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# DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

EE2257 CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY MANUAL

NAME CLASS SEMESTER ROLL NUMBER

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REGISTER NUMBER :

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INDEX
S. No. Date Title of Experiment Page No. Marks Signature

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SYLLABUS EE2257 CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Determination of transfer function of DC Servomotor Determination of transfer function of AC Servomotor. Analog simulation of Type - 0 and Type – 1 systems Determination of transfer function of DC Generator Determination of transfer function of DC Motor Stability analysis of linear systems DC and AC position control systems Stepper motor control system Digital simulation of first order systems Digital simulation of second order systems P = 45 Total = 45 DETAILED SYLLABUS 1. Determination of Transfer Function Parameters of a DC Servo Motor
Aim To derive the transfer function of the given D.C Servomotor and experimentally determine the transfer function parameters Exercise 1. Derive the transfer function from basic principles for a separately excited DC motor. 2. Determine the armature and field parameters by conducting suitable experiments. 3. Determine the mechanical parameter by conducting suitable experiments. 4. Plot the frequency response. Equipment 1. DC servo motor 2. Tachometer 3. Multimeter 4. Stop watch : field separately excited – loading source - 1 No : 1 No : 2 Nos : 1 No facility – variable voltage

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Determination of Transfer Function Parameters of AC Servo Motor
Aim To derive the transfer function of the given A.C Servo Motor and experimentally determine the transfer function parameters

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Identify the real time system with similar characteristics. type 0 and type-1 systems. Exercise 1.C gain by operating at rated speed. Voltmeter : 1 No 3. Plot the frequency response Equipment 1.1 No 4. Determination of Transfer function of DC Generator Aim To determine the transfer function of DC generator Exercise 1. Variable frequency square wave generator and a normal CRO . Various meters 4.Exercise 1. Tachometer 3. Stopwatch : 1 No 4. 3. I order and II order systems mathematically. Rigged up models of type-0 and type-1 system using analog components. 3. 2. 2. Simulate practically the time response characteristics using analog rigged up modules. Equipment 1.com . Tachometer : 1 No 3.blogspot. Derive the transfer function of the AC Servo Motor from basic Principles. 2.1 No (or) DC source and storage Oscilloscope . AC Servo Motor : Minimum of 100w – necessary sources for main winding and control winding – 1 No 2.eeecube. Determine the time constant (mechanical) 4. Obtain the transfer function of DC generator by calculating  and gain Equipment 1. Analog Simulation of Type-0 And Type-1 System Aim To simulate the time response characteristics of I order and II order. Obtain the time response characteristics of type – 0 and type-1. Obtain the D. Stop watch 4 www. DC Generator 2.

AC and DC position control kit with DC servo motor. Obtain the transfer function of DC motor by calculating  and gain Equipment 1. To study various position control systems and calculate the error between set point and output position 2. Access the stability of the given system using the plots obtained 3. Determination of Transfer function of DC Motor Aim To determine the transfer function of DC motor Exercise 1. To measure outputs at various points (between stages) Equipment 1. DC Motor 2. Exercise 1. Stop watch 6.eeecube. Various meters 4. DC and AC position Control Systems Aim To study the AC and DC position control system and draw the error characteristics between set point and error.blogspot. Compare the usage of various plots in assessing stability Equipment 1. Adder 5 www.com . 2.5. Tachometer 3.3 user license 7. Write a program to obtain the Bode plot / Root locus / Nyquist plot for the given system 2. System with MATLAB / MATHCAD / equivalent software . Stability Analysis of Linear Systems Aim To analyse the stability of linear systems using Bode / Root locus / Nyquist plot Exercise 1. Power transistor 3.

2. step and sinusoidal response characteristics.blogspot. Stepper Motor Control System Aim To study the working of stepper motor Exercise 1. Equipment System with MATLAB / MATHCAD (or) equivalent software .8. Digital Simulation of First Order System Aim To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of first -order system Exercise 1. Identify real time systems with similar characteristics.com . Interfacing card 4. 10. Obtain the impulse. 3. Write a program or build the block diagram model using the given software. Obtain the impulse. 3.eeecube. Power supply 9.minimum 3 user license. 2. Microprocessor kit 3. Digital Simulation of Second Order Systems Aim To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of second -order system Exercise 1. To verify the working of the stepper motor rotation using microprocessor. Write a program or build the block diagram model using the given software. step and sinusoidal response characteristics. Equipment 1. Identify real time systems with similar characteristics. System with MATLAB / MATHCAD (or) equivalent software .minimum 3 user license. 6 www. Equipment 1. Stepping motor 2.

Determination servomotor.LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FIRST CYCLE: 1. Determination of transfer function of field controlled DC servomotor. Stability analysis of linear systems.com . DC position control system. Digital simulation of first order systems. SECOND CYCLE: 7. 9. Analog simulation of Type-0 and Type-1 systems. 8. 11. 6. 5. Digital simulation of second order systems 10. Determination of transfer function of AC servomotor. AC position control system. of transfer function of armature controlled DC 2. 12.blogspot. Determination of transfer function of DC motor. Stepper motor control system. Determination of transfer function of separately excited DC generator. 4. 3. 7 www.eeecube.

VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS: 1. Is this a closed loop or open loop system . The rotor bars are placed on the slots and short-circuited at both ends by end 8 www. APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED: S. Define transfer function. Each pole pair carries a winding.The rotor construction is usually squirrel cage or drag-cup type. one winding is called reference winding and other is called a control winding. 10.eeecube. 2. What are the main parts of a DC servo motor? 7. State the advantages and disadvantages of a DC servo motor. Give the applications of DC servomotor. What is servo mechanism? 4. Description AC servo motor trainer kit AC servo motor Ammeter Voltmeter Patch cords Range (0-1) A (0-100) mA (0–300) V (0–75) V Type Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 As required MC MI MC MI THEORY: An AC servo motor is basically a two phase induction motor with some special design features.Explain. What is servo mechanism? 11. Name the two types of servo motor. 5. No: Date: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION OF AC SERVO MOTOR AIM: To derive the transfer function of the given AC Servomotor. 3. The supply used to drive the motor is single phase and so a phase advancing capacitor is connected to one of the phase to produce a phase difference of 90 o . What is DC servo motor? State the main parts. 3. The stator consists of two pole pairs (A-B and C-D) mounted on the inner periphery of the stator. 2. 9. 8.blogspot. What do you mean by field controlled DC servo motor? Expt. 5. What is back EMF? 6. 4. The exciting current in the winding should have a phase displacement of 90 o .com . No 1. such that their axes are at an angle of 90o in space.

rings. T is 9. The drag cup construction is employed for very low inertia applications. The diameter of the rotor is kept small in order to reduce inertia and to obtain good accelerating characteristics. In this type of construction the rotor will be in the form of hollow cylinder made of aluminium. Electrically both the types of rotor are identical. a mechanical force (or torque) is developed on the rotor and so the rotor starts moving in the same direction as that of rotating magnetic field . Gm (s) = Km / (1+ sm) Where Motor gain constant. The direction of rotation depends on the phase relationship of the two currents (or voltages).com . This voltage circulates currents in the short-circuited rotor conductors and currents create rotor flux. WORKING PRINCIPLE : The stator windings are excited by voltages of equal magnitude and 90 o phase difference. The rotor conductor experience a change in flux and so voltages are induced rotor conductors.81 X R (S1  S2) R is radius of the rotor in m Frictional co-efficient. Km = K / FO + F K is T / C FO is T / N Torque.eeecube.blogspot. F = W / (2 N / 60)2 9 www. These currents give rise to a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude. This rotating magnetic field sweeps over the rotor conductors. Due to the interaction of stator & rotor flux. These results in exciting currents i1 and i2 that are phase displaced by 90o and have equal values. The aluminium cylinder itself acts as short-circuited rotor conductors. GENERAL SCHEMATIC OF AC SERVOMOTOR: FORMULAE USED: Transfer function.

No. 6. Switch ON the MCB Vary the control pot to apply rated supply voltage Note the control winding current. DETERMINATION OF FRICTIONAL CO-EFFICIENT. W is 30 % of constant loss in Watts Constant loss in watts = No load input – Copper loss No load i/p = V (IR+IC) V is supply voltage. 4. 2. V IR is current through reference winding.8 X 102 gm / m PROCEDURE: 1. 3. reference winding current. 1. A IC is current through control winding. F Check whether the MCB is in OFF position. 5. Supply Voltage V (V) Control winding Current Ic (A) Reference Winding Current Ir (A) Speed N (rpm) CALCULATIONS: 10 www.5 mm) LR is length of the rotor in m (Given L R =76 mm) ρ is density = 7.blogspot. A Copper loss in watts = IC2 RC RC = 174 N is rated speed in rpm Motor time constant.com .eeecube. supply voltage and speed. Patch the circuit using the patching diagram. Find the frictional co-efficient using the above values OBSERVATIONS: S. m = J / FO + F Moment of inertia J is  d4 L R ρ / 32 d is diameter of the rotor in m ( Given d =39.Frictional loss.

com .blogspot.DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION OF AC SERVO MOTOR PATCHING DIAGRAM TO DETERMINE FRICTIONAL CO-EFFICIENT F: 11 www.eeecube.

4. 2.SPEED CHARACTERISTICS 12 www. Patch the circuit using the patching diagram. Reduce the load fully and allow the motor to run at rated speed. 6.SPEED CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Repeat steps 7 and 8 for 75 % control winding voltage. For each load applied note down the speed and spring balance readings. Set the control pot in minimum position.PROCEDURE: 2. 10. ( Take 3 or 4 sets of readings) 8. Check whether the motor is in no load condition Switch ON the MCB Vary the control pot and apply rated voltage to the reference phase winding and control phase winding. Draw the graph between speed and torque. 9.blogspot. 5. To determine the motor gain constant Km DETERMINATION OF FO FROM TORQUE . Apply load in steps. the slope of the graph gives FO. OBSERVATIONS: Control voltage Vc1 = Spring Balance Speed Torque values N T S1 S2 (Nm) (rpm) (kg) (kg) Control voltage Vc2 = Spring Balance Torque Speed values T N S1 S2 (rpm) (kg) (kg) (Nm) S. No MODEL GRAPH: TORQUE . 3.com . Note down the no load speed.eeecube. 7. Check whether the MCB is in OFF position.

CONTROL VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Vary the control pot and increase the control winding voltage till the speed obtained at no load is reached. Vary the control pot and apply rated voltage to the reference phase winding and control phase winding.DETERMINATION OF K FROM TORQUE . Plot the graph between torque and control winding voltage. (for 1000 rpm) 9.eeecube.blogspot. Note down control voltage and spring balance readings. OBSERVATIONS: Speed N 1 = Spring Balance values S1 S2 (kg kg Speed N 2 = Spring Balance values S1 S2 Kg Kg S. 2. Load the motor gradually. the speed of the motor will decrease. No Control Voltage Vc (V) Torque T Nm Speed rpm Control Voltage Vc V MODEL GRAPH: TORQUE . Check whether the motor is in no load condition 5. The slope of the graph gives the value of K. Patch the circuit using the patching diagram. Repeat step 7 for various speeds and tabulate.CONTROL VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS 13 www. Switch ON the MCB 6. Check whether the MCB is in OFF position.com . 7. 3. Set the control pot in minimum position. Note down the no load speed. 4. 8.

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DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION OF AC SERVO MOTOR PATCHING DIAGRAM TO DETERMINE MOTOR GAIN CONSTANT KM: 15 www.eeecube.blogspot.com .

Give the applications of AC servomotor. State the advantages and disadvantages of an AC servo motor. What do you mean by servo mechanism? 5.eeecube.CALCULATIONS: RESULT: The transfer function of AC servomotor is determined as VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS: 1. 3. What are the characteristics of an AC servomotor? 16 www. What are the main parts of an AC servomotor? 2.com . 4.blogspot.

eeecube.Expt. No Description Range Type Quantity THEORY: Derivation of transfer function of separately excited DC generator is as follows. eg = Ra ia + La (dia / dt) + RL ia VL = RL ia Also since eg α if . No: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC GENERATOR AIM: Date: To obtain the transfer function of separately excited DC generator on no load and loaded condition.com . APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED: S. Applying KVL to the field side. ef = Rf if + Lf (dif / dt) Applying KVL to the armature side.blogspot. let eg = Kg if Taking Laplace transform of equation (1) we get Ef (s) = Rf If(s) + sLf If(s) Ef (s) = If (s) [Rf + sLf] If (s) = Ef (s) / [Rf + sLf] … (5) … (2) … (3) … (4) … (1) 17 www.

equations (7) and (8) in equation (6) we get K g If(s) = [Ra + sLa + RL] [VL(s) / RL] Substituting the value of If (s) in the above equation we get K g Ef (s) / [Rf + sLf] = [Ra + sLa + RL] [ VL(s) / RL] Hence transfer function.blogspot.Taking Laplace transform of equation (2) we get Eg (s) = Ra Ia(s) + sLa Ia(s) + RL Ia(s) Eg (s) = Ia(s) [Ra + sLa + RL] Taking Laplace transform of equations (3) and (4) we get VL(s) = RL Ia( s) Therefore.com . VL(s) / Ef (s) = K g RL / {[Rf + sLf] [Ra + sLa + RL]} For unloaded condition. Ia( s) = VL(s) / RL Eg(s) = K g If(s) Substituting.eeecube. On no load condition: VL(s) / Ef (s) = Kg / [Rf + sLf] where K g is gain constant Rf is field resistance in Ohms Lf is field inductance in Henry On loaded condition: VL(s) / Ef (s) = Kg RL / [Rf (Ra + RL) (1+sτf) (1 + sτa)] where K g is gain constant Field time constant τf = Lf / Rf Rf is field resistance in Ohms Lf is field inductance in Henry Armature time constant τa = La / (Ra + RL) Ra is armature resistance in Ohms La is armature inductance in Henry 18 www. Ia = 0 Therefore transfer function VL(s) / Ef (s) = K g / [Rf + sLf] For loaded condition Lf = √ (Zf2 – Rf2 ) / 2πf La = √ (Za2 – Ra2 ) / 2πf where … (6) … (7) … (8) … (9) …(10) … (11) Transfer function VL(s) / Ef (s) = K g RL / [Rf (Ra + RL) (1+sτf) (1 + sτa)] … (12) τf = Lf / Rf and τa = La / (Ra + RL) FORMULAE USED: Transfer function of DC generator.

The motor field rheostat should be in minimum resistance position and the generator field rheostat should be in maximum resistance position or minimum potential position while switching ON and switching OFF the supply side DPST switch. OBSERVATIONS: S. 7. 8.com .eeecube. Ensure that the DPST switch on the load side is open.point starter the DC motor is started and it is brought to rated speed by adjusting the motor field rheostat. The above step is repeated till 125 % of rated voltage is reached. Switch ON the supply DPST switch. 6. Keeping the DPST switch on the load side open.blogspot. No. If (A) Induced Voltage. A tangent to the linear portion of the curve is drawn from the origin and slope of this line gives K g. 4. 3. 5.PROCEDURE: 1.axis. To determine the gain constant Kg : No load or open circuit characteristics: 1. A graph is plotted between Eg and If taking If along x. Eg (V) MODEL GRAPH: 19 www. the generated voltage Eg and field current If of generator is noted down by varying the generator field rheostat. Field current. Using the 3. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram 2.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: To determine gain constant.com .eeecube.blogspot. Kg : CALCULATIONS: 20 www.

OBSERVATIONS: S. The slope of the graph gives K g. No.eeecube. 7. IL (A) MODEL GRAPH: 21 www.axis. 3. and the load is varied for convenient steps of load current up to 120 % of its rated capacity and the voltmeter VL and ammeter Ia readings are observed. A graph is plotted between VL and IL taking IL on x. On each loading the speed should be maintained at rated speed. The motor field rheostat should be in minimum resistance position and the generator field rheostat should be in maximum resistance position or minimum potential position while switching ON and switching OFF the supply side DPST switch. Terminal Voltage.blogspot.Load characteristics: 1. 6. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram 2. VL (V) Load Current. 4. The generator is brought to its rated voltage by varying the generator field rheostat. Ensure that the DPST switch on the load side is open.com . The DPST switch on the load side is closed. Switch ON the supply DPST switch 5.

com . Field resistance (Rf) is measured using multimeter. I (A) Field Impedence. To determine field Inductance Lf : 1. No Field Voltage. V (V) Field Current. Field inductance (Lf) can be calculated using formula Lf = √ (Zf2 – Rf2 ) / 2πf CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: OBSERVATIONS: S. Field impedance Zf is calculated as V/I and the average value of Zf is obtained.eeecube. 4. Auto transformer is varied in steps for different voltages and corresponding voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted down. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.PROCEDURE: 2. Zf (Ohms) CALCULATIONS: 22 www.blogspot. 2. 5. 3.

V (V) Armature Current. Armature inductance La can be calculated using formula.blogspot.PROCEDURE: 3. Armature resistance Ra is measured using multimeter. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. Auto transformer is varied in steps for different voltages and corresponding voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted down. Armature impedance Za is calculated as V/I and the average value of Za is obtained. I (A) Armature Impedence. No CALCULATIONS: 23 www. La = √ (Za2 – Ra2 ) / 2πf CIRCUIT DIAGRAM : OBSERVATIONS: Armature Voltage. 5. Determination of armature inductance La : 1. Za (Ohms) S.com . 3.eeecube. 4.

CALCULATIONS: RESULT: The transfer function of separately excited DC generator is determined as 24 www.eeecube.com .blogspot.

eeecube. No: Date: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFER FUNCTION OF DC MOTOR AIM: To obtain the transfer function of field controlled DC motor.blogspot.Expt.com . APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED: S. No Description Range Type Quantity THEORY: 25 www.

eeecube. P av = (V1 I1 + I1 2 Ra + V2 I2 + I2 2 Ra) / 2 Ra is armature resistance in Ohms La is armature inductance in Henry t2 is time taken on load in secs t1 is time taken on no load in secs Viscous Co-efficient of friction. Pstray = [2П2 (N 1 2 – N2 2 )] J / t1 26 www. (s) / Vf (s) = Km / [s (1+sτf) (1 + sτm)] where Motor gain constant.FIELD CONTROLLED MOTOR: FORMULAE USED: Transfer function of field controlled DC motor. T is 9. K m = Ktf / (BRf) K tf is motor torque constant Torque.blogspot.com .81 X R (S1  S2) R is radius of the brake drum in m R = circumference of the brake drum/ (2 П) B is viscous co-efficient of friction Rf is field resistance in Ohms Field time constant τf = Lf / Rf Rf is field resistance in Ohms Lf is field inductance in Henry Lf = √ (Zf2 – Rf2 ) / 2πf Zf is field impedence in Ohms Rf is field resistance in Ohms Mechanical time constant τm = J/B Moment of inertia J = Pav / [2П2 (N1 2 – N2 2 )((1/t1 )-(1/t2 ))] Average power delivered to the load. B = Pstray / (N 1 + N2 )2 Stray loss.

Ktf : 1. A graph is plotted between torque T and field current IF taking IF along x-axis.blogspot.PROCEDURE: 1. The field current If is varied in steps by adjusting the field rheostat and for each value of If the brake drum is adjusted such that it just fails to rotate. The value of torque for each value of If is calculated 5. 3. The slope of the graph gives the value of K tf OBSERVATIONS: Armature current Ia (A) Field current If (A) Spring balance readings S1 S2 (kg) (kg) Torque T (Nm) S. 4. MODEL GRAPH: 27 www.eeecube.com . The corresponding readings of ammeter and spring balances are noted. The armature current Ia of the motor is set to some value by adjusting the armature circuit resistance. To determine motor torque constant. No. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram 2. This value of Ia is maintained constant throughout the experiment.

blogspot.eeecube.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: CALCULATIONS: 28 www.com .

No.eeecube. 4. Zf (Ω ) CALCULATIONS: 29 www. Field impedance Zf is calculated as V/I and the average value of Zf is obtained. 2. I (A) Field Impedence. V (V) Field Current. 3. To determine field Inductance Lf : 1.blogspot. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Field inductance (Lf) can be calculated using formula Lf = √ (Zf2 – Rf2 ) / 2πf CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: OBSERVATIONS: S.PROCEDURE 2. 5.com . Field Voltage. Field resistance (Rf) is measured using multimeter. Auto transformer is varied in steps for different voltages and corresponding voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted down.

No.blogspot. Simultaneously the readings of the ammeter and voltmeter corresponding to N 1 and N 2 are noted. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram 2. 4.eeecube. The time taken t1 for the speed to drop from N 1 (1700 rpm) to N 2 ( 1300 rpm) is noted. To determine moment of inertia J and Viscous friction Co-efficient B: 1. Again the DPDT switch is thrown to position (1.com . 5. The time taken t2 for the speed to drop from N 1 (1700 rpm) to N2 ( 1300 rpm) is noted. 3.11 ) and the motor is made to run at a speed N 1 (1700 rpm) by adjusting the armature rheostat. DPDT switch is opened from position (1. DPDT switch is thrown to position (2.11 ) and the stop watch is started simultaneously.PROCEDURE: 3. N1 (rpm) t1 (Sec) V1 (V) I1 (A) N2 (rpm) T2 (Sec) V2 (V) I2 (A) CALCULATIONS: 30 www. The field current of the motor is set to some value by adjusting the field resistance.11 ) and the motor is made to run at a speed greater than N 1 (1700 rpm) by adjusting the armature rheostat. 6. OBSERVATIONS: S. DPDT switch is thrown to position (1.21 ) and the stop watch is started when the motor speed reaches N1 (1700 rpm).

eeecube.com .CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: CALCULATIONS: 31 www.blogspot.

CALCULATIONS: RESULT: The transfer function of field controlled DC motor is determined as 32 www.com .blogspot.eeecube.

No: DC POSITION CONTROL SYSTEM AIM: To study the characteristics of a DC position control system. 33 www. If an error exists. The input or reference potentiometer is adjusted nearer to zero initially(R). i. Simultaneously the reference voltage (VR) measured between the terminals VR & E and the output voltage (VO) measured between the terminals VO & E are noted. 2.com . The tachogenerator attached to the motor shaft produces a voltage proportional to the speed which is used for feedback.blogspot. the motor develops a torque to rotate the output in such a way as to reduce the error to zero.e. The difference between the two angular positions generates an error signal.. 3. A graph is plotted with 0 along y-axis and R along x-axis. 4. They convert the input and output positions into proportional electric signals. The command switch is kept in continuous mode and some value of forward gain K A is selected. A pair of potentiometers acts as error-measuring device. For various positions of input potentiometer (R) the positions of the response potentiometer (0 ) is noted. The rotation of the motor stops when the error signal is zero. which is amplified and fed to armature circuit of the DC motor. PROCEDURE: 1. The desired position is set on the input potentiometer and the actual position is fed to feedback potentiometer. when the desired position is reached.eeecube. APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED: i) DC position control kit and Motor unit ii) Multimeter THEORY: Date: A DC position control system is a closed loop control system in which the position of the mechanical load is controlled with the position of the reference shaft.Expt.

OBSERVATIONS: Reference angular position, θR (degrees) KA = KA =

S. No

Output angular position, θO (degrees) KA = KA =

Reference Voltage, Vr (V) KA = KA =

Output VoltageVO (V) KA = KA =

MODEL GRAPH:

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DC POSITION CONTROL SYSTEM

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RESULT: The DC position control system characteristics are studied and corresponding graphs are drawn.

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=  (ln MP )2 / ( 2 +(ln MP )2 ) Where MP is peak percent overshoot obtained from the time response graph Undamped natural frequency. Patch cords FORMULAE USED: Damping ratio. n =  / [tp  (1 .Expt.com .6 K2 is the gain of the time constant – 1 block =10 T1 is the time constant of time constant – 1 block = 1 ms THEORY: The type number of the system is obtained from the number of poles located at origin in a given system. Linear system simulator kit 2.2 )] where tp is the peak time obtained from the time response graph Closed loop transfer function of the type – 0 second order system is C(s)/R(s) = G(s) / [1 + G(s) H(s)] where H(s) = 1 G(s) = K K 2 K3 / (1+sT1 ) (1 + sT2 ) where K is the gain K2 is the gain of the time constant – 1 block =10 K3 is the gain of the time constant – 2 block =10 T1 is the time constant of time constant – 1 block = 1 ms T2 is the time constant of time constant – 2 block = 1 ms Closed loop transfer function of the type – 1-second order system is C(s)/R(s) = G(s) / [1 + G(s) H(s)] where H(s) = 1 G(s) = K K 1 K2 / s (1 + sT1 ) where K is the gain K1 is the gain of Integrator = 9. Type – 0 system means there is no pole at origin.blogspot. APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED: 1. Type – 1 system means there is one pole located at the origin.1 systems. No. The first order system is 37 www. CRO 3. The order of the system is obtained from the highest power of s in the denominator of closed loop transfer function of the system. Date: ANALOG SIMULATION OF TYPE – 0 and TYPE – 1 SYSTEMS AIM: To study the time response of first and second order type –0 and type.eeecube.

The output from the simulator kit is connected to the Y.com . The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted.characterized by one pole or a zero. PROCEDURE: 1. To find the steady state error of type – 0 first order system 1.blogspot. The CRO is kept in X-Y mode and the steady state error is obtained as the vertical displacement between the two curves. 5.channel of CRO. Connections are made in the simulator kit as shown in the block diagram.channel of CRO. The second order system is characterized by two poles and up to two zeros. No. The standard form of a second order system is G(s) = n 2 / (s2 + 2n s + n 2 ) where  is damping ratio and n is undamped natural frequency. 1 2 3 Gain. K Steady state error. 4.eeecube. Examples of first order systems are a pure integrator and a single time constant having transfer function of the form K/s and K/(sT+1). The input is also connected to the X. Block diagram of Type-0 first order system OBSERVATIONS: S. The input square wave is set to 2 Vpp in the CRO and this is applied to the REF terminal of error detector block. 3. e ss 38 www. 2.

eeecube. K= 39 www.blogspot. K = For Gain. K = For Gain.TRACES FROM CRO: For Gain.com .

com .blogspot.LINEAR SYSTEM SIMULATOR PATCHING DIAGRAM TO OBTAIN THE STEADY STATE ERROR OF TYPE – 0 FIRST ORDER SYSTEM 40 www.eeecube.

The input triangular wave is set to 2 Vpp in the CRO and this applied o the REF terminal of error detector block. 2.channel of CRO. 7. The steady state error is also calculated theoretically and the two values are compared. e ss 41 www.eeecube.com . To find the steady state error of type – 1 first order system 1. 4. K Steady state error. The experiment should be conducted at the lowest frequency to allow enough time for the step response to reach near steady state. 1 2 3 Gain. Block diagram of Type. 5. The blocks are Connected using the patch chords in the simulator kit. The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted. No. 6.channel of CRO. 3.1 First order system OBSERVATIONS: S.blogspot. The CRO is kept in X-Y mode and the steady state error is obtained as the vertical displacement between the two curves.2. The input is also connected to the X. The output from the system is connected to the Y.

K = For Gain.blogspot. K = For Gain.eeecube. K = 42 www.TRACES FROM CRO: For Gain.com .

eeecube.LINEAR SYSTEM SIMULATOR PATCHING DIAGRAM TO OBTAIN THE STEADY STATE ERROR OF TYPE – 1 FIRST ORDER SYSTEM 43 www.blogspot.com .

K = 44 www.3. The output from the system is connected to the Y. settling time. K = For Gain. The input square wave is set to 2 Vpp in the CRO and this applied to the REF terminal of error detector block.rise time. 3. The above procedure is repeated for different values of gain K and the values are compared with the theoretical values.channel of CRO. 5. peak time are measured.1 second order system 1. The output waveform is obtained in the CRO and it is traced on a graph sheet. 4. Using these values n and  are calculated. Block diagram to obtain closed loop response of Type-0 second order system OBSERVATIONS: Peak percent Overshoot %M P 1 Rise time tr (sec) Peak Time tp (sec) Settling time ts (sec) Undamped Natural frequency n (rad/sec) S. No.channel of CRO. 2.blogspot. From the waveform the peak percent overshoot. The blocks are connected using the patch chords in the simulator kit. The input is also connected to the X. Gain K Damping ratio  2 TRACES FROM CRO: For Gain.eeecube. To find the closed loop response of type – 0 and type.com .

K = 45 www.blogspot.com .eeecube.Block diagram to obtain closed loop response of Type-1 second order system OBSERVATIONS: Peak percent Overshoot %M P 1 Rise time tr (sec) Peak Time tp (sec) Settling time ts (sec) Undamped Natural frequency n (rad/sec) S. Gain K Damping ratio  2 TRACES FROM CRO: For Gain. K = For Gain. No.

LINEAR SYSTEM SIMULATOR PATCHING DIAGRAM TO OBTAIN THE CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE OF TYPE – 0 SECOND ORDER SYSTEM 46 www.blogspot.com .eeecube.

eeecube.LINEAR SYSTEM SIMULATOR PATCHING DIAGRAM TO OBTAIN THE CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE OF TYPE – 1 SECOND ORDER SYSTEM 47 www.blogspot.com .

3. 6.com . VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS: 1. 4. What are dominant poles? What is a closed loop system? What is the effect of negative feedback? What are poles and zeros of a system? Define transfer function. 2.blogspot. 5. 48 www.eeecube. Define order and type number.CALCULATIONS: RESULT: The time response of first and second order type-0 and type-1 systems are studied.

Today. and prototyping Data analysis.com . The desired performance characteristics of a system of any order may be specified in terms of transient response to a unit step input signal.blogspot. In industry. The transient response characteristics of a control system to a unit step input is specified in terms of the following time domain specifications  Delay time td  Rise time tr  Peak time tp  Maximum peak overshoot Mp  Settling time ts STUDY OF BASIC MATLAB COMMANDS: The name MATLAB stands for MATRIX LABORATORY. embedding the state of the art in software for matrix computation. It has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. MATLAB was originally written to provide easy access to matrix software developed by the LINPACK and EISPACK projects.Expt. It integrates computation. In university environments. MATLAB engines incorporate the LAPACK and BLAS libraries. Date: DIGITAL SIMULATION OF FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS AIM: To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of a linear system without non. No. MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. Typical uses include. and visualization Scientific and engineering graphics 49 www. MATLAB is the tool of choice for highproductivity research.      Math and computation Algorithm development Data acquisition Modeling. simulation. exploration. visualization.linearities and to verify it manually. development. it is the standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in MATHEMATICS. and analysis.eeecube. APPARATUS REQUIRED: A PC with MATLAB package THEORY: The time response characteristics of control systems are specified in terms of time domain specifications. AND SCIENCE. ENGINEERING. and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. whenever they are subjected to inputs or disturbances. Systems with energy storage elements cannot respond instantaneously and will exhibit transient responses.

NEURAL NETWORKS. 5. Start simulation and observe the results in scope. FUZZY LOGIC. From the source block in the library drag the step input/ sine input.com . Application development. Toolboxes are comprehensive collections of MATLAB functions (M-files) that extend the MATLAB environment to solve particular classes of problems. Compare the simulated and theoretical results. SIMULATION. Assume R= 1 Ohms L = 0. From the continuous block in the library drag the transfer function block. Some practical examples of first order systems are RL and RC circuits. the following procedure is followed: 1. 7. This allows you to solve many technical computing problems. in a fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar non-interactive language such as C or Fortran. Derive the transfer function of a RL series circuit. 2. 1 H. PROCEDURE: 1. CONTROL SYSTEMS. Areas in which toolboxes are available include SIGNAL PROCESSING. BLOCK DIAGRAM: Step response of a first order system: 50 www.eeecube. 6. To build a SIMULINK model to obtain step response / sine response of a first order system. Very important to most users of MATLAB. 2. From the sink block in the library drag the scope. 4. Connect all to form a system and give unity feedback to the system. 3. toolboxes allow you to learn and apply specialized technology. AND MANY OTHERS.blogspot. 3. Find the step response theoretically and plot it on a graph sheet. WAVELETS. For changing the parameters of the blocks connected double click the respective block. (Use a mux from the signal routing block to view more than one graph in the scope) 9. It also features a family of add-on application-specific solutions called toolboxes. 8. From the math operations block in the library drag the summing point. In MATLAB software open a new model in SIMULINK library browser. including graphical user interface building It is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not require dimensioning. especially those with matrix and vector formulations.

sys = tf (num. grid OUTPUT: (Paste the graph obtained from PC) % MATLAB program to find the impulse response num=[ ]. den=[ ].blogspot.com .eeecube.den). MATLAB (m-file) program to obtain the step response and impulse response % MATLAB program to find the step response num=[ ]. sys = tf (num.den). step (sys). grid 51 www.Sine response of a first order system: 2. impulse (sys). den=[ ].

OUTPUT: (Paste the graph obtained from PC) CALCULATIONS: Unit step response of the given RL series circuit: 52 www.blogspot.com .eeecube.

5. 8.Unit Impulse response of the given RLC series circuit: RESULT: The time response characteristics of a first order system is simulated digitally and verified manually. What is MATLAB? What is the use of MATLAB Package? What are the toolboxes available in MATLAB? What is the use of a simulation? Differentiate real time systems and simulated systems. VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS: 1. 7. Name the standard test signals used in control system. 2. 6.blogspot.eeecube. 4. Give two examples for first order system. What is time response? 53 www. 3.com .

Find the step response theoretically and plot it on a graph sheet. 5.eeecube. 4.blogspot. From the step response obtained note down the rise time. For changing the parameters of the blocks connected double click the respective block. In MATLAB software open a new model in SIMULINK library browser. 8. whenever they are subjected to inputs or disturbances. Connect all to form a system and give unity feedback to the system. The transient response characteristics of a control system to a unit step input is specified in terms of the following time domain specifications:  Delay time td  Rise time tr  Peak time tp  Maximum overshoot Mp  Settling time ts PROCEDURE: 1. peak overshoot and settling time. 54 www. 1 H and C = 1 micro Farad. the following procedure is followed: 1. 10. peak time. 6. The desired performance characteristics of a system of any order may be specified in terms of transient response to a unit step input signal. To build a SIMULINK model to obtain step response / sine response of a second order system. Systems with energy storage elements cannot respond instantaneously and will exhibit transient responses. (Use a mux from the signal routing block to view more than one graph in the scope) 9. No: DIGITAL SIMULATION OF SECOND ORDER SYSTEMS AIM: Date: To digitally simulate the time response characteristics of a second order system and verify manually. From the continuous block in the library drag the transfer function block. 2. L = 0. From the sink block in the library drag the scope. 2. From the source block in the library drag the step input/ sine input. Start simulation and observe the results in scope.Expt. Compare the simulated and theoretical results. 7. 3. APPARATUS REQUIRED A PC with MATLAB Software THEORY The time characteristics of control systems are specified in terms of time domain specifications.com . Assume R= 1 Ohms. From the math operations block in the library drag the summing point. 3. Derive the transfer function of a RLC series circuit.

OUTPUT: (Paste the graph obtained from PC) 55 www.eeecube.BLOCK DIAGRAM: Step response of a second order system: Sine response of a second order system: 2.com . sys = tf (num.blogspot. den=[ ]. step (sys). MATLAB program to obtain the step response and impulse response of second order system.den). % MATLAB program to find the step response num=[ ].

den=[ ].den).% MATLAB program to find the impulse response num=[ ].com . sys = tf (num.blogspot. OUTPUT: (Paste the graph obtained from PC) CALCULATIONS: Unit step response of the given RLC series circuit: 56 www. impulse (sys).eeecube.

blogspot.com .Unit impulse response of the given RLC series circuit: 57 www.eeecube.

com . 8. Give two examples for second order system. 7. 2. What is time response? 58 www. 6.eeecube. 5. What is MATLAB? What is the use of MATLAB Package? What are the toolboxes available in MATLAB? What is the use of a simulation? Differentiate real time systems and simulated systems. Name the standard test signals used in control system.RESULT: The time response characteristics of the given second order system is simulated digitally and verified manually. 4.blogspot. 3. VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS: 1.

    If all the roots of the characteristic equation have negative real parts.  In the absence of the input.com . then system is stable . If any root of the characteristic equation has a positive real part. 59 www. G(S) = APPARATUS REQUIRED: A PC with MATLAB Software THEORY: A Linear Time-Invariant Systems is stable if the following two notions of system stability are satisfied  When the system is excited by Bounded input. the output is also a Bounded output. then system is unstable . the output tends towards zero. The following observations are general considerations regarding system stability. If the characteristic equation has repeated roots on the jω -axis. If one are more non. a0 sn + a1 sn-1 + ……+an b0 sm + b1 sm-1 + ……+ bm  Rule 1 A system is stable if the phase lag is less than 180˚ at the frequency for which the gain is unity (one).blogspot.Expt.repeated roots of the characteristic equation on the jω axis. irrespective of the initial conditions. USING BODE PLOT AIM: Date: To obtain the bode plot and check for stability of the system with open loop transfer function. BODE PLOT : Consider a Single-Input Single-Output system with transfer function C(s) = R(s) Where m < n. then system is unstable .eeecube. No: STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS a. then the impulse response is bounded and eventually decreases to zero. then system is unstable .

Wgc ]= margin (sys) 60 www. Gain crossover frequency and %Phase cross over frequency margin(sys) [ Gm.w) xlabel('Frequency') ylabel( ' Phase angle in degrees Magnitude of G(s) in decibels') title('Bode Plot of the system ') ].4. bode(sys. The exact terminology is in terms of a Gain Margin and Phase Margin from the limiting values quoted. Pm. Phase Margin. The application of these rules to an actual process requires evaluation of the gain and phase shift of the system for all frequencies to see if rules 1 and 2 are satisfied.com . the system is stable. Wpc. PROCEDURE: Step 1: Write a program to obtain the Bode plot for the given system. The gain obtained here is open loop gain. ].blogspot.den) %Specify the frequency range and enter the command w=logspace(-2. PROGRAM %BODE PLOT OF THE SYSTEM %Enter the numerator and denominator of the transfer function num=[ den=[ sys=tf(num. This plot is called BODE PLOT.   If the phase lag is less than 140˚ at the unity gain frequency.1000). Step 2: Assess the stability of given system using the plot obtained. This then. This is 5dB Gain Margin. This is obtained by plotting the gain and phase versus frequency.eeecube. is a 40˚ Phase Margin from the limiting values of 180˚. Rule 2 A system is stable if the gain is less than one (unity) at the frequency for which the phase lag is 180˚. the system is stable.56) when the phase lag is 180˚. %To determine the Gain Margin. If the gain is 5dB below unity (or a gain of about 0.

com .blogspot.MANUAL CALCULATIONS: 61 www.eeecube.

62 www.com .blogspot.eeecube.

Define Phase margin and Gain margin. Define stability of Linear Time Invariant System. From the plot obtained. 2. 6. 5.OUTPUT (from manual calculation): OUTPUT (from program): RESULT: The Bode plot is drawn for the given transfer function using MATLAB and verified manually.com . the system is found to be ______________. 7. Give the stability conditions of system using Pole-Zero plot. 8. Define safe regions in stability criteria. Define Bode Plot.eeecube. 4. 9. VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS: 1. What is the use of Bode Plot? What the conditions of stability are in Bode plot? Define Stability criteria.blogspot. 63 www. Define Limits of stability. 3.

Write a program to obtain the root locus plot for the given system. If the system has a variable loop gain. PROGRAM: %ROOT LOCUS OF THE SYSTEM% num=[ den=[ sys=tf(num.blogspot. The roots corresponding to a particular value of the system parameter can then be located on the locus or the value of the parameter for a desired root location can be determined form the locus.den) rlocus(sys) v=[-10. G(s) = APPARATUS REQUIRED: A PC with MATLAB Software THEORY: ROOT LOCUS PLOT: The characteristic of the transient response of a closed-loop system is related to the location of the closed loop poles. then the location of the closed-loop poles depend on the value of the loop gain chosen.8]. The root locus is a powerful technique as it brings into focus the complete dynamic response of the system. Using Root Locus AIM: To obtain the Root locus plot and to verify the stability of the system with transfer function. The root locus also provides a measure of sensitivity of roots to the variation in the parameter being considered.-8. This technique provides a graphical method of plotting the locus of the roots in the s-plane as a given system parameter is varied over the complete range of values (may be from zero to infinity). A simple technique known as “Root Locus Technique” used for studying linear control systems in the inves tigation of the trajectories of the roots of the characteristic equation.com . This technique is applicable to both single as well as multiple-loop systems.10. PROCEDURE: 1. Assess the stability of given system using the plot obtained.eeecube. axis(v) 64 ] ] www. 2.b.

eeecube.com .xlabel('Real Axis') ylabel('Imaginary Axis') title('Root Locus of the system') title('Root Locus Plot of the system MANUAL CALCULATIONS: ') 65 www.blogspot.

eeecube.blogspot.com .66 www.

blogspot. How are the break away points of the root locus determined? 14. G(s)= ___________________ using MATLAB and the range of gain K for stability is______________. What is the advantage of root locus technique? 4.com . State the basic properties of Root Locus. How is the point of intersection of the asymptotes with real axis found out. VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS: 1. How would you find the number of branches of Root Loci? 13. What are the conditions of stability in root locus criteria? 3. 2. Define root locus technique.eeecube. 12. Which method of stability analysis is more advantageous? 5. What is the use of compensators? 8. How the stability of unstable is improved? 6. What is complementary Root Loci? 10. What are the methods to improve the stability? 7. What do you mean by Root-Loci? 9. What are contours? 11.OUTPUT (from manual calculation) OUTPUT (from program): RESULT: The Root locus plot is drawn for the given transfer function. 67 www.

USING NYQUIST PLOT AIM: To obtain the Nyquist plot and check the stability of the system using Nyquist Stability Criterion for the given unity feedback system with transfer function G(s)H(s) = APPARATUS REQUIRED A PC with MATLAB Software THEORY: NYQUIST STABILITY CRITERION : POLAR PLOTS / NYQUIST PLOTS: The sinusoidal transfer function G(jω) is a complex function is given by G(jω) = Re[ G(jω)] + j Im[G(jω)] or G(jω) = │G(jω) │ ∟G(jω) = M ∟Φ -----------(1) From equation (1). The major advantage of the polar plot lies in stability study of systems. 2. Polar plots are referred as NYQUIST PLOTS. Nyquist related the stability of a system to the form of these plots. 68 www.c.com . PROCEDURE: 1. the magnitude M and phase angle Φ changes and hence the tip of the phasor G(jω) traces a locus in the complex plane. The locus thus obtained is known as POLAR PLOT. Write a program to obtain the Nyquist plot for the given system.blogspot.eeecube. it is seen that G(jω) may be represented as a phasor of magnitude M and phase angle Φ. As the input frequency varies from 0 to ∞. Assess the stability of given system using the plot obtained.

title('Nyquist Plot of the system MANUAL CALCULATIONS: „) 69 www.den) %Specify the frequency range and enter the command nyquist(sys) v=[ ] axis(v) xlabel('Real Axis'). ylabel('Imaginary Axis').PROGRAM %NYQUIST PLOT %Enter the numerator and denominator of the transfer function num=[ ] den=[ ] sys=tf(num.eeecube.com .blogspot.

eeecube.OUTPUT ( from Manual calculation) OUTPUT (from program) 70 www.com .blogspot.

RESULT: The Nyquist plot is drawn for the given transfer function.eeecube. VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS: 1. 2.blogspot.com . 71 www. 3. 5. 4. What is polar plot? What is Nyquist plot? Define the conditions of stability in polar plot. What is the use and advantage of polar plot? State Nyquist stability criterion. G(s) = ______________________ using MATLAB and the system is found to be ______________________.

Expt.eeecube.com . No: STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL SYSTEM Date: 72 www.blogspot.

73 www.blogspot.com .eeecube.

74 www.com .eeecube.blogspot.