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O. Limor/G.G. Stroumsa (ed.), Contra-Iudaeos. Ancient and Medieval Polemics between Christians and Jews.

Michael Mach*

I There is no doubt that the Christian literature known to us under the common heading Adversus Iudaeos reveals a new stage in the controversy between Christianity and Judaism. The discussions between Jesus and the different Jewish groups - Pharisees, Zaddokites, High Priests and “scribes” - belong to a distinct strata in the Gospel tradition. They did not really determine the later conflict between the two religions, for it seems that Judaizing groups within the young Christian community were of much greater importance during the first stage of Christianity’s development: Such groups may have caused Paul’s reaction in his letter to the Galatian communities, and they are also likely to explain some of Ignatius’ statements in two of his letters. But, even so, the quarrel concerning definition and points of distinction between Judaism and Christianity remained an intra-Christian one. However, the situation changed radically in the middle of the second century, with the Dialogus cum Tryphone Iudaeo by Justin Martyr.
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The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Prof. Z. Porat who read an earlier draft of this paper. See, e.g., R.E. Taylor, “Attitudes of the Fathers towards Practices of Jewish Christians” Studia Patristica IV/2, ed. F.L. Cross (Berlin 1961), pp. 504-511; J. Parkes, The Conflict of the Church and the Synagogue. A Study in the Origins of Antisemitis (New York 1985; orig.: 1934), p. 96 U.B. Müller, Zur frühchristlichen Religionsgeschichte. Judentum und Paulinismus in Kleinasien an der Wende vom ersten zum zweiten Jahrhundert n. Chr. (Gütersloh 1976), pp. 17-21. It is by no means clear, that such tendencies worried the author of Ps- Barnabas (one may even argue to the contrary), but this problem need not be solved here. The text is used according to the edition by E.J. Goodspeed, Die ältesten Apologeten . Texte mit kurzen Einleitungen (Göttingen 1984; orig.: 1914). For the role played by the Dial. within the development of the Adversus Iudaeos see, e.g., D. Rokeah, Jews, Pagans and Christians in Conflict (Jerusalem-Leiden 1982; SPB 33), p. 67. As the text stands now, there are some parts missing: Right in the middle of section 74, 4, the sentence (and together with this, the argument) are interrupted and not referred to again. Justin turns time and again to interpretations which it seems have already been given previously, but are not contained in our text: 104, 4; 116, 1 (this part is to be looked for in 115, 2 but did not re main); see also 79, 1.4; 80, 1-3, 105, 4; 142, 1. If there was a dedication and perhaps a prologue, these are not extant any longer. The switch from the first day of discussion to the next one must have been indicated in the mis sing portion right in the middle of 74, 4. It even seems as if the later scribe sometimes abridged, see, e.g., 56, 18 referring to an explanation of Gen 18:1-19:28, which in full length should have occurred in 52, 2. In 64, 7 one gets the impression that Justin quoted Ps 18 according to the Septuagint (henceforth: LXX) in full. Dial. 30. 67, 5 claims that Justin already agreed with Trypho, that Jesus was circumcised and kept the whole of the Law. Although Justin accepts this (67, 6) the passage is no longer in the text. 1

feels. Die christlichen AdversusJudaeos-Texte und ihr literarisches und historisches Umfeld. Williams. This new direction is easily detected by the fact that now the Jew Trypho represents a different religion. He finds himself opposed by Marcion. (Jerusalem 1990). pp. Simon. French: 1964). See the present writer’s “The Separation of Christianity from Judaism in Light of the Debate on Bible Interpretation in the Second Century. “Justin Martyr and the Jews.E. Williams follows the text nearly uncritically. BFChTh. 187. Thieme translated some documents which might explain to his fellow Christians the Church’s part in what happened in his country he chose Ps -Barn and Justin’s Dial. 289-297. Bokser.] [Frankfurt/M. that the seemingly polite speech is nevertheless anti-Jewish like the work of Tertullian. Skarsaune. p.-Barnabas. The outcome was no clear-cut statement. op. 4). pp.L. another example of the most positive evaluation of the figure of Trypho in the dialogue is D. Christentum und Judentum im ersten und zweiten Jahrhundert (Gütersloh 1954.W. 42. the same Judaism that 5 6 7 8 4 5 6 7 8 It is still an open question to what extent he knew the writings of the New Testament. 1989.W. 2329 (Hebrew). Studien zur Kirchengeschichte des ersten und zweiten Jahrhunderts (Tübingen 1963). Jerusalem. see Schreckenberg. 164 f. Nor does Justin agonize over whether to adopt the Jewish Law as Christian revelation. 185. pp. Campenhausen.M. pp.notes 4 2 Justin may have based his work on older traditions.. p. provided they do not force this Law upon their former pagan Christian brothers. H. See also B. 112 and idem. but. A Study of the Relations between Christians and Jews in the Roman Empire (Oxford 1986. esp. see P. This ambivalence. When K. pp. p. e. and a certain “urbane politeness” on the other.Barnabas seems to be fairly well established by scholars. EHS. G.M 55). Mac Rae (= HTR 79. op. 172]. see L. p. Goppelt. A Study in Justin Martyr’s Proof-Text-Tradition: Text-Type. The Origins of Anti-Semitism. 54-63. A Bird’s-Eye View of Christian Apologiae until the Renaissance (Cambridge 1935). but he used these traditions to create a work with a new direction. pp. He addresses the pagan world. J. esp. See further Barnard.v. See also L. a dialogue the parts of which are open to opposite interpretations. Prigent. pp.” Christians Among Jews and Gentiles: Essays in honor of K.cit. with note 6. Theological Profile (Leiden 1987. 6). 1. “Justin Martyr’s Trypho. Whether or not Justin used the Old Testament according to testimonia might be disputed. esp.-Bern 1982. Mach. Gager. Die ersten nachbiblischen Zeugnisse ihres Gegensatzes im Offenbarungsverständnis. p. as historical information and (2) what are Justin’s theological (and philosophical) suppositions? It immediately becomes clear that Justin finds himself in a changing situation: The problem of “keeping the Law” by Christians does not matter too much for him. For this expression. Attitudes towards Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity (New York-Oxford 1985). p. Jh. Cp.they hardly help us in the present discussion. (n. (n. p.: Kirche und Synagoge. 31-42. Der Barnabasbrief und der Dialog Justins des Märtyrers (Olten 1945). orig. op. R. rightly. (n. 204-211. Die Entstehung der christlichen Bibel (Tübingen 1968. 151. NT.Z. August 16-24. as Justin has it. Gager. 1973/74). Verus Israel.g.” Jewish Quarterly Review (64. 152-196. Provenance.” Aus der Frühzeit des Christentums. His Life and Thought (Cambridge 1967).W. Schreckenberg. This is the framework in which Justin discusses the relation of Christianity toward Judaism. Stendahl ed.S 56). and if so whether they were already obliging. 1986). has long troubled historians of religion who deal with the Dial. of harsh attacks against the Jews and their “teachers” on the one hand. whether or not one accepts Skarsaune’s conclusions . 219. and has led to different solutions based on historiographical hypotheses or upon theological axioms. The questions involved are: (1) To what degree is one entitled to accept parts of the Dial. “Das Alte Testament als Bibel der Kirche. g. p. 97-122. Ps -Barn and the Grundschrift of the Ps-Clemens see O. Unfortunately. In the same vein: A. at approximately the same time. Justin et l’Ancient Testament. see e. 186). JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . by writing his Apologia) and stresses the common grounds of Christianity with some strands in the Platonic and Stoic traditions. as did Ps. For other traditions common to Justin. Rome. BHTh 39). The Proof from Prophecy. 98. Justin Martyr.cit. one still related to but clearly distinguished from Christianity itself. Barnard. 67-74.cit. Nickelsburg with G. Justin’s knowledge of Ps. Some view the work as the oldest antisemitic tractate (see H. [1-11. he may allow the Jewish-Christians to do so.” Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies. Adversus Judaeus. L’argumentation scriptuaire du traité de Justin contre toutes les hérésies comme source principale du dialogue avec Tryphon et de la primière apologie (Paris 1964). . Vol. A reconsideration of the Dial. G. p. XXIII. 180. M. 5). (esp. Division B: The History of the Jewish People . will have to deal with both. Trakatellis. pp. who teaches a kind of un-Jewish Christianity in the same town.

To what extent are such claims to be taken .” Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity .not only as mere historical “facts”. that by Barnard. 2: Separation and Polemic .. 133. op. the change of chapter-numeration escaped the author’s mind (cf. pp. 11 and his prophets before him. Mach.H. 59-80. In his Judentum und Judenchristentum in Justins Dialog nebst einer Collation der Pariser Handschrift Nr. Goppelt. See also 17. It may be noted that Justin’s depiction of the Jewish “teachers” is astonishingly similar to Harnack’s description of the Jews in the latter's Das Wesen des Christentums . pp. 6). briefly. p. pp. TU 39/1). turned it into a completely Christian writing and then used it as “proof from old” and for the reconciliation of pagan philosophy with Christian theology. Remus. but his picture of Judaism (pp.cit. 9 II Before one can turn to the theological necessity which generated the Dial. op. (n. one must.. at another “II Ezra”. Justinus Martyr und die Agada (Breslau 1873. Justin’s general attitude is based on the presupposition that the biblical dogmas are too fundamental to the Christian faith to abandon them as Marcion did. The booklet of A.M.God the Almighty and Maker of all things . The Biblical Exegesis of Justin Martyr. which is not necessarily to be understood as a historical disputation between Justin and some Jews who had fled to Ephesus from the Bar-Kokhba war. Moreover. the mere existence of a Jewish exposition of Scripture presents a perpetual challenge to Justin’s overall interpretations. ed. 450 (Leipzig 1913. Berlin 19055 (orig.cit. G. Die Kirchenväter und die Agada. we shall attempt to clarify the combination of the various elements indicated so far. but as motives for his Dial. 9) does note the “parallels” found by Goldfahn and two later interpreters. But in doing so he developed a view of Jews and Judaism which would strongly influence later writers. Wilson (Ontario 1986).g. Justin reproaches the Jews of his time for preventing the Christian mission through several means. London 1965. Gager. Goldfahn. Abt. Harnack is totally dependent upon Goldfahn. (n. 54 ff. (n. S.) has been willingly followed by important scholars in the field. See H. 16. “Justin Martyr’s Argument with Judaism.). 108. Vol. 64-67. pp.cit. In the following discussion of this important document. but is totally dependent on their work. refer to the historiographical implications of this document and to some of the interpretations given it so far. But the national character of the Jewish Bible and the philosophical definition of “good” are to a certain extent opposed to each other. (n. whose quotations from the Apocalypse of Ezra remain obscure: At one place the work is named “IV Ezra”. there). op. Justin even uses the Jewish Bible to prove the truth of Christianity by means of the “prophecies of old. mainly as a document of an intra-Christian process. wherefore Harnack tries to justify not so much Justin’s literary frame.: 1900). JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS .cursing 13 in your 9 10 11 These are for a good part not taken into consideration by W. (n. 4). 1.notes 3 lost within sixty five years three revolts against the pagan Rome so highly esteemed by Justin. 185. 1. see his Die Mission und Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (Leipzig 19244). It will emerge that Justin deprived the Jewish Bible from the Jewish-national feature. 289. op. p. 4). 500 f. here p. 47-98.” But this argument presents a difficulty when connected with another of his basic philosophical convictions: That the Good is good everywhere and not limited to a particular historical people like the Jews. Also his theory of a Jewish mission against Christianity is dictated by these pas sages and fits Harnack’s overall attitude toward Judaism. 71-93. 76 f. pp. See also the list given by Schrek kenberg. 4: 10 …for you have slain the righteous one.A. 164 (and the literature quoted there). e. But many of the “parallels” are simply to be understood as exegesis of the biblical text under consideration. . Shotwell. The present author regards the Dial. p.6. Other discussions of the subject sometimes suffer from lack of acquaintance with the Jewish material. most of these are formulated in one of the opening paragraphs of the Dial. cit. Shotwell. 5).? We are not dealing here with the question “How much Judaism is there in Justin?” But we would like to know what kind of obstructive activity against Christians Justin ascribes to the Jews. 47 f. 1.cit. 72. and now you reject those who hope in Him12 and in Him who sent Him . And indeed. 2. op. A.

Eccl. during the life-time of Antonius Pius. 290. Duker-Fishman.g. Vol. see. 5 (in present tense. R. e. you did so15. Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity 20). [n. p. 226-244. 173. pp. 289. is sought outside the country. op. that Justin’s Dial. 207). sending chosen delegates from Jerusalem to do so. 40 f. Alon. e. 83 f.M. v. Rev.. Smallwood. 79-149. is at best a much later résumé of an earlier dispute. Most outstanding Harnack. 1. Justin wrote the Dial. Eusebius. IV 18. Mach. the Dial. pp. Rappaport (Jerusalem 1984). is one of the few early proofs for a persecution of the Christians by the revolting Jews. but even Y. 233-242 (Hebrew). 1 (Edinburgh 1973). R. Vol. 2. or has he some other event in mind which is related to the later war? In any case. II: Aspects of Judaism in the Greco-Roman Period . since their task is to distribute the slanders against the Christians among the heathen. Schreckenberg.” The Bar-Kokhba Revolt. (“Israel. a fact the former neighbor of the Jews may have heard about. 1Apol 31 (present tense: Dial. the Dial. 61. it is hard to accept the view that the chosen missionaries of the High Priests are only sent to the Jewish community itself (so Bokser. 117. g. This impressive list has led even cautious scholars to conclude. A New Approach . also H.P. Gager. (n. 154.cit. If all that were simple historical reality. 122. Baumgarten and A. (n. ed.D. 1. 545. the Christian Church. 46. Dial. (n. 3 (the High Priests and “teachers” slander the Christians’ name). 110.cit. 1. 88. Kimelman recently tried to challenge the view that Justin’s mention of a curse has to do with the 12th benediction: “ Birkat Ha-Minim and the Lack of Evidence for an Anti-Christian Jewish Prayer in the Late Antiquity.cit. Dial. 2. 2. 2 f. and the Roman Empire. 17. 2 (about the proselytes). Added to this is the charge that the Jews slander the Christians before the heathen. art. Mendelson (Philadelphia 1981). was written as a reaction to some actual Jewish activity. 187.cit. pp. 1. 133. pp. apparently because of the parallels in Tertullian and other Church fathers. 2. should have taken place there not much later than 136. More cautiously. loc. 113. scholars agree that. op.A. 108. 158. esp. by G. Dial. like in 1Apol. For a different view than Bokser’s. 133.” ScriHier [7. 4). esp. (n. 3 states that Trypho and his friends fled from Israel during the Bar-Kokhba war. (Tel-Aviv 1977).e. 6. 5. 117.. But it is not as clear whether one may take Justin’s words in a too narrow sense. cf. 6). though it is generally agreed that he is not a Samaritan but the offspring of a heathen family which had settled there. (n. Dial. that Justin met his Jewish opponents at Ephesus. 17. in Sichem. op. See also E. before the year 161. As is stressed time and again. 135) .. 31. ed. p. 137. 10). 137. Baer. op. 1Apol. see. Although this has been generally accepted. E. So the place of the Dial. op. 3 (albeit the destruction of Jerusalem!). p. 6. 1. 235 f. which occupy a greater part of his study. note 29) tends to accept the historicity of some of these points.I. but the exposition of his rhetorical techniques would require a paper of its own). A. 4). but see p. 16 17 19 20 21 22 18 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Also Dial. on account of those who now have the mastery . The Jews under Roman Rule from Pompey to Diocletian. Goppelt. A Study in Political Relations (Leiden 1981. Cf.notes 4 synagogues those that believe in Christ. esp. 110. 108. 120. . pp. later than the two apologies. “The Bar-Kokhba Rebellion in Christian Sources. p. (n.C. 160 (Tertullian is hardly a proof for this. Sanders with A. On the other hand. pp.. 1961].14 But as often as you could. Dial. After all. pp. According to Dial. ed. that meta\ th\n proseuch/n (Dial. Justin was born and brought up in Neapolis. 108. in its present form. p. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B. 6 has it. Dial.e. Schürer. E. But Justin’s statement. i. 4). 391-403. 133. Vermes and F. . (Hebrew). Oppenheimer. Vol. 507-525. You have not the power to lay hands upon us. see G. which may have been introduced into the standard Jewish prayer only a few years earlier. but see also p. He argues.M. the curse delivered in the synagogue reminds one of the 12th benediction in the Jewish prayer (birkhat ham-minim). The History of the Jews in the Country of Israel in the Period of the Mishna and the Talmud . Concerning the general political situation of the Jewish people during and after the Bar-Kokhba war. 5).cit. It seems reasonable to date the Dial. 31). 2) must mean “after the prayer” which cannot mean the standard prayers. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . 6). It cannot be ruled out that certain quarrels may have taken place between members of the two religions. 6. Millar. Goppelt.cit.” Jewish and Christian Self-Definition . The date depends upon the interpretation of the often-repeated hints at the destruction of Jerusalem's Temple: Does Justin intend the destruction under Titus. U. hist.cit. Campenhausen. i. 6].

pp. 4: ajpektei/nate ga\r to\n di/kaion kai\ pro\ aujtouv tou\ç profh/taç aujtouv with Acts 7:52: kai\ ajpe/kteinan tou\ç prokataggei/labtaç peri\ thvç ejleu\sewç touv dikai/ou. OBO 15). (n.C. E.cit. 4). 1937/38). the same Herod turns out to be High Priest (Dial. 23:31. attributes parts of Justin’s attacks against the Jews to his interest in persuading the Romans of Christian loyality. 8. Die frühesten Deutungen des Todes Jesu.g. Der leidende Gerechtfertigte. helped sentence them to death and defamed Christ. pp. loc. 34-42. Richardson with D. 4.M. 5:12. Ps-Barn. L. pp. 26:10-12). According to Ps-Aristeas this was the High Priest Eleazar. Hebr. Beiträge zur historischen Theologie 47). P. Osborn. the formulation Dial. 13:34. Mt. 1986. Mt.” Antijudaism in Early Christianity . H. 26 Further. Die alttestamentlich-jüdische Tradition vom ‘leidenden Gerechten’ und ihre Rezeption bei Paulus (Tübingen 1984. pp.cit. Blank. his combination of Jesus’ death with the motive of murdering the prophets is already given in Acts 7:52: 23 24 25 Which of the prophets have your fathers not persecuted? And they have slain those who shewed before of the coming of the righteous one whose betrayers and murderers you have become now. 5). 4 Ezra 7:79. This means that all these elements. Vol. Mach. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . 11:36-38. 10). 8:57). 57-60. It is not surprising. 327-346. “Paul Ahead of his Time: 1Thess 2:13-16. Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen (Tübingen 1950). pp.e..A. then.” idem.cit. that the late Herod Antipas is called king rather than tetrarch: Dial. 21-36). S. pp. 9:26. Lk.-L. for obvious reasons. WUNT II/13). Magn. Einführung v. H. Justin believes that the High Priest makes the offerings in the Temple every Sabbath (Dial. It seems that other elements of Justin’s massive list of grievances were inspired by New Testament traditions as well. 52. 5).F. op. who share responsibility for the judg27 28 29 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Harnack.T. which after all had been destroyed some ninety years earlier. 103. According to the last reference (Paul's speech before the Jewish king. 27. “Die jüdischen Prophetenmorde. 85-90. (n. Cf. 102.cit. For example. although a bit more optimistic than the present writer. but he concludes that if Jewish persecutions of Christians took place before 70 C. pp. (n. Schoeps. m. and Schreckenberg. For all these texts. 16. ed. while Justin tries not to mention the Romans as active participants in the crucifixion of Jesus. Only in quotations from the “memoirs of the Apostles” ( ajpomnhmoneu/mata twvn ajposto/lwn ) Pontius Pilatus is mentioned twice: Dial. 2. Gubler. Hurd. 118 f. Justin Martyr (Tübingen 1973. “Sacharja Ben Berechja. 11:4751. op. K. Agrippa). but is remote from Justin’s own generation. Yet. partly repr. Aus drei Jahrtausenden. This item fits the first generation of what is commonly called the “apostolic time”.” HUCA (12-13. too.-J. pp. Eine motivgeschichtliche Darstellung aufgrund der neueren exegetischen Forschung (Freiburg-Göttingen 1977. op. Liebeschütz). J. Baeck.. see further Schreckenberg. 3). . now.E. Ign. (who turns to Neh. 81 f.” idem. 125-128.cit. see now M. See further Barnard. “The Death of Zecharjah in Rabbinic Literature. Aus frühchristlicher Zeit. 5. already existed in the writings of the New Testament and fit that time much better than Justin’s. whether or not historical in Justin’s days. pp. Paul himself relates (Phil 3:6) that he persecuted the Christian communities (although he does not mention the High Priests there). I: Paul and the Gospels. Granskou [Waterloo/Ont.according to Justin. Simon. But even this can be understood through the polemical context. (n. 103. For some roots of this motive. At this point Justin combines his depiction of the heathen as worshipers of demons. 5. 4). The motive does occur several times in the New Testament: 1Thess 2:15 (for this cf. 120-134. one has to suppose such even later in Had rian's days . see esp. op. his assertion that the Hebrew Vorlage of the Septuagint was sent to King Ptolemaeus by Herod (1Apol 31). (n. Kleinknecht. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen und Abhandlungen zur Geschichte des jüdischen Glaubens (orig. Studies in Christianity and Judaism 2]. the accounts of Paul’s call include the sending of missionaries by the High Priest of Jerusalem to Jewish communities outside the country (Acts 9:22. Tübingen 1958. this event is doubtless the center of his Christian thought. 125-128. e. the apostle delivered Christians to prison. 11. 126-143. 5). The only remarkable point for Justin’s own time is the mentioning of a Jewish curse and the slanders before the heathen. 215-221. 22:5.notes 5 But some of these elements are simply anachronistic: The Jewish messengers are said to have been sent by High Priests from Jerusalem. including the heathen government. pp. correctly saw the parallel which is going to be drawn here.. pp. Other “facts” in Justin’s report reflect an inexact knowledge of Judaism and Jewish history. 3.: Berlin 1938.

(n. 3. This lacks any evidence in the text. cannot be accounted the basic motive for his writing the Dial. 6). For the contrary. although one might concede that Dial. op. but all this is hardly more than literary convention. 2. Jews and heathen perform the same deed. admitting the literary character of the Dial. e. pp. 93. p.. Justin turns personally against Trypho and his companions: 64.cit. 54. cit. Wilde. art. Evangelium und Gesetz in der ältesten Christenheit bis auf Marcion (Utrecht 1960. 106.. In the tradition of Plato’s great dialogues Justin. one might expect that the result presented to the reader should be as accepted by both sides. too. There are other elements in the Dial. 62. (n. Judentum und Judenchristentum (above n.g. 97-102. art. e. then the actual historical situation. 123.cit. 2. 5). But dialogic discourse often serves to present philosophical positions regardless of whether the speakers are historical or fictional persons. 115. 173. Zwei griechische Apologeten (Hildesheim/New York 1970. benches. see also P. and Rokeah. see. 154... (n. op. Schreckenberg. 2: “And that you may not change the words just quoted and repeat what your teachers assert…”. orig. 1.G.: Jena 1923). Dial. Though Justin promises Trypho. 50. 118. 123. Among the internal hints that should be discussed is whether Justin wrote this tractate in order to convince Jews to convert to Christianity. art. refers from time to time to some of the surrounding circumstances. Bokser. Gager. 33.” He does not stand alone with this as sumption. op. op. 120. But Trypho is not converted to Christianity in the end. 71 f. Although this has been stated time and again. 6). Geffcken. 10).. nevertheless asserts it to be written for Jews. Nor do the many repetitions seem a convincing method to 31 32 33 34 35 30 31 32 33 34 35 See Dial. Wherefore Trakatellis.R. see S. p. is not a real dispute of two or more people. p. Remus. 62. pp. 3). 4.. The Treatment of the Jews in the Greek Writers of the First Three Centuries (Washington 1949. hazards the conclusion: “The very fact that the work under discussion is in the form of a di alogue suggests contact and communication between the two sides. Goodenough. which make it highly improbable to see in this writing a kind of summary of a real historical conversation between Justin and some historical Jews. 80. STRT 5). p.” BJRL (69. pp.. 92. III The so-called historical references of the Dial. For one thing. but he states clearly that the heathen’s persecution of Christians is due to demonic influence. places etc. 2. (n. 297. see also 12. 113. See also J. p. 4 (according to which the crucifixion of Jesus was the work of the Jews’ most irrational mind). The literary form of a dialogue has led several scholars to assume the historical reality of the speakers. cit.cit. but this belongs to the few literary achievements in the Dial. 98.cit. Mach. 66. 5. cf. 97. 29. 492-510. 289. 6).cit.cit. 1f.. There is no room for historical conclusions regarding these highly technical advices. 4).: Leipzig-Berlin 1907). p. 1. 2. p. 216 f.all of these remarks are Justin’s inventions. are not the only thing which bears witness to its author’s real intention. and his attacks on Jewish involvement in the persecution of Christians depend on New Testament sources. Denning-Bolle. pp. Trypho’s baptism would have been the clearest statement in this direction. op. there is a long list of offensives against the teachers of the Jews (see below) and repetitions of those against “the Jews” as a whole as well as against Justin’s Jewish partners in the dialogue. 5f.. p. 125. Besides the already-mentioned attacks against the Jewish persecution of Christians. An Investigation into the Conceptions of Early Christian Literature and its Hellenistic and Judaistic Influences (Amsterdam 1968. 6). Goppelt. Following the Platonic examples one expects a common result already by definition of the term “dialogue”. See already Harnack. 46. 2. see. Schreckenberg.notes 30 6 ment against the Christians with the Jews. For the genre “dialogue”. whatever it was. Trakatellis. still understands this dialogue as a kind of idyll. 3. are mentioned. . 65. op. 131. (n. (n. a résumé of their disputation. Dial. Dial. “Christian Dialogue as Apologetic: The Case of Justin Martyr Seen in Historical Context. (n. 2f. Trypho on his part admits that Justin is much better prepared for such discussions than are he and his friends (Dial. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . At certain stages one even gets the impression that Trypho answers Justin ironically (e. (n. cit. orig. its history and influence upon Justin.g. 7). 5 etc. 7. 95. 118. pp. 184. (n. 34.. But Trypho does not lose his temper in such situations. Given this possibility. and the literature quoted there. one can hardly imagine a group of Jews listening so willingly to repetitions of disgrace and insult without interrupting. p. PatSt 81). Verweijs.g. e. 56. R. 16). 5). The Theology of Justin Martyr. for similar theses. Though at certain stages Trypho may appear to pick a quarrel with Justin . 1986-87). 1.M.g. E. 10). If Justin’s own knowledge of contemporary Jewish history is limited. 4. 3f.

120. in any case. 67.49:10).” Journal of Biblical Literature (51. 131. 3f. are suggested by A. On the last day Justin wants to show up with at least some “saved Jews”: Dial. 184. 2. 4. . At times. some of the “reactions” he ascribes to Trypho make it highly unlikely that this “Jew” ever talked to Justin. 5). Further reasons for not identifying Trypho with a historical Jew.M. 108. Although this LXX reading was known in Qumran. At 85. 1. 92. 80. 10. it does not seem likely that either Justin or the fictitious Jew during or after the Bar-Kokhba revolt should still have used this version. 1. Justin marks the difference. It is at least problematic that a Jew should have understood Dan. cf. 8 (although the Rabbinic statement to the contrary may well be an answer to Christian claims from Gal. might be acceptable. 9). 63. sometimes without noticing the fact. 64. 3 (Zech. Trypho does not see any thing wrong with this: Dial.Trypho does not realize the difference. Sanhedrin 96b). 18:4). is not a historical person. 1932). 95. 63. 1 (Dtn. 44. mentioned in Gen 18 ( Dial. 1 (Dtn. let alone with the famous Rabbi Tarphon. 128. and the earlier non-canonical-Jewish literature. 2. however. 2:2. 2. Maintaining that fiction makes it very problematic for Justin to use Num 24:17 (the star rising from Ja cob) as a prophecy about Jesus (according to Mt. Dial. 87. 2 (Isa 3:10). 2. 2. when he likewise follows Justin in the latter’s interpretation of Jer 31:31 ( Dial. The list of improbabilities reaches a climax when Trypho confirms that the Laws which characterize Israel are only given because of the people’s hardness of hearts and their tendency to idolatry ( Dial. 130. knows and is willing to allow during the dialogue. and what is even more important.. 1). 126. Mach. he is not a representative member of an “orthodox” Jewish community. 1. 6. in Dial. 1. Justin occasionally threatens his interlocutors with the coming day of judgment. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . i. 1.e. 5. 32. p. 2). 32:43) . 4. 46. More significant is the fact that Justin uses the figure of Trypho in the same way as Plato’s Socrates did with Parmenides. 35. But Justin nonetheless tries to endow him as much Judaism as he. slightly differently Schreckenberg. according to Justin.. 55. For. though he attempts to justify his writing by stating that as his goal. so Dial. That whole fiction collapses at last when Justin opposes the Septuagint version of his quotations to the Jewish rendering: Trypho is supposed to be a Palestinian Jew who left that country only because of the Bar-Kokhba war. Dial. as stated in Dial. Trypho approves this reading: Dial. 2:8.cit. 4f. 3 onward. 7. It is a still open question whether or not Judaism expected a suffering messiah (see the Aramaic Targum to Isa 53!). “The ‘Dialogues with the Jews’ as Sources for the Early Jewish Argument against Christianity.notes 36 7 re–commend the Dial. Justin. he is after all related to the teaching of the real Parmenides. but on other occasions Justin simply follows the LXX which here departs from the Masoretic tradition. tried even before the rise of Christianity to show the fathers as “just” persons according to their categories). but the possibility. op. 32:7-9). 67. (n. Trypho remains a faithful Jew throughout 37 38 39 40 41 36 37 38 39 40 41 Justin did see this fact and tried to excuse it. nevertheless. 30. 1) and willingly admits a differentiation between God the Creator and the ku/rioç. 133. 1. 1 (but note Babylonian Talmud. According to this picture the Christians pray for the Jews: Dial. Trypho. 141. Indeed. He also accepts the view that Jesus is not human-born: Dial. 1.” See Justin’s justification for his repetitions right before: 85. 6. 4f (Gen . 87. 1 he admits “Then I repeated once more all that I had previously quoted (proe/graya! )”. 137. pp. 7. 124. 78. Cf. Hulen. 7 as a messianic proof-text. also Dial. 30:4. Trypho again does not reject Justin’s exegesis: Dial. 7. 6 Justin makes one of the Jews who entered the scene only on the second day say: “We are greatly pleased that you undertake to repeat the same things on our account. 57. 58. 2 (concerning Ps. 5. 60. 79. 28. 39. as Justin’s Trypho does. 5f. but it is hard to imagine that he would also have accepted the view that the fathers of the Jewish nation lived without fulfilling the Law: Dial. 17. that the Qumran/LXX-rendering still was an accepted Jewish reading at that time cannot be ruled out altogether. 106.. He uses the Jewish Scripture to convince some of them: Dial. 136. but this is not to be taken as missionary activity either. As a Palestinian Jew he should be expected to have a certain knowledge of Hebrew and should therefore have felt the changes which Justin (or the Septuagint quoted) introduces into the Old Testament texts. 1. here: p. 118. 129. 58-70. the Rabbis. 8). 3 (Isa. 3. to an interested Jewish public. also 123. without any protest on Trypho’s part: Dial. 118.. cf. Tryphon’s reading of the Gospels. 2 (Ps. though the Parmenides of Plato’s dialogue is not the one we deem to know. 93. cf. 4.B. he recognizes the christological arguments of Justin: Dial. 36. 82:1-8). 3).

so Dial. 91. E. Rosenzweig. cit. The new point in Justin is the combination of this with certain New Testament sayings which identify “the Jews” with the sons of Satan. . See also Dial.. (n. 47. 6 (interpreting Jos. 2 f. is the truth proclaimed by God’s agents long before the time of the Greek philosophers and is 47 48 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Sometimes he even opposes Justin. ed. 31). 4 (proselytes from the Christian community!). 98. 5. But it seems that Justin does not trouble to portray the Jewish point of view because he is bent on defending his own. 44. 503 note 28. 114. 30. 95:5-LXX.cit. 141. It might well be supposed that the fact that this religion stems ultimately from the East had something to recommend it in the eyes of the pagans. 122. 113. then. (n. op. the sin and revolt of the angels). 5. Justin seldom weighs the possible Jewish fear from martyrdom like the Christian one: Dial. the proselytes are depicted as being much worse than Jews. 4. in 55. Richardson. (n. See esp. see: Bokser. On the other hand Justin remembers that pagans have certain sympathies toward Judaism: When it comes to the persecution of the Christians.cit. punishments even to death have been inflicted on us by demons and by the host of the devil. (n. Such a basic statement would be enough to explain the lack of a real Jewish partner in the Dial. through the aid ministered to them by you” (Dial. that he will in the future. (n. 31). 83. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS .MS 10). in certain respects act like demons. 64. but Justin does not reflect upon this fact. 27. (n.. pp. 4 and elsewhere Justin “proves” this statement by quotation from Ps. 220 f. 1. Mach. “Christian Apologetists and the ‘Fall of the Angels’: An Attack on Roman Imperial Power?” HThR (78. and Denning-Bolle. Esp. In Dial. See Dial. 1 and 51. 94. pp. 47. For an interpretation to the contrary. 1. see Schreckenberg. (n. SNTS. who are servants of God. i.T. Justin does not aim at convincing the Jews to convert to Christianity. pp. But it seems more suitable to the overall framework of the Dial. 2. See inter alia: 1Apol.cit. pp. 5. In Dial. 1 he remembers the verdict by “the teachers” to take part in such discussions... 63 and Verweijs. op. 6). Justin’s exegeses are not accepted already Dial. 6.e. 98. Dial. the circumcision of the Christians is a circumcision from demon-worship. 187. art. but your expositions are mere contrivances…nay even blasphemies” (but this against a common belief of Jewish[!] apocalypticism. Remus. a principal reaction is given Dial. pp. also 135. Wilde. M. 26 f. 38. 12. R. he claims that the relation of the old prophecies to Greek philosophy and mythology is that of the prophetic original to demonic forgery. The picture as a whole is therefore somewhat pessimistic: Jews are not converted to Christianity (this may be based upon historical experience). 1985). pp. which has been established long before any dialogue. Behind this statements an older Jewish belief is to be detected: The identity of the gods of the nations with the angels who. 5:3).. that made this same [Christ]. 132-137. (n. 2. 1). Greek Apologists of the Second Century (Philadelphia 1988). 131. 39. see the list of texts and discussion by Schrekkenberg. 4. the demons: Dial. The proof of old is now discussed by P. Christian. Presbyteron Kreitton. Davies (New York e. as Justin does. 2. 1 he protests against Justin’s claim that Jews are involved in idol-worship.notes 42 43 8 the Dial. 55-65.” Antisemitism and the Foundations of Christianity . pp. 80. 5). 53. Justin may then say that the pagans’ turn to Christianity is a turn from the belief in demons: Dial.cit. “truth”. But see the interesting remarks on “newness” and “finality” by P. do not require to confess or worship him”) reminds one of F. 83. 44 45 46 IV The author of the Apology defends his Christian faith in front of a pagan audience by stressing the fact that Christianity is not a new religion but the fulfillment of prophecies from old. “The Patristic Connection. 93. Der Altersbeweis der jüdischen und christlichen Apologeten und seine Vorgeschichte (Tübingen 1990.cit. pp. cf. see further D. 2 f. A.cit. Osborn. Pagels. 3.M. Pilhofer. does not accept baptism nor indicate. 4. For other examples of the same. and the Christians ask with Ps 18:4-LXX (not so in the Masoretic text) to be freed from the ajllotri/a. op. 3. Moreover. by the commonly known Jewish impenitence. art. 1 ff. p. 3. The identification of the Greek gods with the demons is then used for Justin’s antiJudaism: “for the confession of which and obedience to which and for our piety. 63f. Efroymson.P. Accordingly. (n. 108-113. 10). pp. p. with his other references to the Apologiae. 2. 1. 136. op. 79. 301-325. WUNT II/39). op. 9 f. to suppose that the hints to missionary intentions are nothing but marginal notes. 1 (“But we. 1979). 5). p. Parkes. op. Israel in the Apostolic Church (Cambridge 1969. cf. 2. 54/70. The fact may be explained. The statement in Dial. 32). 66. Grant. 2). see further: 23. 100. art. 1: “The utterances of God are holy. 103-105. p. 24). Christianity.a.cit.cit.

J. p. do not understand what is said. the more he is forced to differentiate between the Jewish understanding of the prophetic scriptures.” The Question of “Eclecticism”. Philo. 102-104. John and Paul. Marcion. He must show that the Jewish writings are not the heritage of another religion but are genuinely Christian.” Cf. Das Evangelium vom fremden Gott. pp. P. 1Apol. Campenhausen. Hoffmann. op. Dial. even more crass is the statement Dial. also shows the relation between Justin’s anti-Judaic trends and his sue for the pagans: 50 They (scil.A. Untersuchungen zu seinen Fragmenten und zu pseudepigraphischen Resten der jüdisch-hellenistischen Literatur (Berlin 1964. 85. Had the young Church accepted Marcion’s preaching. pp. On the other hand it is completely clear that someone who leans so heavily on biblical writings could not accept the new direction of Marcion. 4 claims. The Gnostic Religion. Plato’s influence on Justin’s thought is rightly stressed by v. 31. 48. As in his Apology. TU 86). Jonas. since the Christians suffered from the Jewish revolt as did the Romans. See also Geffcken.. and that Christianity cannot exist without them. Walter. M. then. Justin turns from to the Greek philosophies he asserts to have studied earlier to the prophetic writings. The more Justin tries to show agreement between these two. Borgen. gave orders that the Christians alone should be led to cruel punishments. The creator remains the just creator. 7-16. Verweijs. too. The Message of the Alien God and the Beginnings of Christianity (Boston 19632). who preached and proclaimed Him to all. Der Toraausleger Aristobulos. op. 145: “That the Old Testament as a whole went by the boards goes without saying. An antimarcionite work is attributed to Justin. ed. 136. 1 f. (n. it would have lost the Jewish Bible once and for all. though they read. The locus classicus. and his own Christian exegesis. Marcion: On the Restitution of Christianity.cit. that the prophets and Christ are the two authorities a Christian has to follow. the Christians stand side by side with the authorities. In these books. believes not the declarations of the prophets. and like yourselves. Harnack. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . For in the Jewish war which lately raged. as you can believe. 185. the leader of the revolt of the Jews. v. pp. Academic Series 46).cit.notes 49 9 therefore superior to the latters’ achievements. The justice of the Bible and the mercy of the new belief oppose one another: the latter is revealed in Jesus and propagated by Paul. see the following. Studies in Later Greek Philosophy . of the prophets we found Jesus our Christ foretold as coming… Here the apologist for Christianity seeks. New Perspectives on Judaism and Early Christianity (Atlanta 1987. Eine Monographie zur Geschichte der Grundlegung der katholischen Kirche (Darmstadt 1985. (n. 97. The Jews still house the documents of these prophecies in their synagogues throughout the world. and this led directly not only to a new understanding of these scriptures but to a separation from their “former” owners. pp. recently R.. Christ). See N. But the Church realized the challenge and reacted accordingly. .M. but count us foes and enemies.: Leipzig 1924 [TU 45]). unless they would deny Jesus Christ and utter blas phemy. The early years of Justin’s stay in Rome were at least near to the time of Marcion’s activity there. to the contrary: H. 44-46. 31). and note 151 there. 2: “And whoever believes not in him (scil. The part Marcion actually played (from c. But it does seem permissible to attribute to him the view that the God of the Jewish Bible as creator of the universe is responsible for human misery. Barchochebas. pp. (n. J. but they. J. and at certain places in the remaining writings of the apologist attacks against Marcion are to be felt. orig. p. BJS 131). A.e. An Essay on the Development of Radical Paulinist Theology in the Second Century (Chico 1984. 27ff. 4). the understanding of the Roman Caesar. Mach. 217.” Cf. American Academy of Religions. 70-102. 144) in the Roman Christian community is not as clear as is generally supposed. Long (Berkeley-Los Angeles-London 1988). Dial. 35). among other things. they kill and punish us whenever they have the power. the books of the Jewish prophets) are also in the possession of all Jews throughout the world. 7. i. Dillon and A. here: pp. Mansfeld. art. which include the kernel of his faith. but his justice contradicts Marcion’s understanding of mercy. so in the Dial. if not identical with Marcion’s last 51 52 53 49 50 51 52 Here Justin returns to a Jewish-Hellenistic apologetic thesis according to which the great Greek philosophers learned their wisdom from Moses. “Philosophy in the Service of Scripture: Philo’s Exegetical Strategies. 106-118 and.. p. It must have been highly problematical for Justin to base his faith on the writings of enemies of the Roman government.cit.

For bibliographical references concerning these parallels. At the very beginning he relates the story of how he became a Christian through a dialogue with an older man. ed. Theologie und Geschichte des Judenchristentums (Tübingen 1949). pp. In any case. See Symposion 202a. 5). J. 35. art. Justin’s old man quotes the prophets: 55 56 57 There existed long before this time certain men more ancient than all those who are esteemed philoso phers. see G. 148-187. also Didascalia 2. op.C. that the second part of Tertullian’s Adversus Iudaeos entered nearly unchanged into the third book of his Adversus Marcionem is as such a striking documentation for the connection between ecclesiastic anti-judaism and anti-marcionite discussion. 69 with note 37. Vol. p. (n. being filled with the Holy Spirit.G. 4). also the general discussion by Schreckenberg. Like Diotima.cit.notes 10 years. 759 f. 160-169. 27-38. rather than in the Apol. Strecker. 45-58. op.cit. 4). S. . pp. where they are only a theoretical problem. pp. see esp. art. Campenhausen.cit. (n.. Other possible mythological influences are gathered by Prigent. N. Philosophie und Christentum. (n. Gager.cit. 10). They are called prophets. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . and even more so between the old philosopher in the Dial.. (n. pp. v. “Old Testament Interpretation in the Writings of the Church Fathers. op. op. 85-89. the old man appears as partner in a dialogue which took place long before. The Jewish-Christians clung to this theory of “false pericopes” also still in the third century C. S. lack of knowledge and a correct opinion which does not conceive its own real grounds. wishes to soften the clear-cut theory of the antipodes into a theory of “false pericopes” which have been introduced into the biblical writings (see Epiphanius. conceived of as true. pp. Aus frühchristlicher Zeit (Tübingen 1950). there are obvious analogies both between the old man with whom he spoke and Plato’s Socrates. Das Judenchristentum der Pseudoclementinen (Berlin 19812. The fact. 112. 727-787. 746. 68. 100-101. 5. It deserves special attention that Justin’s attacks against the para/dwsiç (transmission) of the Jewish Scriptures by the Jews are delivered in the Dial. cf. Justin creates a dialogue within the overall framework of his dialogue. 105. Goppelt. he does not convince by arguments which are given to logical control but by differenting between knowledge. 47. Efroymson. Their writings are still extant and he who has read them is very much helped in his knowledge of the beginning and end of things. op. In the same vein. TU 70). it seems.cit. 1. 162-187.. (n. Since this is not the case. (n. 77-84. Both go through a series of philosophical do/gnata (“opinions”) which. p. Justin will declare later on to Trypho that the whole Dial. These alone both saw and announced the truth to men neither reverencing nor fearing any man not influenced by a desire for glory but speaking those things alone which they saw and which they heard.cit. 99 ff. (n. 295 and see note 50. 279-282. Like Plato. 116. esp. would be unnecessary if the incarnatio Christi were given to logical demonstration. idem.” CRINT II/1. 161 and literature quoted there. pp. Although it is not our task here to explore Justin’s philosophical heritage. and Socrates’ Diotima. op. 58 ff. Wilson (Ontario 1986. above. Barnard. (n.-J.M. see Remus. 1-6 are clearly anti-gnostic.M. Eine Interpretation der Einleitung zum Dialog Justins (Copenhagen 1966). 47). 54 V The parallels between the Platonic dialogues and Justin’s Dial. “Marcion and the Jews.P. nevertheless. Schoeps. p. Jewish Christians are dealt with only in Dial. while not bound to human logic alone are. op. 4).cit. both righteous and beloved by God who spoke by the Divine Spirit and foretold events which would take place and which are now taking place. he quotes biblical writings: Dial. Panarion 33. See v.cit. 106ff. 4). 2: Separation and Polemic. 9).G. Like her.” Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity . See esp. op. cf. 6). pp. here: pp. The statement to the opposite by Shotwell. pp. 17 and W. H. The Platonic influences upon Justin are often discussed. have long been noted by scholars. An Early Christian Philosopher: Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho. Wilson.E. Horbury. This parallelism may serve as point of departure for analyzing Justin’s attitude to the Jewish Bible and Judaism. Mach. (n. Chapters One to Nine (Leiden 1971). Hyldahl. 4). p. 10-29 contain remnants of an anti-gnostic tractate by Justin. and those matters which the philosophers ought to know provided he has be - 53 54 55 56 57 One may note nearby that only a few years later Ptolemy in his well known Letter to Flora. p.cit. pp. 3-7). 98-117. Studies in Christianity and Judaism 2).cit. van Winden. pp. D. (n. is not convincing. Dial. It may be that Dial. pp. Campenhausen. that Marcion laid some ground to this milder form insofar as he himself argued for texts from the New Testament in quite the same direc tion. 6.

p. axiomatic. 118. These points are going to be explicated briefly in the following: 1. he refuses them the right to rely upon the biblical text in arguing with the Christians. the dialogue within a dialogue. too: In Dial. 130. op. Flusser. the prophets. In Dial. 1-4.. It goes without saying that for this purpose Justin is sometimes forced to explore Scripture in ways that appear somewhat strange. (n. Justin knows this tradition. op. 568-570. pp.cit. according to the oracle given to their mother. 59 Justin combines this assumption with another one according to which Christianity replaced Judaism. illustrated here by the sisters Rachel and Lea ( Dial. 4). Schreckenberg. at least to the modern interpreter. (4) He divides the contents of Scripture as Paul had already done. 1. 6. For we believe in them. 2: 58 They (scil. Cf. 11. to put it closer to his wording: is not as evident. as in Lk. Cf. Tertullian as well as Ps. This is the place where he discusses the differences in content and interpretation of Scripture.notes 11 lieved them.. 6. 2. Justin is quite aware that Scripture does not really support his view or. 6 he makes Jacob the father of the Church and Esau the father of the Jews. 7.cit. opinion. pp.cit. 30. 119. distinguishable levels: (1) The Jewish Bible turns into a totally Christian book to serve as the “proof from old”. though you read them. 135. pp. In consequence. 3 he states that the quotation does not need any exploration. cf. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . The main difference lies in the fact that. 64. p. (n. 561-574. 2 f. has a discussion concerning a possible restriction of this in light of Phil. 228 f. Schreckenberg. (n. The process takes place on several. 123.e. This is stressed in particular by the “christological proofs” which make up the bulk of the second part of the Dial. 1. Wilde. (n.cit. . the place of man’s correct. so to speak. he 60 61 62 63 58 59 60 61 62 63 The canon is threefold (Moses. 134. Parkes. As such. Justin had defended his Christian faith before a pagan audience. 6:16. For they did not use demonstration in their treatises seeing that they were witnesses to the truth above all demonstration and worthy of belief . His attacks against Jews and Judaism flow into this discussion. op. 5). Gager. see Dial. (n. 55. pp. (3) By denying that the Jews have any correct understanding of Scripture. 45. An important contribution toward the understanding of Justin’s hope that the Gentile Christian will inherite the Holy Land of the Jews was made by D. 31). op. Judaism and the Origins of Christianity (Jerusalem 1988). but you.cit. “Matthew’s ‘Verus Israel’. 129. as he cannot concede an inner contradiction in Scripture. pp. the psalms). In the Apol. 192. the speech of the old man. pp. 97. (n. however. Schreckenberg. op. p. only a willing audience.. p. 3f). Scripture belongs to Christianity and the Christians and not to the Jews. 47). the divinely inspired prophets take over.: these words) are contained in your Scriptures. 1 f. But that this is nothing more than rhetorical advice becomes clear from the contradicting statement in Dial. 1Apol. His claim that he has access to the more original text supports his “proof of old”. 24:44: Dial. 3:3 and Gal. op.cit. which demands a certain measure of acquaintance with the biblical text as such. do not catch the spirit that is in them. In the Dial. 188-192. Rebecca. discusses these in a long list. pp. he simply did not listen to it. or rather not yours. but ours. this includes not only the “keeping of the Law” but also the actual right of the Jews to claim the Scriptures as their property. so that the different layers may support his philosophic axioms. op. This “threefoldness” is to be distinguished from the other theory of a tripartite canon (see be low). 1f) Thus. (2) Justin polemicizes against changes in the text introduced by the Jews comparing the different versions of the Septuagint.. 5. 1). Mach. 59. (n. 116.Barn contrast Esau and Jacob. op.M. 29. Richardson. it is now to be defended against Marcion. 82. he denies their claim to “keep” it. 63 f. 6).” idem. 134. op.cit. has not only formal parallels to Plato. esp. But. i. (n. 5). that if Trypho does not understand it as Justin does. The most famous statement in this direction is Dial. for Justin. (n. 3-5. he answers those questions which are raised by his use of Scripture.cit. 288. (Dial. stressing the line of contacts between the two and the hostility of the Jews against both. but also touches on matters of content. 171-185 and Dial. Goppelt. See Osborn. also Dial. 10-15.cit. 24). 139. 5). 1. 3.

2. 14. He includes a verse from Ezra which is not extant in the LXX-MSS. (n. 5. 11. 6). 5. as Justin reads. e. 32. Dial. 236 f. pp. 5. Dial. Cf. 119. 72. Justin offers several explanations for this phenomenon: The Jews are blind. the Christians are able to understand Scripture and thereby arrive necessarily at a support for their own theories and beliefs. 23). 36. cf. 120. but only a Christian one and. cp. 5).. 123. This hermeneutical axiom reigns over the whole of the “christological proof” in the middle part as well as the theory of the Church’s taking the place of Israel. (n. Verweijs. 2. 1. 90. 29:31 ff. This “squaring of the circle” is likely to convince only Justin’s own Christian group . 68. Dial. 58. . 63. See also Dial. 8). 44. 73.-LXX). 3. Campenhausen. art. 73. 2.. 32. 3. 1. according to Justin. No other motif occurs as often in the Dial. since he tries to make his point even within the textual tradition of Judaism. 70. 3. 4). 112. Dial. 4. 119. 140. 1 and 48. 1. cf. 93. 2. 2. 1.. 125. 106. 88. For the spread of this motive.. 78. they will not be able to follow the words of the prophets as they ought. 3.: Dial. op. also Verweijs. haer III 20. 3 ff. 31). 11:19 (though that verse is extant in all available LXX-MSS). op. Mach. 126. 1 explains some lines of Justin’s methods: “For the Holy Spirit sometimes brought about that something which was the type of the future should be done clearly. 36. To understand these hints and tu/poi in full one has to believe in the Christian faith and to partake of God’s mercy which. 33. 1. He states frankly. 29. 52. See also Remus. 2 he asks for Jer. 3 f. 9. 12. art. see further: Dial. p. 68. Dial. 5. since this is real prophecy. 1 (about himself). 1. Dial. 3. Bokser.but it is doubtful whether the Dial. 112. 2. the centrality of gnwvsiç for Ps-Barnabas.. 5. 95. 130. 97. 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 Dial. pp. p. 2. 1 (interpreting Isa. of Isa. many of the hints of the earlier prophets have been interpreted by the later ones. i. 118. 3. 3. 39. 2.. 114. art. 65.cit. 3. One may therefore say: This is the sin par excellence: Dial. 4f Justin suggests that the teachers would have also blotted out other verses of the text had they only understood them. see further v. 7. 17. 118. 1f. 7:10 ff. 1 ff. 31. Cf. 1. 3. And unless those who read perceive this art. 4. sometimes it uttered words about what was to take place. In Dial. 5). (n. 125. also a false Christian prophecy.cit. 73. as if it was then taking place. In other words. The “teachers” contradict the LXX-version. Nearby: Some of the LXX-MSS have hJ neavniç instead of par e/noç in Isa. as Justin remarks ironically. 72. is given in the Masoretic text as well as in LXX. 84.g. Esp. 4. 10).. 113. This claim is not entirely new within Christian tradition. 1. Expressis verbis so. op. and the difference is one of interpretation alone (Dial. Only in passing does Justin discuss the different readings of the Septuagint and the Jewish rendering. as that of the Jews’ inability to understand the Holy Writ. In 120. without any critique Justin refers to Christian charismatics in Dial. p. 88. 183. 31). hard hearted and do not want to know their Scriptures. Dial. also 1Apol. (n. 121.” See Dial. 2.. Christians possess not only the correct hermeneutics but also the true text of the Scriptures. (n. 73. see Schreckenberg. etc. 38. 5. 64. 39.. 7-9. 1) is attested in some MSS (but this may reflect the influence of patristic literature upon the MSS-tradition). IV 22. 31). had they been aware of the interpretation Justin gave them. The addition of ajpo\ touv xu/lou to Ps.cit. Dial. 46). and Verweijs. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS .cit. 34. op. 6. Justin almost entirely supports his claim for possession of the Scriptures on the basis that only they truly understand their contents.cit. 4. 2-72.. 128. 95:10-LXX (missing according to Justin. 1 f. Nonetheless. 87. ever intended to do any more. 71. 231. 6. 55. 72 to Solomon. 87. and the present writer’s paper (n. 1 f. 114.. 31). 1 f. p. 68. 1. even more serious than the offerings to the demons and the murder of the prophets. also 1Petr. 7.notes 64 12 prefers to admit that he may not have understood its meaning properly.. 5. 6. As holders of the true mercy. 82. Therefore there can no longer be any Jewish prophecy. 4. (n. 43. that is missing in LXX-MSS but is attested sometimes by Irenaeus (e. 3-5. 112. 1. 2 f. Justin views these changes of the sacred text as a sin greater than the erection of the Golden Calf.e.cit. 1. But he contends that the “teachers” of the Jews deleted whole passages from the text and would have blotted out even more had they seen the christological implications involved. 2. The relation of Ps. 2. 75-81. 2f.g. p. that the “teachers” changed the text of Isaiah's martyrdom “whom you sawed asunder with a wooden saw” (see n. 71. or had taken place. further Wilde. 5. 4 he quotes a verse from Jer. has turned from the Jews to the Christians. 111-113. 10 and cf. 3.. he deliberately reads a “mysterious” meaning into the words of the prophets. According to Dial. op.cit. it includes consequently. 14 f. 3 f. 235. 7:10 ff. (n. In Dial. p. 1. (n. 82. 136.M. 53. 3:19.cit. 34. Cf.

op.cit. 136. 9. 34. 10. is that kind of a Parmenidian-Platonic being. although man has not always acted in accordance to it. having accepted a groundless report. (n. 23. 82. 112. The problem. 3 f. 40. 67. 1. 11. then. 294. 2. 1 or 142. 93. 5.contrary to the author of Ps-Barnabas . 93.. 94. 9. then observe what ordinances have been enacted with respect to the Shabbath.notes 13 on the other hand. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . 5. The covenant with God exists in God’s commandments. 134. professing to be pious. (n. p. It seems that these “teachers” are identified with the Pharisees in Dial. and supposing yourselves better than others. 11. 68. 70. 2. p. 1. 102. 11. 46. 28. you yet expect to obtain some good thing from God while you do not obey His commandments. p. 5. as taught already by Jesus. Schreckenberg. . 4. although the word “teacher” is not mentioned there (Justin quotes Mt 5:20: “except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees”). 1. 223. as elsewhere in relation to Isa 29:13-LXX). for Justin also Christ is the eternal law or the new lawgiver: Dial. (n. 103. 36. 2. This law could have and actually was known to mankind. 1Apol. 2. 117. 1. Moreover. 6. 4. 4). Dial. 2. 5. 73. In light of Dial. (Dial. The unchangeability of that being has two consequences for Justin. in that you observe no festivals or Shabbaths. 92. Dial. 2 the identification seems certain: “obey not the Pharisaic teachers. Justin therefore demands that his Jewish partners in the Dialogue leave the “teachers”. (n. 4. 45. Christian understanding. e.. lies in those laws that separate the Jews from the pagans . which must therefore be kept. Dial. 34 above. 2. as in the quotation right before or in Dial. 122. 193. 53. 31). they follow their “teachers” who are responsible for the blindness of the people. 5. But they are to be understood within the framework of his philosophical suppositions: Justin’s God. 10. 8. 24. Justin does not explain his note that the “phylacteries” are “indeed holy”: Dial. 3) How can a being which is always the same have given different commandments to different persons? The will of this being should have been always the same and therefore finds its most fitting expression in the lex naturalis.M. invent a Christ for yourselves. the creator of the universe. first become circum cised. 93. 2. 141. 7-9. 1. 2-4 etc. 5. that is not given to changes and whose relation toward the world is not totally clear. that these “teachers” are especially responsible for the attacks against the Christians.and Justin puts the question regarding these laws into Trypho’s mouth. 1. 20.cit.cit.” It goes without saying. and for his sake are inconsiderably perishing. 137. cf. 2. p. 2. The most appropriate formula for this law is the double law of love. 1-3. and do not alter your mode of liv ing from the nations. art. 95. Dial.Justin never denies their divine origin. 3 f. These laws are divine commandments bestowed upon Israel and . Justin mentions the theory of the abrogation of the old law by a new one only in passing: Dial. op. p. 3. 18. and in a word. but see also Verweijs. op. 105. 23. and do not have the rite of circumci sion. . cf.cit. Remus. Justin. 2 f. 5). 4) But this is what we are most at a loss about: that you. (Dial. 1. (n. 18. 3. Cf.g. do all things which have been written in the law… And you. 93. 3. Mach. See also n. and scoff not at the King of Israel. 48. 2. Dial. cf. 2. and v. 4. 29. thus. 2. what corresponds to his claim for his own. 5. are not in any particular separated from them.. 10). Trypho’s first two objections make plain what is meant: 74 If then you are willing to listen to me (for I have already considered you a friend). 112. 83. which will influence the later strata of the dialogue between Church and Synagogue. E. Justin’s God is the God of the patriarchs 75 76 77 78 79 80 74 75 76 77 78 79 It is only natural that the “teachers” are especially uncapable of understanding: Dial. Campenhausen. and the new moons of God. 5. Dial. argues against the Jewish interpretation. 27. art. Goppelt. 9. 2. 32. 9. as the rulers of the synagogues teach you to do after your prayers. The first and the third point soccupy the bulk of Justin’s argumentation. 3 (here.cit.g. resting your hopes on a man that was crucified. 38. 2Apol. and the feasts. and further. cf. 4). the problem of the relation of “law”-“covenant” needs further study. 186. Dial. In Dial.

6). ritual baths: 20. the prophets lead the Christians to their faith also in Dial. 31). 22. But the few allegories are not the same as the allegorizing of Philo. wants to show. like the fear of God. 6. 1. 114 with note 189. God gave them these special laws to remind them of the lex naturalis. 6. 5. This is not the place to deal with these etymologies.notes 81 82 14 and of the prophets. 139 and more often. Campenhausen.. (n. 6. Tephilin (phylacteries) and Mezuzoth: 43. 1 f. 115. 1-133. 5. 4). E. Dial. Dial. the uttering of maledictions against the Christians: e.. In other words. these commands are given to Israel alone (Dial. the laws contained in the Scriptures are in part demands for general virtues. Verweijs.. (134. 90. it must refer to someone else who is also called “God”: Jesus the Christ. 93. Cf. 5. who already perform what is actually commanded. 2) does not meet any of the common frames. 125.g.cit. 131-133). art.cit. 5. 1. Idol worship is related to Israel already in Acts 7:41. 25. But he has a specific explanation for the particularistic laws of Israel which accords with his philosophical suppositions: Since the people of Israel are so very sinful. 1.. See esp. the sins of the High Priests: Dial. 27. 1 f.g. 18:8 in Dial. 4). 2f.cit. e. 16. 93. 67. 1f.cit. 6). 43. Dial. 6).g. as some scholars hold. Campen hausen. 99. 18 at Dial. God’s answer to Israel's hardness of heart and its sins. 5 (cf. 4) and are irrelevant to all the other people. 2. see also the other “sins” of the Jews against the Christians referred to above as attacks of the Jews against the Christians. At one place this allows Justin to place the list of Israel’s sins alongside the opposing one of God’s merciful deeds to his people (Dial. p. 3. 27. p. 3-6). p. op. 1f. 1. The murder of prophets is most originally based upon 1Kings 19:10. Gager. accordingly. 5 and v. (n. 1: Circumcision as an identification sign [as later in Tertullian’s Adversus Iudaeos]: Dial. 26. 20. 120. 6. 4.g. 107. op. 114. 92. 5 Justin prefers the words of the prophets to the words of his own teachers. 1-11. 1. 4. 2.. his expositions are more typologies than allegories or etymologies. 56. Bokser. This thesis dominates the third part of the Dial. Dial. 5. 2. 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 This is the reason why Justin does not accept Israel's special relation to the patriarchs as support for Jewish claims: The fathers have been righteous and good without the special Jewish laws: Dial. 1-3. The sins of Israel are mentioned most generally in Dial. 27. the unchastity of Israel with non-Jewish women: 132. 47. Dial. 6. cf.. 1. 102. see. 53. 19. 53. 22. 57. 2-4. an etymology of “satanas”. 27. 1-42. also 128. 4. which is devoted to the exploration of prophecies and prophetic signs alluding to the coming Messiah. 8. 114. In other words. 112. p. The special laws of Israel are dealt with in the fol lowing paragraphs (for most of them cf.” This basic attitude does not disturb Justin’s ability to see in Moses’ sayings hints and mysteries related to Jesus. 6. 103. cf. 3:7-9).. See esp. 5. 4. 1 ff. 4. food-laws: 19. 114. 2 (based on Dtn. This is also the reason why the prophets utter the same commandments as Moses did: Dial. 4-91. sacrifices and temple: 19. 132.. 73. 132. p. too . an allegory of Ps. 4. 140. E. Dial. 1f (in parallel to the Philonic “logos” in Gen 18). 80. the prophets and the righteous ones: Dial. see also v. 5. 120. 93. Justin sees himself in line with the direct history of the old Scriptures. 6 and more often. 113. 119. p. cf. cf. 60. 46. 2-5. 46. 4. (based on Mt. 6. 1-3. If the text relates such an appearance before the patriarchs. of Israel: Dial.cit. A second consequence of this philosophical supposition is that the creator of the universe cannot be conceived as having appeared before men. op. Cf. E. 19. 4f.g. but only partly that of Moses. 8. . when linked to Israel. 125. (n. 156.cit. (n. the worship of demons: e. 19. 26. 20. 46. the Golden Calf: 73. 5. op. 67. 132. 6. 32:16-23). 5. 123. with further references. In the future the believing heathen will inherit from Jacob together with the patriarches. After the peoples desire to offer sacrifices was revealed by erecting the Golden Calf. 6. 11. The spiritual interpretation of the angels eating (Gen. 1. Besides the texts quoted above. Dial. 228 f. who mentions another fragment of Justin to the same account (contained in Otto’s edition). Mach. (n. 127. 40. 21. op. God ordered such sacrifices to prevent them from worshipping demons. 4). It is not as certain that Justin sees the erection of the Golden Calf as the reason for the giving of the Mosaic Law. (n. 19. 111.. 2f.M. and. 80. Campenhausen. 94. 4f. 1 f.g. 86. as v. 3:7-10//Lk. 4. 1: “But we do not hope ( hjlpi/samen ) through Moses or through the law.. 3 an etymology of “Israel”. 99. 44. at 84. the idol worship of Solomon: Dial. 2f. 95. 1 f. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . 1. This tripartiteness of the canon is mentioned expressis verbis only once in the Dial. Shabbath: cf. 92. 6.

. 1975. 31: 31). see Gager. this is due to a different methodological approach. even though he has his own very special theory about the ultimate aim of these laws. 5:20) The law is part of the history of God’s relationship with his people. as the command that distinguishes between Israel and the heathen. 169-195. 260-270.M. 92). it seems that the people of that region suffered severely during the Bar-Kokhba war.cit. 93 94 95 VI This system according to which the whole of the Jewish Bible becomes a Christian book exacts a high price: the polemics against the Jews. p.” But Justin’s system has the merit that the revelation on Mount Sinai is no more a law that “entered nearby (pareishvl en ). (n. (n. 1-3). the lex naturalis. It therefore seems almost irrelevant whether or not his accusations are historically correct. but R. 6 he calls the Samaritans “my people”. esp. 44. O. 120. but they now become exclusively God’s answer to the sinful Israel. Jews cannot or will not understand what Justin allegedly is trying to teach them. Paul opposed the Sinai revelation to the general moral virtues known by all (Rom. The problem of the supposed readers is dealt with at length by Stylianopoulis. i. See also Simon. Nietzsche. It seems that Justin had one eye directed to the pagan audience and the other to his own Christian community . but it neither spoke to Jews nor was it interested in their responses to it.DS 20). op. pp. 15:6. The Dialogus cum Tryphone Iudaeo may speak to both of these. who “believed in the Lord. whose sins must now be illustrated at some length. This matter has been the subject of too much debate to be answered here in brief. or as he would have put it. Which must not be understood as antithesis insofar as potential Christians from the heathen are envi sioned. This seems the most “historical” background for Justin’s anti-Jewish writing. i. After Justin has departed from Jews and Judaism he seeks to show that Judaism itself has abandoned the correct. pp. Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile § 84. For Justin’s relation to Paul (he never quotes or names him!). cannot annul the promise given to Abraham. 2) To some extent. pp. which cannot be discussed within the confines of this paper. Sichem. but he does not seem to have speculated (either here or in Gal. are not so much a later addition to the original promises. As indicated by the already quoted sentence in 1Apol.cit. It is generally accepted that Justin was himself a “Christian from the heathen”. see Schreckenberg. but the newly revealed law of Jesus is nothing more than the old one. 4). op. SBL. 31 (see above). cf. op. The persecutions and maledictions of the Jews against the Christians are a necessary counterpart hereto.cit. 6). 175. But the historicity of Justin’s theory ends precisely where it begins: Paul needed a new revelation. which after all had had some meaning for others as well. 3: The law. 4). which he saw in Jesus’ death. (n. Christian development. which now maintains the sanctity of the Old Testament for the Church and keeps the Church safe from Marcion's non-Jewish “Christianity”. i. Morgenröte.e. If we do not share the same opinion on this point.e. pp.” (Rom. pp. one should remember that he was born and brought up in Neapolis. on account of the hardness of your people’s hearts. Gen. but the anti-gnostic part does not diminish the anti-Jewish elements. Bultmann’s interpretation of Paul’s anthropological terms still seems to have a lot to teach us in this respect: Theologie des Neuen Testaments . 3) over the question whether the special laws of Israel are directed only toward Israel. 113. that the offense might abound. p. The special laws of Israel.notes 15 … for I say that some injunctions were laid on you in reference to the worship of God and practice of righteousness . op. For this part Justin and Paul reflect on Gen. Justin Martyr and the Mosaic Law (Missoula/Mont. and he counted it to him for righteousness. 51-76. (n. Cf.. what God ever wanted. F. nevertheless. 1Apol. JUSTIN MARTYR’S DIALOGUS . 142 f.cit. as developed in Gal. but some injunctions and acts were likewise mentioned in reference to the mystery of Christ. 96 97 98 99 100 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 The only elaborated discussion on this point known to me is by T. In Dial. 26. op. this scheme reflects Paul’s theory.cit. (Dial.e. Mach. 182 f. 15:6. Rightly stressed by v. Stylianopoulis. (n. Merk (Tübingen 1977 7). . for they are prescribed by his system. Campenhausen. 5). Justin also acknowledges a new covenant (according to Jer. in the coming of Christ. ed.