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# CIVL 361 Earthwork

Dr. Mehmet M. Kunt
Fall 2009 EMU

Earthwork
• Always Transportation Construction Projects involve earthwork • Objective is usually the minimization of earthwork

Earthwork Cross-Sections

Example Cut and Fill
EXCAVATION (CUT)

EMBANKMENT (FILL)

agtek.com/highway.htm 6 . etc) • Attempt to minimize amount of earthwork necessary – Set grade line as close as possible to natural ground level – Set grade line so there is a balance between excavated volume and volume of embankment http://www.Terrain Effects on Route Location • Don’t forget your design criteria (grades.

Earthwork Cross-Sections Cut-excavation Fill-embankment Slopes: <45° vertical component is unitary 1:2 >45° horizontal component is unitary 5:1 Note: Cut and fill slopes are always flatter than 1:1 .

Cross-Section Data Format .

Cross-Section .

Cross-Section .

Cross-Section Area Example .

Cross-Section Area Example .

Cross-Section Area .

Cross-Section Area .

Ref: IGRDS Chapter-7 .

Ref: IGRDS Chapter-7 .

Area Calculation .

Area Calculation .

Area Calculation .

.Area Calculation In this formula.2+ 12.3)+ (9.8+ 35. Applying the formula for station 305 + 00.71 square feet. you get the following results: A = (40/4)(8.3/2)(29. and C is the depth of the center-line cut or fill.3)= 507. W is the width of the highway. dl and dr are the center-line distances of the left and right slope stakes. hl and hr. are the vertical distances of the left and right slope stakes above grade.

hl and hr.2+ 12. Applying the formula for station 305 + 00. you get the following results: A = (40/4)(8.8+ 35. dl and dr are the center-line distances of the left and right slope stakes.3)+ (9. . are the vertical distances of the left and right slope stakes above grade.Area Calculation In this formula.71 square feet.3)= 507. W is the width of the highway.3/2)(29. and C is the depth of the center-line cut or fill.

W is the width of the highway. . are the vertical distances of the left and right slope stakes above grade.3)= 507.71 square feet.8+ 35. Applying the formula for station 305 + 00.Area Calculation In this formula. hl and hr.2+ 12. dl and dr are the center-line distances of the left and right slope stakes.3)+ (9. you get the following results: A = (40/4)(8. and C is the depth of the center-line cut or fill.3/2)(29.

2+ 12. Applying the formula for station 305 + 00. are the vertical distances of the left and right slope stakes above grade.8+ 35. and C is the depth of the center-line cut or fill.Area Calculation In this formula. . you get the following results: A = (40/4)(8. hl and hr.3/2)(29.3)+ (9.71 square feet.3)= 507. dl and dr are the center-line distances of the left and right slope stakes. W is the width of the highway.

you get the following results: A = (40/4)(8. Applying the formula for station 305 + 00. hl and hr.Area Calculation In this formula.71 square feet. . W is the width of the highway.3)+ (9.3)= 507. dl and dr are the center-line distances of the left and right slope stakes. and C is the depth of the center-line cut or fill.8+ 35.2+ 12. are the vertical distances of the left and right slope stakes above grade.3/2)(29.

3)+ (9. dl and dr are the center-line distances of the left and right slope stakes. are the vertical distances of the left and right slope stakes above grade. you get the following results: A = (40/4)(8. . hl and hr.71 square feet.3/2)(29. W is the width of the highway.2+ 12.3)= 507.8+ 35. Applying the formula for station 305 + 00. and C is the depth of the center-line cut or fill.Area Calculation In this formula.

W is the width of the highway. .3/2)(29. hl and hr. are the vertical distances of the left and right slope stakes above grade. Applying the formula for station 305 + 00.71 square feet. you get the following results: A = (40/4)(8.2+ 12.3)= 507.3)+ (9.Area Calculation In this formula. dl and dr are the center-line distances of the left and right slope stakes. and C is the depth of the center-line cut or fill.8+ 35.

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Earthwork Analysis • • • • • Take cross-sections (typically 25 m) Plot natural ground level Plot proposed grade profile Indicate areas of cut and fill Calculate volume between cross-sections 28 .

Earthwork Quantities Earthwork computations involve: • Calculation of earthwork volumes • Balancing of cuts and fills • Planning of the most economical material hauls. .

Shrinkage • Material volume increases during excavation • Decreases during compaction • Varies with – soil type – fill height – cut depth 30 .

Swell • Excavated rock used in embankment occupies more space • May amount to 30% or more 31 .

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• Shrinkage factors of 15 to 20% and a bulkage factor of 25% Ref: Florida Department of Transportation Summary of Final Report. WPI# 0510796 January 1999 .

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.Mass Diagram Earthmoving is basically an operation where material is removed from high spots and deposited in low spots with the “making up” of any deficit with borrow or the wasting of excess cut material.

Mass Diagram The mass diagram is an excellent method of analyzing linear earthmoving operations. . It is a graphical means for measuring haul distance (stations) in terms of earthwork volume (cubic yards).

. • Average haul distance. • Haul grades. • Where quantities of material are required.Mass Diagram Aids in identifying: • Where to utilize specific types of equipment.

One station equals 100m. 1+00 0+00 10 .Earthwork The horizontal dimensions of a project are dimensioned in stations. 0m .

measured in sta–yd3 or sta-m3 • Borrow – material taken from outside of project • Waste – excavated material not used in project 43 .Special Terms • Free haul distance (FHD).distance beyond which it is more economical to borrow or waste than to haul from the project • Overhaul – volume of material (Y) moved X Stations beyond Free haul.distance earth is moved without additional compensation • Limit of Profitable Haul (LPH) .

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globalsecurity.Ref: http://www.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/5-430-00-1/CH3.htm .

Ref: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/5-430-00-1/CH3.htm .

htm .globalsecurity.Ref: http://www.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/5-430-00-1/CH3.

org/military/library/policy/army/fm/5-430-00-1/CH3.globalsecurity.htm .Ref: http://www.

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Between Stations 0 + 00 and 0 + 132. distance is less than FHD of 200 m Note: definitely NOT to scale! Source: Wright 1996 50 . cut and fill equal each other.

Between Stations 0 + 132 and 0 + 907. 1996 51 . but distance is greater than either FHD of 200 m or LPH of 725 m Distance = [0 + 907] – [0 + 132] = 775 m Source: Wright. cut and fill equal each other.

distance = FHD of 200 m Treated as freehaul Source: Wright.Between Stations 0 + 179 and 0 + 379. 1996 52 . cut and fill equal each other.

cut and fill equal each other. distance = LPH of 725 m Source: Wright.Between Stations 0 + 142 and 0+ 867. 1996 53 .

1996 54 .Material between Stations 0 + 132 and 0 + 142 becomes waste and material between stations 0 + 867 and 0 +907 becomes borrow Source: Wright.

distance = FHD of 200 m Source: Wright. cut and fill equal each other. 1996 55 .Between Stations 0 + 970 and 1 + 170.

cut and fill equal each other. 1996 56 .Between Stations 0 + 960 and 1 + 250. distance is less than LPH of 725 m Source: Wright.

an additional 1200 m3 of borrow is required Source: Wright. 1996 57 .Project ends at Station 1 + 250.

Example Cut and Fill As material is moved from the excavation to the compacted fill the only factor that is constant is the weight of the solid particles (γd). .