
soctor. ior oxamplo, toaclors ot luropoan languagos lavo takon
jols as intorprotors or rocoptionists. llo loss ot toaclors is particularly
acuto in laslkont, wloro tlo privato soctor is moro dovolopod. ln
rural aroas, tlo prollom is tlo contlict ot rosponsililitios, as
toaclors comlino tloir scloolwork witl otlor incomo-gonorating
activitios (OSl-Uzlokistan, 2001, p. 65). llo Govornmont ot
Uzlokistan las mado spocial ottorts to rotain toaclors in tlo
oducation soctor, sucl as roloasing toaclors trom laving to pay
utility lills, as woll as covoring tloir transportation costs in urlan
aroas and providing land plots in rural aroas.
Dccrcasing proIcssionaI quaIiIications oI tcacLcrs
llo Govornmonts ottorts to incroaso tlo quantity ot toaclors in
tlo oducation soctor lavo rosultod in a compromiso in quality.
According to tlo otticial statistics (Vinistry ot Vacro-oconomics
and Statistics, 2001), ¯1.5/ ot toaclors lavo liglor oducation,
25.2/ spocial socondary oducation, and 3.3/ socondary or
incomploto liglor oducation. Howovor, tlo roal situation may
actually lo worso tlan prosontod in tlo otticial data. ln tlo caso
ot Uzlok modium sclools, wlicl lavo a sovoro slortago ot
toaclors, principals incroasingly liro toaclors lasod on tloir languago
alility, ratlor tlan protossional qualitications. llo docroasing
protossional qualitications ot toaclors may, in turn, load to a drop
in oducation quality (liA, 2000).
Limitcd proIcssionaI dcvcIopmcnt opportunitics
Altlougl a commitmont las loon mado to provido in-sorvico
toaclor training onco ovory tivo yoars, tlo govornmont cannot
roalistically implomont it. iirst, tlo in-sorvico toaclor training
systom itsolt (contral and rogional training contros) is plysically
incapallo ot sorving all toaclors ovor tlo tivo-yoar poriod. llo
actual capacity ot toaclor training institutions allows onrolmont ot
only 60-65/ ot toaclors ovory tivo yoars. Socond, tlo oxisting in-
sorvico training systom is not always attordallo tor toaclors, wlo
now lavo to assumo somo costs associatod witl tloir protossional
dovolopmont (o.g., travol and accommodation costs). llird, tlo
in-sorvico toaclor oducation systom lacks tloxilility, making it
¨Salaries are obviously low. we have
sone ieachers who ieach for half a day and
sii ai ihe narkei for ihe oiher half .'
(Sclool diiecloi, Þulus, \Þ!CL! &
MOPL, 2OO1, µ. 26).
124
moro ditticult tor tomalo toaclors trom rural aroas to attond
protossional dovolopmont coursos olsowloro. iinally, in-sorvico
training institutions lavo not clangod mucl sinco tlo collapso ot
tlo Soviot Union and aro otton porcoivod as irrolovant ly tlo
toaclors. As intorviows indicatod, roprosontativos ot in-sorvico
toaclor training institutos tlomsolvos lavo limitod protossional
dovolopmont opportunitios. Ono ot tlo oxcoptions is tlo Popullican
tontro ot lducation, wlicl makos a spocial ottort rogularly to
involvo its roprosontativos in protossional dovolopmont coursos
providod ly OSl (PWtl, Dolatos), UNltli (sclool improvomont,
glolal oducation), and otlor intornational organizations. ln 2002
tlo Popullican tontro ot lducation witl tlo support ot UNltli
las compilod and distrilutod trainors suitcasos
94
tor 12 rogional
in-sorvico toaclor training institutos to incroaso tloir protossional
proparation.
CLaIIcngcs in prc-scrvicc tcacLcr cducation
Givon a rapidly aging toaclor popula-
t i on,
95
podagogi cal col l ogos and
univorsitios lavo assumod an important
rolo in improving tlo toacling torco
capacity in torms ot numlors and qual-
ity. Howovor, pro-sorvico toaclor
training institutions oncountor multiplo
olstaclos in moving towards tlis goal.
iirst, pro-sorvico toaclor training institutions (tivo podagogical
institutos and 40 podagogical collogos) aro struggling to attract
now studonts. Duo to low salarios, dotoriorating working conditions,
and docroasing protossional prostigo, tloro aro tar towor studonts
willing to locomo toaclors. Socond, pro-sorvico toaclor training
institutions lavo a prollom rotaining tloir graduatos in tlo oducation
soctor, as many sook liglor-paid jols olsowloro (tor oxamplo,
socrotarios, intorprotors). llird, tlo oducation systom is not always
opon to tloso tow individuals wlo aro willing to dovoto tloir
caroors to oducation. Uzlokistans now national tosting systom
pormits liglor oducation onrolmont tor studonts witl tlo liglost
scoros, wlicl otton moans tlo oxclusion ot studonts trom rural
aroas, wlo aro unallo to compoto witl studonts trom urlan
aroas. llo lattor, lowovor, aro raroly intorostod in taking positions
in rural aroas, turtlor compounding tlo prollom ot toaclor slortagos
¨There are nany young ieachers coning
io school now, bui ihe najoriiy of ihen
are unprepared for pedagogical work,
ihey are all nervous, ready io hii a child,
insuli hin, huniliaie hin.'
(Sclool diiecloi, Þulus, \Þ!CL! &
MPL, 2OO1).
94
lloso trainors suitcasos includo all tlo toclnical oquipmont nocossary tor trainors to conduct a
workslop ottoctivoly (o.g., tlip clarts, markors).
95
According to OSl-Uzlokistan (2000), ¯0/ ot toaclors in Uzlokistan aro ovor tlo ago ot 50.
125
in tlo countrysido. iinally, pro-sorvico toaclor training institutions
may not soom particularly attractivo to prospoctivo studonts, lo-
causo tlo tormat, motlods, and, to a cortain oxtont, tlo contont
ot toaclor proparation programmos lavo not sulstantially clangod.
lloy still lavo no clild-controd oriontation in motlodological and
acadomic training.
96
llo Nizami laslkont loaclor lraining Univorsity (lllU), wlicl
is ono ot tlo loading pro-sorvico toaclor training institutions in
tlo country, las initiatod sovoral innovativo programmos to addross
tlo omorging prolloms in pro-sorvico training. lt las ostallislod
tlo tontro tor Now Podagogical loclnology witl tlo goal ot
accumulating tlo most up-to-dato, progrossivo protossional and
acadomic oxporionco and rogularly dissominating it among univorsity
protossors, locturors and studonts. Poprosontativos ot tlo tontro
lavo participatod in OSls toaclor training projocts (PWtl, Dolatos),
UNltlis GVt initiativo, and somo otlor activitios. ln addition,
somo pro-sorvico toaclor training institutions lavo croatod a now
sclomo tor rotaining graduatos in tlo toacling protossion wloroly
tloro is a contractual agroomont lotwoon univorsity, studont and
sclool.

llo now sclomo rosultod in tlo placomont ot approxi-
matoly two tlirds ot all graduatos trom tlo lllU in Uzlokistans
sclools in 20002001.
98
U0RLlTY ENVlRUNMENT
Uzlokistans studont population is rapidly growing, so its oducation
systom las tlo doullo task ot luilding now sclools and maintaining
adoquato quality ot tlo oxisting sclools. irom 1991 to 2002, 2,1¯8
now sclool luildings woro luilt, making a total ot 9,802 sclools
ly tlo acadomic yoar 20002001 (VOPl, 2002). Wlilo invosting in
luilding now acadomic lycoums and collogos, tlo maintonanco ot
oxisting sclools romains a concorn. According to tlo VlA study
(1999), 65.9/ ot survoyod sclool diroctors trom rural aroas and
62.3/ ot sclool diroctors trom urlan aroas roportod tlat tloir
96
lntorviows rovoalod tlat univorsity protossors and locturors tlomsolvos lavo vory limitod
opportunitios tor protossional dovolopmont, wlicl usod to lo availallo in Voscow. turrontly,
somo protossional dovolopmont opportunitios oxist tlrougl study programmos alroad (lU
lAtlS), lut only a tow locturors lavo tlo nocossary languago roquiromonts to lonotit trom tloso
opportunitios.

ln tlo contract tlo sclool agroos to provido somo lonotits to a prospoctivo toaclor tor sovoral
yoars. Somo ot tlo lonotits may includo provision ot troo moals and accommodation. llo
contract is usually tor 3-4 yoars.
98
According to tlo Varkoting Dopartmont ot tlo lllU, out ot 6¯8 graduatos in tlo acadomic yoar
2000-2001, 313 wont to collogos and lycoums, 311 wont to sclools, and 309 rocoivod troo
diplomas (i.o. closo not to work in sclools).
126
sclools woro in nood ot capital ropairs. llo VlA study ot sclool
oquipmont (1999) rovoalod tlat 83/ ot sclools lad no copy
maclinos, 46 no radios, and almost 60/ no tlusl toilots. Ot all
survoyod sclools, only 41.35/ lad tlusl toilots insido sclool
luildings, almost all ot tloso locatod in laslkont. lloro is ovidont
nood tor turtlor invostmont in sclool maintonanco, ropairs and
dovolopmont.
U0RLlTY LERRNER
ScLooI prcparcdncss
According to tlo liA study (2000), tloro is a considorallo gap
lotwoon tlo oducation lovol ot tlo tirst gradors wlo lavo attondod
pro-sclool institutions and tloso wlo lavo not. Sinco tormal
kindorgartons aro not attordallo tor almost all clildron (soo
soction 3.2.2.),
99
tlo urgont nood to improvo sclool proparodnoss
tlrougl otlor moans is cloar. ln 2001, tlo talinot ot Vinistors
approvod tlo Stato programmo Votlor and tlild, wlicl is
aimod at strongtloning tlo rolo ot paronts, oducation institutions
and nnnnIIn: in clildrons uplringing, lasod on tlo lost traditions
and customs, in tlo spirit ot lovo and commitmont to Votlorland
and pooplo, and a rospocttul attitudo toward national and luman
valuos. llo Stato programmo puts torward tlo idoa ot non-tormal
pro-sclool oducation initiativos as a cloap and accossillo way ot
improving clildrons proparation tor sclool. lloso initiativos includo
tlo croation ot community (nnnnIIn) kindorgartons to proparo
clildron tor sclool, and ostallisling non-tormal pro-sclool oducation
contoros to oducato paronts alout clildrons sclool proparation
(supportod ly UNltli).
HcaItL
ln addition to low sclool proparodnoss, incroasingly unloaltly
clildron lavo loon ontoring tlo oducation systom. According to
tlo DHS study conductod in 1996 (quotod in UNltli, 2000),
31.3/ ot clildron lolow tlroo yoars ot ago woro stuntod, 11.6/
wastod and 18.8/ undorwoiglt tor tloir ago. Valnutrition, wlicl
otton causos anaomia, appoars to lo a sorious and clronic
prollom. llo DHS survoys (1995, 1996) rovoalod alarming lovols
ot anaomia in clildron undor tlroo (UNltli, 2000). llo provalonco
ot lDD incroasod trom 15/ to 60/ during tlo docado, turtlor
tlroatoning tlo growtl and dovolopmont ot clildron (UNltli,
2000). Ovorall, tloso tronds indicato tlo nood tor raising tlo
99
Attondanco at a tormal pro-sclool institution costs approximatoly ¯0/ ot tlo minimal wago.
127
awaronoss and luilding tlo capacity ot paronts in provontivo caro
and loaltl-luilding activitios, and tlo introduction ot loaltl
oducation into tlo sclool curriculum.
5.I.5. PRRTlLlPRTURY ûUVERNRNLE
Uzlokistans Govornmont las rocontly attomptod to incroaso
community support tor oducation rotorm ly docontralizing oduca-
tion govornanco and dologating somo tinancial and administrativo
rosponsilility to local autloritios sclool statt, paronts and studonts.
A logal lasis was ostallislod tor sclools to ongago in tund-
raising activitios so as to improvo tlo toaclingloarning procoss
(o.g., tlo purclaso ot toxtlooks and otlor matorials), sclool
maintonanco and oquipmont. Paronts and community momlors
lavo loon oncouragod to participato in sclool attairs ly tlo
ostallislmont ot PlAs and paront committoos in sclools. Studont
participation in sclool govornanco las loon promotod ly tlo
ostallislmont ot studont councils and youtl groups (o.g., KnnoIoì).
MnnnIIn: lavo loon assignod tlo important rolo in oducation
attairs ot administoring Stato sulsidios to tlo most noody tamilios.
Howovor, tloro lavo loon sorious olstaclos to implomonta-
tion ot docontralizod govornanco. lloy includo a lack ot local
capacity and culturo to ongago in a docontralizod docision-making
procoss. Sclool administrators lack toclnical alility in tinancial
managomont,
100
and paronts and communitios aro not tully awaro
ot tloir now riglts and rosponsililitios in participatory sclool
govornanco. Paronts romain on tlo lowost rungs ot tlo participation
laddor, usually ly limiting tloir involvomont to tund-raising and
ropairing sclool tacilitios, (soo tlaptor 2). lt is raro tor paronts to
participato in docision-making alout sucl important issuos as odu-
cation quality, procoss or outcomos. Sclool statt aro otton unwilling
to accopt a moro activo involvomont ot paronts in sclool attairs tor
toar ot losing tloir autlority (OSl, 2002). llo transition trom
contralizod to participatory oducation govornanco is a long-torm
procoss, wlicl involvos continuous capacity luilding at all lovols.
ln Uzlokistans situation, local autloritios, principals and toaclors
must lo givon tlo nocossary skills and rosourcos to lonotit trom
tloir now rosponsililitios.
100
Ono ot tlo initiativos to addross tlis prollom was undortakon ly tlo tontro ot Businoss Promotion
(tBP), wlicl organizod sominars tor 100 sclool principals on low to raiso and manago sclool
monoy ottoctivoly.
128
5.J. 50MMRRY RN0 RELUMMEN0RTlUN5
Sinco indopondonco, tlo Govornmont ot Uzlokistan las takon a
numlor ot important stops to rotorm tlo oducation systom. Ono ot
tlo liggost acliovomonts las loon tlo dovolopmont ot a long-torm
stratogy tor oducation dovolopmont (NPPl, 199¯), wlicl outlinos
tlo main diroction tor oducation rotorm. lt cloarly articulatod
Uzlokistans commitmont to rotorming tlo oducation systom lasod
on domocratic principlos and idoas, including domocratizing classroom
practicos tlrougl studont-controd toaclingloarning motlodology,
rovising toxtlook contont and oncouraging moro participatory odu-
cation govornanco. llo cloar articulation ot oducation dovolopmont
stratogy was imporativo tor molilizing national and intornational
tinancial rosourcos to implomont rotorm. lntornational assistanco
las loon particularly woll coordinatod in Uzlokistan, witl all
organizations working witlin tlo NPPl tramowork, oitlor at tlo
grass roots or policy lovols.
Novortloloss, tloro lavo loon sovoral olstaclos to croating
clild-triondly sclools in Uzlokistan. iirst, rotorm implomontation
las lackod adoquato implomontation moclanisms. Altlougl odu-
cation rogulations lavo advancod tlo idoa ot clild-controd, indi-
vidualizod toaclingloarning, tloro lavo loon no cloar guidolinos
or practical assistanco providod tor sclools to introduco tloso
idoas in practico (o.g., on-going toaclor training, training manuals).
Basing tloir undorstanding ot rotorm initiativos on paporwork
oxclusivoly (o.g., rogulations, ordors), toaclors otton misintorprot
rotorms.
101
As a rosult, Stato logislation supporting tlo croation ot
clild-triondly loarning onvironmonts romains primarily a papor
construct, raroly implomontod at tlo classroom lovol.
lloro is a lack ot capacity at tlo scloolcommunity lovol to
implomont rotorm initiativos. lvon it sclools undorstand rotorms,
tloy otton nood additional support in implomonting tlom in prac-
tico. llo Govornmont oncouragos tlo ostallislmont ot studont
councils and PlAs in all sclools. Howovor, studonts, paronts and
communitios aro otton unawaro ot tloir riglts and rosponsililitios
in sclool govornanco, limiting tloir involvomont to raising tunds
andor ropairing sclool tacilitios. lt is raro tlat studont councils
andor PlAs aro actually involvod in making docisions alout sucl
important sclool issuos as improving oducation quality or sclool
managomont. Studonts, toaclors, paronts and communitios lavo
insutticiont capacity to ongago in moro participatory docision-making,
101
ior oxamplo, modorn toclnology, wlicl rotors to clild-controd toaclingloarning motlodology,
is otton porcoivod ly toaclors as computor toclnology.
129
lacking skills in stratogic planning, dovoloping ludgots, and
notworking. tonsoquontly, it is crucial to dovolop local capacity tor
rotorm implomontation, to onsuro tlat local autloritios, sclool
roprosontativos, and community momlors can lonotit trom tlo now
opportunitios.
PlLUTlNû LF5. THE RULE UF MUPE RN0 0NlLEF
As tlis claptor las illustratod, implomontation ot tlo tiS initiativo
nocossitatos a comprolonsivo approacl tlat covors all aspocts ot
oducation rotorm. lt is impossillo to oxpoct toaclors sulstantially
to clango tloir toacling practico witlout providing adoquato
motivation and componsation tor tloir work (o.g., incroasing
salarios and social status). lt is also unroalistic to oxpoct all
clildron to attond pro-sclool programmos wlicl aro not all
plysically, goograplically or tinancially accossillo. ln otlor words,
a comprolonsivo sot ot issuos must lo addrossod in ordor to
onsuro systomatic implomontation ot tiS rotorm initiativo. Basod
on tloir mutual agroomont articulatod in tlo VPO (2000-2004),
tlo Govornmont ot Uzlokistan and UNltli initiatod piloting ot
tlo tiS initiativo to onsuro tlat all tiS compononts - wlotlor
tocusing on accoss, oquity, loarning onvironmont or participation
- aro plannod, implomontod and ovaluatod jointly. llis initiativo
las involvod tlo molilization ot various national and intornational
partnors, to cooporato in implomonting tlo tiS compononts (soo
tallo 5).
llo Vinistry ot Pullic lducation, Dopartmont ot Vonitoring
and lvaluation took tlo load in introducing lVlS (a) to
improvo sclool mapping and oducation managomont
intormation systoms tor lottor monitoring ot loarning acliovo-
mont and sclool attondanco in tivo ollasts (Karakalpakstan,
iorgana, Syrdarya, Andizlan and laslkont), (l) to improvo
toaclors skills in idontitying studonts at risk ot dropping
out andor taltoring, in 40 sclools in tlo idontitiod ollasts,
and (c) to ompowor toaclors working witl paronts and
community (nnnnIIn systom) so as to oncourago sclool
attondanco and loarning acliovomont in soloctod sclools
llo Vinistry ot Pullic lducation, Pro-sclool Dopartmont
took tlo initiativo in piloting non-tormal pro-sclool programmos
to improvo clildrons pro-sclool proparation in Karakalpakstan,
iorgana, Kaslkadarya, Syrdarya, Namangan, Klorosm,
Samarakand, Djizzak and laslkont. llo pilot projoct includos
tlo dovolopmont ot toaclingloarning matorials tor paronts
130
llo Popullican tontro tor lducation las logun work witl
12 ollast in-sorvico training contros to strongtlon tloir
toclnical capacity to conducting training in tlassSclool
Vanagomont and Glolal lducation. ln addition, tlo
Popullican tontro tor lducation, in cooporation witl tlo
tlildrons iund ot Uzlokistan, las loon working to raiso
awaronoss among clildron and toaclors alout tPt
llo tontro tor Businoss Promotion las assistod sclools to
implomont Sclooltlassroom Vanagomont and will conduct
workslops on Glolal lducation in 30 sclools ot Andizlan,
iorgana, Syrdarya, Karakalpakstan, Namangan and laslkont
llo Woman and Socioty lnstituto las workod witl sclools
to implomont clild-controd toaclingloarning motlodology,
and witl young pooplo to introduco loaltl oducation
(o.g., intormation on HlVAlDS and drugs). llo lnstituto
las also introducod ompoworing oducation in sclools to
croato oqual loarning opportunitios tor lotl loys and girls
llA iAtl Social Posoarcl Agoncy las loon involvod witl
noods assossmont and programmo dovolopmont rolating to
(a) clildron witlout adoquato tamily caro, and (l) non-
attondanco and drop-out ratos
lloso dittoront partnor institutions lavo comlinod to mako
groat contrilutions to piloting tlo practical implomontation ot tlo
tiS compononts. ln most casos, lowovor, tlo compononts lavo
loon implomontod in dittoront oducation institutions in tlo country.
Somo sclools lavo tocusod on incorporating tPt into tloir
curriculum, wlilo otlors lavo concontratod on implomonting loaltl
oducation. Somo sclools lavo initiatod implomontation ot lVlS,
wlilo otlors lavo workod to introduco clild-controd toacling
loarning motlodology. Altlougl tlo piloting ot soparato tiS
compononts in dittoront sclools las its own morits, tlo clallongo
is to onsuro tlat oacl sclool ottoctivoly implomonts all ot tlo tiS
compononts jointly, so as to croato quality, clild-triondly loarning
onvironmonts tor all clildron. lloso issuos tlat lavo rocontly
omorgod as concorns (o.g., gondor issuos) and may not lavo
rocoivod sutticiont attontion (o.g., community involvomont in par-
ticipatory govornanco), slould also lo addrossod tlrougl pilot
projocts or donor coordination activitios.
131
1abIc 5. EstabIisLcd PartncrsLips in tLc ImpIcmcntation oI CFS in
Uzbckistan
5LRLlNû 0P LF5
Basod on an ovorviow ot curront oducation rotorm in Uzlokistan,
tlo procoss ot scaling up tlo tiS initiativo will dopond on sovoral
important tactors, including:
Strong lacking at tlo policy lovol (o.g., inclusion ot a lolistic
approacl to tiS idoas in oducation logislation, liA plans)
Wido support at tlo local lovol (o.g., awaronoss among
oducation stakololdors)
Sutticiont tinancial rosourcos
Adoquato implomontation moclanisms
lttoctivo intogration into oxisting structuros (o.g., in-sorvico
and pro-sorvico toaclor training structuros)
Alovo all, oducation rotorm noods to lo viowod as a
comprolonsivo approacl, tlat incorporatos tlo dittoront tiS
compononts into ono wlolo. ln addition to tloso lroad proposi-
tions, tlo tollowing rocommondations tocus on spocitic compononts
132
ot tlo tiS concopt in tlo contoxt ot scaling up tlo rotorm
initiativo in Uzlokistan
102
(soo lallo 6 tor a summary ot
rocommondations):
RlûHT5-BR5E0
Undortako a comprolonsivo roviow ot oxisting logislation,
trom a riglts-lasod porspoctivo, to onsuro its contormity
witl tlo principlos and provisions ot tPt
lnsuro adoquato implomontation moclanisms (o.g., support
tor toaclors tlrougl in-sorvico toaclor training programmos,
support tor local autloritios)
Volilizo additional invostmonts in tlo dovolopmont ot
clildrons matorial (o.g., toys, looks)
tontinuo to raiso awaronoss alout tPt among clildron, and
protossionals working witl clildron (o.g., includo tPtclildrons
riglts in tlo sclool curriculum, includo tPt in in-sorvico and
pro-sorvico training programmos, oducato nnnnIIn committoos
in tlo principlos and provisions ot tPt to onsuro tlat tPt
principlos aro rotloctod in tloir docision-making)
lstallisl a moclanism to colloct and systomatically analyzo
data on all clildron to assoss progross and dosign policios
tor tPt implomontation
LHlL0-5EEKlNû RN0 lNLL05lVE
lstallisl a moclanism to colloct and analyzo disaggrogatod
data on all clildron, including tloso in tlo most vulnorallo
groups (o.g., minority clildron, clildron living in rural and
romoto aroas, clildron witl disalilitios, clildron trom low-
incomo tamilios)
Support oxpansion ot non-tormal pro-sclool oducation
programmos (o.g., communitynnnnIInlomo kindorgartons)
Provido spocial support tor rural sclools to incroaso odu-
cation quality
Assoss tlo noods ot minority sclools
lnsuro quality translation ot training and toacling matorials
into Uzlok and otlor minority languagos
102
llis soction prosonts a wido rango ot rocommondations discussod witl oducation stakololdors in
Uzlokistan. lloso rocommondations do not nocossarily provido a coloront stratogy, lut ratlor
suggost idoas tor tuturo programmos.
133
Advocato tor inclusivo oducation (o.g., raiso awaronoss
alout inclusivo oducation, provido in-sorvico and pro-sorvico
toaclor training in inclusivo oducation, provido toacling
loarning matorials tor clildron witl spocial noods, provido
support structuros tor clildron witl spocial noods attor
graduation trom sclool)
ûEN0ER-5EN5lTlVE
Promoto gondor mainstroaming ly intograting gondor-son-
sitivo policios in national dovolopmont plans and programmos
at all lovols and tlrouglout all soctors
Paiso awaronoss rogarding gondor oquity at tlo community
lovol
Provido training tor toaclors in torms ot gondor-sonsitivity
(o.g., ompoworing oducation)
lntroduco gondor awaronoss training in in-sorvico and pro-
sorvico programmos
Provido appropriato support moclanisms tor womon to
ongago in in-sorvico training (o.g., dormitorios)
U0RLlTY-BR5E0
Proccss/Contcnt
Poviso sclool curricula to rotloct clild-controd, activo toacl-
ingloarning approacl
Support innovations in sclools (o.g., critical tlinking, prollom
solving)
Support tlo dovolopmont ot oducation quality indicators
tlat moasuro lotl acadomic knowlodgo and litosocial
skills
Support tlo dovolopmont ot quality toxtlooks ly luilding
tlo capacity ot toxtlook autlors and pullislors
troato moclanisms tor oxclangos ot intormation and ox-
porionco witl otlor countrios tor policy makors and oducation
spocialists
1cacLcr
troato tavourallo working conditions tor toaclors (o.g.,
advocato tor tlo incroaso ot toaclor salarios)
134
lxpand training opportunitios tor toaclors
lmprovo tlo quality ot in-sorvico training programmos ly
incroasing omplasis on practical training (statt training,
introduction ot intoractivo toaclingloarning motlods)
lmprovo tlo quality ot pro-sorvico toaclor training
programmos ly incroasing omplasis on practical training
(intoractivo toaclingloarning motlods)
troato tavourallo opportunitios tor young toaclors to stay
in tlo protossion (o.g., improvo toaclor status)
Dovolop and provido training matorials on clild-controd
toaclingloarning tor toaclors
Environmcnt
Proparo an invontory to assoss plysical conditions in
lajikistans sclools
Volilizo national, local and intornational tunding tor sclool
ronovation and maintonanco
lnsuro coordination ot intornational tunding tor sclool
ronovation and maintonanco
Lcarncr
lncroaso pro-sclool attondanco ly dovoloping non-tormal
programmos
lmprovo tlo quality ot pro-sclool programmos (tor clildron
agod 5-¯ yoars)
lncludo loaltl oducation in sclool curriculum
PRRTlLlPRTURY ûUVERNRNLE
Support middlo-lovol administrators (local autloritios and
sclool loards) in rotorm implomontation (capacity luilding
in tinancial planning, administration, managomont)
Paiso awaronoss among paronts and luild tloir capacity
tor ottoctivo involvomont in sclool govornanco
Dovolop skills tor participatory govornanco lotwoon sclool
administration, toaclors, paronts and studonts (training in
planning, managomont, administration and loadorslip)
Support tlo participation ot young pooplo in pilot projocts
ot sclool councils
1
3
5
1abIc 6. Main AcLicvcmcnts, CLaIIcngcs, and Rccommcndations: CFS in Uzbckistan
Strong poIiticaI viII to IuIIiII
cLiIdrcn`s rigLts
tPt ratitiod in 1992
llo National tontro tor Human Piglts
is currontly dovoloping a law on
clildrons riglts
tPt translatod into Uzlok and Pussian
National Allianco tor tPt ostallislod in
2000
National Plan ot Action dovolopod in
2002
NGO soctor activoly involvod in
clildrons riglts protoction
Womons Attairs tommittoo and tlo
Vinority Attairs tommittoo aro clargod
witl addrossing clildrons issuos
Lav oI Education guarantccs Ircc
compuIsory cducation Ior aII
cLiIdrcn (12 ycars oI scLooIing)
ObstacIcs to impIcmcnting dccIarcd
obIigations
lack ot tinancial rosourcos
lack ot implomontation moclanisms
Lov avarcncss about CRC at tLc
scLooI IcvcI
Only a tow soloctod sclools includo tPt
into gonoral socondary oducation
curriculum
loaclors lack skills to toacl tPt in an
intolligillo, coloront and practically
applicallo way
IncIusivc
Education is bccoming incrcasingIy
inacccssibIc and unaIIordabIc
Pro-sclool onrolmont toll trom 36.8/ in
1989 to 19.4/ in 2001
Basic oducation onrollmont toll trom 92/
in 1989 to 88.9/ in 1999
Uppor socondary oducation onrolmont toll
trom 6¯.¯/ in 1989 to 52.¯/ in 1998
Undcrtakc a comprcLcnsivc rcvicv oI
cxisting IcgisIation, Irom a rigLts-bascd
approacL, to cnsurc its conIormity vitL
tLc principIcs and provisions oI CRC
Ensurc adcquatc impIcmcntation mccLa-
nisms (c.g., support tcacLcrs tLrougL in-
scrvicc tcacLcr training programmcs;
support IocaI autLoritics)
MobiIizc additionaI invcstmcnts in tLc
dcvcIopmcnt oI cLiIdrcn`s matcriaI
(c.g., toys, books)
Continuc to raisc avarcncss about CRC
among cLiIdrcn and proIcssionaIs
vorking vitL cLiIdrcn
lncludo tPtclildrons riglts in sclool
curriculum tlrougl intogrativo approacl
lncludo tPt in in-sorvico and pro-sorvico
oducation programs
lducato nnnnIIn committoos in tlo principlos
and provisions ot tPt to onsuro tlat tPt
principlos aro rotloctod in tloir docision-making
EstabIisL a mccLanism to coIIcct and
systcmaticaIIy anaIyzc data on aII
cLiIdrcn to asscss progrcss and dcsign
poIicics Ior CRC impIcmcntation
EstabIisL a mccLanism to coIIcct and
anaIyzc disaggrcgatcd data on aII
cLiIdrcn, incIuding tLosc in most
vuIncrabIc groups (c.g.., minority
cLiIdrcn, cLiIdrcn Iiving in ruraI and
rcmotc arcas, cLiIdrcn vitL disabiIitics,
cLiIdrcn in Iov- incomc IamiIics)
Main AcLicvcmcnts CLaIIcngcs Rccommcndations
RigLts-bascd
136
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ó.¡. LRERTlNû LUN0lTlUN5 FUR E00LRTlUN LHRNûE
During tlo transition poriod, oducation rotormors in tlo tormor
Soviot ropullics ot tontral Asia lavo loon striving to rotain tlo
positivo oducation acliovomonts ot tlo Soviot poriod, wlilo
rotorming oducation systoms to rotloct tlo principlos ot
indopondonco, domocracy and a troo-markot oconomy. llo
clallongo ot tultilling tloso goals las loon magnitiod ly tlo
nood to carry tlom out otticiontly and cost-ottoctivoly in tlo
contoxt ot rapid political, oconomic and social clangos. Givon
massivo oconomic doclino and docroasing oducation oxpondituro,
lowovor, clildrons riglt to an oducation locamo a riglt only to
tlo kind ot oducation tlat tlo tontral Asian systoms woro allo
to provido. llo Soviot indicators ot oducation acliovomont lavo
loon talling, as rotloctod in docroasing sclool onrolmont and
attondanco ratos, and tlo proclaimod
goals ot oducation tor domocracy lavo
loon launtod ly tlo logacios ot
toaclor-controd loarning, Stato control
ovor oducation contontprocoss and
contralizod rotorm managomont.
Dospito improssivo rotorm ot oducation logislation, sclool practicos
lavo not clangod sulstantially. As tlis roport las illustratod,
tontral Asian oducation rotorm was primarily tocusod on tlo
introduction ot now laws and rogulations, otton tailing to provido
ó
THE RlûHT TU
E00LRTlUN. LRERTlNû
LUN0lTlUN5 FUR
E00LRTlUN LHRNûE
¨Folicy nakers nusi build capaciiy for
and conniineni io ihe work required
raiher ihan assuning ihai edicis alone
will produce ihe new praciice ihey
envision.' (Ðailing-Hammond, 1997)
140
sutticiont tinancial rosourcos, adoquato implomontation moclanisms
and appropriato support structuros at tlo sclool lovol. Sinco
policios alono cannot mandato wlat mattors most¨ (Vclaugllin,
1990), tlo conditions tor local loarning must lo altorod it oducation
rotorm goals aro to lo acliovod. Witl tlis in viow, tlo tollowing
conditions aro roquirod tor tlo succosstul implomontation ot
turtlor oducation initiativos during tlo transition poriod: (a) loarning
opportunitios tor sclool constituoncios, (l) widosproad involvomont
ot oducation stakololdors and (c) a stratogy tor clango wlicl
addrossos tlo wlolo oducation systom, troquontly rotorrod to as
a systomic approacl.
Lcarning opportunitics Ior scLooI constitucncics
Simply tolling sclools to clango is unlikoly to guarantoo tlo
implomontation ot oducation rotorm initiativos. Now rotorms must
tlorotoro dovolop tlo capacity ot sclools and toaclors to croato
practicos tlat rotloct ottoctivo ways ot toacling and loarning. llis
moans tlat oducation policios slould omplasizo protossional
loarning and poor roviow ot toacling practico in ordor to luild
tlo individual and colloctivo knowlodgo laso ot oducation
stakololdors (Darling-Hammond, 199¯, p. 332). lducation policios
slould includo loarning opportunitios tor toaclors, administrators,
paronts, community momlors and roprosontativos ot in-sorvico
and pro-sorvico toaclor training institutions to study, dolato, try,
analyzo, rotino and tinally incorporato into sclool practico tlo
complox idoas onvisagod ly tlo oducation rotorm. Witlout tloso
opportunitios, oducation innovations will tado away wlon tlo
monoy stops or ontorcomont prossuros ond (Borman 8 Vclaugllin,
19¯8 and Vclaugllin, 198¯, quotod in Darling-Hammond, 199¯,
p. 214). loarning opportunitios tor sclools constituoncios slould
includo tlo tollowing practical provisions tor protossional
dovolopmont:
Pogular, rolovant, and up-to-dato in-sorvico training tor
roprosontativos ot sclools (toaclors and sclool administrators)
Protossional capacity luilding tor roprosontativos ot in-
sorvico and pro-sorvico toaclor training institutions
On-going sclool-lasod poor support (o.g., poor-roviow and
rotloction, classroom olsorvations and toaclor porttolios)
Strongtlonod connoctions lotwoon sclools and pro-sorvico
toaclor training institutions
141
Protossional loarning rosourcos (o.g. protossional litoraturo,
colloaguos, protossional associations and protossional
dovolopmont activitios)
Widcsprcad invoIvcmcnt oI cducation stakcLoIdcrs
lt is crucial to onsuro tlo widosproad involvomont ot oducation
stakololdors in tlo procoss ot considoring, dovoloping and onacting
clangos. As Darling-Hammond (199¯) olsorvod, idoas aro lound
to lo poorly undorstood and mistrustod unloss pooplo lavo an
opportunity to croato adaptations tlat will lo valuod and appropriato
in tlo local contoxt¨ (p. 223). Docisions alout oducation policios
slould grow out ot a dialoguo tlat incorporatos stakololdors
trom dittoront lovols ot tlo oducation systom, tlus luilding tloir
knowlodgo, support and ownorslip ot tlo now toacling practicos.
llis moans tlat succoss comos wlon rotorms ompowor all
oducation stakololdors witl tlo loadorslip tlat onallos tlom to
tako clargo ot tlo rotorm procoss ratlor tlan tollow Stato
proscriptions tor rotorm implomontation. iull involvomont ot
oducation stakololdors can lo oncouragod tlrougl tlo tollowing
practical activitios, wlicl dotino tlo lasic claractoristics ot tiS:
lnvolving local autloritios, sclool roprosontativos
(administrators, toaclors, studonts), paronts, and communitios
in articulating a slarod vision and dosigning cloar, coloront
and comprolonsivo sclool dovolopmont and improvomont
plans
lncouraging sclool-lasod managomont, ludgot autlority
and implomontation
lnvolving paronts in sclool improvomont and dovolopmont
tlrougl PlAs, tormal, sclool-lasod activitios (o.g.,
opportunitios tor paronts to visit tlo sclool, olsorvo classos,
and provido toodlack) and intormal, oxtra-curricular activitios
(o.g., practical intormation on lomo-toacling toclniquos
tor paronts ot clildron wlo nood oxtra lolp at lomo)
lnvolving communitios in sclool improvomont and
dovolopmont (o.g., uso ot community rosourcos in sclool
maintonanco, curriculum dovolopmont, tull uso ot sclool
tacilitios as community loarning contros)
lncouraging activo participation ot all groups in slaping
oducation policios. llat includos not only NGOs, lut also
PlAs, and otlor grass-roots organizations
142
Systcmic approacL to cducation rcIorm
lducation clango during tlo transition poriod noods a complox
approacl.llis moans rotlinking tlo wlolo array ot policios,
ranging trom oducation tunding and toaclor training to oducation
quality. ior oxamplo, curriculum clangos promoting clild-controd
toaclingloarning cannot lo introducod witlout altoring tlo
assossmont systom to rotloct tlo now oducation valuos. Similarly,
toaclors cannot lo oxpoctod to clango tloir toacling practico
witlout adoquato protossional dovolopmont opportunitios and
appropriato tinancial incontivos. ln otlor words, tlo connoctions
lotwoon toacling, loarning, curriculum, assossmont, ovaluation
and tunding nood to lo rointorcod in ordor to onsuro systomic
rotorm.¨ Sucl rotorm occurs wlon:
All tlo ossontial toaturos ot sclool systoms aro appropriatoly
congruont, tor oxamplo, oducation goals (outcomos and
oljoctivos), dolivory systom (instruction, matorials and
organi zat i on) and assossmont (oval uat i ont ost i ng,
moasuromont, monitoring) aro alignod to rotloct tlo now
plilosoply ot oducation
Policy is drivon ly sound data (o.g., VlA, lVlS, improvod
statistical data colloction and analysis in ordor to monitor
liA progross, ovaluato oducation rotorm initiativos attor
implomontation and plan now oducation intorvontions)
Policios introducing clild-triondly sclools and loarning
onvironmonts aro alignod witl a cloar sot ot oducation goals
and standards, and protossional dovolopmont roquiromonts
tlangos locomo part ot tlo sclools oporating ludgot
ó.I. NETWURK5 RN0 PRRTNER5HlP5 FUR LUNLERTE0 EFFURT5
Duo to a signiticant incroaso in intornational donor involvomont
in tontral Asian oducation dovolopmont (soo Appondix A), tloro
is a momontum tor croating tlo nocossary conditions tor systomic
oducation clango, wlicl is imporativo tor initiating wido-scalo
oducation rotorm in tontral Asia. At tlo samo timo, lowovor,
tloro is a nood tor lottor coordination ot toclnical assistanco and
rosourcos lotwoon national, rogional and intornational partnors.
As tlo OSl roport (2002) indicatod, lack ot intornational coordination
otton loads to inotticiont duplication ot programmo activitios,
contlicting prioritios and unnocossary divorgonco trom tlo slarod
oducation vision. ior oxamplo, sovoral intornational organizations
(o.g., WB, UNlStO, OPlt, Vorcy torps, Soros ioundation) aro
143
involvod in various toxtlook and curriculum dovolopmonts in
lajikistan. Howovor, it is uncloar low tloso initiativos complomont
oacl otlor or it tloy aro coordinatod at govornmont lovol.
llo Vinistrios ot lducation in most tontral Asian ropullics lavo
croatod spocial units rosponsillo tor kooping track ot dittoront
oducation activitios initiatod ly intornational donors. llo goal is
to improvo national oducation rotorm initiativos. Altlougl Vinistry
roprosontativos tlomsolvos lavo amplo intormation on donor
activitios in oacl country, tlo intornational organizations usually
lavo no accoss to it. ln tact, intorviows witl roprosontativos ot
intornational organizations lavo rovoalod tlat donor agoncios aro
raroly awaro ot spocitic initiativos undortakon ly otlor intornational
partnors. Witl tlis in mind, tuturo oducation rotorm in tontral
Asian ropullics would groatly lonotit trom:
troating strongor notworks and partnorslips tor lottor
coordination lotwoon intornational donors and tlo
govornmonts ot tontral Asian ropullics (o.g., rogular mootings
to coordinato tuturo initiativos and rotloct on past
oxporioncos)
103
tataloguing tlo initiativos undortakon ly donors (o.g.,
comprolonsivo mapping ot past, curront and projoctod
initiativos)
104
ó.J. 0NlLEF'5 RULE lN 50PPURTlNû THE LF5 REFURM
lNlTlRTlVE lN LENTRRL R5lR
UNltli is mandatod ly tlo UN to tostor ottoctivo implomontation
ot tlo tPt in tlo countrios tlat ratitiod tlo tonvontion. llis makos
UNltli rosponsillo tor onsuring, among otlor riglts, tlo riglt ot
tlo clild to oducation, wlicl domands intonsivo advocacy at tlo
policy lovol plus working oxporionco in a givon national contoxt.
UNltli las sovoral comparativo advantagos tlat can assist it to
acliovo sucl a complox task. iirst, it is a UN organization witl a
spocitic mandato tlat is non-partisan. Socond, it is rosult-oriontatod
and riglts-lasod in lotl programming and implomontation. iinally,
and moro importantly, UNltli can oporato at dittoront lovols:
103
Sovoral intornational organizations in lajikistan lavo initiatod occasional mootings tor oxclanging
intormation and coordinating activitios among intornational donors. ior oxamplo, OSl organizod
a mooting in Budapost in iolruary, 2002 and UNltli organizod a mooting in Almaty in
Soptomlor, 2002.
104
turrontly, rolativoly comprolonsivo datalasos ot intornational invostmont in oducation aro
maintainod ly tlo ADB in Uzlokistan.
144
GIobaI IcvcI
llrougl its glolal notwork UNltli can advocato tor clildrons
riglts and molilizo tunds tor clildron at tlo glolal lovol. ior
oxamplo, UNltli initiatod Glolal Vovomont tor tlildron (GVt)
and was also ono ot tlo convonors ot tlo liA World iorum in
Dakar, wlicl drow attontion to lasic glolal oducation prolloms.
RcgionaI LcvcI
llrougl its rogional and sul-rogional notworks, UNltli can
addross issuos spocitic to tlo countrios ot a givon rogion, allowing
countrios to slaro oxporioncos and proparo intor-dopondont action
plans to addross tlo prolloms.
NationaI LcvcI
llrougl its country otticos, UNltli can work closoly witl tlo
govornmonts, NGOs and national oxports towards tlo tultilmont
ot clildrons riglts.
Community LcvcI
As a tiold-drivon organization, UNltli can work witl local
govornmonts, grass-root organizations, communitios and tamilios.
llus, UNltli and govornmont can jointly dosign and implomont
projocts tlat addross tlo prolloms as ottoctivoly as possillo in a
givon community.
Givon its comparativo advantagos and closo involvomont
witl oducation rotorm ottorts, UNltli could omploy tlo tollowing
stratogios to strongtlon and oxtond tlo scopo ot its oducation
support in tontral Asia:
Policy advocacy tor a systomic approacl to tlo tiS initiativo
llo inclusion ot nowly omorging issuos in tlo rotorm
agonda
Pilot implomontation ot a lolistic approacl to tiS
Support tor tlo transition trom pilot to largo-scalo initiativos
PoIicy advocacy Ior a systcmic approacL to cLiId-IricndIy scLooIs initiativc
Policy tormulation is ossontial locauso appropriato solutions cannot
lo tound witlout a cloarly articulatod sot ot roalistically acliovallo
policios tlat onsuro oducation tor all. Pocognizing tlo nood tor a
systomic approacl to oducation clango, UNltli slould advocato
rotlinking tlo wlolo rango ot policios, ranging trom oducation
tunding and toaclor training to oducation quality. ln particular, koy
145
policy issuos must addross tlo provision ot a good quality and cost-
ottoctivo oducation, tocusing lotl on loarnors acadomic knowlodgo
(o.g., litoracy and numoracy) and lito-skills (o.g., riglts, gondor
oquality, loaltl, nutrition, HlVAlDS, poaco, and rospoct tor divorsity).
lnsuring tlat clildron aro proparod tor sclool noods tormal and
non-tormal pro-sclool oducation programmos. lnsuring succosstul
rotorm implomontation moans tlat tougl policy issuos sucl as
raising toaclors salarios, protossional qualitications and motivation
must lo addrossod. A policy advocacy campaign slould includo tlo
tollowing:
Advocacy tor sclool rotorm initiativos involving all aspocts
ot tiS (riglts-lasod, inclusivoclild-sooking, gondor-sonsitivo,
quality-lasod and participatory)
Paising awaronoss alout tlo tiS initiativo among stakololdors
to onsuro local support and ownorslip ot tlo rotorm
initiativo (o.g., policy dolilorations involving all oducation
stakololdors)
Supporting tlo dovolopmont ot liA National Plans ot
Action witl a strong tiS porspoctivo.
Ensurc tLat ncvIy cmcrging issucs arc incIudcd in tLc rcIorm agcnda
As tlis roport las illustratod, tlo tontral Asian ropullics aro incroasingly
tacing nowly omorging issuos in oducation dovolopmont, including
disparity lasod on gondor, socio-oconomic lovol, and loarning alilitios.
lloso issuos must lo warrantod spocial attontion in policy tormulation
and programmo dovolopmont. llis is particularly signiticant in tlo
contoxt ot UNltlis glolal commitmont to oducation tor aII clildron,
wlicl is cloarly articulatod in ·.:I: 1Jucnì.on. A 1:nno¬o:k Io:
Acì.on (UNltli, 2000), tlo UNs M.IIonn.un 1ocIn:nì.on (2000)
105
,
UNltlis modium-torm stratogic plan (VlSP), and turtlor rointorcod
in A Wo:IJ 1.ì Io: ·n.IJ:on (2002)
106
. All ot tloso documonts placo
tlo liglost priority on onsuring tlat all clildron, lotl girls and
105
M.IIonn.un 1ocIn:nì.on (2000) was adoptod ly 189 momlor statos ot tlo UN Gonoral Assomlly,
dotining tlo koy clallongos tacing lumanity at tlo tlroslold ot tlo now millonnium, outlining a
rosponso to tloso clallongos, and ostallisling concroto moasuros tor judging portormanco
tlrougl a sot ot intor-rolatod commitmont, goals, and targots on dovolopmont, govornanco,
poaco, socurity and luman riglts. Witlin tlo Villonnium Dovolopmont Goals (VDGs), gondor
oquality and povorty oradication aro tlo top prioritios.
106
A Wo:IJ 1.ì Io: ·n.IJ:on (2002) was adoptod at tlo 2¯tl spocial sossion ot tlo Gonoral Assomlly,
roattirming glolal commitmont to tako action and promoto and protoct tlo riglts ot oacl clild
tlrougl uplolding commitmonts to tlo tollowing principlos: (1) our clildron tirst, (2) oradicato
povorty, (3) loavo no clild lolind, (4) caro tor ovory clild, (5) oducato ovory clild, (6) protoct
clildron trom larm and oxploitation, (¯) protoct clildron trom war, (8) comlat HlVAlDS, (9)
liston to clildron and onsuro tloir participation, and (10) protoct tlo lartl tor clildron.
146
loys, lavo oqual opportunity to rocoivo quality lasic oducation. ln
tlo contoxt ot tontral Asia, UNltli slould:
Promoto an activo and visillo policy ot mainstroaming a
gondor porspoctivo into all policios and programmos at all
lovols and tlrouglout all soctors (liA National Plans ot
Actions slould incorporato a strong gondor porspoctivo)
Advocato tor tlo inclusion ot clildron witl spocial noods
into mainstroam sclools
PiIot impIcmcntation oI a LoIistic approacL to CFS
Altlougl policy support is ossontial, oducation rotorm can novor
lo ontorcod trom tlo top down. llorotoro, it is important to
provido conditions tor pooplo to clango in locally appropriato
ways at tlo sclool and classroom lovols. Pilot sclools can sorvo
as tlo tosting grounds tor oducation rotorm in tontral Asia. llo
idoa is to promoto dynamics tlat will produco now knowlodgo
and oxporionco among sclool roprosontativos and community
momlors, onalling tlom to tako clargo ot tlo rotorm procoss.
Pilot sclools slould implomont all ot tlo clild-triondly sclool
compononts in ordor to tollow a systomic approacl to oducation
rotorm. lnitiativos undortakon ly UNltli and tlo Govornmonts
ot Kazaklstan, lajikistan and Uzlokistan lavo involvod tlo
ostallislmont ot a strong notwork ot partnorslips across
govornmontal and non-govornmontal organizations, wlicl lavo
logun cooporation to implomont spocitic compononts ot tlo tiS
initiativo (soo tlaptor 3, 4 and 5 tor moro dotails). As programmo
implomontation continuos, lowovor, all activitios must lo tlorouglly
monitorod and ovaluatod in ordor to uso tlo oxporionco in tlo
tormulation ot lroador intorvontions, including curriculum rotorm,
toaclor training and policy dovolopmont. Howovor, tlo most
crucial considoration is tlat pilot sclools do not romain islands
ot rotorm, lut ratlor locomo tlo driving torco tor oducation
innovation at tlo local lovol (i.o., pilot sclools as contros ot
oducation rotorm). llis moans oquipping roprosontativos ot pilot
sclools and tloir communitios witl sucl skills as policy advocacy,
community molilization, adult toaclingloarning and training.
Support transition Irom piIot projccts to Iargcr scaIc initiativcs
lt is unlikoly tlat sclool rotorms will sproad trom individual
sclools to tlo ontiro oducation systom until wo clango tlo
procoduros tlat govorn tloso sclools and onsuro wido support
among all oducation stakololdors. ln ordor acliovo tlis goal,
UNltlis support slould tocus on a wido rango ot activitios:
147
Dovolop a sot ot cloar indicatorscritoria ot quality tor tiS
implomontation, oncompassing dittoront aspocts ot oducation
(o.g., sclool onvironmont, toaclingloarning procoss,
oducation contont, community involvomont and pro-sclool
proparation), wlicl could lo usod as a monitoring tool ly
govornmont otticials and an instrumont ot protossional
growtldovolopmont ly individual sclools
lntograto tlo tiS programmo initiativos into in-sorvico and
pro-sorvico toaclor training
Build tlo capacity ot middlo lovol oducation administrators
and any local autlority nocossary to support and scalo up
rotorm initiativos
Strongtlon local partnorslips, including not only govornmonts,
lut also protossional associations, communitios, paronts
and non-govornmontal organizations
Volilizo intornational donors to support implomontation ot
tlo tiS approacl (o.g., WB, ADB, USAlD, AKi) to onsuro
tlat invostmonts do not contradict, lut complomont oacl
otlor.
ADB, Pogional lA No. 5946-PlG (2002). AnnI,:.: oI ìno oJucnì.on :oIo:n
¡:oco:: .n ìno 1o¡uII.c oI Knznkn:ìnn, |Drattl, Almaty, Kazaklstan.
ADB, Pogional lA No. 5946-PlG, AnnI,:.: oI ìno oJucnì.on :oIo:n ¡:oco:: .n
ìno 1o¡uII.c oI 7nJ.k.:ìnn, |Drattl, Duslanlo, lajikistan, 2002.
ADB (a), ·ounì:, n::.:ìnnco ¡Inn:. Knznkn:ìnn 2001-200¸, |On-linol availallo:
www.adl.orgDocumontstAPsKAZdotault.asp, 2000.
ADB, Wonon .n 7nJ.k.:ìnn. ·ounì:, I:.oI.n¿ ¡n¡o:, Programs Dopartmont last
and Ottico ot lnvironmont and Social Dovolopmont, Asian Dovolopmont
Bank, April 2000.
ADB, 1o¡o:ì nnJ :oconnonJnì.on oI ìno ¡:o:.Jonì ìo ìno Ion:J oI J.:ocìo::
on n ¡:o¡o:oJ Ionn nnJ ìocnn.cnI n::.:ìnnco ¿:nnì: ìo ìno 1o¡uII.c oI
1zIok.:ìnn Io: ìno :on.o: :oconJn:, oJucnì.on ¡:oJocì |PPP:UZB 3313¯l,
ADB, January 2000.
ADB, 1o¡o:ì nnJ :oconnonJnì.on oI ìno ¡:o:.Jonì ìo ìno Ion:J oI J.:ocìo::
on n ¡:o¡o:oJ Ionn nnJ ìocnn.cnI n::.:ìnnco ¿:nnì: ìo ìno 1o¡uII.c oI
1zIok.:ìnn Io: ìno In:.c oJucnì.on ìoxìIook Jo+oIo¡nonì ¡:oJocì |PPP:UZB
29664l, ADB, Novomlor199¯.
Association ot Womon witl Univorsity lducation, ·.:I: oJucnì.on, Duslanlo,
Suruslan. lajikistan, 2002.
Bauor, A., Bosclmann, N., Groon D., Kuolnast, K., A ¿ono:nì.on nì :.:k.
·n.IJ:on .n ìno ·onì:nI A:.nn :o¡uII.c: oI Knznkn:ìnn nnJ K,:¿,z:ìnn,
| On- l i nol avai l all o: lt t p: www. adl. i rgDocumont sBooks
Gonoration_at_Piskdotault.asp, 1998.
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RPPEN0lX R
lNTERNRTlUNRL URûRNlIRTlUN5
1
5
6
lNTERNRTlUNRL URûRNlIRTlUN5 lN KRIRKH5TRN
(L0RRENT PRUjELT5j
lntornational Agoncy ProgrammosActivitios
Asian DcvcIopmcnt EarIy CLiIdLood and Womcn`s DcvcIopmcnt (2001-2002) ........................................... USD 600,000
Bank llo projoct is targotod at womon and clildron in poor lousololds. llo ultimato goal ot tlo lA is to
improvo tlo loaltl, nutrition and psyclosocial dovolopmont ot young clildron (0-¯ yoars ot ago), and
matornal loaltl and nutrition. llo projoct las loon pilotod in Soutl Kazaklstan and Zlamlyl provincos.
1Lird Education Projcct (2001-2003) ............................................................................... USD 600,000
llo toclnical assistanco (lA) las two oljoctivos: to updato tlo 19951996 oducation and training soctor
roviow, incorporating rocont dovolopmonts and lossons trom dittoront intorvontions, and to assist tlo
Govornmont to proparo tlo llird lducation Projoct (llP). llo lA consists ot two parts. Part l will
updato tlo soctor roviow covoring prosclool, gonoral socondary oducation, Vll, and liglor oducation.
Sinco tlo soctor analysos and roviows undor tlo two oarlior lAs woro comprolonsivo, a major oljoctivo
ot tlo updato is to capturo tlo curront status and political oconomy ot oducation rotorm in Kazaklstan
and indicato low tloy rolato to tlo oarlior analysos and rocommondations. llo soctor updato will
comlino (1) managomont systom analysis and rationalization, (2) oconomic and tinancial analysis, (3)
noods assossmont, to targot tlo most noody pooplo and rogions, (4) idontitication ot podagogical rotorm
prioritios, and (5) rolovant lossons drawn trom witlin and outsido Kazaklstan. llo output will lo a
conciso and unitiod soctor roviow updato witl tronds and rocont dovolopmonts in oducation, major issuos
and clallongos, and witl prioritios, options and stratogios tor turtlor rotorm and consolidation, including
an oducation rotorm tramowork tlat will guido projoct dosign. Part ll ot tlo lA will assist tlo
Govornmont to proparo tlo llP luilding on tlo prioritios, options and stratogios tor rotorm idontitiod in
tlo soctor updato. llo proposod llP will addross modium torm (tivo yoars) noods tor oducation undor
a comprolonsivo soctoral dovolopmont tramowork dorivod trom tlo soctor updato and trom rocont
progross in tlo oducation soctor, including tlo ADB tundod projocts.
1
5
7
Basic Education Projcct (1998-2002) .......................................................................... USD 45,000,000
llo goal ot tlo projoct is to strongtlon and rotorm dolivory ot lasic oducation in support ot oconomic
transition. llo projoct includod tlo tollowing compononts: (1) rotorming oducation managomont ly
strongtloning tlo policy capacitios ot VOlt, supporting docontralization ot oducation managomont to tlo
ollast dopartmonts ot oducation (DOls), dovoloping managomont training programmos, and turtlor
dovoloping lVlS, (2) onlancing oducation rolovanco and quality tlrougl rotorm in toaclor training,
curriculum dosign and dovolopmont, toxtlook dosign and dovolopmont and distanco oducation, (3)
strongtloning toaclor training ly providing instructional matorials and oquipmont tor 20 podagogical
institutosunivorsitios imparting pro-sorvico toaclor training tlrouglout tlo country and tor 15 ollast-lovol
toaclor training institutos imparting in-sorvico toaclor training, (4) providing ossontial instructional matorials,
oquipmont, and turnituro tor approximatoly 400 urlan and 400 rural primarysocondary sclools, and (5)
supporting toxtlook dovolopmont tlrougl statt training, tlo dovolopmont ot approximatoly 30 primary
socondary toxtlooks, and tlo provision ot urgontly noodod toxtlooks.
Education RcLabiIitation and Managcmcnt Improvcmcnt (1996-2001) ................. USD 20,000,000
llo projoct was aimod at providing tlo Govornmont witl urgontly noodod support tor rolalilitating and
strongtloning tlo oducation systom in lino witl tlo noods ot tlo oconomic transition. llo projoct
providod koy comprolonsivo sclools (wlicl ottor primary and socondary oducation) tlrouglout tlo
country witl priority oquipmont, toxtlooks and instructional matorials to moot immodiato noods. lt also
improvod managomont and statt dovolopmont in tlo Vinistry ot lducation (VOlt) and tlo oducation
systom. llo projoct ostallislod a computorizod oducational managomont intormation systom (lVlS) at tlo
rogional lovol and strongtlonod ono national and tivo provincial (ollast) toaclor training institutos. llo
projoct also dovolopod statt training programmos, supportod tlo dovolopmont ot a now, loarnor-lasod
curriculum, and laid tlo toundation tor lroador oducational rotorm.
StrcngtLcning Education Administration/Managcmcnt at tLc CcntraI and
LocaI LcvcIs ............................................................................................................................ USD 650,000
llo goal ot tlo lA was to strongtlon tlo institutional capalilitios ot VOlt and tlo lasic oducation
systom. Spocitic oljoctivos includod support to VOlt and DOls in (1) planning and implomonting
rationalization ot oducation institutions and statting policios, and (2) strongtloning policy tormulation and
dovolopmont.
1
5
8
Unitcd Statcs Agcncics Dcmocratic CuIturc and Institutions (2000-2002) ........................................................ USD 2,115,600
Ior IntcrnationaI USAlD works (1) to incroaso youtl participation and activism in political and social lito tlrougl
DcvcIopmcnt (USAID) oxtra-curricular civic activitios sucl as studont local govornmont days, domocracy summor camps, and studont
action committoos in sclools (implomontod ly lilS), as woll as dolato cluls and tournamonts (tlrougl tlo
National Dolato tontro), (2) to provido toclnical assistanco and training tor an innovativo programmo in
domocratic toacling motlods tlat involvos paronts in tlo oducational procoss in pro-sclool and primary
oducation (implomontod ly NGOs Soros lducational Stop ly Stop tontro and tontro tor Domocratic
lducation. llo programmos main goal is to incroaso tlo studonts capacity to tlink critically, tako
rosponsilility tor tloir own loarning, torm indopondont opinions and slow rospoct tor tlo opinions ot otlors.
UNESCO Education Programmc (2000-2001) ................................................................................ USD 250,000
107
UNlStO implomonts sovoral oducation programmos, including (1) advocating tor aclioving tlo goals ot
lducation tor All (liA), including conducting an liA torum, providing policy advico, (2) supporting tlo
Associatod Sclools notwork (trainings, projocts, (3) assisting in dovoloping and conducting monitoring ot
loarning acliovomont (VlA) studios, (4) assisting witl dovoloping lducation Vanagomont lntormation
Systoms (lVlS), (5) dovoloping multi-modia toaclingloarning matorials, (6) promoting oarly clildlood
dovolopmont tlrougl sominars tor policy-makors.
UNICEF EarIy CLiIdLood GrovtL and DcvcIopmcnt Programmc (2000-2004) .............. USD 224,000 (RR)
& 440,000 (OR)
llo programmo (1) providos support tor tlo initiation ot pilot projocts in prosclools and to tlo
production ot clild dovolopmont matorials, (2) luilds tlo capacity ot oducators to dolivor clild-controd
approaclos to pro-sclool oducation in rural and poor urlan communitios, (3) advocatos tor tlo
rocognition ot non-traditional oarly clildlood dovolopmont approaclos and tor tamily-lasod caro altornativos
tor clildron in institutions.
CLiId-EnricLmcnt Programmc (2000-2004) .......................................................... USD 1,171,000 (RR)
& 1,950,000 (OR)
Dosignod tor clildron 6-12 yoars ot ago, tlo aim ot tlo programmo is to maintain ligl onrolmont ratos
and low drop-out ratos, and to improvo tlo quality ot oducation tlrougl (1) introducing intoractivo
toaclingloarning motlods and promoting community involvomont in oducation, (2) toacling lito skills in
loaltl and nutrition, lygiono and tPt, (3) assisting in tlo ostallislmont ot lVlS.
1
5
9
Young PcopIc`s WcII-bcing Programmc (2000-2004) ............................................. USD 985,000 (RR)
& 2,250,000 (OR)
llo programmo targots tlo ago group 13-18 yoars, tor tlo promotion and dovolopmont ot adoloscont
loaltl, youtl dovolopmont, and lito skills in proparation tor adultlood and rosponsillo citizonslip. llo
tocus is on (1) tlo dovolopmont ot moclanisms tor young pooplo to participato in tloir own dovolopmont,
dissomination ot loaltly litostylo mossagos (HlVAlDS, intravonous drug uso), and linking young
pooplos groups witl protossional carogivors, modia and NGOs.
Europcan Union IncIusivc Education (2001-2003) ....................................................................................... EURO 200,000
lUs lAtlS programmo providos support tor tlo NGO Soros lducational Stop ly Stop tontro in
initiating inclusivo oducation in Kazaklstan and Kyrgyzstan. llo projoct aims aro (1) advocating inclusivo
oducation at tlo national lovol, (2) piloting inclusivo oducation programmos in sclools, (3) dovoloping
toaclingloarning matorials, and (4) supporting toaclors tlrougl in-sorvico training programmos in
implomont inclusivo oducation principlos in tlo classroom.
Soros Foundation Education Programmcs oI SFK (2002) ..........................USD 650,000
lducation programmos includo: (1) national oducation projoct, comprising a) an oducation policy
programmo tlat oncouragos dialoguo on oducation issuos among major stakololdors (o.g., multicultural
oducation), (l) dovolopmont ot stallo NGO intrastructuro (i.o., diroct support to tlo Soros lducational
Stop ly Stop tontro, National Dolato tontro, and Soros tontro tor Domocratic lducation, and grant
support tor innovativo projocts tlat lavo critical importanco tor domocratic rotorm dovolopmont in
oducation), (c) a community oducation programmo, (2) a summor univorsity programmo, aimod at
upgrading qualitications ot young social scionco toaclors, (3) a sclolarslip programmo, to provido
opportunitios tor Kazakl studonts to study alroad, (4) lntornot and curricula rotorm contro, tocusing on
rotorm in liglor oducation, (5) intormation support tor oducation dovolopmont programmos tlrougl (a)
pullication ot tlo lntormation Bullotin on lducation (ovory quartor), and (l) support tor tlo lducation
tor Opon Socioty wol-pago (www.lilim.kz).
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tomlinod ludgot tor tAPK
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lntornational Agoncy ProgrammosActivitios
WorId Bank Lcarning Innovation Loan (1999-2002) ............................................................................. USD 5,000,000
llo World Banks loarning lnnovation loan (lll) is tocusod on supporting oducation rotorm in 20 pilot
sclools in Duslanlo (5 sclools) and lonin raiyon (15 sclools). Pilot sclools woro involvod in tlo tollowing
oducation rotorm initiativos: (1) training toaclors in intoractivo toaclingloarning motlods tor 20 toaclor-trainors
(wlo tlon trainod toaclors in tloir own sclools), (2) oducation managomont training ot 20 sclool principals,
5 omployoos ot raiyon oducation dopartmonts, and 5 roprosontativos ot tlo VOl, (3) ostallisling PlAs in oacl
pilot sclool, and (4) carrying out pilot sclool rolalilitation. ln addition, lll includos a largo toxtlook
componont, involving tlo dovolopmont, pullication and distrilution ot 18 toxtlook titlos tor 1st-11tl grados
in Stato sclools. ln addition, llls toxtlook componont includos support ot a toxtlook rontal sclomo.
Education Loan (2003-2006) ............................ USD 20,000,000
llo projoct proposal is currontly loing dovolopod. lt is plannod tlat tlo projoct will includo tlo tollowing
compononts: (1) toaclor training (20-30 sclools in tlo poorost rogions), (2) curriculum dovolopmont (now
oducation standards and now toxtlooks), (3) sclool rolalilitation (tor 90-100 sclools participating in tlo
projoct), and (4) ostallislmont ot PlAs. llo projoct may also includo support tor in-sorvico and pro-
sorvico toaclor training institutions and vocational oducation.
Asian DcvcIopmcnt SociaI Scctor DcvcIopmcnt Projcct (1999-2003) ......................................................... USD 23,000,000
Bank llo oducation componont ot tlo projoct supports (1) rolalilitation ot 200 sclools in Sogld and Klatlon
ollasts, including procuromont ot turnituro and oquipmont (studonts dosks, toaclors dosks, clairs), (2)
pullisling ot 26 toxtlook titlos tor 5tl-11tl grados, (3) training tor 43,560 oducation statt trom pilot
ollasts. ln oacl district, it is plannod to opon rosourco in-sorvico training contros, (4) small grants tor tlo
ropair and rostoraation ot old turnituro in sclools.
SociaI Scctor DcvcIopmcnt Projcct (2003-2005) ........................................................... USD 10,000,000
llo Projoct will includo oducation, loaltl and social protoction compononts. llo proposal tor tlo oducation
soctor is currontly loing dovolopod. lt is plannod tlat tlo projoct will includo tlo tollowing compononts: (1)
pro-sclool oducation, (2) curriculum and assossmont dovolopmont (tor sclools andor toaclor training
institutions), (3) policy capacity dovolopmont (tinanco and ludgoting, managomont systoms).
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Unitcd Statcs Agcncics Basic Education Scctor StrcngtLcning (2002-2005) ................................................ USD 12,000,000
109
Ior IntcrnationaI USAlDtAPs stratogic oljoctivo and intormodiato rosults tor lasic oducation tor Kyrgyzstan, lajikistan
DcvcIopmcnt (USAID) and Uzlokistan tor tlo tlroo-yoar poriod (2002-2005) includo: (1) improving in-sorvico toaclor training (2)
introducing a curriculum tlat omplasizos loarning skills, (3) incroasing paront and community involvomont
in sclools, (4) strongtloning institutional, managomont and toclnical capacity at tlo national, ollast,
raiyon, and sclool administration lovols to incroaso support tor innovation in sclools, and (5) improving
sclool intrastructuro.
ln addition to tlo Basic lducation Soctor Strongtloning projoct, USAlD tunds an lilS projoct to provido
civics oducation toxtlooks witl accompanying toaclor training and manuals prosontly in uso in socondary
sclools in lajikistan, witl domocracy summor camps, studont local govornmont days, and studont action
committoos tlat round out tlo oxtracurricular portion ot tlis programmo. USAlD also tunds Stop ly Stop
wlicl is dosignod to croato clild-controd loarning onvironmonts in pro-sclools and olomontary sclools.
OPEC Fund Ior Intcr- loxtlook Production Projoct (On-going) ...................................................................................... USD 2,000,000
nationaI DcvcIopmcnt OPlt supports a projoct witl a total cost ot two million US dollars tor printing toxtlooks. Basod on
compotitivo lidding, a group ot sovon pooplo was soloctod to participato in tlo projoct.
UNDP ScLooI RcLabiIitation in Post-ConIIict Arcas................................................................................... N / A
UNDP supports projocts tor sclool rolalilitation in post-contlict aroas. ln cooporation witl otlor
intornational agoncios, UNDP implomonts two projocts tor girls oducation in ligl sclools in tlo
mountainous districts ot lajikistan, plus tlo training and social rolalilitation ot tormor tigltors. turrontly,
UNDP doos not doal witl any projocts diroctly addrossing oducation rotorm issuos otlor tlan sclool
rolalilitation.
UN Mission oI Obscrvcrs Human RigLts Education (2001-2002) ................................................................................. USD 63,000
Unitod Nations Vission ot Olsorvors promotos luman riglts oducation, including (1) pullisling a montlly
nowspapor on riglts, (2) conducting NGO compotitions to dovolop luman riglts oducation programmos
curricula, (3) organizing training tor toaclors, oducation administrators and protossors, (4) ostallisling a
Human Piglts lntormation tontro.
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UNESCO Education Programmc (2002-2005) ................................................................................ USD 250,000
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UNlStO implomonts sovoral oducation programmos, including (1) advocating tor aclioving tlo goals ot
lducation tor All (liA), including conducting an liA torum, providing policy advico, (2) supporting tlo
Associatod Sclools notwork (training, projocts), (3) assisting in dovoloping and conducting monitoring ot
loarning acliovomont (VlA) studios, (4) assisting witl dovoloping lducation Vanagomont lntormation
Systoms (lVlS), (5) dovoloping multi-modia toaclingloarning matorials, (6) promoting oarly clildlood
dovolopmont tlrougl sominars tor policy-makors.
UNICEF EarIy CLiIdLood GrovtL and DcvcIopmcnt Programmc (2000-2004) ................ USD 285,000 (RR)
&105,000 (OR)
Program tlo (1) providos support tor tlo initiation ot pilot projocts in pro-sclools and tlo production
ot clild dovolopmont matorials, (2) luilds tlo capacity ot oducators to dolivor clild-controd approaclos
tor pro-sclool oducation in rural and poor urlan communitios, (3) advocatos tor tlo rocognition ot non-
traditional oarly clildlood dovolopmont approaclos and tor tamily-lasod caro altornativos tor clildron in
institutions.
CLiId-EnricLmcnt Programmc (2000-2004) ............................................................ USD 2,484,000 (RR)
& 615,000 (OR)
Dosignod tor clildron 6-12 yoars ot ago, tlo programmo aims to maintain ligl onrolmont ratos and low
drop-out ratos, and to improvo tlo quality ot oducation ly (1) introducing intoractivo toaclingloarning
motlods and promoting community involvomont in oducation, (2) toacling lito skills in loaltl and
nutrition, lygiono and tPt, (3) assisting in tlo ostallislmont ot lVlS. ln cooporation witl tlo VOl,
UNltli supports tlo toxtlook rontal systom.
Young PcopIc`s WcII-Bcing Programmc (2000-2004) ............................................... USD 620,000 (RR)
& 225,000 (OR)
Aimod at tlo ago group 13-18 yoars, tlo programmo promotos tlo dovolopmont ot adoloscont loaltl,
youtl dovolopmont and lito skills in proparation tor adultlood and rosponsillo citizonslip. lt tocusos on
(1) tlo dovolopmont ot moclanisms tor young pooplos participation in tloir own dovolopmont, (2)
dissomination ot loaltly litostylo mossagos (HlVAlDS, intravonous drug uso) and linking young pooplos
groups witl protossional carogivors, modia and NGOs.
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Savc tLc CLiIdrcn (UK) Povcrty AIIcviation PiIot Projcct (1997-1999) .................................................................................. N / A
Savo tlo tlildron (UK) implomontod a part ot tlo WBs Povorty Alloviation Pilot projoct in Vaksl Paiyon
tor sclool improvomont. Sclools rocoivod around $1,000 oacl to invost in incomo-gonorating activitios
(goats, grinding maclinos). Witl tlo incomo, tlo sclool louglt toxtlooks, clotlos and sloos tor orplans,
supplomontod toaclors salarios and ropairod luildings. llo projoct involvod 20 sclools and 2,100
tamilios.
Education Programmc (2001-2002) ................................................................................. USD 1,450,000
llo oducation programmo consists ot tour projocts: (1) toaclor training tor 60 primary sclools and 20
daycaro contors (intoractivo toaclingloarning motlodologios, losson planning), (2) community-lVlS
(grassroots involvomont ot 25 sclools in collocting and analyzing data tor sclool attondanco and drop-
outs), (3) citizonslip oducation (ostallisling 6 clildrons cluls in Klatlon), (4) inclusivo oducation
(community-lasod approacl to idontitying and involving disallod clildron in tormal oducation institutions).
Aga KLan Foundation Education Programmcs (2000-2001) ............................................................................... USD 1,000,000
AKi las run sovoral oducation programmos, slitting trom roliot to long-torm dovolopmont activitios. llo
ioundation las primarily workod in Gorno Badakslan (GBAO), altlougl it providos support to otlor
rogions ot lajikistan. lducation programmos includo: (1) curriculum dovolopmont (implomonting clild-
controd motlodology and dovoloping low-cost loarning matorials), (2) ro-instatomont ot institutos ot
protossional dovolopmont (in-sorvico toaclor training), (3) oducation managomontadministration in tlo
contoxt ot docontralization (capacity luilding ot oducation administrators at all lovols, groator involvomont
ot communitios in sclool lito), (4) a toxtlook rontal sclomo in GBAO wloroin tlo rontal monoy colloctod
is kopt in sclools and usod tor sclool maintonancoropairs, purclasing now toxtlooks, and (5) molilo
rosourco training contros (tor toaclors in isolatod communitios). ln 2000-2001, 850 toaclors and 450
sclool loads woro trainod in oducation managomont and curriculum dovolopmont, 250 paront committoos
woro supportod in tund-raising and managing sclool tunds. AKi also implomonts a Hoaltl lducation
Projoct to raiso awaronoss ot loaltly litostylo mossagos (nutrition, satoty, tirst aid, porsonal lygiono). ln
addition, tlo AKi las toundod tlo Univorsity ot tontral Asia in Klorog tity. llo Univorsity is a privato,
autonomous, not-tor-protit, intornational institution ot liglor oducation tocusing on intordisciplinary
toacling and rosoarcl in dovolopmont issuos attocting mountain communittios across tontral Asia.
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Mcrcy Corps 1cxtbook dcvcIopmcnt Projccts (On-going) .................................................................................. N/A
IntcrnationaI Vorcy torps lntornational, tundod ly tlo US, givos grants tor small projocts in oducation, loaltl and civil
socioty. lt las supportod pullication ot spocial toxtlooks tor tlo primary sclool lovol, including 1,000
copios ot a 4tl grado \agnol languago toxtlook tor tlo community nortl ot Duslanlo, a Pamir
languago look tor Gorno Badakslan, a lajik-lnglisl scionco dictionary, and Pussian-lnglisl-lajik-Porsian
dictionary.
Soros Foundation Education Programmcs (2001-2002) .................................................................................. USD 791,000
llo Opon Socioty lnstitutoSoros ioundation implomonts tlo tollowing main oducational programmos: (1)
pro-sclool oducation programmo Stop ly Stop, (2) socondary oducation programmo (PWtl), (3) liglor
oducation programmo, (4) grant programmos tor tlo dovolopmont ot various aroas ot oducation,
tacilitating rosoarcl, and sclolarslips. ln addition, tlo ioundation supports two moga-projocts:
Education RcIorm Support Unit (ERSU)
llo projoct was initiatod to promoto intormod domocratic doliloration as part ot tlo pullic policy
procoss in lajikistan. llo lPSU toam las loon ongagod in a sorios ot toclnical, stratogic and communication
tasks in support ot sustainallo oducation rotorm in lajikistan. lt is plannod tlat tlo lPSU will (1) act as
a systoms and policy analytical unit, assossing tlo curront stato ot attairs in oducation (witl a particular
lias toward oducation tinanco) and working out possillo solutions tor tlo diroction ot oducation rotorm
and ad-loc intorvontions, (2) act as a stratogic intormation cloaringlouso tor cortain rotorm issuos, (3)
monitor and assoss koy aspocts ot oducation rotorm in tlo country, (3) login to molilizo tlo oducation
community tor involvomont in, and undorstanding ot, oducation rotorm, (4) luild capacity in social soctor
rotorm and appliod oducational tinancoplanning.
1cxtbook DcvcIopmcnt Projcct
llo projoct aims to luild capacity in toxtlook dovolopmont in lajikistan (1) supporting a domocratic
procoss ot toxtlook pullisling tlrougl opon compotition, domocratic soloction procoduros and involvomont
ot toaclors in tlo dovolopmont and tosting ot now toxtlooks, (2) luilding tlo capacity ot toxtlook autlors
and pullislors in dovoloping and pullisling toxtlooks, (3) promoting tlo toam-lasod approacl involving
acadomicians, toaclors and dosignors in tlo toxtlook dovolopmont procoss, (4) supporting an opon markot
in toxtlook pullisling, (5) training tlo group ot ovaluators and koy playors trom tlo VOl in tlo toxtlook
provision soctor, (6) oncouraging groator involvomont ot toaclors in tlo procoss ot toxtlook dovolopmont.
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ORA IntcrnationaI Education Programmc (2000) ............................................................................................... USD 46,350
OPA lntornational implomontod (1) sorvico dolivory ot lasic nocossitios (clotling, sclool stationory), (2)
vocational oducation in tlo agricultural soctor tor 4,000 young orplans in 26 sclools, (3) vocational
oducation in tlo tood industry tor ¯ sclools, (4) clildrons sponsoring programmo tor 300 clildron
(orplanod and disallod).
CARE IntcrnationaI Education Programmc (2001-2004) ................................................................................. USD 1,500,000
ln addition to otlor initiativos, tAPl lntornational is dovoloping a rural oducation projoct in lajikistan.
llis tlroo yoar projoct is supportod ly tlo US Dopartmont ot Agriculturo. llo projoct covors tlroo rural
aroas, including \van, Slaklrinav and Gyssar rogions (oacl rogion covors tlroo socondary sclools). llo
projoct includos tlo tollowing activitios: (1) ropair ot sclool luildings, including installing loating systoms
tor tlo wintor, (2) lumanitarian assistanco sucl as tlour, moat and salt tor clildron and toaclors, (3)
organizing sclool moals, (4) toaclor training (protossional dovolopmont), (5) toxtlook provision tor all
studonts, and (6) ostallislmont ot PlAs. ..............................................................................................................
108
lntormation usod in tlis soction is largoly lasod on OSls noods assossmont roport lducation dovolopmont in Kyrgyzstan, lajikistan and Uzlokistan:
tlallongos and ways torward (2002) writton tor USAlD. llo tallo alovo contains moro rocont intormation rogarding tlo activitios ot intornational
agoncios in lajikistan.
109
tomlinod tunding tor Kyrgyzstan, lajikistan and Uzlokistan.
110
tomlinod ludgot tor tAPK
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lntornational Agoncy ProgrammosActivitios
Asian DcvcIopmcnt Education scctor dcvcIopmcnt projcct
112
....................................................................................................................... USD 37,500,000
Bank llo invostmont loan will support govornmont ottorts to improvo tlo quality ot lasic oducation (witl
priority givon to poor and romoto rural aroas) and to modornizo soctor managomont. lt will includo tlroo
main compononts and sovoral sul-compononts:
1. Strongtloning soctor planning and managomont capacitios will support participatory policy tormulation
procossos and dovolop national capacitios to manago oducation rotorms, involving (i) an organizational
audit ot tlo oducation administration witl a training noods assossmont ot tlo administrativo porsonnol,
(ii) a nation-wido sclool mapping oxorciso comlinod witl a community survoy, (iii) policy studios in
tlo aroas ot statt dovolopmont, NGO provision ot oducation, oducation tinanco, (iv) training ot sclool
principals and district administrators.
2. lmproving and oxtonding toaclor training ly ostallisling distanco oducation to conduct toaclor training
and rotraining activitios. loaclor training programmos will lo dovolopod and dolivorod in tlo aroa ot
(i) multigrado instruction, (ii) primary sclool toacling, (iii) tiold-spocitic toacling motlods, (iv) soloctod
junior socondary sclool suljocts.
3. Strongtloning community involvomont in sclooling and improving loarning conditions will compriso (i)
rolalilitation ot tlo plysical structuro and provision ot oquipmont tor tlo most rosourco-poor sclools
ot tlo country, (ii) assistanco to communitios in ostallisling autonomous and ottoctivo sclool loards,
(iii) provision ot grant tunds accossillo to sclools on a compotitivo lasis tlrougl a Sclool lnitiativos
iund (Sli).
llo immodiato lonoticiarios ot tlo invostmont projoct includo (1) somo 200,000 primary and lowor
socondary sclool toaclors, (2) statt ot rogional in-sorvico toaclor training institutos, and ot institutos and
tacultios ot podagogy, (3) rouglly 10,000 sclool principals and district oducation administrators, (4) statt
and pupils ot 500 poor sclools (ovor 5 porcont ot tlo sclools ot tlo country), (5) statt and pupils ot
alout 1,000 sclools accossing Sli rosourcos.
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Education Scctor DcvcIopmcnt Programmc
113
....................................................................................................... USD 70,000 000
llis policy and projoct loan will support tlo implomontation ot Uzlokistans modium-torm oducation and
training dovolopmont plan, commonly dosignatod tlo National Programmo tor Porsonnol lraining (NPPl),
ly addrossing tour major soctor-wido clallongos:
1. Vodornizing tlo structuro, contonts, and procossos ot oducation, including (i) pursuing ongoing ottorts
to stroamlino and simplity tlo structuro ot oducation, (ii) dovoloping modorn curricula and oducational
quality monitoring moclanisms, (iii) strongtloning tlo toaclor training systom, ospocially ly tlo
introduction ot distanco loarning.
2. lmproving soctor sustainalility and otticioncy will lo onlancod ly (i) rodoploying and rotraining tlo
administrativo statt in lino witl tlo docontralization procoss, (ii) roviowing tlo sorvico conditions ot tlo
oducation porsonnol, paying particular attontion to tloso catogorios working in ditticult conditions, (iii)
rationalizing tlo notwork ot sclools and institutions.
3. llo govornanco ot oducation will lo rotormod witl a viow to (i) dovoloping national capacitios in tlo
aroa ot policy tormulation, planning and tinancial managomont, (ii) oncouraging community participation
in sclool managomont, (iii) supporting tlo omorgonco ot an NGO oducation soctor.
4. Accoss tor tlo poor to quality oducation will lo protoctod ly (i) improvod targoting ot pullic rosourcos
towards doprivod aroas, (ii) spocial assistanco sclomos tor vulnorallo population groups.
Scnior Sccondary Education Projcct (2000-2004) ...................................................... USD 57,000,000
llo projoct supports on-going oducation rotorms ly assisting tlo improvomont ot compulsory sonior
socondary oducation systom (10tl-12tl grados). lt supports ostallisling lroad-lasod sonior socondary
oducation at tlo intornational standard tor tlo dovolopmont ot a tloxillo worktorco to support tlo
countrys oconomic transition. lmmodiato oljoctivos ot tlo projoct aro: (1) to support implomontation and
rotinomont ot tlo now SSl curriculum, (2) to dovolop ottoctivo managomont and toacling statt, (3) to
dovolop domostic capacity tor toacling matorials production and acquisition, (4) to tostor cost-ottoctivo
planning, managomont and policy dovolopmont tor SSl. llo projoct includos tour compononts: (i)
dovoloping 45 modol sclools, (ii) dovoloping sclool diroctors and toaclors, (iii) dovoloping instructional
matorials, (iv) sul-soctor planning, managomont, and policy dovolopmont. (Piggylackod to tlis loan is
tlo lntorim Poviow ot Sonior Socondary lducation Systom toclnical assistanco.)
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llo immodiato lonoticiarios ot tlo projoct will lo approximatoly 55,000 studonts onrollod in tlo 45
projoct lonoticiary sclools ly tlo ond ot tlo projoct. llo lonoticiarios also includo 4,200 toaclors wlo
will rocoivo intonsivo in-sorvico training, 45 sclool diroctors wlo will rocoivo ovorsoas and in-country
managomont training, and alout 30 oducation plannors, managors, and policy makors wlo will undorgo
various oxposuro programmos ovorsoas and in-country. lndiroct lonoticiarios will includo studonts to lo
onrollod in tlo modol sclools attor tlo projocts complotion, and studonts and toaclors at otlor SSl
sclools tlat will lonotit trom tlo oxporionco ot tlo modol sclools.
Basic Education 1cxtbook DcvcIopmcnt Projcct (1998-2003................................... USD 40,000,000
llo projoct includos curriculum dovolopmont, toxtlook dovolopmont, tostoring compotitivo toxtlook
pullisling, and dovoloping and supporting a toxtlook rontal sclomo in Uzlokistan.
Monitoring and EvaIuation oI Education RcIorm (1998-2000) .................................... USD 900,000
llo projoct providos assistanco to tlo Social tomplox ot tlo talinot ot Vinistors in monitoring tlo status
ot oducation rotorm implomontation at all lovols ot tlo oducation systom.
Capacity BuiIding in Education Financc (1999) ............................................................ .USD 500,000
llo projoct providos assistanco in idontitying stratogios tor strongtloning oducation tinancial managomont
Basic Education StaII DcvcIopmcnt/1cacLcr 1raining RcIorm (1999) ....................... USD 350,000
llo toclnical assistanco (lA) was implomontod in two plasos ovor a poriod ot six montls. A sul-soctor
roviow was carriod out during Plaso 1, aiming at tormulating an adoquato policy tramowork tor statt
dovolopmont. A dotailod proposal tor a Basic lducation Statt Dovolopmont Projoct was tlo major
outcomo ot Plaso 2. lA activitios includod (1) advisory sorvicos providod ly intornational and domostic
consultants (2) participatory toclnical workslops to discuss, amond and validato lA activitios, (3) in-
country visits and survoys aimod at consulting koy stakololdors, (4) spocializod toclnical roports proparod
ly intornational and domostic consultants.
Japan Bank Ior VocationaI Education DcvcIopmcnt (announccd in 2001 Ior 10 ycars) ............... USD 60,000,000
IntcrnationaI llo projoct will tinanco tlo rotorm ot 50 vocational collogos, including luilding now vocational collogos,
Coopcration (JBIC) tlo provision ot now oquipmont, and toaclor training (it is plannod tlat 50 locturors and 50 collogo
diroctors will attond a study tour to Japan).
1
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Unitcd Statcs Agcncics Basic Education Scctor StrcngtLcning (2002-2005) ............................................... USD 12,000,000
104
Ior IntcrnationaI USAlDtAPs stratogic oljoctivo and intormodiato rosults tor lasic oducation tor Kyrgyzstan, lajikistan
DcvcIopmcnt (USAID) and Uzlokistan tor tlo tlroo-yoar poriod (2002-2005) includo: (1) improving in-sorvico toaclor oducation,
(2) introducing curriculum omplasizing loarning skills, (3) incroasing paront and community involvomont
in sclools, (4) strongtloning institutional, managomont, and toclnical capacity at tlo national, ollast,
rayon, and sclool administration lovols to incroaso support tor innovation in sclools, (5) improving
sclool structuros.
ln addition to tlo Basic lducation Soctor Strongtloning projoct, USAlD also tunds ABAtlllls Stroot
law Programmo, wlicl providos law studonts across tlo rogion witl tlo opportunity to toacl youngor
studonts alout lasic logal riglts and rosponsililitios in classrooms and to train socondary sclool toaclors
in intoractivo motlodology and law- and luman riglts-rolatod topics. Uzlokistan will also soon lo tlo
rocipiont ot a largo computor donation and will tako part in a now rogional Hoaltl lducation and Sports
Programmo.
UNESCO Education Programmc (2000-2001) .................................................................................... USD 150,000
UNlStOs oducation initiativos includo six projocts: (1) advocating tor inclusivo oducation (a sorios ot
workslops tor sclool administrators, toaclors, univorsity protossors), (2) providing toclnical assistanco tor
tlo liA goals (round tallos, contoroncos), (3) dovoloping multi-modia toaclingloarning matorials (civic
oducation, onvironmontal oducation, loaltly litostylos), (4) promoting lasic oducation tlrougl skills
dovolopmont (community loarning contros), (5) promoting litoracy and non-tormal oducation (Silk Poad
Padio), (6) organizing youtl camps to promoto luman riglts and domocracy. ln addition, UNlStO (in
cooporation witl UNltli) providos assistanco to VPl in conducting Vonitoring ot loarning Acliovomont
(VlA) studios and otlor rosoarcl in tlo prolloms ot young pooplo.
UNICEF EarIy CLiIdLood GrovtL and DcvcIopmcnt Programmc (2000-2004) .............. USD 296,000 (RR)
& 788,000 (OR)
llo programmo (1) providos support tor tlo initiation ot pilot projocts in pro-sclools and tlo production
ot clild dovolopmont matorials, (2) luilds tlo capacity ot oducators to dolivor clild-controd approaclos
to pro-sclool oducation in rural and poor urlan communitios, (3) advocatos tor tlo rocognition ot non-
traditional oarly clildlood dovolopmont approaclos and tor tamily-lasod caro altornativos tor clildron in
institutions.
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CLiId-EnricLmcnt Programmc (2000-2004) ........................................................ USD 2,626,000 (RR)
& 3,250,000 (OR)
Dosignod tor clildron 6-12 yoars ot ago, tlo programmo aims to maintain ligl onrolmont ratos and low
drop-out ratos, and to improvo tlo quality ot oducation ly (1) introducing intoractivo toaclingloarning
motlods and promoting community involvomont in oducation, (2) toacling lito skills in loaltl and
nutrition, lygiono and tPt, (3) assisting in tlo ostallislmont ot lVlS.
Young PcopIc`s WcII-bcing Programmc (2000-2004) .......................................... USD 1,600,000 (RR)
& 3,750,000 (OR)
Aimod at tlo ago group 13-18 yoars, tlo programmo promotos and dovolops adoloscont loaltl, youtl
dovolopmont, and lito skills in proparation tor adultlood and rosponsillo citizonslip. llo programmo
tocusos on (1) tlo dovolopmont ot moclanisms tor young pooplos participation in tloir own dovolopmont,
dissomination ot loaltly litostylo mossagos (HlVAlDS, intravonous drug uso), and linking young pooplos
groups witl protossional carogivors, modia and NGOs.
Soros Foundation Education Programmcs oI OSIAF-Uzbckistan (2002) ................................................... USD 1,090,000
lducation programmos ot OSlAi includo: (1) lnglisl languago programmo, (2) socondary oducation
programmo, (3) youtl programmo, (4) sclolarslip programmo, (5) liglor oducation programmo. ior tlo
purposos ot tlis roviow, only lasic oducation programmos aro includodod:
(1) lnglisl languago Programmo
llis programmo providos troo accoss to intormation and incroasos tlo numlor ot pooplo spoaking
lnglisl. ln addition, it supports otlor OSl programs dosignod to improvo tlo lovol ot lnglisl ot tloso
toacling in tlo aroas ot oducation, law, modicino and journalism. Working witl tlo Association ot lnglisl
loaclors and govornmont agoncios, tlo programmo works to improvo oducation motlodology tor
toacling lnglisl in Uzlokistan. llo tollowing projocts lavo loon initiatod or continuod tlrougl tlis
programmo: (a) toaclor training, (l) lnglisl tor Spocial Purposos, (c) ottoctivo managomont ot lnglisl
languago sclools, (d) writing tlo ily Higl¨ toxtlook, (o) languago Posourco tontros.
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(2) Socondary lducation Programmo
llo main aim ot tlis programmo is to improvo tlo oducation procoss and provido assistanco in using
intoractivo motlods ot toacling at tlo socondary sclool lovol. llo programmo includos tlo tollowing
initiativos: (a) tivic lducation, (l), Poading and Writing tor tritical llinking, (c) Stroot law, (d) Sclool
lmprovomont, (o) lconomic lducation.
(3) \outl Programmo
llis programmo aims to dovolop young pooplos critical tlinking and involvo tlom in social activity. lt
tocusos on studonts agod 12-1¯, toaclors and locturors. lt includos sucl initiativos as (a) dolatos, (l)
parliamontary dolatos, (c) youtl contros, (d) summor camps.
(4) Sclolarslip Programmo
llo program supports studonts, sciontists and spocialists in tlo tormor USSP countrios to participato in
acadomic programmos outsido tloir countrios. llo oljoctivos ot tlo programmo aro to rogonorato and
rotorm tlo toacling ot pullic and lumanitarian scioncos in institutions ot Higlor lducation in tlo rogion,
to guarantoo protossional training in disciplinos alsont or poorly dolivorod in oducational institutions in
tloir countrios, to lolp lriglt studonts witl dittoront lovols ot acadomic oducation to continuo tloir
oducation in an altornativo acadomic and cultural sotting.
Europcan Union Rcstructuring oI Education Systcm (1998-2000) .......................................................... USD 1,660,000
lducation planning, tinancing, and managomont systoms. tovorago includos assistanco to tlo Vinistrios
ot Higlor lducation and Pullic lducation, intor-ministorial coordination, policylorizontal issuos.
Assistancc to RcIorm VocationaI Education (1999-2001) .............................................. USD 950,000
turriculum dovolopmont tor vocational oducation programmos, tlo dovolopmont and tosting ot toacling
loarning matorials and toaclor training.
Gcrmany Support Ior DcvcIopmcnt oI VocationaI Education and 1raining (1999-2001) ..... USD 7,000,000
Potorms in vocational oducation, curriculum dovolopmont and implomontation tor (1) managomont, (2)
tourism sorvicos, (3) agriculturo and tlo introduction ot a dual training systom.
Assistancc to Primary ProIcssionaI Education (1997-1998) ....................................... USD 1,071,000
Advisory sorvicos in dovolopmont ot protossional oducation and training
Savc tLc CLiIdrcn (UK) Education Programmc Ior MarginaIizcd CLiIdrcn (2000-2002) ................................ GBP 1,000,000
llo program tocusos on improving accoss to oducation tor clildron witl spocial noods and otlor
oxcludod clildron. (1) inclusivo oducation is loing introducod in 9 sclools in tlo iorgana valloy (toaclor
training, community involvomont and PlAs), (2) support is providod tor otlor oxcludod clildron (stroot
clildron, working clildron), addrossing sucl issuos as povorty, gondor and violonco.
BritisL CounciI Basic Education and 1cxtbook DcvcIopmcnt Projcct (2000-2002) .............................................. N / A
loclnical assistanco is providod tor tlo lasic oducation and toxtlook dovolopmont projoct witlin tlo ADB
programmo loan. loclnical assistanco includos (1) lolping tlo VPl to rotino tlo national curriculum,
tocusing on contorming witl intornationally adoptod standards and studont-controd approaclos, (2)
supporting autlors in writing toxtlooks and toaclor guidos, particularly tlrougl tlo provision ot advico
on intornational motlods, stylos, and standards, (3) training toaclor-trainors in tlo tloory and practico ot
studont-controd motlods ot toaclingloarning, (4) providing advico and training tor rolovant VPl statt in
tlo supply, markoting and production ot toxtlooks, witl particular rotoronco to ludgoting and tinanco.
111
lntormation usod in tlis soction is largoly lasod on OSls noods assossmont roport lducation dovolopmont in Kyrgyzstan, lajikistan and Uzlokistan:
tlallongos and ways torward (2002) writton tor USAlD. llo tallo alovo contains moro rocont intormation rogarding activitios ot intornational
agoncios in Uzlokistan.
112
lxpoctod approval in 2002.
113
lxpoctod approval in 2002.
114
tomlinod tunding tor Kyrgyzstan, lajikistan and Uzlokistan.
RPPEN0lX B
NUN-ûUVERNMENTRL
URûRNlIRTlUN5
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NUN-ûUVERNMENTRL URûRNlIRTlUN5 (NûU5j WURKlNû lN THE E00LRTlUN 5ELTUR lN KRIRKH5TRN
lloro is a total ot 814 NGOs rogistorod in Kazaklstan. According to tANGO (2002), tlo majority ot NGOs work in tlo tiold ot
clildronyoung pooplo (12.8/ or 105 ot all NGOs) and oducationscionco (10.1/ or 83 ot all NGOs). llo tollowing organizations
lavo a provon rocord ot activo participation in oducation rotorm activitios in Kazaklstan.
NGOAssociation lypo ot Activitios
Ccntrc Ior Dcmocratic Education Ottors a wido rango ot training programmos on Poading and Writing tor tritical llinking (PWtl)
tlrouglout tlo country tor oducators and toaclors in training, including local and rogional
workslops, summor coursos and an annual contoronco. lt also pullislos two national journals
tor PWtl toaclors and studonts, as woll as contoronco procoodings and translations ot spocialists
work.
Soros EducationaI Promotos domocratic clangos in tlo oducation systom ly introducing clild-contorod approaclos
Stcp by Stcp` Ccntrc in oducation, promoting undorstanding alout clildron and tamily riglts, and ly involving
tamilios and communitios in tlo oducation procoss. ln addition, tlo contro advocatos tor and
implomonts, inclusivo oducation ly supporting tlo inclusion ot clildron witl spocial noods into
mainstroam sclools. llo tontro ottors in-sorvico training programmos tor pro-sclool and primary
sclool toaclors and sominars tor paronts and oducation loadors.
EIIcctivc ScLooIs` Ccntrc Ottors workslops tor sclool toaclors, administrators, local autloritios, and roprosontativos ot in-
sorvico and pro-sorvico toaclor oducation institutions in oducation planning, managomont (o.g.,
scloolclassroom managomont), ovaluation and monitoring (o.g., intornal sclool audit). ln addition,
tlo contro providos training tor sclooltoaclors and administrators in low to provido adoquato
podagogical support tor all studonts to improvo tloir acadomic acliovomont (studonts solt-
dovolopmont and individualization).
SA1R` Ccntrc llo goal is to contriluto to tlo organization ot a comploto systom ot oarly idontitication ot
clildron witl spocial noods, protoction ot tlis catogory ot clildron, and tlo croation ot psyclo-
podagogical conditions tor training and social adaptation ot clildron witl dovolopmont prolloms.
Institutc oI SociaI and tonducts rosoarcl on gondor issuos in Kazaklstan, including gondor-awaronoss in pullic sclools
Gcndcr Studics and gondor-sonsitivity ot toxtlookscurricula.
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RcscarcL and InIormation Promotos oducation domocratization ly implomonting programmos aimod at dovoloping
Ccntrc Ior Civic Education studonts civic consciousnoss, critical tlinking and activo participation. llo contro conducts
rosoarcl in civic oducation, pullislos toaclingloarning matorials, and runs workslops tor
studonts, toaclors and sclool administrators.
Association oI Innovativc tonnocts sclools across Kazaklstan to provido support in tlo implomontation ot innovativo
ScLooIs oducation practicos. llo Association conducts numorous workslops and contoroncos.
NationaI Dcbatc Ccntrc Ottors studonts and toaclors tlo opportunity to oxamino issuos attocting tloir livos and tloir
communitios, to croato lroad and inclusivo dolato cluls tlat oncourago participation ly all
soctions ot tlo population, including otlnic minoritios, to promoto, organizo and sustain dolato
activitios in Kazaklstan.
1cacLcrs associations Sovoral aro activoly oporating in Kazaklstan, tor oxamplo, tlo Association ot lnglisl languago
loaclors, Association ot loaclors trom tlo National Spocializod Plysics and Vatlomatics Sclools.
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NUN-ûUVERNMENTRL URûRNlIRTlUN5 (NûU5j WURKlNû lN THE E00LRTlUN 5ELTUR lN TRjlKl5TRN
¡¡5
lloro is a total ot 595 NGOs rogistorod in lajikistan. According to tANGO (2002), tlo majority ot NGOs work in tlo tiold ot clildron
young pooplo (16.3/ (9¯) ot all NGOs) and oducationscionco (14.6/ (8¯) ot all NGOs). Howovor, only a tow organizations aro activo
in tlo tiold ot oducation. As in otlor tontral Asian countrios, most ot tlo NGOs aro largoly dopondont on intornational donor support.
NGOAssociation lypo ot Activitios
RcpubIican Education Fund Has dovolopod and implomontod a programmo tor poaco oducation and toloranco, wlicl
promotos toloranco and intorporsonal communication skills among clildron.
Association oI Univcrsity iocusos on gondor issuos in oducation (dovolopmont ot toacling matorials and conducting training).
Womcn
Association oI Womcn Addrossos tlo tollowing issuos (1) gondor in oducation (ly dovoloping toaclingloarning matorials
in Scicncc oI 1ajikistan and conducting training), (2) roproductivo loaltl, and (3) social support tor vulnorallo groups.
ManizLa Ccntrc Ior InIormation Promotos tlo dovolopmont ot civil socioty ly incroasing tlo oducation ot citizons ot lajikistan in
and Education Initiativcs markot oconomy, domocracy, activitios ot tlo tlird soctor, strongtloning ot cooporation lotwoon
stato, lusinoss and NGO soctors. Providos training in (1) participatory docision making in sclools
(PlAs), (2) intoractivo toaclingloarning motlodology.
CLiIdrcn`s Foundation Providos support and lolp tor poor, disallod and sick clildron (govornmont support).
oI 1ajikistan
ECO YoutL EcoIogicaI Ccntrc llo contro (www.taliat.narod.ru) tocusos on loadorslip training tor studonts in sclools and
univorsitios ot lajikistan. llo tontor support dovoloping studont council in sclools, including
dovoloping studonts skills in docision-making, toamwork, otc.
Socicty and CLiId`s RigLts, NGO iocusos on clildrons riglts protoction and distrilution ot UN tPt.
Young Lcadcrs Association Providos loadorslip programmo training tor young pooplo in sclools and univorsitios (studont
oI 1ajikistan councils).
1ajik 1raining Ottors a varioty ot training coursos, including tPt training programmo tor sclools.
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For EartL tonducts training tor primary sclool studonts in roadinossproparodnoss tor omorgoncy situations
(oartlquakos)
DcIaIruz loaclors Associatio, activoly works in Klatlon aroa, conducting toaclor training coursos tor
toaclors in intoractivo toaclingloarning motlodology.
115
lntormation usod in tlis soction is largoly lasod on OSls noods assossmont roport lducation dovolopmont in Kyrgyzstan, lajikistan and Uzlokistan:
clallongos and ways torward (2002) writton tor USAlD and containing additional intormation on NGOs in lajikistan.
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NUN-ûUVERNMENTRL URûRNlIRTlUN5 (NûU5j WURKlNû lN THE E00LRTlUN 5ELTUR lN 0IBEKl5TRN
¡¡ó
lloro aro 586 rogistorod NGOs in Uzlokistan. Vory tow local NGOs oporato in tlo tiold ot oducation. Vany NGOs aro initiatod witl
tlo support ot tlo Govornmont or intornational organizations. lacking tunds, skills and sutticiont oxporionco in tundraising and
managomont, many cannot mako a signiticant impact on oducation rotorm.
NGOAssociation lypo ot Activitios
Ccntrc Ior Busincss Promotion ioundod in 1994 witlin tlo tramowork ot tlo Gorman loclnical Assistanco Projoct Promotion ot
Small and Vodium lntorprisos. llo contro las loon ongagod in oducation rotorm ly ottoring
protossional dovolopmont coursos tor sclool diroctors (o.g., tinancial planning 8 managomont)
and toaclors (o.g., sclool improvomont).
CLiIdrcn`s Fund Supports orplans, clildron trom poor tamilios and talontod young pooplo, and providos
rolalilitation sorvicos tor disallod clildron. lt las lranclos in laslkont, Namangan, iorgana and
Karakalpakstan.
Education Rcsourcc Ccntrcs Supportod ly OSlAi-Uzlokistan, a notwork ot rosourco contros providos studonts and ligl
sclool toaclors witl up-to-dato computors, accoss to lntornot, and lilrary and rosourco matorials
tor studonts lloro aro contros in Nukus (Karakalpak Stato Univorsity), Samarkand (Samarkand
Stato Univorsity) and laslkont (laslkont iinancial lnstituto).
Womcn and Socicty` Institutc troatod in 199¯, tlo instituto is involvod in improving gondor rolations in Uzlokistan. ln
cooporation witl UNltli, it conducts workslops on tlo provontion ot drug addition and HlV
AlDS, roproductivo loaltl tor toonagors. ln cooporation witl tlo Soros ioundation, it conducts
a programmo lmpoworing lducation covoring all lovols ot oducation.
1asLkcnt PubIic Education Oporating undor tlo support ot OSlAi-Uzlokistan, tlis (1) works witl toaclors, runs sominars,
Ccntrc (1PEC) and conducts training tor toaclor-trainors, (2) producos pullications wlicl includo toxtlooks, o.g.
on constitutional and logal systoms (a look tor 10tl11tl grado) and logal studios (1st-11tl
grados), and (3) runs summor sclools tor pupils, promoting solt-govornmont in sclools.
KLorczm Ccntrc oI Civic Oporating undor tlo support ot OSlAi-Uzlokistan, Klorozm tontro ot tivic lducation and
Education and Progrcss` Progross tontro in iorgana promoto civic and logal oducation.
Ccntrc in Fcrgana
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RcgionaI YoutL/Dcbatc Ccntrcs troatod in 2001 witl tlo support ot OSlAi-Uzlokistan, tloso covor various activitios tor young
pooplo, including dolato, tlo practical study ot clildrons and young pooplos riglts, tlo
dovolopmont ot loadorslip alilitios, and logal and oconomic oducation. llo contros aro locatod
in Samarkand, Buklara, Karakalpakstan, Namangan and Andizlan rogions.
UMID llis is a sloltor, ostallislod in 1998 to rondor psyclological, psyclotlorapoutic and modical aid
to clildron and womon suttoring trom trauma.
US1OZ Foundation troatod in 199¯, it supports capacity luilding tor tlo taculty ot oducational institutions, acquainting
tlom witl now intormation and toacling motlodology.
Umir, Yorug`Iik, McLribonIik, NGOs supporting spocial oducation activitios in Uzlokistan
Kridi
1cacLcrs` Associations lloso includo: tlo Association ot lnglisl languago loaclors, tlo Association ot Uzlok languago
loaclors, languago-oriontatod NGOs - tontro ot Uzlok languago, tlirclik Pussian tulturo
tontro.
116
lntormation usod in tlis soction is largoly lasod on OSls noods assossmont roport lducation dovolopmont in Kyrgyzstan, lajikistan and Uzlokistan:
clallongos and ways torward¨ (2002) writton tor USAlD.
RPPEN0lX L
5TRTl5TlLRL 0RTR
1
8
2
VariabIc Namc 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
DcmograpLy
118
lotal loginning ot yoar
population (do tacto population,
tlousands) 16,194 16,298 16,358 16,452 16,426 16,335 15,95¯ 15,6¯6 15,481 15,188 14,958 14,841
Porcontago ot population
0-1¯ yoars (porcont) 3¯.6 3¯.2 36.9 36.8 36.5 36.3 36 35.8 35.3 34.9 34.5 3¯.5
119
iomalo lito oxpoctancy at lirtl
(yoars) ¯3.1 ¯2.¯ ¯2.4 ¯2.3 ¯0.8 ¯0.3 69.4 69.¯ 69.9 ¯0.4 ¯1 ¯1.3
Valo lito oxpoctancy at lirtl
(yoars) 63.9 63.2 62.6 62.4 60.1 59.¯ 58 58 58.5 59 60.3 59.8
Urlan population (porcontago
ot total population)
120
- - - - - - - - 55.9 55.9 55.9 55.8
Economy
121
Annual clango in GDP (/) - -0.4 -13 -2.9 -9.2 -12.6 -8.2 0.5 1.¯ -1.9 2.¯ 9.6
Annual intlation rato (annual
avorago porcontago clango
in consumor pricos) - 5.6 ¯8.8 1,381.0 1,662.3 1,892.0 1¯6.3 39.1 1¯.4 ¯.3 8.4 13.2
lmploymont ratio (annual avo-
rago ot omployod as porcontago
ot population agod 15-59) 82.6 81.4 ¯9.9 ¯8 ¯1.2 68.2 69.1 69.5 69.8 6¯ 68.4 ¯2.¯
Annual rogistorod unomploymont
rato (annual avorago porcontago
ot lalour torco) - - 0 0.4 0.6 1.1 2.1 4.2 3.8 3.¯ 3.9 12.8
KRIRKH5TRN
¡¡7
1
8
3
Ago 15-24 rogistorod unomployod
(porcontago ot total yoar-avorago
unomployod) - - - - 54.1 52.4 46.5 40.9 35.5 32.6 28.9 33.6
Education cxpcnditurc
122
lducation oxpondituro as a
porcontago ot GDP - 6 - - - - 4.5 4.6 4.4 4 3.9 3.2
lducation oxpondituro as a
porcontago ot national ludgot - 24.5 22.¯ 1¯.0 13.¯ 13.4 11.¯ 14.3 13.¯ 11.2 1¯ 14
Education cnroIImcnt
123
Pro-primary oducation onrolmont
(not ratos, porcontago ot
population agod 3-6) 53.1 53.¯ 53.1 4¯ 42 31.6 25.5 - 12.3 12.4 10.5 12
Basic oducation onrolmont
(gross ratos, porcontago ot
rolovant population) 94.8 94.6 93.9 94.1 93.8 94.2 94.4 94.¯ 94.2 94.3 94.2 99.5
lotal uppor socondary oducation
onrolmont (gross ratos, porcontago
ot population agod 15-18) ¯5.8 ¯4.2 ¯0.4 66.3 62.4 58.5 5¯ 5¯.3 5¯.4 58.8 59.0 52.2
Higlor oducation onrolmont
(gross ratos, porcontago ot
population agod 19-24) 18.1 18.¯ 18.5 1¯.¯ 16.9 16.9 16.6 16.2 18.¯ 20.4 23.3 2¯.9
11¯
Data tor 1989-1999 trom UNltli VONll (2001)
118
Data tor 2000 trom SSA (2001)
119
Population agod 0-19
120
Data trom SSA (2001)
121
Data tor 2000 trom (1) www.oconomist.com tor GDP 8 intlation ratos
and (l) SSA (2001) tor omploymont ratos
122
All data trom Stato Statistical Agoncy (2002)
123
Data tor 2000 trom tlo VOlS (2002) and UNltli VONll (2002)
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4
TRjlKl5TRN
¡Ik
VariabIc Namc 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
DcmograpLy
125
lotal loginning ot yoar
population (do tacto population,
tlousands) 5,092 5,232 5,342 5,555 5,556 5,688 5,¯5¯ 5,860 5,899 6,004 6,100 6,105
Porcontago ot population
0-1¯ yoars (porcont) 49.3 49.3 49.4 49.5 49.8 50.1 50 50.5 50.5 50.2 49.9 49.5
iomalo lito oxpoctancy at
lirtl (yoars) ¯1.¯ ¯1.9 ¯3.2 ¯1.1 68.2 68.¯ ¯1.2 ¯1.3 ¯1.3 69.¯ ¯0.8 6¯.42
Valo lito oxpoctancy at lirtl
(yoars) 66.8 66.8 6¯.6 65.4 56.5 63.4 65.5 65.6 65.6 64.3 66.1 61.09
Urlan population (porcontago
ot total population)
126
- - - - - - - - - - 26.6
12¯
28
Economy
128
Annual clango in GDP (/) - -1.6 -¯.1 -29 -11 -18.9 -12.5 -4.4 1.¯ 5.3 3.¯ 8.3
Annual intlation rato (annual
avorago porcontago clango in
consumor pricos) - 4 112 1,15¯.00 2,195.00 350 609 418 8¯.8 43.6 2¯.5 32.9
lmploymont ratio (annual
avorago ot omployod as
porcontago ot population
agod 15-59) ¯2.6 ¯2.4 ¯1.¯ 68.3 65.8 64.¯ 63.4 58.1 58.8 5¯.2 53.2 54
Annual rogistorod unomploymont
rato (annual avorago porcontago
ot lalour torco) - - - 0.4 1.2 1.¯ 2 2.6 2.8 3.2 3 2.¯
1
8
5
Ago 15-24 rogistorod unomployod
(porcontago ot total yoar-avorago
unomployod) - - - 28.2 33 21.3 30.1 43.4 40.¯ 32.1 40.6 39.2
Education cxpcnditurc
129
lducation oxpondituro as a
porcontago ot GDP - - - - - - 2.4 2.2 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.3
lducation oxpondituro as a
porcontago ot national ludgot - - - - - - - - - - - 15.3
Education cnroImcnt
Pro-primary oducation onrolmont
(not ratos, porcontago ot
population agod 3-6) - 15.2 14.1 11.3 10.9 10 6.9 6.8 6.1 5.6 5.5 5.5
Basic oducation onrolmont
(gross ratos, porcontago ot
rolovant population) 94.3 94.9 94.9 91.4 84.¯ 85.3 85 83.¯ 83.5 86.3 84.3 88.4
lotal uppor socondary oducation
onrolmont (gross ratos, porcontago
ot population agod 15-18) 60.1 59.¯ 55.¯ 46.1 41.8 38.5 34.9 31.5 30.2 23.8 25.5 31.4
Higlor oducation onrolmont
(gross ratos, porcontago ot
population agod 19-24) 11.5 11.9 11.3 11.6 11.2 11.9 11.8 12.1 11.9 11.3 11.5 11.4
124
Data tor 1989-1999 trom UNltli VONll (2001)
125
Data tor 2000 trom tlo Population tonsus (2000) on tlo total numlor ot
tlo population and trom tlAs World iactlook on tlo otlor indicators
(lttp:www.odci.govciapullicationstactlookgoosti.ltml)
126
Data trom SSA (2001)
12¯
irom lttp:tajikistan.tajnot.comonglislaloutland.ltm
128
Data tor 2000 trom www.adl.org
129
Data trom UNltli VONll (2002)
1
8
6
0IBEKl5TRN
¡J0
VariabIc Namc 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
DcmograpLy
131
lotal loginning ot yoar
population (do tacto population,
tlousands) 5,092 5,232 5,342 5,555 5,556 5,688 5,¯5¯ 5,860 5,899 6,004 6,100 6,105
lotal loginning ot yoar
population (do tacto population,
tlousands) 19,88¯ 20,22¯ 20,613 21,112 21,608 22,09¯ 22,46¯ 22,912 23,349 23,¯¯2 24,136 24,800
Porcontago ot population
0-1¯ yoars (porcont) 46.9 4¯.1 4¯.2 4¯.2 4¯.3 4¯.2 4¯.0 46.9 46.6 46.2 45.6 45
iomalo lito oxpoctancy at
lirtl (yoars) ¯2.1 ¯2.4 - - - - ¯2.6 ¯2.¯ ¯2.¯ ¯3 6¯.¯
132
6¯.56
Valo lito oxpoctancy at lirtl
(yoars) 60.0 60.1 - - - - 6¯.8 6¯.8 68.1 68.2 60.3 60.24
Urlan population (porcontago
ot total population)
133
- - - - - - - - - - 3¯.2 36.9
Economy
134
Annual clango in GDP (/) - 1.6 -0.5 -11.1 -2.3 -4.2 -0.9 1.6 2.5 4.4 4.1 2.4
Annual intlation rato (annual
avorago porcontago clango
in consumor pricos) - 3.1 82.2 645 534 1,568.00 304.6 54 58.9 1¯.8 29.1 24.2
lmploymont ratio (annual
avorago ot omployod as
porcontago ot population
agod 15-59) ¯2 ¯3.9 ¯5.3 ¯3.¯ ¯1.9 ¯1.3 ¯0.2 69.4 68.6 6¯.¯ 66.5 65.3
1
8
7
Annual rogistorod unomploy-
mont rato (annual avorago
porcontago ot lalour torco) - - - 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4
Ago 15-24 rogistorod unom-
ployod (porcontago ot total
yoar-avorago unomployod) - - - - - 64.1 61.9 63.5 61.8 60.5 59 5¯.2
Education cxpcnditurc
135
lducation oxpondituro as a
porcontago ot GDP - - - - - - - - - - - -
lducation oxpondituro as a
porcontago ot national ludgot - - - - - - - - - - - -
Education cnroImcnt
136
Pro-primary oducation onrolmont
(not ratos, porcontago ot
population agod 3-6) 36.8 3¯.1 35.1 30.¯ 29 26.1 24.5 19.5 1¯.6 16.1 16.2 18.2
Basic oducation onrolmont
(gross ratos, porcontago ot
rolovant population) 92 91.5 88.3 8¯.¯ 8¯.3 8¯.5 88 88.4 88.9 89.2 88.9 93
lotal uppor socondary odu-
cation onrolmont (gross ratos,
porcontago ot population
agod 15-18) 6¯.¯ 66 63.4 5¯.4 53.6 50.8 48.5 4¯.8 50.3 52.¯ - -
Higlor oducation onrolmont
(gross ratos, porcontago ot
population agod 19-24) 15 15.2 14.8 13.4 11.3 9.4 ¯.6 6.6 6.1 6 6.2 6.6
130
Data tor 1989-1999 trom UNltli VONll (2001)
131
Data tor 2000 trom World Dovolopmont lndicators datalaso (2002, April) and World iactlook
132
Data trom tlA World iactlook (1999)
133
Data trom SSA (2001)
134
Data tor 2000 trom tlo WB (www.worldlank.orgdata
135
All data trom Stato Statistical Agoncy (2002)
136
Data tor 2000 trom tlo VOPl (2002)
RPPEN0lX 0
PEUPLE lNTERVlEWE0
KazakLstan
Kadirova, A. ltD and loarning lnriclmont Programmo
Assistant, UNltli
Adilov, Zl. Hoad, Vonitoring and tontrol Dopartmont, VOl
Uslurov, l. Vico-Diroctor ot Socondary lducation Dopartmont,
VOl
Samaisaova, G. loading Spocialist in Pro-sclool lducation, VOl
Nurmuclamotova,
Zl.loading Spocialist in llomontary lducation, VOl
Paklimzlanova, N. Vico-Diroctor ot Gonoral and Socondary Vocational
lducation, VOl
Simonova, l. Projoct lmplomontation Otticor, Asian Dovolopmont
Bank
Aliov, l. Programmo toordinator, tountorpart tonsortium,
Astana
Bivol, O. tountry Ottico Poprosontativo, UNltli
Vikulovskaya, A. NGO tontro tor lttoctivo Sclool
190
lanilorgonova, G. Diroctor, Sciontitic-Posoarcl tontro tor Social and
Gondor Studios at tlo Kazakl Stato Womons
Podagogical Univorsity
Zlarmuklamodova, Z. Junior Posoarclor, Sciontitic-Posoarcl tontro tor
Social and Gondor Studios, Kazakl Stato Womons
Podagogical Univorsity
Uskomlayova, V. Sciontitic Socrotary, Sciontitic-Posoarcl tontro tor Social
and Gondor Studios, Kazakl Stato Womons Podagogical
Univorsity
Ulkuor, N. tlild Dovolopmont and lducation Otticor, UNltli
tAPK
Kalikova, S. Diroctor ot lducation Programmos, Soros ioundation-
Kazaklstan
Aidzlanova, D. NGO Soros lducational Stop ly Stop tontro
lupitsyn, l. Program Vanagor, Domocracy and Vodia, USAlD
Zlumakanova, P. Diroctor ot lducational Programmos, lntormation and
Posoarcl tontro tor tivic lducation
Argynov, A. Diroctor, lntormation and Posoarcl tontro tor tivic
lducation
Alimlokova, Sl. Prosidont ot lnitiativo Sclools Association ot PK
Austin, B. Projoct Vanagor, lntornational ioundation tor lloction
Systoms
Viclaud, V. Programmo Otticor, loclnical tooporation Soction,
Dopartmont ot tlo luropoan tommission in
Kazaklstan, luropoan Union
Klalatova, A. lducation Programmo Spocialist, UNlStO
Dosaova, A. Sonior Programmo otticor, tlo lurasia ioundation
iocus groups consisting ot toaclors, paronts and studonts
191
1ajikistan
Zlukova, V. Programmo Assistant, UNltli-lajikistan
Vokuo, \. Assistant PoprosontativoHoad ot Ottico, UNltli-
lajikistan
Borg, A. Posoarclortonsultant, GlZ
Hartmann, H. Planning Otticorlducation Spocialist, GlZ
\unusov, l. toordinator, \outl lducation Programmos, NGO ltO
\outl lcological tontro
Klamraliov, i. Diroctor, WB Projoct lmplomontation Unit-lducation
loarning and lnnovation Projoct
Paslidov, A. 1
st
Doputy Vinistor ot lducation, Vinistry ot lducation
Hoaloy, H. Projoct Proparation tonsultant, ADB
Bazarova, S. Human Dovolopmont Projocts toordinator, World Bank
Zalariova, l. Human Piglts Otticor, Unitod Nations Vission ot
Olsorvors in lajikistan
Halimova, Z. lxocutivo Diroctor, lajik Brancl ot tlo Opon Socioty
lnstituto
Klolova, J. lducation Programmo toordinator, lajik Brancl ot
tlo Opon Socioty lnstituto
Bolosadikova, G. Prosidont, Association ot Univorsity lducatod
Womon
Bosnjak, V. tonsultant tor tlild Protoction, UNltli
Jalani, V. tliot lxocutivo Otticor, Aga Klan ioundation
lupailo, l. Doputy Diroctor, NGO lducation tor All
Sailov, A. Poctor, tontral ln-Sorvico loaclor lraining lnstituto
Kozina, G. lducation lnspoctor, Duslanlo tontral Paiyon
lducation Dopartmont
Puzoova, l. Sclool Principal, Gymnasium -¯4, Duslanlo
Vamadzlanov, N. Doputy Diroctor ot Duslanlo tity lducation
Autloritios, Duslanlo tity lducation Dopartmont
Urtnasan, V. Diroctor, Savo tlo tlildron (UK)
Palmonlordiov, A. Diroctor, NGO Vanizla
iocus groups consisting ot toaclors, paronts and studonts
Uzbckistan
Narolskaya, \. Programmo Assistant, UNltli
\usupova, l. tlairporson, Uzlokistan tlildrons iund
Skorynina, l. Programmo Otticor, UNDP
Kadyrov, B. Poctor, Podagogical Univorsity
iayzullayov, S. Pro-Poctor, Podagogical Univorsity
Vavlyanklodjaov, K. Sonior lxport, lAtlS Programmo, luropoan Union
Alduraklmanova, A. Programmo toordinator, lAtlS Program, luropoan
Union
Karimov, K. Programmo Otticor, UNlStO Uzlokistan
Vuraviova, N. Diroctor, Woman and Socioty lnstituto
iarsli-Djalali, B. Vico-Diroctor, tontro tor Businoss Promotion
lsmailov, V. Diroctor, tontro tor Businoss Promotion
Hotscl, l. Vanagomont tonsultant, tontro tor Businoss Promotion
lursunov, l. Dopartmont Hoad, Popullican tontro tor Pullic
lducation
lssamitdinova, D. Human Dovolopmont Oporational Otticor, World Bank
Aklmodova, Kl. Hoad ot Pro-sclool Dopartmont, VOPl
Paidar, P. Programmo Diroctor tor tontral Asia, Savo tlo tlildron
(UK)
Zakirov, A. Hoad ot Socondary Sclool Dopartmont, VOPl
iazylov, Dj. Hoad ot lnligltmont and Spirituality Dopartmont,
VOPl
Karimova, Z. Porttolio Vanagomont Otticor, Asian Dovolopmont
Bank
Kalantarov, O. Hoad ot Vonitoring and lducation Standards
Dopartmont, VOPl
Aslratklanova, Sl. lducation Diroctor, Soros ioundation-Uzlokistan
Aldullaov, Sl. Diroctor, Social Posoarcl Agoncy llA iAtl
Akllidinov, P. 1
st
Doputy Vinistor, VOPl
Umarov, A. tonsultant, ADBUNlStP Projoct
iocus groups consisting ot toaclors, paronts and studonts
RPPEN0lX E
PRRTlLlPRNT5
UF THE VRLl0RTlUN MEETlNû5
A spocial dolt ot gratitudo is owod to tlo tollowing oducation stakololdors
wlo participatod in tlo validation mootings in Kazaklstan, lajikistan and
Uzlokistan:
Astana, KazakLstan (10 JuIy 2002)
Nurmuklamotova, Z. tliot Spocialist in Primary lducation, tlo Vinistry ot
lducation and Scionco
Kim, l. Diroctor, loaclor ln-Sorvico lnstituto ot Kyzylorda
Ollast
Vatzlanova, Z. Spocialist in Pro-sclool lducation, Dopartmont ot
lducation ot Kyzylorda Ollast
lsayov, A. Doputy Hoad, Dopartmont ot lducation, last-
Kazaklstan Ollast
Vikulovskaya, A. NGO tontro tor lttoctivo Sclool
lanilorgonova, G. Diroctor, Sciontitic-Posoarcl tontro tor Social and
Gondor Studios at tlo Kazakl Stato Womons
Podagogical Univorsity
194
Zlarmuklamodova, Z. Junior Posoarclor, Sciontitic-Posoarcl tontro tor
Social and Gondor Studios, Kazakl Stato Womons
Podagogical Univorsity
Uskomlayova, V. Sciontitic Socrotary, Sciontitic-Posoarcl tontro tor
Social and Gondor Studios, Kazakl Stato Womons
Podagogical Univorsity
Ulkuor, N. tlild Dovolopmont and lducation Otticor, UNltli
tAPK
iudoricl, P. Pogional lducation Advisor, UNltli Pogional
Ottico
Bivol, O. Hoad ot UNltli Astana
Kadirova, A. Programmo Assistant, larly tlildlood taro and
Dovolopmont and loarning lnriclmont, UNltli
Astana
DusLanbc, 1ajikistan (1 and 12 August 2002)
Paslidov, A. iirst Doputy Vinistor ot lducation
Gatarov, A. Doputy Diroctor, ln-Sorvico lraining lnstituto
U. Zulaidov, U. Diroctor, Posoarcl lnstituto ot Podagogical Scioncos
lvdokimonko, G. Dopartmont tor Planning and iinanco ot VOl
Bolosadikova, G. Diroctor, NGO Association ot Univorsity lducatod
Womon
Sloismatulloov, Sl. Sociologist, Association ot Univorsity lducation
Womon
Palmonlordiov, A. Diroctor, NGO Vanizla
Puziova, l. toordinator, tiS Projoct Vanizla
Slumilina, V. Vanagor, tiS Projoct Vanizla
lupailo, l. National loam loador, UNltlis ltD Projoct
Ulkuor, N. tlild Dovolopmont and lducation Otticor, UNltli
tAPK
Vokuo, \. Hoad ot UNltli Ottico, lajikistan
Gaylullaova, B. UNltli lajikistan
Zlukova, V. UNltli lajikistan
195
1asLkcnt Uzbckistan (8 JuIy 2002)
Zakirov, A. Hoad, Socondary lducation Dopartmont, VOPl
iazylov, K. Hoad, Vanaviyat va Vajritat Dopartmont
(Spirituality and lnligltmont), VOPl
Kalantarov, O. Hoad, Dopartmont ot Vonitoring ot Stato
lducational Standards, VOPl
Aklmodova, Kl. Hoad, Pro-sclool Dopartmont, VOPl
Pulatov, Sl. Doputy Hoad, Socondary lducation Dopartmont,
VOPl
Aklunova, V. tliot lnspoctor, Sclool Dopartmont, VOPl
Alimova, G. Diroctor, Popullican tontro tor Pullic lducation
lursunov, l. Hoad, Dopartmont ot lnnovativo loclnologios,
Popullican tontro tor Pullic lducation
iaiziova, U. Hoad ot Dopartmont ot Dotoctology, tontral
lnstituto tor lmprovomont ot Skills ot Workors in
Pullic lducation
Nasyrova, l. Votlodologist, Popullican tontro tor Pullic
lducation
Sadirova, l. Votlodologist, Popullican tontro tor Pullic
lducation
Valiova, G. Votlodologist, Popullican tontro tor Pullic
lducation
iarsli-Djalali, B. Doputy Diroctor, tontro tor Businoss Promotion
Kaprova, l. lrainor, tontro tor Businoss Promotion
Koclkarova, V. lrainor, tontro tor Businoss Promotion
Vuraviova, N. Diroctor, Woman and Socioty lnstituto
Ulaidullaov, B. KnnoIoì \outl Vovomont
Umarov, A. ADBUNlStO Projoct
Aldullaov, Sl. Social Posoarcl Agoncy iAtl
lurgunova, B. Savo tlo tlildron (UK)