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The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal, 2013, 6, 9-17 9

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Review and Analysis of Cuttings Transport in Complex Structural Wells
Wang Kelin*, Yan Tie, Sun Xiaofeng, Shao Shuai and Luan Shizhu
College of Petroleum Engineering, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing 163318, China
Abstract: Complex structural wells are widely used in the development of marine oilfields, old oilfield sand low permeable oilfields. However, poor hole cleaning often occurred in the highly-deviated sections and horizontal sections of the complex structural wells, which affects rate of penetration, cementing quality and downhole safety. It is advisable to study the behavior of cuttings transport under different conditions. In general, experimental observations and CFD simulations are main methods to analyze the effects of cutting parameters, fluid parameters and operational parameters on hole cleaning. The correlations and models are applied to predict the number of cuttings and the critical velocity in the annulus. In this paper, an analysis of key parameters is conducted on cuttings transport, the existing problems and characteristics of these correlations and models are summarized,, and different removal methods of annular cuttings and future research needs are discussed. Although major improvements have been achieved in the past several decades, how to accurately predict the cuttings bed height, critical velocity and other key parameters, and to effectively solve the poor hole cleaning still is a difficulty challenge. Therefore, more research will be conducted to further understand cuttings transport mechanism in multi-factors coupling and complex wellbore conditions.

Keywords: cuttings transport, hole cleaning, cuttings removal method, complex structural well. 1. INTRODUCTION Complex structural wells, including extended reach wells (ERW), horizontal wells, highly-inclined wells, a etc are widely used in the development of marine oilfields, old oilfields and low permeable oilfields. However, during drilling operations, if the fluid velocity is lower than a critical value in annulus, cuttings will accumulate and develop cuttings bed. In this case, poor hole cleaning results in higher drag and torque, pipe sticking, slower rate of penetration (ROP), formation fractures, bad cementing quality and wellbore steering problems. For example, in drilling Long 40-1 highly-inclined well of Sichuan Oilfield, hole cleaning problems resulted in more than one pipe sticking, and the drill string was jammed in 2288.87m [1]. The poor hole cleaning also happened in the 8 1/2 inch section of extended reach well in BP's Wych Farm Oilfield [2]. However, the average stuck pipe cost per well amounted to 1.7 million dollars for each well drilled between 1985 and 1988 [3]. As a result, cuttings transport has continued to be a subject of interest to researchers and engineers, and the research mainly focused on the sensitivity analysis, correlations and models, and cuttings removal methods. These achievements were mainly addressed in this paper. 2. ANALYSES OF KEY CUTTINGS TRANSPORT PARAMETERS ON shape and size, and cutting concentration. The second group consists of the fluid parameters i.e. fluid viscosity, fluid density, and fluid flow rate. The third group consists of the operational parameters including inclination, drillpipe rotation speed, annuli size, and eccentricity. Initially, experiments are the main ways to study the effects of these parameters on cuttings transport, and some universities and research institutions such as Tulsa University Drilling Research Projects (TUDRP) [5], Southwest Research [6], M.I. Drilling Fluids [7], Middle East Technical University (METU) [8] have established cuttings transport flow loops. In recent years, CFD [8] has also been used to simulate the cuttings transport in different conditions, help the researchers get to the root of problems and provide enough information where measurements are either difficult or impossible to obtain. 2.1. Effect of Drillpipe Rotation on Hole Cleaning In rotary drilling, the drill pipe is always in rotation, except when making a connection or tripping. In the eccentric annuli, pipe rotation drives solid and liquid phase helical motion, and continously carries energy to these cuttings near the pipe surface, where cuttings slide along the rotary direction. Meanwhile, these cuttings also carry energy to nearby cuttings. Finally, some cuttings are carried by high fluid flow, and others form a cuttings bed which has asymmetrical distribution along the circumference direction. The two magnitudes are mainly dependent on fluid flow rate and rotary speed, and are also affected by inclination, particle size, and other factors. As shown in Table 1 , cutting transport is made easier when the drillpipe rotation speed is controlled in a special range.

The major parameters which affect cuttings transport can be divided into three different groups [4]. The first group consists of cutting parameters such as cutting density, cutting
*Address correspondence to this author at the College of Petroleum Engineering, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing 163318, China; Tel: +860459-6503521; Fax: +860459-6503482; E-mails: wwangkelin@163.com, wkl2370@163.com 1876-973X/13

2013 Bentham Open

it is necessary to evaluate the cuttings transport in different inclinations. The first type indicates the amount of annular cuttings under a given drilling condition. cuttings are usually considered as uniform size. Drillpipe rotation can improve cutting transport more for smaller sized particles. The Correlations and Models of Annular Cuttings The amount of annular cuttings can clearly reflect the cuttings transport efficiency. 2.2-8. fluid behavior index (n). The orbital motion decreases the critical velocity required to remove stationary cuttings bed totally.3-11. particle size. a large number of correlations and models were developed. It is worth mentioning that low viscosity drilling fluid is effective to erode cuttings bed. As shown in Table 3. The former can help the designer to avoid the regions in designing the well path. fluid viscosity and velocity Motion manner.311. Pipe rotation improves the transport efficiency of smaller cuttings compared with larger-sized cuttings. Good hole cleaning can be obtained in orbital motion or with high rotary speed at 90 degrees and low flow rates.6 cm Conclusion Pipe rotation significantly reduces the cuttings bed height in a low flow rate. and at horizontal.4 cm CFD. Pipe rotation enhances hole cleaning more when the used mud has a higher viscosity with smaller cuttings sizes or for hole angle at 65 degrees. flow rate and inclination Heriot-Watt U. 15.3 cm TUDRP. and can be obtained from the annular critical velocity correlations and models. Table 1. inclination may vary from vertical to horizontal. some contradictory conclusions were reached due to different particle sizes. circulating fluids and other parameters. and large cuttings transport is mainly dominated by fluid flow rate.6-3. but there is no precise range due to different experimental conditions. Pipe rotation has a significant effect on the minimum transport velocity in medium or highly viscous fluids. 20. As shown in Table 2. viscosity. we can better observe and understand the cuttings transport process. But drillpipe rotation has no an additional contribution to hole cleaning after a certain rotation speed. [11] Bilgesu et al. The terminal velocity. Therefore. The rheology is related to shear force which mainly suspends and carries cuttings. Effect of Inclination on Hole Cleaning In the wellbore of complex wells. but high viscosity contributes to carrying cuttings.4 cm CFD. As shown in Table 4. Effect of Mud Rheology on Hole Cleaning Rheology can be defined as the science of deformation and flow. 7. These properties of the circulation fluid have an effect on solids transport. 20. CUTTINGS TRANSPORT CORRELATIONS AND MODELS Through experimental observations and CFD simulations.9 cm Particle size TUDRP. cuttings bed height (CH). the rheology may include yield values. but the pipe rotation has no significant effect cuttings bed in high flow rate. Wang et al. ROP 0-60 rpm 0-120 rpm Motion manner METU. and the entire wellbore is divided into three segments based on cuttings transport mechanism.2. Pipe rotation between 80-120 rpm has a significant effect on hole cleaning. drag force. 21.6-12. [10] Sanchez et al.3-11. 3. cuttings concentration (CC).8 cm Eccentricity. To describe cuttings transport efficiency quantitatively. and two types of parameters were used as target variables. The latter can make these existing models and correlations of cuttings transport used for reasonable sections. 13-6 cm TUDRP Southwest Research.4 cm CFD. [9] Peden et al. cuttings bed area (CA). 2. and the ratio between mass of suspended particles and initial mass of deposited cuttings (RMC) can be used to .3. Drillpipe Rotation vs Hole Cleaning Rotary Speed Source Additional Factors Methods China Petroleum University. 20. yield point/plastic viscosity (YP/PV).4. 8.4-4. pipe rotation contributes to cuttings transport. 3. flow regime and inclination. [12] Duan et al. buoyant forces and shear forces between cuttings are affected by both the properties of the cuttings and the circulated fluid. Effect of Cuttings Size on Hole Cleaning To simplify experimental observation. and consistency coefficient (k). [14] unknown Inclination. viscosity and cuttings size Inclination. In small annuli or positive eccentricity. The cuttings size is related to their dynamic behavior in a flowing media. the effect of rheology on cuttings transport depends on flow rate. hole size.9-6. and can be calculated by annular cuttings correlations and models. but it can be sure that pipe rotation and fluid rheology were the key factors in controlling small cuttings transport. [13] Li et al. The second type shows the required annular velocity to keep a minimum a amount of cuttings in a well. 2013. In previous studies.1. Pipe rotation has the greatest effect on hole cleaning for small cuttings and low ROP at inclination near horizontal. However. [1] 0-60 rpm Flow rate Bassal [5] Sifferman and Becker [6] Sorgun [8] Ozbayoglu et al.7 cm 0-120 rpm 0-175 rpm 0-60 rpm 0-160 rpm 0-200 rpm 2. Volume 6 Kelin et al. it refers to the different properties and characteristics of the drilling fluid. and improve the accuracy of cuttings bed height and critical velocity.10 The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal. there is a range of inclinations where cuttings transport is the toughest. 7.

angle has the greatest influence on hole cleaning. Volume 6 11 Table 2. Mud Rheology vs Hole Cleaning Factors Shear viscosity yield values and YP/PV Viscosity. or with a high viscosity fluid in laminar flow for the vertical/near vertical wellbore.3-11. 20. 6.9 cm (UTM). Water is very effective in bed erosion process. [25] Zamora and Hanson [26] Becker et al.9-6.9 cm Conclusions Low shear viscosity should be evaluated to obtain good hole cleaning. At near-vertical angles. Cuttings are harder to be transported at 45-55° angle. there exist the following shortcomings in these Source Sifferman and Becker [6] Seeberger et al.4-5. [7] Okrajni and Azar [15] Hareland et al. with little sliding or tumbling tendency.8 cm University Technology Malaysia. [10] Okrajni and Azar [15] Ali et al. [7] Peden et al. The poorest removal rates generally occur with angles in the region of 50 to 60 degrees.4cm M. but it doesn't carry cuttings for a long distance.4 cm University Technology Malaysia. YP/PV is detrimental to cuttings transport. these models have gradually considered the key factors.3-12. Raising viscosity of the drilling fluid deteriorates hole cleaning. transport performance is better when mud is in laminar flow.2-8.I. which is comprised of suspended layer. [23] Conclusion Cuttings bed may slide continually and tumble down at inclination between 45 and 60°. The critical angle is between 40 and 55°. slippage between fluid and cuttings. 20. Drilling Fluids TUDRP CFD. moving cuttings bed can form. As the deviation angle decreases. 15.7-4.6-8. Hole cleaning is more efficient with a low viscosity fluid in turbulent flow for horizontal/near horizontal wellbore. 14.96. stationary or mobile cuttings bed.8 cm TUDRP. A stationery cuttings bed can form for high angles transport.I.1 cm Daqing Petroleum Institute BP Research Centre. 20. As shown in Table 5.4-5. Lower cuttings bed height is achieved as the n/K ratio increases. and the highest cuttings concentration is presented from 45 to 60°. including cuttings distribution of the suspended layer. The following models can be used to calculate these parameters: Two layer model.I.7-4.3 cm TUDRP. Also. Inclination vs Hole Cleaning Inclination 45-90° unknown 0-90° 0-90° Methods Southwest Research. For inclination from vertical to 45°. turbulent flow is recommended. In laminar flow. particle settling.1 cm n/K Plastic viscosity Ali et al. 8.7 cm M. Drilling Fluids Heriot-Watt U. [24] Brown et al. cave-in of wellbore. it becomes harder to clean out particles. Improvement in hole cleaning occurs as viscosity increases. [22] BJ Services. Cuttings bed problems rise at inclination angles between 35 and 55°.7-5. [23] depict the amount of annular cuttings. and cuttings exchange between layers. [20] Walker and Li [21] Rishi et al. cuttings beds are quiescent. 8. At angles from 60 to 90°. and it has been proved that cuttings can be better displaced in turbulent flow than laminar flow. but the surplus amount of viscosity inverses the result. [16] Meano [17] Kelessidis and Bandelis [18] Ford et al. 7-4cm Heriot-Watt U. Source Seeberger et al. 12. cuttings-fluid interaction. Cuttings transport was not affected by mud rheology in turbulent flow. 2013. In intermediate angles.3-11.1 cm Viscosity TUDRP. 6. Hole angles between 40° and 60° are the worst angles for cuttings transport for both rolling and suspension transport form. 12. includes a stable two layer model (STM) and an unstable two layer model Table 3. YP/PV Yield stress Methods M. Increasing the plastic viscosity of the mud results in a remarkable raise in the amount of recovered cuttings. pipe TUDRP. because type of flow regime changes from turbulent flow to laminar flow. Drilling Fluids TUDRP. The zones where cleaning is most difficult are between 30 and 60°. particle settling determines transport. A decrease in cuttings concentration with increasing yield stress. The model. and water-based mud has better hole cleaning than oil-based mud for medium and high inclinations. [27] Mishra [28] 0-90° 0-90° unknown 30-70° 60-90° .Review and Analysis of Cuttings Transport in Complex Structural Wells The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal. [19] Valluri et al. However.4 cm TUDRP Technical University of Crete. higher mud yield values and YP/PV provide better cuttings transport. For inclination>60°. 12. 60-90° Yang et al. gain/loss from crumbling.

30-60° section. Volume 6 Kelin et al. Cho et al.9 cm Petrobras. The vertical model. Larger particles are always harder to be transported than smaller ones.3-10. Table 5. [31] Martins and Santana [32] Kamp and Rivero [33] Martins [34] Li et al. cuttings size have a minor effect on cuttings transport. 20. 20. TUDRP. Solid-liquid interaction. inclination. the smaller cuttings are easier to transport. Mud rheology.54-6. While larger cuttings were easier to transport at low angles with high viscosity fluid.89 cm Conclusions In horizontal section. Two Layer Models of Cuttings Transport Source Lu [2] Gavignet and Sobey [30] Santana et al. Empirical correlations. slippage between fluid and cuttings. and interaction between cuttings bed and suspended layer. 13-6 cm CFD. 20. Hole cleaning is easier for larger particles as compared to smaller ones when water is used as the drilling fluid. and 60-90°). Cuttings Size vs Hole Cleaning Source Wang et al. As shown in Table 6. mass diffusion. the accuracy of model is mainly dependent on both two layer and three layer model. two layer model and three layer model were used to depict the 0-30° section.3-11. But it has a opposite effect with 0.12 The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal.76 mm is most difficulty to be removed by the water. 2013. which is comprised of suspended layer. there exist the following shortcomings in these models: i) Mechanical equilibrium is used to calculate the cuttings bed velocity. ii) Cuttings size. stationary and mobile cuttings bed. Smaller cuttings are slightly harder to clean out. However. [35] Goal CH CH CH CC CH CH CH CC CH Model Type STM STM STM STM STM UTM UTM sphericity and distribution are uniform. TUDRP. v) Mass and energy exchange between wellbore and formation. 12.2-8. Exchange of particle and drilling fluid between layers. Three layer model. and 60-90° section. Table 4. and mass exchange between layers. [1] Ali [4] Bassal [5] Peden et al. cave-in of wellbore. the correlations were developed based on the data from CFD and Characteristics/Main Factors The formation of cuttings bed in new drilling section. formation. Smaller cuttings were more difficult to transport at any inclination with low viscosity fluid.99 mm 2 . Therefore. respectively. [37] CH UTM 0-90° .45-3. these models have gradually considered the key factors. [13] Walker and Li [21] Mishra [28] Martins et al. cuttings mass flow between bed and suspension.7 to 3.35 mm 2 to 7 mm 0. particle settling velocity.38.4 cm At high rotary speed and with high viscosity mud.2 cm TUDRP Heriot-Watt U. iii) Mud density and rheological properties are constant. ii) Cuttings size. iii) Cuttings bed concentration. [29] Particle Size 3.4-5.3-11. and the wellbore is divided into three segments (0-30°. pipe 3-8 mm 2-6 mm CFD. The model. Diffusion equation. sphericity and distribution are uniform.65 mm 2.25 ppb PAC solutions. Three segment model. [11] Duan et al. [42] established the first three-segment model. Gain/loss from crumbling. Applicability Inclined well Highly deviated well High angle and horizontal well Horizontal and near horizontal well Highly inclined well ERW Horizontal well Doan et al. including cuttings distribution of suspended layer. Cuttings settling and resuspension. interaction between fluid phase and solid phase in suspended layer. Cuttings transport for small particle size is greatly enhanced when drilling with high density mud circulated at high flow rate. An average size of 0. 6.7 mm 1. Cuttings deposition and resuspension. [36] UTM Highly-inclined well Suzana et al.2 cm models: i) Pipe rotation is ignored. 30-60°.4 cm Smaller cuttings is more difficulty to be removed than larger cuttings when tested with water.3 mm Methods China Petroleum University. iv) An isothermal process is assumed. ROP. Slippage between cuttings and drilling fluid. v) Mass and energy exchange between wellbore and formation. 0. mud density and rheological properties are constant. 15.7-10. particle settling. eccentricity. iv) An isothermal process is assumed. includes a stable three layer model (STHM) and an unstable three layer model (UTHM). [10] Sanchez et al.7 mm BJ Services. As shown in Table 7.15.

Some field applications were also conducted. but soft formation appeared crumbling and cave-in due to higher flow velocity [51]. hole angle.situ concentration of flowing cuttings. n and viscosity (Table 2). annuli size. pipe rotation. ROP. minimum flow rate (MFR). All of these pertain to the same condition. mass exchange between layers. This is particularly true in deep water drilling where only a narrow mud window is available. the reasonable choose of flow rate and accurate prediction of critical velocity are very important. Most of these methods change the rheology of drilling fluid. local gravity. eccentricity. such as YP/PV. For example. eccentricity Flow rate. 3. and pipe rotation. [41] experiments. and made some Characteristics/Main Factors Flow rate. cuttings size. which is defined as the minimum average annular fluid velocity to prevent the formation of cuttings bed. various methods have been introduced to control the formation of cuttings beds. a high fluid flow velocity is limited by surface equipments and downhole drill string. particle settling. lift force. friction forces. and critical flow velocity (CFV) are used to depict the critical velocity. Flow rate. annuli size. Over the years. 2013. pipe rotation and other parameters were considered. inclination. ROP. but it is limited in narrow regions. mud density and rheology. injection rate of cuttings. initial cuttings bed height and mass Flow rate. drag force. critical transport fluid velocity (CTFV). Good hole cleaning was achieved when flow velocity varied from 32-35 L/s to 60 L/s. [43] Ozbayoglu et al. the cuttings transport experiments of high fluid velocity were conducted in the Li 1-11 well. ROP. Effective thickness expression Diffusion equation. etc. or all these forms together. inclination. ROP. Unfortunately. Slip between fluid and cuttings. these correlations considered flow rate. However. On the other hand. Flow rate. [1] Bassal [5] Li et al. mud density and rheology. [13] Loureiro et al. CUTTINGS REMOVAL METHODS High fluid velocity. including drag coefficient. Suspension. mud density and rheology. in. Volume 6 13 Table 6. annuli size. In these studies. Mechanical model (MM). [40] Wang et al. inclination. Empirical Correlations of Annular Cuttings Source Wang et al. annuli size. mud density and rheology. rotation speed. These correlations can provide the simplified algorithm for the engineering and check the accuracy of the above mechanical models. mud density and viscosity.2. 4. critical resuspension velocity (CRV). As shown in Table 8.Review and Analysis of Cuttings Transport in Complex Structural Wells The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal. there are two types used to calculate critical velocity. Drilling-fluid additives. inclination. and there are two methods to calculate the critical velocity. Similar to the empirical Table 7. Annuli size. Applicability Inclined well Deviated and horizontal well Horizontal well Highly-inclined well ERW Source Lu [2] Nguyen and Rahman [38] Cho et al. fiber sweep can be applied to clean the borehole and reduce cuttings bed height. plastic force and pressure force. [39] Ozbayoglu et al. which can decrease cuttings concentration in the annuli. these methods are inefficient in completely preventing the formation of a cuttings bed. lift coefficient and inclination factor. cuttings size and density. on one hand. Van der Waals force. drillpipe rotation. changing ROP. which enhances the cuttings-transport ability of the drilling fluid. [9] Duan et al. For horizontal and highly deviated sections. eccentricity. rolling. pipe rotation. [14] Ozbayoglu et al. rotation speed. and cause additional problems. minimum transport velocity (MTV). annuli size. mud density and rheology. Applicability Horizontal well Inclined well ERW Horizontal and deviated well ERW Horizontal well Inclined-horizontal well . as seen in Table 8. [44] Goal CH CH CH CA CC/CH RMC CA correlations of annular cuttings. inclination. Flow rate. The second type is obtained by mass balance between cuttings generated and transported. slipping. cuttings density. ROP. critical flow rate (CFR). The common problem of the two is how to accurately determine these coefficients. the increment of the annular fluid velocity results in open hole erosion and uncontrolled losses after fracturing. Empirical correlations (EC). but they are valid under special conditions. A well-known solution to solve hole cleaning problem is to increase the flow velocity of the drilling fluid. mud density and rheology. The first type is obtained by establishing mechanical equilibrium among static force. Three Layer Models of Cuttings Transport Goal CH CH CH CA CH Model Type STHM STHM STHM STHM UTHM Characteristics/Main Factors The formation of cuttings bed in new drilling section. The Correlations and Models of Annular Critical Velocity To assure the safe and efficient drilling.

1. The use of CRT can reduce the loss of velocity in the cuttings bed erosion better than standard equipment. and developed some patents [64-65]. unless combined with adequate pipe rotation or flow rate. If fiber additives are employed in higher concentration under high flow rate conditions or with rapid rotation. MFR Model Type MM EC MM MM MM EC Characteristics/Main Factors Drag force. [10] Ozbayoglu et al. Meanwhile. which leads to poor accuracy of some coefficients and parameters referred by mechanistic models such as particle diffusion coefficient and hindered particle settling velocity. Applicability Inclined well Inclined-horizontal well 0-90° 55-90° Horizontal and highangle well Deviated well Deviated and horizontal well 0-90° Peden et al. and cuttings are transported by the vortex cavity from low side to up side. [49] Mohammadsalehi and Malekzadeh [50] Buoyancy force. how to design a tool which is the integration of cleaning efficiency. Improving Cuttings Transport Flow Loops Even though many flow loops have been established over the past few decades. V-shape slot can make velocity field helical distribution and inlet velocity increase by around 100% in a very short axial distance. fluid can form a vortex cavity near spiral grooves with CRT. gravity force. 4. these suspended cuttings are carried away by drilling fluid. Volume 6 Kelin et al. cuttings size and density. drag force and pressure force. ROP. Adding fiber materials into drilling sweeps significantly improves sweep efficiency of the fluid in fully eccentric annuli. operational safety. . The drillpipe rotation has a moderate effect on the performance of the CRT. The effect of fiber is minimal at the 70° configuration. CCD video camera system [43. the CRT have carried out some field tests [6263]. Bed area is sensitive to differences in tool spacing when a small number of tools per length of the wellbore is used. and the following conclusions were reached based on the experiments [20. fluid and cutting properties achievements [52-54]. ROP. low cost and rotary torque is still a difficult challenge. To date. the plastic force. 5. and study the performance of the tool in various conditions. especially in the horizontal configuration. 6. [48] Mirhaj et al. A negative angle is designed on each blade to improve the scooping effect of cuttings bed. such as formation fluid influx. 3. 66] is introduced into flow Mechanical methods. hydraulics. mud density and rheology. The blades scoop the cuttings bed and help to bring the cuttings into suspension with drillpipe rotation. and can't record velocity field and concentration distribution of particles. Ideally. annuli size. However. which results in good hole cleaning. wellbore collapse and wellbore heat transfer. gravity force and lift force. most of these flow loops can not depict the real cuttings transport in real wellbore conditions. lift force. Table 8. friction force. Meanwhile. inclination. Mass generated by drillbit=mass transported by mud Static force. [46] Duan et al. Mechanical Correlations and Models of Critical Velocity Source Goal MTV CFV MTV CTFV CRV CFR MTV EC Flow rate. the flow behavior. The increment of fiber concentration improves the cleaning efficiency if the pipe rotation and/or flow rates are high. mud density and rheology. 5. annuli size. drag force. efficiency further decreased. 3. these facilities only can measure cuttings bed height or area and pressure. As greater amounts of fiber were employed. but improves hole cleaning regardless of the bed area in horizontal well. It was noted that some decrease in sweep efficiency always accompanied the addition of fiber. High viscous and high density sweep is ineffective to carry cuttings. Cuttings removal tools (CRT) as a mechanical method have helical grooves or blades on their surface. rotation speed. FUTURE RESEARCHES 5. and cuttings-transport efficiency of fiber sweeps is less known.1. 2. To further understand the interaction mechanism between tool and cuttings or drilling fluid. 55-56]: 1. lift force and Van der Waals force. CRT can effectively remove the cuttings in highly deviated and horizontal well. 2. gravity. 2013. and affects the accuracy of mechanistic models. wellbore quality.14 The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal. eccentricity. 5. 4. given the fluid properties and inclination utilized for these tests. Annular size. cuttings removal will be increased relative to lower concentration sweeps under the same conditions. flow rate. However. time saving. Flow rate. inclination. the following conclusions were reached by experiments [57-59] and CFD simulations [60-61]. [47] Luo et al. [44] Clark and Bickham [45] Larsen et al. inclination.

Azar. A.. Higher viscous drilling fluid with pipe rotation speed between 40 and 80 rpm can be used to erode the cuttings bed. For highly deviated and horizontal sections.A. R. Hanson. simplify too many assumptions or neglect certain observed phenomena [39]. Liu. 2011ZX05009-005) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No..A.4. 16(4). SPE Dril. 5. and the critical angle should be avoided if possible. J. Amsterdam: Netherlands. An experimental study of transport of drilling cuttings in a horizontal well. The other problem is to apply improper concepts. pipe eccentricity. Ford. Martins. M. and makes a quick decision whether measures are taken to improve cuttings transport and prevent downhole accidents. The Hague: Netherlands. West Virginia University. Bradley. the decision making system conducts the comprehensive evaluation for hole cleaning conditions.. and some high-accuracy coefficients can be obtained from the advanced flow loop.R.W.D. New Orleans: USA. 51204056) are gratefully acknowledged. P. R. there is a big difference between cuttings bed distribution and available models when the drillpipe is rotating. Acta Petrolei Sin. 4(2). SPE J. [68] make such an attempt. but much more work is needed to built a comprehensive optimizing system. Li.. T. fiber sweep and cuttings bed removal tool are considered as two effective methods to remove cuttings. Solids control system will continue working to keep lower solid concentration and sand content. 4. M. 1995. Becker. cuttings concentration and hydraulic pressure drop by processing these collecting data. when and where to apply the two and how to use the combination of fiber sweep and CRT should be further studied.. A Task Force Approach to Reducing Stuck Pipe Costs. Seeberger.. In addition. 2002.E. 7(2). A larger drillpipe is recommended to increase flow rate.. M. As drilling goes on.. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The support of National Science and Technology Major Project of China (No. No. 2010.W. 6. Sorgun. Finally. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] . If possible. C. Hole cleaning problem should be integrated into hydraulics design before drilling. cross-sectional distribution and average velocity of cuttings. Sorgun..R. Design system integrates the hole cleaning problem into hydraulics design. Volume 6 15 loops to record the velocity profile. In addition. R. 3. Building Hole Cleaning Optimizing System Hole cleaning is closely linked with both drilling design and drilling operations. 1999. In: SPE/IADC Drilling Conference. Optimizing Mechanistic Models There seems to be two main reasons for a low accuracy of most of mechanistic models. 51174043. M. University of Tulsa.H. Comprehensive Experimental Investigation of Drilled Cuttings Transport in Inclined Wells Including the Effects of Rotation and Eccentricity. When adjusting drilling fluid performance. 2. Plott.. Cooking.A.S. Ali. R. The system is composed of design system. [67] and Lapierre et al. and eliminates critical inclination if possible. 2013. Peden. H. and building a real-time hole cleaning optimizing system may be an indispensible part of automatic drilling. T. K. 101-108. In: SPE/IADC Drilling Conference. Jakarta: Indonesia. Effect of Pipe Rotation on Hole Cleaning for Water-Based Drilling Fluids in Horizontal and Deviated Wells. 115-120. data collecting system. Martins et al..Review and Analysis of Cuttings Transport in Complex Structural Wells The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal. Saasen. and field tests to check cuttings removal performance of the two. D. Thesis. 1991. 8.S.A. Oil Muds in Large Diameter. Oyeneyin.R. Subsequently.L. 5. 1989. and which measure should be taken if necessary. 25-27 Aug 2008.S. the following suggestions are recommended to achieve better hole cleaning and cuttings transport when drilling complex structural wells. Matlock. Bassal. H. Low viscosity drilling fluids for loose formation drilling and polymeric drilling fluids for hard formation drilling can realize efficient cuttings transport. Hole cleaning in full-scale inclined wellbores. 11-14 March 1991.. Sanchez. researchers attempt to establish the comprehensive models covering wide ranges (from vertical to horizontal). Highly Deviated Wells: Solving the Cuttings Removal Problem. Jarman. Also. CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest. Schofleld.. A. M. these problems as mentioned above will be gradually considered.M. Middle east Technical University.. data processing system and decision making system.M.T. Ozbayoglu. 1. China University of Petroleum (East China).. 125-132. First.. annular flow should be considered.. Bassal. J.J. and a new theory or method will be introduced into mechanistic models.. M. A. X.B. 21-24 Oct 1990. a more realistic annular tested section should be considered to accord with the different downhole conditions. Lu. R. Svanes. or use the same methodology for different physical phenomena that occur under different conditions. 5.. In: European Petroleum Conference. A. Eng.. 28 Feb-3 March 1989. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] Wang. top drive rigs and drilling fluid continuous circulation system can be used to maintain drillpipe rotation and drilling fluid circulation while tripping. 6. G. 2008. Wood.Q.. D. 1996. the system can obtain the real-time hole cleaning parameters such as cuttings bed height. 7. W.B.. Aufllck. Thesis. the data collecting system uses advanced instruments to rapidly collect the available data such as pipe rotation speed. 2008. Sifferman. Thesis. 5. However. Developing Cuttings Removal Technology According to the above analysis of cuttings removal methods. Effect of drillpipe rotation on hole cleaning during directional-well drilling. Thesis. 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