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Abraham Maslow and his hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the theory which was developed by Abraham Maslow, the American psychologist. He was born on April 1, 1908, in roo!lyn, "ew #or!. At $niversity of %isconsin, he met a well&established researcher named '(rt )oldstein, who developed the idea of *self&act(ali+ation., -his concept greatly infl(enced Maslow, and led him to the field of h(manistic psychology, which he val(ed more than his own research. Maslow died on .(ne 8, 19/0. Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs thro(gh observing the mon!eys. -hro(gh the observation, he fo(nd that mon!eys prioriti+e the food over playing and water over food. -hen he formed the idea that physiological need is more s(perior to other behaviors s(ch as playing. He later transitioned this idea over h(man behavior, and was able to establish the pattern of physiological needs over safety needs, safety needs over belongingness needs, belongingness needs over esteem needs, and finally above esteem needs, there comes a state of self0 act(ali+ation. -he needs are arranged in hierarchy, often e1pressed in the form of pyramid as physiological needs at bottom and self&act(ali+ation at the top. 23ater, transcendental needs are added on top of self&act(ali+ation.4 3et’s e1amine the each level of needs one by one. 5hysiological needs incl(de the food, air, drin! and sleep, everything necessary to contin(e living on earth. Above the physiological needs, there are safety needs, which incl(de the sec(rity, freedom from fear, protection. -hese two levels are considered as deficiency needs beca(se these things m(st be f(lfilled in order for h(man to s(rvive on earth. "e1t level which is belongingness needs is the transition from deficiency needs to growth needs. )rowth needs are needs that are necessary for h(man to reali+e his potential and grow as a h(man person. According to Maslow, belongingness needs are divided in to two types of love. 6irst is 7&love, which is considered as deficiency needs and selfish love. -his love is more on to ta!e than to give. Another is &love, which is considered as growth need and (nselfish love. -his love is more on love for others. "e1t to belongingness needs are the esteem

-here are theories stated by Maslow that is s(pported by other psychologist. Maslow s(ggested that all pea! e1periences are positive. and need to regard oneself as competent and s(ccessf(l. individ(als high (p in hierarchy of need sho(ld have more pea! e1perience than those lower down the hierarchy. where one has discover and f(lfill one’s own potential. .oerger 2198<4 who devised the pea! scale which was (sed to assess the individ(al with tendency to have pea! e1periences. -his need is also !nown as pea! e1perience. Also. b(t in fact. thro(gh observation of ?ndian fisherman and cane c(tter.eiss and Havercamp 2<00=4 confirmed that *lower. 6irst. self&act(ali+ation needs. which are consist of need for admiration and respect. which are added to hierarchy9 it is the need to g(ide other to reach the level of self&act(ali+ation. motives are stronger in older than yo(nger ad(lts. Aronoff 219>/4 confirmed Maslow’s prediction which states that *higher needs will only emerge when lower ones are satisfied. 6irst. some pea! e1perience occ(r in threatening sit(ation. -hey fo(nd o(t that college st(dent who are s(pposed to have higher rate on pea! scale. (t @(mmerlin and "orman fo(nd fact contrary to finding of Aronoff. and . -here are several critiA(es regarding Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. which is more sec(re 8ob. Hanley and Abell 2<00<4 pointed o(t that Maslow’s model is based heavily on western c(lt(re and individ(alistic ideals of personal growth that de&emphasi+es the importance of relatedness in self& . Maslow did not emphasi+e the importance of environment in development of self&act(ali+ation. who definitely have lower needs.needs. people do not necessarily want to achieve the level of self&act(ali+ation9 it is evident in some of h(man behavior s(ch as watching -B when they have nothing to do. And finally. which is a heightened e1perience associated with feeling of 8oy and wonder. and *higher. . He fo(nd that ?ndian fishermen are people who have attained eno(gh physiological needs and chose to wor! as fisher man over cane c(tter. thro(gh s(rveying the college st(dents and homeless men. Also.oter. -his theory is s(pported by the wor! of Mathes. "e1t to self&act(ali+ation need is transcendental needs. had almost same score as homeless men. as s(ggested by Maslow. :evon. according to Maslow. motives are stronger in yo(nger than in old ad(lts.

However.act(ali+ation.elatedness is cr(cial to psychological development especially in c(lt(re which emphasi+es gro(p process which p(ts importance on gro(p over individ(al. Maslow is the first one to emphasi+e the positive aspect of h(man nat(re contrary to previo(s researches who emphasi+ed the negative aspect. . .