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CHAPTER 12

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CARBON COMPOUNDS

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Carbon compound is a compound which consists of carbon combines with other elements . Carbon compounds are c ssified into: la

a) Organic compound
b) Inorganic compound 3No. Organic Compound Inorganic Compound i Obtained from living things Obtained from non-living things ii Made up of many atoms Made up of fewer atoms iii Soluble in organic solvent Soluble in inorganic solvent such as water iv Exist mainly as solid Exist mainly as liquids or gases v Low melting point High melting point vi Low boiling point High boiling point vii Flammable Non-flammable viii Examples: carbohydrate, protein, natural Examples: carbon dioxide, sodium rubber, and petroleum carbonate, magnesium cyanide, and sodium bicarbonate. 45Hydrocarbon is a compound which consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms only. Hydrocarbon can be classified by: a) Saturated hydrocarbon (alkanes)– single bonds carbon chain b) Unsaturated hydrocarbon (alkenes)– double bond (alkynes) - triple bond 6- The three sources of hydrocarbons are from a) low crude oil from decomposition of sea b) natural gas and land plants and animal which c) petroleum exists million of years ago. 78Alcohol is an organic substance made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The formula of
alcohol is CnH2 n+ 2OH.

Alcohol is produced through: a) Fermentation – when yeast is added to a carbohydrate. The carbohydrates will be hydrolyzed into glucose, then changed to ethanol.
phosphoric acid

b) Hydration of ethane – Ethene + steam 9-

ethanol

Physical properties of alcohol: colorless, volatile, soluble in water, organic solvent, low melting and boiling point. 10- Chemical properties of alcohol: burns in air producing water and carbon dioxide, will form organic acid when oxidized, and react with organic acid to produce ester. 11- Uses of alcohol; Fuel, solvent, cosmetic, antiseptic, alcoholic drinks 12- Effects of alcohol on health ; slows down the activity of brain and nervous system, liver cyrrhosis, damage the internal organs, foetal alcohol syndrome (the abuse of alcohol by a mother during pregnancy) 13- Fats consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen 14- The importance of fat: a) To provide energy b) Maintain the body temperature (as heat insulator) c) Protect the body tissues and organs d) As a solvent for vitamins A, D, E, K 15- Fats can classified into: a) Saturated fat b) Unsaturated fat

SES 1511 Kelantan 2007

*The bolded and italic letter is the answer

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16Saturated fats Unsaturated fats Usually exist in solid form at room Exist in liquid form at room temperature temperature High melting point Low melting point Obtain from animals Obtain from plants High cholesterol Low cholesterol Have single bonds between the carbon Have double bonds between the carbon atoms atoms 17Saturated fats is not good for health because it will cause arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, heart attack and stroke 18- An oil palm consist of pulp (mesocarp), shell (endocarp) and kernel 19- The stages in the process of palm oil extraction: Sterilization Stripping Oil palm treat

Digestion Extraction Refining Purification

20- Uses of palm olein (liquid at room temperature) mainly used in foodstuff such as cooking oil, margarine, creams, cake and pastries. 21- Palm stearin (solid at room temperature) used for industrial purpose such as cosmetic, soaps, detergents, candles and lubricating oils. 22- Palm oil is rich in beta-carotene, vitamin A (cancer fighting properties), tocopherols and tocotrienol (constituents of vitamin E), antioxidants (protect against agent, arteriosclerosis and cancer). 23- MPOB is the government body that handles all aspect of palm oil. 24- The future of palm oil is more promising as a bio-diesel. 25- Soap is the sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid produced by heating fat/oil with alkali (NaOH or KOH) in a process called saponification . Fat + Alkali heat Glycerol + soap

26- The cleansing action of soaps includes: a) Lowering the surface tension of water. b) The head of the soap molecule dissolve in water, while tails dissolve in dirt (oil). c) When water is shaken, grease will break into small droplet forming an emulsion. d) These droplets are then rinsed off. e) The clothes are free from oil or grease. 27- Polymer is a large molecule with a long chain made from large number of small molecule called monomers. 28- Polymerization is process of joining monomers to make polymer. 29- Depolymerization is a process in which a polymer is broken down into the monomers. 30- Natural rubber is an example of natural polymer made up of monomers called isoprene. 31- Latex will coagulate in the presence of acid, while alkali will prevent its coagulation. 32- Natural rubber is soft, elastic, become sticky when exposed to high temperature . 33- Vulcanization is the process of adding sulphur to natural rubber making it harder and strong, more resistant to heat,more elastic and does not become sticky at high temperature .

SES 1511 Kelantan 2007

*The bolded and italic letter is the answer

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D. Why does petrol is grouped in hydrocarbon? A. B. Water Living things 3. Protein C. Which of the following substances contains organic compound? A. What are carbon dioxide and calcium carbonate? A.PAPER 1 1. B. B. D. Organic compounds Inorganic compounds. Nitrogen Hydrogen SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 227 . B. Calcium carbonate Carbon dioxide D. Sodium bicarbonate 4. B. Hydrogen 2. C. Contains polymers Has high boiling point Originate from living things Consist of only carbon and hydrogen 7. Monomers D. Ethanol Citric acid 5. Which of the following elements contain in all carbon compounds? Yang manakah antara unsur yang berikut terkandung dalam semua sebatian karbon? A Carbon C. D. Nitrogen B. An organic substances exhibit the following properties sweet smell Burns completely in air to produce carbon dioxide and water colorless Which compound has that properties? A. Which of the following is an organic compound? A. Polymers C. B. D. Oxygen D. Carbon Oxygen C. 6. Diesel Petrol C. The air The Soil C. Which of the following element is not found in the alcohol molecule? A.

B.8. C. Perfume Biodiesel C. D. Which A. Which of the following chemicals is the product of alcohol and organic acid A. Lubricating oil D. Combustible Soluble in water Can react with acid Has a different boiling point compared to water SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 228 . Amylase Maltase C. B. Synthetic rubber 9. The diagram shows an experiment. Esterification Depolymerization following is the relevant process? Polymerization Fermentation 10. B. D. of the C. Which of the following enzyme is produced by yeast? A. Why does pure ethanol is obtained through this process? A. The diagram shows purification of ethanol. Zymase Lipase 11. D. B.

B. Fuel Solvent D. B. B. D. Yeast Ethanoic acid 15. B. Gas bubbles are produced A sweet smelling liquid is formed 17. It is burns readily It is a colorless liquid It has a low boiling point It is miscible with water. C. Concentrated sulphuric acid Ethanol + X Ester + Water What does X represent? A. Glucose Oxygen C. A white solid is formed The mixture turns chalky C. What is the function of concentrated sulphuric acid in esterification process? A.12. Which of the following is produced from the oxidized of alcohol? A. 16. A. The diagram shows an experiment to produce substance Z. Which of the following substances is made from ester? Medicine Flavouring C. C. What can be observed in the test tube on the right? A. B. Reactant Coagulant SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 229 . D. D. Fat Ester Vinegar Hydrocarbon 14. Catalyst Product C. The following word equation shows the reaction to produce ester. Which of the following is the characteristic of ethanol as fuel? A. B. D. D. 13.

The equation shows the combustion of ethanol Ethanol + Oxygen X + Y What are X and Y? X A. An unsaturated fat A natural polymer D. B. D. The following information shows the characteristic of substance X B. Blind C. C. Stroke Diabetes C.18. Which of the following is the effect of alcohol on health? A. Carbon and hydrogen 21. D. B. A saturated fat C. B. hydrogen and oxygen What is X? A. A synthetic polymer 22. hydrogen and oxygen Hydrogen. calcium and nitrogen originate from plants liquid at room temperature contains carbon. Which of the following is not caused by taking too much cholesterol in diet? A. B. B. oxygen and calcium Carbon. Y Carbon dioxide Ester Hydrogen Ester Carbon dioxide Water Hydrogen Water 20. Which of the following statement is true about saturated fats? A. Diabetes 19. Heart attack D. C. Which of the following elements are found in fat? A. Heart disease Cataract D. C. Sulphur. D. Arteriosclerosis SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 230 . Obtained from plants Exist in a liquid form at room temperature Contain double bond between the carbon atoms Has a higher melting points than unsaturated fats 23.

Soya oil T . B. S P. T Q. Fat Sugar C. The diagram shows a change in the lumen size of an artery Which of the following substances can cause this change if it is consumed? A.Corn oil R . B. Vitamin E Vitamin C SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 231 . Sterilization Which of the following nutritional substances is found in palm oil? A. B. Purification D. S 26. S. P – Peanut oil Q . B. Extraction Distillation C. R. Alcohol 25. What is the process in which raw palm oil is obtained from oil palm fruit? A. P. 28. D. The diagram shows a cross section of an oil palm fruit. R.Cheese Which of the following group has unsaturated fats? A. Protein D. R.Butter S .24. Iodine Protein C. D.S C. Q. The following foods are sources of fats. Which part is containing very much palm oil ? B C D A 27.

X. U 31. Glycerol and alcohol C. U. C. B. V V. P Q What is the suitable properties of P and Q? P A. Glycerol and hydrocarbon 30. W. Fatty acid and hydrocarbon Fatty acid and glycerol D. The diagram shows the structure of a soap molecule. W. D. V.29. U. The statement below shows the steps in making soap. X U. X. D. X. B. Q Hydrophobic Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Hydrophilic Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Hydrophobic Hydrophilic 32. C. W. then boil for a few minutes V – Filter the mixture W – Add sodium hydroxide to oil X – Boil the mixture for 5 minutes Which of the following steps is correct? A. U – Add salt and water to the mixture. V W. What does oil contain? A. Which of the following diagram illustrates the cleansing action of soap molecules correctly? CA B D SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 232 . B.

while its head is soluble in oil Its tail is soluble in oil. Which of the following substances can prevent latex from coagulating? A. D. D. B. D. Ethanol Ammonia C. B. D. C. B. Which of the following substance is added after this step ? A. The diagram shows one of the steps in preparation of soap. while its head is soluble in water 35. The diagram shows an experiment to coagulate latex. C. Soap water Lime juice C. Why does latex coagulate even though nothing is added to it? A.33. Acetic acid D. B. B. C. Ethanol Common salt Sulphuric acid sodium hydroxide 34. Negative charges of the rubber molecule collide with each other Bacteria produce acid to neutralize charges of protein membrane The rubber molecule will change into solid below the freezing point Negative charges of the latex neutralized by positive ions from the air 36. Why does soap can act as a cleaning agent ? A. It is slippery and is an alkaline solution It produces a lot of bubbles to clean the dirt Its tail is soluble in water. Distilled water Salt solution SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 233 . What is substance X ? A. Sulphuric acid 37.

Vulcanization D. D. The diagram shows the steps of rubber reaction. B. N M Latex Solid rubber vulcanized rubber What substances are M and N? M N A. Neutralization 41. C. Which of the following methods helps to make tyres harder and more heat resistant? A. B. Glycerol 40. B. D. Coagulation Polymerization C. D. B. The diagram after undergoing process P. Ammonia Formic acid Sulphur Ammonia Formic acid Sulphur Lactic acid Lactic acid 39. C. Which natural polymer is correctly paired to its monomers? Natural polymer Fats Amino acid Starch Glucose Carbohydrate Fatty acid Protein Monomer A. shows the structure of rubber polymers before and Process P Before After What is process P? A.38. C. Heat natural rubber with sulphur Add organic acid to natural rubber Heating natural rubber with carbon Add ammonium solution to natural rubber SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 234 .

Methyl methacrylate 44. Polymerization C. A. Soft Elastic D. C. Sticky 43. B. Which of the following is the potential use of palm oil? Petrol Alcohol C. Biogas D. B. What is the process? A. The diagram shows the change in the molecular structure of natural rubber when stretched and released Entangled rubber polymer stretche Rubber polymers What is that characteristics? A. Y Depolimerization Polymerization Polymerization Depolymerization Vulcanization Crystallization Crystallization Depolymerization 46. Depolymerization The following diagram shows the relationship between protein and amino acids X Protein Amino acids Y Which of the following process are true of X and Y? X A. Ethene Neoprene C. Bio-diesel SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 235 .42. 45. Which of the following is the monomer for natural rubber? A. Isoprene D. D. B. The diagram shows formation of a long chain molecule from many small molecules. B. B. Esterification Vulcanization D. Heat resistant C.

Time (day) 0 1 2 3 4 5 26 Volume of gas / (cm³) 0 10 20 ……… 30 30 a) Based on the data in the table above. draw a graph to show the relationship between the gas volume and the number of days. (2 marks) Volume of gas (cm3 ) 30 X X 25 20 X 15 10 X 5 Number of days X 4 1 2 3 5 0 . Diagram 1 shows an experiment to study the amount of carbon dioxide released in the fermentation process.PAPER 2 SECTION A 1. Diagram 1 The table below shows the result of the experiment.

SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 236 .

5 The increase in length because of the 100g weight (cm) 2.5 4. Diagram 2 shows an experiment carried out to study the characteristic of vulcanized rubber and natural rubber of the same length.. Volume of gas (ii) responding variable : ……………………………………………………..b) c) Determine from the graph the volume of gas collected on the third day. (1 mark) State the variables in this experiment. ……………………… ………… …………… …………………………………….5 Table 2 a) Calculate the increase in length of natural rubber when 100g weight was hung? (1 mark) Natural SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 237 .. the volume of gas increase ……………………… ………… …………… ……………………………………. (2 marks) d) What is the volume of gas collected on the sixth day? 30 cm³ …………………………………………………………………………………….... 2. Time (i) manipulated variable :…………………………………………………. (1 mark) d) What is the relationship between the volume of the gas and time? The longer the time.5 19... Diagram 2 Table 2 shows the result of the experiment Vulcanized Criteria rubber rubber Initial length of the rubber strip (cm) 15 15 The length when the 100g weight is hung (cm) 17..5 The length of the rubber strip after the weight is removed (cm) 15 16.

……………………………………………………………………………………… ……. initial length of rubber stripe constant:……………………………………………………. Diagram 3 shows the apparatus arrangement to purify liquid X from a fermented product.……………………………………………………………………………………… (1 mark) c) What is the variable for this experiment? the type of rubber i) manipulated:………………………………………………….…………………………………………… …………… ………… …………… …… (1 mark) ii) SECTION B 1. the direction of water in and out of the Liebig condenser.b) State the hypothesis for this experiment? Vulcanized rubber is harder / more elastic than natural rubber ……. ……. (2 marks) d) What is the operational definition for vulcanized rubber ? Vulcanized rubber is the rubber that will stretch and will return to its …………………………………………………………………………………………… original length after the weight is removed. (1 mark) b) i) What is liquid X? Ethanol . 79 78 77 76 75 Diagram 3 a) Mark in the diagram above..

(1 mark) (1 mark) SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 238 . What is the reading of the thermometer? 78°C ……………………………………………..ii) ………………………… ………… …….

(2 marks) % of Saturated fat 60 50 40 30 20 10 Type of fat S P Q R T SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 239 . draw a bar chart to show the percentage of saturated fat versus type of fat. Table 3 shows the percentage of saturated fat and unsaturated fat in four types of fat or oil.c) What is the name of the process in Diagram 3? distillation …………………………………………………………………………………………. Fat / oil Saturated fat (%) Unsaturated fat (%) P 54 46 Q 30 70 R 35 65 S 9 91 T 68 32 Table 3 a) b) Complete the table above (1 mark) Based on the table. ………………………………………………………………………………………… (1 mark) 2. (1 mark) d) How can this process separate liquid X from the fermented product? because the boiling point for ethanol and other liquid are different/ liquid ………………………………………………………………………………………… X and water are different.

.……… (2 marks) Diagram 5 shows a cross section of an oil palm fruit. R. (1 mark) 3. (1 mark) c) Mesocarp M:… …. Steam flow : To kill bacteria and fungi // stripping off the fruit ……………………………………………………………………………………… ii: Addition of activated carbon: To remove the odor of crude palm oil // to decolorized the palm oil …………………………………... Q. (1 mark) ii) Give one reason for your answer in (b) (i). P and T contains more amount of cholesterol / saturated fat ……………………………………………………………………………….c) i) Which of the substances P. …… Kernel N:…… …. Diagram 4 shows the industrial process of palm oil in the factory. ………… ..……………………………………….S and T is bad for health? P and T ………………………………………………………………… ………….. Oil palm fruit Separation of fruits X bunches from the bunches Purification Steam flow Digestion Extraction Addition of activated carbon Diagram 4 a) What is the process in stage X? Sterilization ……………………………………………. b) What is the purpose of carrying out the following steps during the purification stages? i. …………… Shell L:…… ……….

Diagram 5 SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 240 .

(1 mark) b) (i) What is solution P? Concentrated sulphuric acid ………………………………………………………………………………….. Non-water soluble 2 ………………………………………………………………………. (3 marks) ii) Name the part of the oil palm fruit where oil can be extracted.M and N. (1 mark) State one advantage of using palm oil as cooking oil.i) On Diagram 5. Ester …………………………………………. Substance Y Ethanoic acid Solution P Mixture of methanol Methanol and ethanoic acid Water Heated Diagram 6 a) (i) What is the name of the process? Esterification …………………………………………… (ii) Name the substance Y.. (1mark) (1 mark) (1 mark) . (iii) State two characteristics of substance Y? Sweet odour / colorless 1 ………………………………………………………………………. Diagram 6 shows an experiment to study the reaction between ethanoic acid and methanol. name L. Mesocarp and kernel …………………………………………………………………………………………. d) It contains vitamin A and vitamin E // It does not contain cholesterol …………………………………………………………………………………… (1 mark) e) Which of the following are the effects of taking high cholesterol ? High blood pressure Stroke Diabetic mellitus Goiter v v 4.

SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 241 .

. Substance Z is added after the mixture is bolied. Diagram 7 shows the (1mark) process of making soap. ……………………………………………………………………………………. (1 mark) Diagram 8 shows the structure of a soap molecule. + water 5. In which substances do part S and T dissolve in? S T Diagram 8 Water T:……………………… Grease / fat S: ……………………………… (2 marks) SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 242 . Diagram 7 a) (i) What is X? Sodium hydroxide solution / potassium hydroxide solution …………………………………………………… (ii) What is the function of X? (1 mark) Reacts with fat to produce glycerol and soap …………………………………………………………………………………….. (ii) What is the function of substance Z? (1 mark) c) To decrease solubility of soap and facilitate a separation …………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………..(ii) What is the function of solution P? c) to speed up the reaction ……………………………………………………………………………… …… (1mark) Complete the word equation to represent the reaction above? Ester Methanol Ethanoic acid + ………………………. (1 mark) b) (i) What is substance Z ? Sodium chloride / common salt …………………………………………………..

ethanoic acid.List the apparatus and materials Beaker. make one suitable hypothesis. dropper. Manipulated: acid ethanoic and ammonia Responding: The state of latex / latex coagulate or not Fixed: The volume of acid / ammonia / latex / alkali ii- iii.Conclusion: ii- iii- (1 mark) (3 marks) (1 mark) (1 mark) ANSWER a) Hypothesis : Acid caused the coagulation of latex. (1 mark) Describe the experiment that can be carried out in a laboratory to prove this hypothesis. Latex is poured into a container and ethanoic acid is added. b) i- Aim of the experiment: to study the effect of acid and alkali / ammonia on latex Identification of variable. Your description should include the following: iAim of the experiment: (2 marks) (1 mark) Identification of variable. On the other hand. v. Manipulated: Responding: Fixed: List the apparatus and materials iv. ammonia solution ivMethod 1. 3.Method v. whereas alkali / ammonia solution prevent coagulation of latex. whereas ammonia prevents coagulation of latex. SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 243 .Data analysis vi. 2.measuring cylinder. A rubber planter observes that his latex turns to solid when ethanoic acid is added. the latex maintains its liquid form when ammonia is added.Data analysis Type of solution added The state of latex Latex + ethanoic acid Latex + ammonia viConclusion: Acids caused the coagulation of latex. a) b) Based on the statements above.latex. Latex is poured into another container and ammonia is added.SECTION C 1. The latex in both container is observed after 10 minutes. glass rod.

Relates the common characteristic of unsaturated fats in order to construct the initial concept. Palm oil particles contain double bonds / no cholesterol b) i.Relates the common characteristic of saturated fats in order to construct the initial concept.State the actual concept of saturated fats.2. ANSWER a) 1. Palm oil originates from plants 4.Give an example with reason of another saturated fat and unsaturated fat.Identify the common characteristic Butter / ghee originates from animals Butter / ghee is solid at room temperature They have high melting point They are solid at room temperature iii. Saturated: chicken fat / tallow because originate from animals / exist in solid at room temperature Unsaturated: peanut oil / corn oil / sesame oil / olive oil because originate from plants / exist liquid at room temperature v. (4 marks) Diagram 10 above shows examples of fat. marks) v. Your answer should be based on the following steps. Palm oil is a liquid at room temperature 3.Give an example with reason of another saturated fat and unsaturated fat. Palm oil has a low melting point 2. CHEESE BUTTER GHEE Diagram 9 Study the information above and construct the concept of saturated fats. i.Identify the information (1 mark) ii.State the actual concept of saturated fats. a) b) State 4 reasons why palm oil is considered to be unsaturated fat. The substances which have low melting point and are solid at room temperature are unsaturated iv.Identify the information: Butter and ghee ii. (1 mark) (1 mark) (2 (1 mark) SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 244 . Saturated fats are fats that originate from animal which have high melting points / which are solid at room temperature.Identify the common characteristic iii. iv.

Develop an initial concept of carbon compounds. ANSWER a) No Organic compounds Inorganic compounds 1 Obtained from living things Obtained from non-living things 2 Soluble in organic solvent such as Soluble in inorganic solvent such as alcohol water 3 Low melting point High melting point 4 Big size of molecule Small size of molecule b) i. Your explanation of the concept should include the following.3. with reason (2 marks) iv. i.Identify two common characteristic. All these compounds originate from living things (animals / plants) ii.Identify two common characteristic. (4 marks) b) Compounds Ethanol Natural Rubber Natural Gas Carbohydrate s Study the scheme diagram above.Develop the aactual concept.Give one other example and non-example of carbon compounds. (1 mark) iii.Develop the actual concept Carbon compounds are compounds which contain carbon element and originate from living things . The compounds / substances that contain carbon and originate from living things are carbon compounds iii. Explain how you would develop a concept based on the information. (1 mark) SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 245 .Develop an initial concept of carbon compounds. Example – protein / fat / sugar / petrol / cellulose Reason – Originate from living things Non-example – carbon dioxide / calcium carbonate Reason – originate from non-living things iv. All these compounds contain carbon. a) State 4 differences between organic and inorganic carbon compounds. (2 marks) ii.Give one other example and non-example of carbon compounds with reason.

grease will break into small droplet forming an emulsion. Soap / detergent ii- iii. While repairing his motorcycle. The head of the soap molecule dissolve in water. The mixture of pal oil and sodium hydroxide solution are heated until boiled in a beaker. 4.The procedure in cleaning action . iv.4. Lowers the surface tension of water.The procedure in cleaning action . Explain how this student can remove the grease on his uniform. He tried to repair his motorcycle. The heating process is continued. iv. The soap can be collect on the surface of filter paper b) iIdentify the problem. name the process to form soap. The salt solution is added into the boiling mixture. ANSWER a) Process – saponification Method 1.Result for the problem solving. 5. (4 marks) b) A student who was riding his motorcycle noticed that his motorcycle has a problem. 2. The explanation should include the following items. Soap dissolved in water. When the water is shaken. The mixture is filtered using filter paper and filter funnel. Explain the method of the process. Soap is used to clean the clothes from oil and grease SES 1511 Kelantan 2007 *The bolded and italic letter is the answer 246 . 3. (1 mark) (1 mark) (3 marks) (1 mark) Name the substance that is used to solve the problem. while tails dissolve in dirt (oil). His school uniform was dirty by grease Name the substance that is used to solve the problem. a) You are given palm oil and sodium hydroxide solution. iiiIdentify the problem.Result for the problem solving. These droplets are then rinsed off. iii. Using these materials and other materials with specific apparatus. his school uniform got dirty by grease.