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PIERS Proceedings, Cambridge, USA, July 5–8, 2010

**The Comparison of Direct and Indirect Matrix Converters
**

P. Chlebis, P. Simonik, and M. Kabasta Department of Electronics, VSB — Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic

Abstract— In this paper are presented control methods and results of selected types of direct and indirect converters analysis and main output and input characteristic parameters are compared. The criterions for our comparison were the quality of wave forms and the quality and form of output current. By the comparison was also evaluated complexity of the converter circuits, its commutation and control strategy. This contribution summarizes results of some simulations and measurements that refer to conclusion that the special types of matrix converters have characteristics fully comparable with the conventional indirect frequency converters. 1. INTRODUCTION

Presently is actual the matrix converter (MC) for energy conversion. Matrix converter has no limit of the output frequency, limitation is only on output amplitude, which is smaller then input amplitude. This limitation can be solved using over modulation technique [1]. Matrix converter replace two energy conversion to only one energy conversion, because within converter is not any energy storage element. The matrix converter requires special semiconductor switches. The matrix converter requires a bidirectional switch, capable of blocking voltage and conducting current in both directions — the energy ﬂow can get from source to load and back. These bidirectional switches, consisting of a pair of devices with turn-oﬀ capability, are usually Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs), are in either a common collector or a common emitter backto-back arrangement. Usually, each IGBT has an anti-parallel diode. Matrix converters contain an array (Fig. 1(a)) of bidirectional semiconductor switches and this array allows connection of all input lines to all output lines. If the switches are arranged as shown on Fig. 1(a), then the power ﬂow in converter will be reverse. Thanks to absence of any energy storage element, the instantaneous power on input must be the same as the power on output side. Unfortunately reactive power input does not have to equal the reactive power output. In MC it is possible to control the phase angle between the voltages and current on the input — the output phase angle diﬀers from input phase. Another advantage is that the forms of waveforms at the two sides are independent. So the input could be three-phase AC and output DC, or both could be DC, or both could be AC. In this case, the MC topology is used for universal power conversion such as: AC/DC, DC/AC, DC/DC, AC/AC without any change of topology [4, 6]. For three phase AC/AC converter is equivalent circuits combining current source rectiﬁer and voltage source inverter connected by DClink, see Fig. 1(b). Inverter stage has a standard three phases voltage source topology based on six switches S7 –S12 and rectiﬁer stage based on switches S1 –S6 with the same topology. These two converters circuits have provided platform for analyze and derive several extends PWM strategies.

(a)

(b)

Figure 1: (a) Direct matrix converter and bidirectional switch. (b) Indirect virtual DC-link matrix converter.

This means the well know space vector PWM strategies for voltage source inverter (VSI) or PWM rectiﬁer can be applied to the matrix converter. For output voltage: vA (t) maA (t) mbA (t) mcA (t) vB (t) = maB (t) mbB (t) mcB (t) vC (t) maC (t) mbC (t) mcC (t) For input current: ia (t) maA (t) maB (t) maC (t) ib (t) = mbA (t) mbB (t) mbC (t) ic (t) mcA (t) mcB (t) mcC (t) iA (t) iB (t) iC (t) (2) va (t) vb (t) vc (t) (1) taA where maA (t) = T and taA are switch connected to the input phase and output phase A. but the switches are divided to the virtual rectiﬁer and virtual inverter on the Fig. This DC-link is not physically presented. The indirect space vector modulation is used as a standard technique in the matrix converter modulation [5]. b and c through six rectiﬁers switches S1 –S6 . SaA SbA ScA S7 S8 S S3 S5 SaB SbB ScB = S9 S10 · 1 (4) S2 S4 S6 SaC SbC ScC S11 S12 where the matrix I is the inverter transfer function and the matrix R is the rectiﬁer transfer function. If the equivalent circuit is seen from the inverter output phase A.Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings. the indirect modulation technique enables well-known space vector PWM to be applied for a rectiﬁer as well as an inverter stage. which describes conditions between output and input side. INDIRECT SPACE VECTOR CONTROL OF MATRIX CONVERTER (3) A principle of this control strategy is based on virtual DC-link in matrix converter. (2). Therefore. VA S7 S8 Va S S3 S5 VB = S9 S10 · 1 · Vb S2 S4 S6 S11 S12 Vc VC (5) The above transfer matrix exhibits that the output phases are compounded by the product and sum of the input phases through inverter switches S7 –S12 and rectiﬁer switches S1 –S6 . USA. Cambridge. 2 also gives a basic idea that the duty cycles of the matrix converter branch can be derived by multiplying the duty cycles of the corresponding rectiﬁer and inverter switches in the equivalent circuit [4]. the output waveforms are made from small pieces of input waveforms. The output voltages have inside some segments from three input voltages and input current includes segments from three output currents. July 5–8. DIRECT CONTROL OF MATRIX CONVERTER 311 In this case. 2 shows how the switch set of equivalent circuit is transformed into the relevant switch set of the nine bidirectional switches of matrix converter in phase A. This seq equation can be represented also in short form: [vo (t)] = [M (t)][vI (t)] [iI (t)] = [M (t)]T [io (t)] where [M (t)] is modulation matrix. The idea of direct control of MC is based on mathematical expression (1). The switches of inverter can have only eight allowed . two switches S7 and S8 of phase A from half bridge are directly connected to input phases a. This way to model the matrix converter provides the basis to regard the matrix converter as a back-to-back PWM converter without any DC-link energy storage. This is done by selecting of the input phases in sequence for deﬁned period of time. The sequence for each phase is the same [3]. 2010 2. 1(b). 3. This is done by splitting the transfer function T for the matrix converter in (4) into the product of a rectiﬁer and an inverter transfer function T = I ∗ R. The Fig. With help of these equations is deﬁned the duty cycle for each switch. The Fig. The basic idea of the indirect modulation technique is to decouple the control of the input current and the control of the output voltage.

3(b)). Current I1 (ab) indicates that input phase a is connected to the positive rail of the virtual DC-link VDC+ and input phase b is connected to the negative rail VDC− (Fig.035 0. USA.312 PIERS Proceedings.04 -6 0. July 5–8. 3(a)). 2010 combinations. . (b) Hexagon of rectiﬁer current. Cambridge. (a) (b) Figure 3: (a) Hexagon of inverter voltage. The voltage space vector V1 [100] indicates that output phase VA is connected to positive rail VDC+ and the other phases VB . Figure 5: Indirect control of matrix converter simulation results. For virtual rectiﬁer is allowed nine switching combinations to avoid an open circuit in rectiﬁer.02 0.04 Figure 4: Direct control of matrix converter simulation results. These eight combinations can be divided into six active nonzero output voltage vectors V1 ∼ V6 and two zero output voltage vectors V0 show in Fig. VC are connected to negative rail VDC− .035 0.025 0. because the output must not be short though three half bridges. 6 Output Current 6 Output Current 4 4 2 Current [A] 0 Current [A] 2 0 -2 -2 -4 -4 -6 0.025 0. These nine combinations are divided into six active nonzero input current vectors I1 ∼ I6 and three zero input current vectors I0 (Fig.03 Time [s] 0. (a) (b) Figure 2: Transformation from equivalent circuit to phase A in matrix converter.02 0.03 Time [s] 0. 3(a).

” IEEE Industrial Application Society Annual Meeting. Empringham. 5. 2010 313 Figure 6: Direct control of matrix converter experimental results. 2002. Wheeler. Rodriguez. Francik. All simulations were calculated for source voltage 230 V.. Czech Republic. L. 49. and M. 2003. J. J. “A vector controlled MCT matrix converter induction motor drive with minimized commutation times and enhanced waveform quality. 2002. Weinstein. Lettl. Pittsburgh. Brandstetter.” IEE Seminar. 6. Pilsen. 2. J. USA. Clare. “Introduction to matrix introduction to matrix converter technology. 005 H. that the direct converters are able to create sinusoidal waveforms on output side. Venturini. Both control methods were explained and used to get the block diagram for the simulation. 2. Rech.” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Clare. “Analysis and design of optimum-amplitude nine-switch direct AC-AC converters. “Matrix converters: A technology review. 102/08/0775 — New structures and control algorithms of mobile hybrid systems. No. and P. July 5–8. 5. C. and O. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Research described in the paper was ﬁnancially supported by the Czech Grant Agency under grant No. load inductance L = 0.. that direct control is clearly mathematically based on equation and indirect control is based on predeﬁned rules from table. which is necessary for good working condition of drive systems. In addition. 4. Alesina. J.. 1. P. it can be observed that the matrix converter can generate output frequencies that are not restricted by the source frequency. 4. 787–792. Empringham. Krecek.” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. load resistance R = 25 Ω.. If is used drive system with MC. REFERENCES 1. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The control of matrix converter is simulated using the Matlab-Simulink package. 1989. Figure 7: Indirect control of matrix converter experimental results. Vol. J. The model reproduces a very good waveform on output side. “Facilities for a digital signals processing of AC drives. Cambridge.Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings. P. A. 4.” Proceedings of 12th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. Maribor. 3. 2006. P. T. then the drive system is capable to operate in all four-quadrant regions. Clare. and A. CONCLUSIONS Working principle of the matrix converter controlled with the direct transfer function approach and basic from indirect space vector control has been presented. Vol. Wheeler.” Proceedings of International Conference on Applied Electronics. 2009. . P. The simulation results agree with the theoretical expectations. 61–64. Wheeler. and L. 50 Hz. “Matrix converter induction motor drive. No. Diﬀerence between direct and indirect control is.

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