The compact Lenze formula collection

Lenze Drive Systems GmbH Postfach 10 13 52 · D-31763 Hameln Site: Hans-Lenze-Straße 1 · D-31855 Aerzen Phone ++49 (0) 5154 82-0 · Telefax ++49 (0) 5154 82-21 11 E-Mail: Lenze@Lenze.de · www.Lenze.com

473 731 Technical alterations reserved Printed in Germany 9.2003 en · 5 4 3 2 1

Introduction to the 5th edition This little collection of formulae has been put together for the dimensioning and project-planning of electrical drives. Dimensions that are not defined in the SI-system can be converted by using the conversion tables. The derivations of the formulae have been left out. However, the numerical equations have been presented in such a manner that the physical relationships are apparent. Hameln, September 1999

3

4

Contents Dimensions and conversion Electrical circuit symbols Drive dimensioning Control loops Geared motors Installation of equipment Approvals and standards 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5

6

Dimensions and conversion

1

7

Fundamental units of the SI-system DIN 1301-1

1

Physical dimension Length Mass Time Electrical current Temperature Substance quantity Luminous intensity

Name Meter Kilogram Second Ampere Kelvin Mol Candela

Abbreviation m kg s A K mol cd

Prefixes and their abbreviations as per DIN 66030 Prefix Multip. factor for the dimen. unit 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 International prefix char. T G M k h da d c m n p Form I Upper or lower case T G M k h da d c m u n p Representation Form II (lower (upper case case only) only) t T g G ma MA k K h H da DA d D c C m M u U n N p P

8

Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hekto Deka Dezi Zenti Milli Mikro Nano Piko

Conversion of lengths

B m 10-3 10-2 1 2.54 · 10-2 3.048 · 10-1 9.144 · 10-1 1000 1609.34 1852 63360 72913.4 39370.1 36 3 3280.84 5280 6076.12 12 1 1 3.93701 3.28084 1.09361 3.93701 · 10-1 3.28084 · 10-2 1.09361 · 10-2 10-5 10-3 2.54 · 10-5 3.048 · 10-4 1 1093.61 1760 2025.37 9.144 · 10-4 1 1.60934 1.852 3.93701 · 10-2 3.28084 · 10-3 1.09361 · 10-3 10-6 in ft yd km

A

mm

cm

mile

naut mile1)

mm

1

10-1

6.21371 · 10-7 5.39957 · 10-7 6.21371 · 10-6 5.39957 · 10-6 6.21371 · 10-4 5.39957 · 10-4 1.57828 · 10-5 1.37149 · 10-5 1.89394 · 10-4 1.64579 · 10-4 5.68182 · 10-4 4.93737 · 10-4 6.21371 · 10-1 5.39957 · 10-1 1 1.15078 8.68976 · 10-1 1

cm

10

1

m

1000

100

in

25.4

2.54

8.33333 · 10-2 2.77778 · 10-2 3.33333 · 10-1

ft

304.8

30.48

yd

914.4

91.44

km

106

105

mile

1.60934 · 106

160 934

naut mile1) 1.852 · 106

185 200

1)

IIn the United Kingdom: 1 nautical mile = 1853 m

9

1

1

10
a 10-6 10-2 1 100 10000 6.45160 · 144 1296 10-6 6.45160 · 10-8 6.45160 · 10-10 1 100 1 1 10-2 1.55000 · 107 107 639 10-2 10-4 155 000 1076.39 119.599 11959.9 10-4 10-6 1550.00 10.7639 1.19599 10-8 10-10 ha km2 in2 ft2 yd2 sq mile acre 1.55000 · 10-1 1.07639 · 10-3 1.19599 · 10-4 3.86102 · 10-11 2.47105 · 10-8 3.86102 · 10-7 2.47105 · 10-4 3.86102 · 10-5 2.47105 · 10-2 3.86102 · 10-3 2.47105 247.105 10-3 1 9 7.71605 · 10-4 2.49098 · 10-10 1.59423 · 10-7 1.11111 · 10-1 3.58701 · 10-8 2.29568 · 10-5 1 4.01449 · 109 2.78784 · 107 3.09760 · 106 43560.0 4840 3.22831 · 10-7 2.06612 · 10-4 1 1.56250 · 10-3 640 1 1.55000 · 109 1.07639 · 107 1.19599 · 106 3.86102 · 10-1 6.94444 · 25899.9 40.4686 258.999 2.58999 4.04686 · 10-1 4.04686 · 10-3 6.27264 · 106

Conversion of areas

B

A

cm2

m2

cm2

1

10-4

m2

10000

1

a

106

100

ha

108

10000

km2

1010

106

in2

6.45160

6.45160 ·

10-4

ft2

929.030

9.29030 · 10-2 9.29030 · 10-4 9.29030 · 10-6 9.29030 · 10-8

yd2

8361.27

8.36127 · 10-1 8.36127 · 10-3 8.36127 · 10-5 8.36127 · 10-7

sq mile 2.58999 · 1010 2.58999 · 106

acre

4.04686 · 107

4046.86

Conversion of volumes

B in3 US fl oz Imp fl oz US gal ft3 yd3

A

cm3

dm3 = I

Imp gal

Imp pint

cm3 61.0237 1 1728 46656 1.80469 1.73387 231 277.419 34.6774 1.04438 · 10-3 3.86807 · 10-5 27 1 25852.7 1 1 3.70370 · 10-2 957.506 3.53147 · 10-2 1.30795 · 10-3 33.8140 35.1951

1

10-3

6.10237 · 10-2 3.53147 · 10-5 1.30795 · 10-6 3.38140 · 10-2 3.51951 · 10-2 2.64172 · 10-4 2.19969 · 10-4 1.75975 · 10-3 2.64172 · 10-1 2.19969 · 10-1 1.75975

dm3 = I

1000

1

in3

16.3871

1.63871 · 10-2

5.78704 · 10-4 2.14335 · 10-5 5.54113 · 10-1 5.76744 · 10-1 4.32900 · 10-3 3.60465 · 10-3 2.88372 · 10-2 996.614 26908.6 1.04084 1 128 153.722 19.2152 133.228 160 20 7.48052 201.974 7.8125 · 10-3 7.50594 · 10-3 1 1.20095 1.50119 · 10-1 6.22884 168.179 6.50527 · 10-3 6.25 · 10-3 8.32674 · 10-1 1 1.25 · 10-1 49.8307 1345.43 5.20421 · 10-2 5 · 10-2 6.66139 8 1

ft3

28316.8

28.3168

yd3

764 555

764.555

US fl oz

29.5735

2.95735 ·

10-2

Imp fl oz

28.4131

2.84131 · 10-2

1.00340 · 10-3 3.71629 · 10-5 9.60760 · 10-1 1.33681 · 10-1 4.95113 · 10-3 1.60544 · 10-1 5.94606 · 10-3 2.00680 · 10-2 7.43258 · 10-4

US gal

3785.41

3.78541

Imp gal

4546.09

4.54609

Imp pint

568.261

5.68261 · 10-1

11

1

Conversion of mass

1
A g kg oz Ibm

B

g 1 1000 28.3495 453.592 907 185

kg 10-3 1 2.83495 · 10-2 4.53592 · 10-1 907.185

oz

Ibm

US ton

3.52740 · 10-2 2.20462 · 10-3 1.10231 · 10-6 35.2740 1 16 32 000 2.20462 6.25 · 10-2 1 2000 1.10231 · 10-3 3.125 · 10-5 5 · 10-4 1

US ton

Conversion of energy

A J Wh kp m kcal 12 BTU

B

J 1 3600 9.80665 4186.8 1055.06

Wh

kp m

kcal

BTU

2.77778 · 10-4 1.01972 · 10-1 2.38846 · 10-4 9.47817 · 10-4 1 2.72407 · 10-3 1.163 2.93071 · 10-1 367.098 1 426.935 107.586 8.59845 · 10-1 3.41214

2.34228 · 10-3 9.29491 · 10-3 1 2.51996 · 10-1 3.96832 1

Conversion of torque

B Nm 10-2 1 9.80655 · 9.80665 9.80665 · 10-5 7.06155 · 10-3 1.12985 · 10-1 1.35582 1.15212 13.8225 7.20078 · 10-2 10-3 10-5 7.20078 · 10-4 1.15212 · 10-2 1.38255 · 10-1 100 1 10-2 1 10-2 10.1972 1.01972 · 10-1 10197.2 1000 10 5 1 72.0078 1152.12 13825.5 1.01972 · 10-1 1.01972 · 10-3 101.972 kp cm kp m p cm

A

N cm

oz in 1.41612 141.612 13.8874 1388.74 1.38874 · 10-2 1 16 192

in lbs 8.85075 · 10-2 8.85075 8.67962 · 10-1 86.7962 8.67962 · 10-4 6.25 · 10-2 1 12

ft lbs 7.37562 · 10-3 7.37562 · 10-1 7.23301 · 10-2 7.23301 7.23301 · 10-5 5.20833 · 10-3 8.33333 · 10-2 1

N cm

1

Nm

100

kp cm

9.80665

kp m

980.665

p cm

9.80665 · 10-3

oz in

7.06155 · 10-1

in lbs

11.2985

ft lbs

135.582

13

1

1

14
kg m2 10-4 9.80655 · 10-2 1 9.80665 1 386.089 16 6177.42 2304.00 74129.0 1 4.14413 · 10-2 16 5.96754 192 2.59008 · 10-3 1 536176 1388.74 33511.0 6.25 · 10-2 24.1305 1 386.089 144 4633.06 1.01972 · 10-1 54674.8 141.612 3417.17 8.85075 86.7962 10-2 5361.76 13.8874 335.110 8.67962 · 10-1 1.01972 · 10-5 5.46748 kp m s2 oz in2 oz in s2 Lb in2 Lb in s2 Lb ft2 Lb ft s2 1.41612 · 10-2 3.41717 · 10-1 8.85075 · 10-4 2.37304 · 10-3 7.37562 · 10-5 2.32715 23.7304 232.715 7.23301 · 10-2 7.37562 · 10-1 7.23301 1.61880 · 10-4 4.34028 · 10-4 1.34900 · 10-5 6.25 · 10-2 1.67573 · 10-1 5.20833 · 10-3 2.59008 · 10-3 6.94444 · 10-3 2.15840 · 10-4 1 3.72971 · 10-1 12 2.68117 1 32.1740 8.33333 · 10-2 3.10810 · 10-2 1 7.06155 · 10-3 7.20078 · 10-4 1.12985 · 10-1 1.15212 · 10-2 1.35582 1.38255 · 10-1

Conversion of inertial moments

B

A

kg cm2

kp cm s2

kg cm2

1

1.01972 · 10-3

kp cm s2

980.665

1

kg m2

10 4

10.1972

kp m s2

98066.5

100

oz in2 1.82900 · 10-1 1.86506 · 10-4 1.82900 · 10-5 1.86506 · 10-6

oz in

s2

70.6155

7.20078 ·

10-2

Lb in2

2.92640

2.98409 · 10-3 2.92640 · 10-4 2.98409 · 10-5

Lb in s2

1129.85

1.15212

Lb ft2

421.401

4.29710 · 10-1 4.21401 · 10-2 4.29710 · 10-3

Lb ft s2

13558.2

13.8255

The value of the moment of gyration GD2 (in kp m2) is 4 times the valueof the moment of inertia J (in kg m2). Example: 4 kp m2 = 1 kg m2

Conversion of forces A N kp p oz lbf B N 1 9.80665 9.80665 · 10-3 kp 1.01972 · 10-1 1 10-3 p 101.972 1000 1 28.3495 453.592 oz 3.59694 35.2740 lbf 2.24809 · 10-1 2.20462

1

3.52740 · 10-2 2.20462 · 10-3 1 16 6.25 · 10-2 1

2.78014 · 10-1 2.83495 · 10-2 4.44822 4.53592 · 10-1

Conversion of power A kW PS HP kp m/s kcal/s B kW 1 7.35499 · 10-1 7.45700 · 10-1 PS 1.35962 1 1.01387 HP 1.34102 9.86320 · 10-1 1 kp m/s 101.972 75 76.0402 1 426.935 kcal/s 2.38846 · 10-1 1.75671 · 10-1 1.78107 · 10-1 2.34228 · 10-3 1

9.80665 · 10-3 1.33333 · 10-2 1.31509 · 10-2 4.1868 5.69246 5.61459

Conversion of pressure A Pa N/mm2 bar [kp/cm2] [Torr] B Pa 1 10 6 10 5 98100 133 N/mm2 10-6 1 0.1 9.81 · 10-2 0.133 · 10-3 bar 10-5 10 1 0.981 1.33 · 10-3 [kp/cm2] 1.02 · 10-5 10.2 1.02 1 1.36 · 10-3 [Torr] 0.0075 7.5 · 10 3 750 736 1 15

Conversion of temperature

1

tC = tC =

5 (tF – 32) 9 5 (TR – 491.67) 9

tC in °C (Celsius) tK in K (Kelvin) tF in °F (Fahrenheit) TR in °R (Rankine)

TK = tC + 273.15 TK = TK = tF = TR = 5 TR 9 5 (tF + 459.67) 9 5 tC + 32 9 5 (tC + 491.67) 9

Temperature measurement According to the resistance of copper wire ~W = T = RW-RK ( ~ K + 235) + ~ K RK RW-RK ( ~ K + 235) RK

~ W = Temperature in the warm state in °C ~ K = Temperature in the cold state in °C T = Excess temperature of the winding in K RW = Resistance in the warm state in Ω 16 RK = Resistance in the cold state in Ω

Symbols for electrical and magnetic units

No. Symbol 1 2 3 4 Q e σ ,
e,

Meaning electrical charge elementary charge surface charge density,

SI unit C C C/m2 C/m3

Comment

1

charge of a proton e = 1,602 177 33 · 10-19 C 1)
e, if P is being used for the density (mass density) or the specific electrical resistance No. 38

η

space charge density, charge density, charge/unit-volume electrical flux electrical flux density electrical polarisation

5 6 7

Ψ, Ψe D P

C C/m2 C/m2 P = D – O · E = xe · D as per No. 6 O as per No. 14 E as per No. 11 xe as per No. 16 p = ∫ P dV P as per No. 7 V Volume In ISO 31-5 : 1992 and IEC 27-1 : 1992 V is given as the preferred symbol, and as an alternative. As per ISO 31-5 : 1992 and IEC 27-1 : 1992 V is also permitted
O

·E

8

p, pe

electrical dipole moment

C·m

9

,

e

electrical potential

V

10

U

electrical voltage electrical potentialdifference electrical field strength electrical capacity Permittivity

V

11 12 13

E C

V/m F F/m C = Q/U Q as per No. 1, U as per No. 10 = D/E D as per No. 6, E as per No. 11 (previously: dielectric constant)

17

No. Symbol 14
O

Meaning electrical field constant

SI unit F/m

Comment m Permittivity of free space 2 O = 1/ (µO · cO) = 8.854 187 817 ... pF/m µO as per No. 28, cO Speed of light
r = / O, (previously: relative dielectric constant) as per No. 13, O as per No. 14

1
15

r

relative permittivity

1

16

xe, x

electrical susceptibility

1

– O xe = ––––– =
O

r

–1

O r

as per No. 13 as per No. 14 as per No. 15

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

I J Θ V, Vm H φ B A, Am L Lmn

electrical current electrical current density current linkage magnetic potential magnetic field strength magnetic flux magnetic flux density magnetic vector potential inductance, self-inductance mutual inductance

A A/m2 A A A/m Wb T Wb/m H H In ISO 31-5 : 1992 and IEC 27-1 : 1992 M is given as preferred symbol, and Lmn as an alternative µ = B/H, B as per No. 23 H as per No. 21 Permeability of free space µO = 4 π 10-7 H/m = 1.256 637 061 4 ... µH/m B = φ/S, S S cross-sectional area, φ as per No. 22 as per ISO 31-5 : 1992 and IEC 27-1 : 1992 Um J = I/S, S cross-sectional area, I as per No. 17

27

µ

permeability

H/m

28

µO

magnetic field constant

H/m

18

No. Symbol 29 30 µr
m,

Meaning relative permeability magnetic susceptibility

SI unit 1 1

Comment µr = µ/µO, µ as per No. 27, µO as per No. 28 µ as per No. 27 µ – µO m = –––––– = µr – 1 µO as per No. 28 µO µr as per No. 29 Hi = B/µO – H =
m

1

31

Hi, M

magnetisation

A/m

H B as per No. 23 µO as per No. 28 H as per No. 21 m as per No. 30

32

Bi, J

magnetic polarisation

T

J = B – µO · H= µO · Hi B as per No. 23 µO as per No. 28 H as per No. 21 Hi as per No. 31 m=M B M moment of force, torque, B as per No. 23

33

m

electromagnetic moment, magnetic surface moment magnetic resistance, reluctance magnetic permeance, permeance

A · m2

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Rm Λ R G

H-1 H

electrical resistance, Ω effective resistance, resistance electrical conductivity, effec- S tive conductivity, conductance specific electrical resistance, resistivity Ω·m S/m 1 Ω · m = 1 Ω · m2/m = 106 Ω · mm2/m γ = 1/ , as per No. 38 1 S/m = 1 S · m/m2 = 10-6 S · m/mm2

γ, σ, X B Z

electrical conductivity, conductivity susceptance impedance (complex impedance)

reactive resistance, reactance Ω S Ω Z = R + jX2) R as per No. 36 X as per No. 40

19

No. Symbol 43 Z, |Z| Y

Meaning impedance, impedance vector admittance (complex admittance) admittance, admittance vector characteristic impedance intrinsic impedance of free space

SI unit Ω S

Comment Z = √ R2 + X2 2) R as per No. 36 X as per No. 40

1
44 45 46 47 Y, |Y| Zw, Γ ZO, ΓO

Y = 1/Z = G + jB 2) B as per No. 41 G as per No. 37 Z as per No. 42 Y = √ G2 + B2 2) B as per No. 41 G as per No. 37 1 · cO

S Ω Ω

ZO = √ µO/

O

= µO · cO =

O

≈ 376.730 313 ... Ω µO as per No. 28, cO speed of light, O as per No. 14 48 49 50 51 W P, Pp Q, Pq S, Ps energy, work effective power reactive power apparent power J W W W unit also as var see DIN 40110 unit also VA As for impedance, a distinction must be made between the complex apparent power and its vector value (see Nr. 42 and Nr. 43) S=ExH E as per No. 11 H as per No. 21

52

S

electromagnetic energy flow density, electromagnetic power density, Poynting vector (t) phase angle 2) phase-shift angle 2)

W/m2

53 54

rad rad

t time, time period, duration also vector angle of an impedance Z = Z · ej , Z as per No. 42, Z as per No. 43

55 56 57

δ δµ λ

permittivity loss-angle permeability loss-angle power factor

rad rad 1 λ = P/S P as per No. 49, S as per No. 51, λ = cos 2), as per No. 54

20

No. Symbol 58 d

Meaning loss factor

SI unit 1

Comment d = P/|Q| P as per No. 49, Q as per No. 50, d = tan δ 2), δ as per No. 55 or Nr. 56

1

59 60 61 62 63 64 65
1) 2)

δ g k F m N k

penetration, equivalent conductive thickness fundamental level harmonic level, distortion factor form factor number of phases number of turns coupling factor

m 1 1 1 1 1 1 k = L12/√ L1 · L2 L as per No. 25, L12 as per No. 26

The uncertainty given for the last figures indicates the standard deviation. Valid only for sinusoidal current and voltage waveforms.

21

1

22

Electrical circuit symbols

2

23

Circuit symbols DIN EN 60617

2

Control elements Circuit Symbol Description Notch Not self-release Device to hold a given position Lock-out, non-latching

Lock-out latching

Coupling, free

Brake

Examples: Electromagnetically activated brake Electromagnetically released brake 24

Controller/regulator Circuit Symbol Description Manual operation, general Manual operation with limited access Operation by pulling Operation by rotating Operation by pressing Emergency-off switch, “mushroom” type Operation by handwheel Operation by pedal Operation by detachable handle Operation by roller Generalized power drive Operation by stored mechanical energy. Information that shows the type of stored energy that can be entered in the rectangle. Tripped by electromechanical effect

2

25

Earth and ground connectors, equipotential bonding Circuit Symbol Description Generalized earth Additional details must be added to define the type or purpose of the earth Low-noise earth

2

Protective earth Protective earth connection This symbol may be used instead of to designate an earth connection that performs a defined protective function, e.g. for protection from electrical shock in a fault condition. Ground Housing The hatching can be omitted if no ambiguity is caused. The line that represents the housing must then be made thicker:

26

Connections Circuit
3

Symbol

Description 3-pole connection Additional information may be attached as follows: – type of current – type of supply – frequency – voltage – number of conductors – cross-section of individual conductors – chem. symbol for cond. material The number of conductors is followed by an “x” and then the cross-section. If there are different cross-sections the details should be separated by a “+” sign.

2

3N ~ 50 Hz 400 V

3 x 120 mm 2 + 1 x 50 mm 2

3-phase 4-wire system with three phases and a neutral conductor, 50 Hz, 400 V, outer conductor 120 mm2, neutral conductor 50 mm2 3 N can be replaced by 3+N. Flexible connection Shielded conductor Connection (e. g. terminal) Connector strip Connector designations can be provided. T-connection The symbol is shown with the interconnection point 27

Connectors Circuit Symbol Description Plug/socket, all-pole representation

2

4

Plug/socket, multi-pole

28

Passive components Circuit Symbol Description Generalized resistor Generalized attenuator Resistor, temperature-dependent

2

Resistor with movable (slider) contact Potentiometer Generalized capacitor

+

Polarized capacitor e.g. electrolytic capacitor

Inductance Coil Winding Choke Inductance with magnetic core Transformer

Current transformer

29

Semiconductors Circuit Symbol Description Diode

2
Avalanche diode, unidirectional Voltage-limiter diode Z-diode Reverse-blocking thyristor, P-gate (cathode-controlled)

NPN-transistor

C

Insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), enhancement type, P-channel

G E

30

Contacts Circuit Symbol Description Closer

2
Opener

Changeover with make-after-break

Passing contact on activation

Passing contact on release

Closer (in a set of contacts) that makes before the other contacts in the set Leading closer/make contact 31

Circuit

Symbol

Description Opener (in a set of contacts) that opens after the other contacts in the set Trailing opener

2
Closer, delayed make, when the equipment of which it is part is activated Delayed-action opener

Closer, delayed break, when the equipment of which it is part is de-activated Delayed-released closer

Opener, delayed break, when the equipment of which it is part is activated Delayed-action opener

Opener, delayed break, when the equipment of which it is part is activated Delayed-action opener

32

Switches Circuit Symbol Description Generalized manually operated switch

2
Pressure switch, closer with automatic release

Pressure switch, opener with automatic release

Pressure switch, closer without automatic release

Opener with automatic thermal activation (thermostat, e.g. bimetal)

Multistage switch
1 2 3 4

33

Relays Circuit Symbol Description Electromechanical actuation, generalized Relay coil, generalized

2

Overcurrent relay
I>

Locking relay

Electromechanical actuation with delayed release

Electromechanical actuation with delayed activation

34

Protective device Circuit Symbol Description Generalized fuse

2
Motor cut-out

I> 3

Lamps and signalling devices Circuit Symbol Description Generalized lamp Generalized indicator

Horn Klaxon

35

Design letters to identify the type of equipment Equipment that is not included in the examples must be assigned to the appropriate category. Functional features are more important here than the assembly.

2

Designation Type of letter equipment A Modules, sub-assemblies

Examples Amplifiers with valves or transistors, magnetic amplifiers, lasers, masters Equipment combinations; modules and sub-assemblies that form an assembly, but cannot be clearly assigned to another designated letter such as plug-in modules, frames, inserts, plug-in cards, pcb assemblies, local controls etc.

B

Transducers from non-electrical to electrical variables or the reverse

Thermo-electric sensors, thermal cells, photo-electric cells, dynamometers, quartz-crystal transducers, microphones, phono pickups or loudspeakers, synchro-transmitters, tracking potentiometers Transducers, thermocouples, resistance thermometers, photo-sensitive resistors, load cells, strain cells, strain gauges, piezo-electric transducers, speed sensors, pulse transmitters, tachometers, angle/path transmitters, proximity detectors, Hall effects sensors, magnetoresistive potentiometers, transmitters for: pressure, density, level, temperature

C D

Condensers Binary elements, propagation conductor, storage devices Digital integrated circuit and components, propagation conductor, bistable devices, monostable devices, registers core stores, registers, magnetic tape equipment, disk storage Devices for logic and digital control, computing technology. Integrated circuits with logic and digital functions, delay elements, signal gate, timing circuits, storage and memory functions, e.g. drum and tape stores, shift registers, logical components such as AND and OR elements. Digital equipment, pulse counters, digital controllers and calculators

36

Designation Type of letter equipment E Various

Example Lightning equipment, heating equipment, equipment not otherwise covered by this list Electrical filters, electrical fences, fans, protection of measuring equipment, reservoirs

F

Protective devices

Fuses, overvoltage discharge devices, overvoltage deviation device Telephone line circuit breakers, relay cut-outs, bimetallic cut-out, magnetic cut-out, pressure switches, air-vane relays, Buchholz relay, electronic device for signal monitoring, signal, cable, function monitoring; installation cable breakers

2

G

Generators, power

Rotary generators, rotary converters, power supply equipments batteries, oscillator, quartz oscillator static generator and converters; charging equipment, PSUs, inverters, clock generators

H

Signalling devices

Optical and acoustic signalling equipment Signal lamps; devices for hazard and time signals, time-sequence signal device, movements recording equipment, drop indicator relay

J K L M N P

free Relays, contactors Power contactors, auxiliary; auxiliary relays, time relays, blinker relays and Reed relays Inductances Motors Analog components operational amplifier, hybrid Analog/Digital components Measuring and test equipment Display, recording and counting measuring equipment, pulse generator, clocks Analog, logic and digital display and recording measuring equipment (Indicators, recorders, counters), mechanical counters, logic-state indicators, oscillographs, video display, simulators, test adaptors, measurement/test/supply point Induction pulse, waves traps, inductors (parallel and in series)

37

Designation Type of letter equipment Q Power switchingdevices

Example Power switches, isolating switches switches in power circuitry, switches with protective devices, high-speed circuit breakers, load disconnector, star delta switches, polarity-reversal switch, drum starter, disconnecting links, cell switch, fuse disconnector, fuseswitch disconnector, installation switch, motor circuit-breaker adjustable resistors, potentiometers, rheostat, shunt resistors, heat conductors Fixed-value resistor, starter resistors, brake resistors, cold conductors, measuring resistors, shunt

2
R Resistors

S

Switches, selectors Control switches, pushbuttons, limit switches, selectors, diallers, coupled step switches Control equipment, control units, built-in units, pushbuttons, toggles switches, illuminated switches, control-discrepancy switches, measuring points switches, drum controllers, cam controllers, decade switches, code switches, function keys, dial selectors, rotary switches

T U

Transformers Modulators, converters of electrical variables

Voltage transformer, current transformer Mains, isolating, and control-power transformers Discriminator, demodulator, frequency converter, encoding/decoding devices, inverter, converters, telegraph modulators demodulator frequency modulators and demodulators to current/voltage converter, analog digital converters; digital analog converter, signal isolators, DC-current and DC-voltage converters, parallel-serial and serial-parallel-converters; encoders/decoders, optocouplers, remote control devices Electrical valves, gas-discharge valves, diodes, transistors, thyristors Display tube, amplifier valves, thyratrons, mercury rectifier, Zener diodes, tunnel diodes, varicap diodes, triacs

V

Valve (tubes), semiconductor

W

Transmission ans, waveguide

Jumper wires, cables, busbars, waveguide, directional mewaveguide, waveguides/directional couplers, dipoles,

38

Antenna Designation letter X Type of equipment Clamps, plugs, sockets

light pipes, coaxial cables, TFH-, UKW directional transmission and HF-cable transmission, telephone lines Example Plugs and sockets, clips, test connectors, socket terminal strips, solder tag strips, bridges, cable connectors and cable sockets Coax-connector; sockets; measuring sockets; multi-pin connectors; distributor boards; cable connectors; programming connectors; crossed distributor boards; latch

2

Y

Electrically operated interlocks

Brakes, couplings, compressed-air solenoid Local drive, lifting appliance; brake release, control drive, safety magnets, mechanical locks, motor potentiometer, Permanent-magnets, Teletype, electrical typewriter, printers, plotters, console typewriter

Z

Termination, cable simulation, level controls, crystal filters, networks hybrid equalitransfomer, filters, zers, limiters adaptation devices, R/C and L/C-filters, spark suppressors, active filters,high-pass splitters low-pass and bandpass filters, frequency divider, damping elements

NOTE 1: In IEC 60 617-1 general index: 1985 “Graphical symbols for diagrams – Part 1: General information, general index. Cross-reference tables” are designated letters mostly used for equipment with standard circuits NOTE 2: If more than one designation can be given, because a piece of equipment can be described with more than one name, one should use the version that occurs most.

39

Identification keys for equipment and conductors DIN EN 60445 DIN EN 60617
Specified conductor Designation of the equipment U V W N C D M PE Designation of the cable ends L1 L2 L3 N L+ LM PE Symbol as per DIN EN 60617

2

AC-supply network conductors Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral conductor DC-supply network conductors Positive Negative Middle conductor Protective earth

PEN-conductor

PEN

Earth conductor

E

E

Low-noise earth

TE

TE

Ground connection

MM1)

MM1)

Equipotential connection

CC1)

CC1)

40

1)

This designation is only valid if these connections or conductors are not intended to be used for the earth or protective earth.

Colour of resistors DIN EN 60062 Colour coding
Code-colour name none silver gold black brown red orange yellow green blue violet grey white Resistance value in Ω Figure Multiplier – – – 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 – 10-2 10-1 11 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 Tolerance of the resistance value ± 20% ± 10% ± 5% – ± 1% ± 2% ± 0.05% – ± 0.5% ± 0.25% ± 0.1% – – Temperature coefficient (10-6/°C) – – – ± 250 ± 100 ± 50 ± 15 ± 25 ± 20 ± 10 ±5 ±1 – 101

2

Example for colour coding of resistance values with three bands for figures and temperature coefficient. Resistance 249 kΩ, tolerance limits ± 1 %, temperature coefficient ± 50 · 10-6/°C. First band

red (first figure) yellow (second figure) white (third figure) orange (Multiplier) brown (tolerance limits) red (temperature coefficient)

41

2

42

Drive dimensioning

3

43

Physical equations for drive technology Translation s =v·t s v = t Rotation path or angle speed (velocity) angular velocity = t v =d n= r = ˙=2 n= ˙ = ¨= M =J· ˙ M =F·r P =M· W =M· W = 1 J 2
2

3

v r

a =

v t

acceleration accelerating force -torque torque

t

F =m·a

P =F·v W=F·s 1 W = m v2 2

power energy energy

Important definitions 1N = 1 kg m s2 force force power work, energy moment of inertia acceleration due to gravity

1 kp = 9.81 N m 1 PS = 75 kp = 0.7355 kW s 1 Ws = 1 Nm = 1 J 1 kg m2 = 1 Ws3 = 1 Nms2 g = 9.81 m/s2 44

Dimensional equations (see P. 47 for units) speed (velocity) force torque v = d· ·n 1000 M = r ·m·g

F = 1000 M= M= F·r 1000

3 · 104 P 9549 P = ·n n m v2 7200
2

3

work kinetic energy rot. energy power rotation translation hoist pump

W=F·s=m·g·s W= W=

1800

J n2 =

J n2 182,4 M·n 9549

P= P= P= P=

30

· 10-3 M · n =

F·v 6 · 104 m·g·v 6 · 104 V·p 1000

Important definitions = i= Pab Pzu efficiency gear ratio

n1 M2 = n2 M1

45

Acceleration of drives torque motor-mode torque generator-mode M = ML + Ma + Mv = ML + M = ML – Ma Ma = J

( – M = (M
v

L

) n M – ·J – 30 t )
30 ·J n 1 · ta
a

L

3

acceleration torque

30

n n = 0,105 J ta ta

taking into account n = Ma = work, energy W= W= total power power at load acceleration power with M = constant 1000 v d· 100 v J 3d ta
2

1800

J n2

M J n2 M = M – ML 182.4 (M – ML)

5000 v2 M J 2 9 d M – ML

P = PL + Pa PL = · n · ML n · ML v · M L = = 3 · 104 9549 30 · d
2n n nJ n J = 9 · 105 ta 9,12 · 104 · ta

Pa = Pa =

10 v v m·v· v J = 9d2 ta 3,6 · 106 ta

The sign of n and Ma reverses on braking. 46

acceleration time ta = ta = J n J n 100J v = 0.105 = M – ML M – ML 3d M – ML

30

2n J n nJ n = 9 · 105 (P – PL) 9.12 · 104 (P – PL)

traversing drive with acceleration

P=

mv 6 · 104

(

·g+

v 60 ta

)

3

M = motor torque in Nm ML = load torque in Nm Ma = acceleration torque in Nm P = motor power in kW PL = power at load in kW Pa = acceleration power in kW n = speed in rpm n = speed difference in rpm v = velocity in m/min v = velocity difference in m/min J = total moment of inertia in kgm2 m = mass in kg F = force in N W = energy in J ta = acceleration time in s s = distance in m d = diameter in mm r = radius in mm = coefficient of friction V = pumping volume in m3/s p = pressure in N/m2 g = 9.81 m/s2 = 3.14 = gearing (gearbox) efficiency 47

Optimum acceleration

M n1 i J1 J2 ML n2

3

1. Generalized accelerating drive wanted: transmission ratio i, motor speed n1 and mot. power P1 P1 =
2 n2ML + (J n 2 + J2n22) 30 900ta 1 1

n1 opt =

n2 30 · ML n J ta + 2 2 J1 · =1

(

)

Simplified: with ML = 0; i= n1 n2 J2 J1

iopt =

i = transmission ratio iopt = transmission ratio for optimum dynamics n = speed in rpm ta = acceleration time in s ML = load torque in Nm J2 = load moment of inertia in kgm2 J1 = motor moment of inertia in kgm2 P1 = motor power in W = efficiency of the gearing 48

Optimum acceleration 1.1. translation (traversing, linear) load m n1 M J1 J2 = m i
2

slide/table spindle

n2 J2

3
h

h (2000 )

1.2. rotational m M J1 J2 = m
+ +d

i

J2
2

d (2000)

n = speed in rpm i = gear ratio J2 = load moment of inertia in kgm2, derived from translation (traversing, linear) J1 = motor moment of inertia in kgm2, derived from rotational m = mass in kg h = leadscrew pitch in mm d = roller diameter in mm 49

Moments of inertia

solid cylinder J= m 2 r = l r4 2 2

hollow cylinder J= m 2 (r + ri2) = l (ra4 – ri4) 2 a 2

3
numerical equations for steel with a density J = moment of inertia in kg cm 2 m = mass in kg d = diameter in mm l = length in mm m d2 800 J= m (d 2 + di2) 800 a = 7.85 g/cm3

J =

J = 7.7 · 10-9 d4l

J = 7.7 · 10-9 (da4 – di4) · l

50

Movement by transport rollers (generalized) m r+ Movement by leadscrews (generalized) load m slide/table spindle
h

J = m r2

J=m

( 2h )

2

3

conversion from linear to rotary motion J= m 4 2 m ( v ) = 39.5 ( v ) n n
2 2

reduction through gearing J1 n1 i n = 1 n2 J2 i2 i n2 J2

J1 =

J = moment of inertia in kg m 2 m = mass in kg v = velocity in m/min n = speed in rpm 51

Angle of rotation as a function of torque for hollow and solid shafts Generally valid is M = Jp = G J 180 l p 32 (D4 – d4)

3

M = torque G = modulus of rigidity 80 000 N/mm2 = torsional angle in degrees l = shaft length D = external diameter d = internal diameter Jp = polar moment of inertia
Polar Inertial torque Inertial torque per m

Dimensions

Weight per m

Torque in Nm at torsion for l = 1 m and

52

D mm 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 35 38 40 45 50

d Jp G J mm cm4 kg kg cm2 – 0.098 0.62 0.077 – 0.50 1.39 0.39 – 1.57 2.47 1.23 – 3.83 3.85 3.01 – 7.95 5.55 6.25 – 25.1 9.86 19.7 – 61.4 15.4 48.2 30 6.78 2.00 5.32 30 12.5 3.35 9.83 30 17.2 4.32 13.5 40 15.1 2.62 11.9 40 36.2 5.55 28.4

0.25° 0.5° 0.75° 0.34 1.73 5.48 13.4 27.8 87.7 214 23.7 43.7 60.0 52.8 126 0.69 3.47 11.0 26.8 55.5 175 428 47.3 87.4 120 106 253 1.03 5.20 16.4 40.2 83.3 263 643 71.0 131 180 158 379

1.25°

1.37 1.71 6.94 8.67 21.9 27.4 53.5 66.9 111 139 351 439 857 1070 94.7 118 175 218 240 300 211 264 506 632

Coefficients of friction (average values):
µ (static friction) No. 1 2 3 4 5 Materials of the frictional surfaces steel on steel steel on cast-iron, gunmetal or bronze metal on wood wood on wood leather on metal (seals) leather belts on cast-iron leather belts on wood dry 0.15 0.2 0.6-0.5 0.65 0.6 0.5-0.6 0.47 lubricated 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.25 – – with water – – – 0.7 0.62 0.36 – µ (dynamic friction) dry 0.1 0.16 lubricated 0.05 0.05 with water – – 0.25 0.36 0.38 –

0.5-0.2 0.08-0.02 0.26-0.22 0.4-0.2 0.16-0.04 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.12 0.12 –

3

7

Frictional coefficients for brake pads

Motional resistance coefficient µ for various vehicles
Vehicle railway wagons tramcars with ball/roller bearings tramcars with journal bearings mining trolleys road vehicle on asphalt road vehicle on cobbles road vehicle on unsurfaced road road vehicles (rubber on asphalt) aerial ropeway, funicular Motional resistance coefficient µr 0.0025 0.005 0.018 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.05 … 0.15 0.02 … 0.03 0.007 … 0.017

53

Positioning drive n v

tH

3

tg

tB v= velocity in m/s v = SB = v · tB 0.12 d· ·n 6 · 104

v= velocity in m/min v = SH = s = UB = n s SH SB d tH tB tg UB 54 d· ·n 1000 v · tH 0.12

SH = 500v · tH SB = 500v · tB s = 500v (2tg – tH – tB) UB = tB · n t ·v = 500 B 120 d·

v (2 · tg – tH – tB) 0.12 tB n tB v = 120 0.12 d ·

= speed in rpm = total feed distance in mm = acceleration distance in mm = braking distance in mm = roller diameter in mm = acceleration time in s = braking time in s = total feed/traversing time in s = no. of turns for braking

3

55

Dimensioning of winder drives Winding ratio: Speed in rpm: Torque in Nm: Winder power in kW: q n = = dmax dmin 1000 v d· F·d 2000 F·v 6 · 104

3

M = PW =

Gear ratio to convert the motor speed to the bobbin speed

i

=

· dmin · nm 1000 v

Acceleration torque in Nm: 100 · v m 2 JR + (d2 + dmin ) 3d ta 8 · 106

Ma =

[

]
in kg/dm3

m=

b 2 (d2 – dmin ) 4 · 106

Spec. weight

Acceleration power in kW: 10 · v · v m 2 JR + (d2 + dmin ) 9 d2 ta 8 · 106

Pa = 56

[

]

Packing characteristics of the winding

flat material L = 4000 S (d2max – d2min)

round material b (d2max – d2min) 2000 √ 3 ds2 2000 √ 3 · L · ds2 + d2min b b d2max 2000 √ 3 d2s

dmax = Lm =

4000

L · S + d2min

3

d2max 4000 S

generalized

L = Lm 1 –

(

1 q2 _

)
6 7 8 9 10

relative packing length in % q _ L 100 Lm . 2 3 4 5

75.0 88.9 93.8 96.0 97.2 98.0 98.4 98.8 99.0 L v d2min + 200 Svt 3

winding time in s: torque = f (t) torque = f (t)

t = 60 M= n =

F 2000

1000 v 200 d2min + Svt 3 d2min + 200 Svt 3

diameter = f (t)

d =

57

Explanation of winder dimensioning
d dmin dmax S ds b i L Lm n nB nm nN nO V v = diameter in mm = bobbin diameter in mm = max. winding diameter in mm = material thickness in mm = material diameter in mm = winding width in mm = gear ratio = length of material in m = max. possible winding length in m = speed in rpm = speed for calculation in rpm = max. speed in rpm = rated motor speed in rpm = synchronous speed in rpm = velocity in m/min = speed difference in m/min t ta F M Ma JR m q p P PN Pa PE PW = = = = = = winding time in s acceleration time in s tension in N torque in Nm acceleration torque in Nm moment of inertia of the unchanging portion of the bobbin, in kgm2 = mass in kg = winding ratio = no. of poles = requ. motor power in kW = rated motor power in kW = acceleration power in kW = base power in kW (calculation aid) = winder power in kW = mech. efficiency of the gearing

3

To be able to dimension the motor to be just as large as is required, it is necessary to know how the tension varies with the diameter. Fmax Fmin P= F q: Fmax

v · Fmin · q 6 · 104 ·

Fmin Fmax Fmin P= 58 q: d dmin dmax

v · Fmax 6 · 104 ·

Gearbox dimensioning for winder drives The gear ratio i can be chosen between the limits of ia and ib. lower limit: upper limit: ia = ib = · dmin · nN · P 1000 · v · PN · dmin · nN 1000 · v

After deciding on the gear ratio, the data should be checked: nmin = 1000 · i · v · dmax Fmin = 6 · 104 Fmax = q · Fmin PN nmin V nN

3

nmax = q · nmin

dmax F
a)

dmin

V b
b) a) without dancer b) with dancer

s m,d

M

G

Inverter or P.S.U.

59

3

60

Control loops

4

61

Switching of Amplifiers Control loop response Transfer function
U2/U1

Frequency behaviour

P

VR t U2/U1

FR = VR

4

I

1

FR = 1 pTi
Ti U2/U1 t

PI

VR Ti U2/U1

1

FR = VR
t

1 + pTn pTn

PD

VR t U2/U1

FR = VR (1 + pTv)

FR =
1

PID

VR Ti VR U2/U1

VR
t

(1 + pTn) (1 + pTv) pTn

active low-pass
τ t

FR =

VR 1 + pτ

62

Optimum dimensioning and the effects Controller setting P-component larger P-component too small I-component too large D-component larger Effect Speed reacts very sharply to setpoint changes Unstable speed, transient is too long Soft control loop response, large overshoot Overshoot is damped Speed range is stable. D-component too large Rough running, irregular speed

4

63

Important terms in control technology Control loop
Setpoint adjuster (pot.) Controlling system Controlled system Controlle
ZS Disturbance Manipulated var. W1 W2 + _ Fr(p) Y Fs1(p) Fs2(p) X

Input variable Input variable to control system to controller Actual value Xi

4
Feedback sensor Fs3(p)

Frequency response within the control loop open control loop: controlled system: feedback: Closed control loop as a function of the control input variable W2: as a function of the disturbance variable Zs: (additive disturbance) 64 Fo(p) x (p) = W2(p) 1 + Fo(p) · Fs3(p) Fw(p) x (p) = Zs(p) Fr(p) · Fs1(p) Fs2(p) x (p) = Zs(p) 1 + Fo(p) · Fs3(p) Fo(p) = Fr(p) · Fs(p) Fs(p) = Fs1(p) · Fs2(p) x (p) Fs3(p) = i x (p)

Fw(p)

=

Fz(p) Fz(p)

= =

Inverter circuits Explanations overleaf E1
Js Us ÛAK Id Ud

Trfr.

Half-wave rect.

Rectivoltage Udi US 0.45

PIV curr. age ÛAK US 2.83

Trfr.

Ripple char. wu 1.21

Control

JS Id 1.41

Ud Udi 1 pulse

√2
B2
Id Us Js Ud

2√2 1.41

√2

4
0.90 1 0.485 2 pulse

full-wave cos 2 1 + cos 2 6 pulse

Full-wave rectifier

√2

√2
1.41

1

half-wave

B6
Id Us Js Ud

1.35

0.816 0.042

full-wave cos 3 √2 2 1 + cos half-wave 3 2

√2

65

Form factor FF = Jeff = 1 + wi2 Id √

Ripple wi = √FF2 - 1 wu = √ U2 current

4

FF = form factor Jeff = value of current in A Js = value of current in A Id = average DC value in A Us = supply voltage in V Ud = DC voltage in V Udi = theoretical DC voltage in V
4
B2C

∑ i voltage IJd ˆ AK = p.i.v. of the switching U device in V U i = r.m.s. value of -ten harmonic in V LA = Inductance of the armature in mH LD = Inductance of the armature choke in mH L = total inductance required in mH

3

Armature choke U LD = L – LA = C s – LA Id fully-controlled single-phase bridge B2C: C = 5.4 · FF–5.67 half-wave controlled single-phase bridge

2
B2H

B2H: C = 3.24 · FF–5.07 fully-controlled 3-phase bridge B6C: C = 0.51 · FF–5.9

1

B6C

66

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7 FF

permissible form-factors FF = 1.2 1 – 5 kW FF = 1.1 5 – 15 kW FF = 1.05 > 15 kW

Experimental determination of the form-factor wi
0.5

Continuous waveform
I Id Io Im t

FF 1.118 1.100 1.080 1.060 1.040 2 1.020 1.010

0.4

0.3

Wi =

1 2 Io Im - Io

4
2

+

0.2

4

0.1

1.005

0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

1.000 1.0 Io Im FF 2.69 2.500

wi
2.5

Pulsed waveform

2

2.30 2.00

1.5 I 1 t T 0.5 Wi = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
2

1.70 1.50 1.30 1.11 T 1 1.00 T

8

67

4

68

Geared motors

5

69

1 Typical toothed gear designs Shaft angle Standard ratios Gear efficiency

0 Helical gear

1 ... 6

Very good

90 Bevel gear

1 ... 6

Very good

5
i = 5: Good 90 Worm gear Depending on the required shaft angle and ratio range, one or more wheel sets are combined within the gear. The total ratio is calculated by multiplying the individual ratios. 5 ... 60 i = 60: Poor

2 Standard materials for geared motors Housing: Shafts: Gears: Output torque < 100 Nm: Aluminium alloys, cast iron Output torque > 100 Nm: Cast iron Tempering steels C45, C60, 42CrMo 4 Case hardening steels 16MnCr5, 20MnCr5, 17CrNiMo6

70

3 Efficiency Efficiency = (drive power-power loss)/drive power In addition to losses in the splines, losses in gaskets and bearings as well as losses in the lubricant must also be taken into account. Due to the relatively high proportion of load-independent losses, gears with low capacity utilisation are less efficient than gears with high capacity utilisation. Efficiency in relation to capacity utilisation

100% 80% / rated 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

5

M / Mrated

71

4 Lubricants Lubricants reduce friction and transport heat from its place of origin to the housing surfaces. Today, oils are used in geared motors almost without exception. • CLP mineral oil Standard oil for helical and bevel gearboxes • Synthetic oils, usually polyglycol PGLP Standard on worm gearboxes In individual cases for helical and bevel gearboxes in extreme temperature ranges Cannot be mixed with mineral oils • Food-compatible oil CLP-H1 Approved to USDA-H11 • Biologically degradable oil CLP-E Synthetic-based diester oil Tlubricant(n2)
Lubricant temperature !
Getriebe, LargegroßesÜbersetzung gearbox, kleine small ratio

5

Tlubricant(ED)
Lubricant temperature

Tambient

kleines Getriebe, große Übersetzung

Small gearbox, large ratio

0

20

40 60 ED [%]

80

100

Drive speed!

72

5 Gearbox temperature In addition to mechanical components such as gears, bearings and shafts, lubricants and gaskets are important constructional elements in gearboxes. The service life of lubricants and seals is temperature-dependent. It is therefore vital that permissible temperatures are not exceeded. The gearbox temperature is the result of the power loss produced and the dissipatable heat. • Power loss ~ (centre distance) 3 • Dissipatable heat ~ (centre distance) 2 Large gearboxes with small ratios get warmer than small gearboxes with large ratios. Ideally, oil temperatures should be < 70° (special measures such as fans and oil coolers should be used if necessary). In extreme cases, synthetic lubricants and special sealants (e.g. fluorocaoutchouc) should be used.

5

73

Electrical machine designs, foot and Figure Abb. Characteristic features

IM B 3 With 2 bearing covers, housing with feet, free shaft end, mounted on subassembly IM B 5 With 2 bearing covers, housing without feet, free shaft end Access from side of housing IM B 6 With 2 bearing covers pivoted at 90°, free shaft end, housing with feet, wall fastening IM B 7 With 2 bearing covers pivoted at 90°, free shaft end, housing with feet, wall fastening IM B 8 With 2 bearing covers pivoted at 180°, free shaft end, housing with feet, cover fastening IM B 14 With 2 bearing covers, input mounting flange, screws on end face of covers. Only for the smallest machines. IM B 34 With 2 bearing covers, input mounting flange, screws on end face of flange, with feet, free shaft end 74

5

flange version to DIN EN 60034-7 (VDE 0530, Part 7) Figure Abb. Characteristic features

IM B 35 With 2 bearing covers, housing with feet, free shaft end, mounting flange in vicinity of bearing IM V 1 With 2 locating bearings (may be thrust bearings), flange on lower bearing cover, free shaft end bottom without feet IM V 3 Bearing as IM V 1, flange on upper bearing cover, free shaft end top without feet IM V 5 Bearing as IM V 1, free shaft end bottom, housing with feet for wall fastening IM V 6 Bearing as IM V 1, free shaft end top, housing with feet, wall fastening IM V 18 Design as IM B 14, vertical orientation, input mounting flange, free shaft end bottom. Only for the smallest machines. IM V 19 Design as IM B 14, vertical orientation, input mounting flange, free shaft end top. Only for the smallest machines. 75

5

Degree of protection via housing (IP code) to DIN EN 60529 (VDE 0470 Part 1)
IP Code initial International Protection First code number Protection against contact and simultaneous protection against foreign matter Second code number Protection against water Additional letter Protection provided by internal cover or clearances Supplementary letter Supplementary information Against ingression of solid foreign matter Against access to dangerous parts with (not protected) Back of hand Finger Tool Wire Wire Wire 2 3 C S

5

First code number

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Second code number

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

(not protected) ≥ 50 mm diameter ≥ 12.5 mm diameter ≥ 2.5 mm diameter ≥ 1.0 mm diameter Dust-protected Dust-tight Against ingression of water with consequential damage (not protected) Vertical drip Drip (15° angle) Spray-water Splashing water Hose-water Powerful hose-water Temporary submersion Continuous submersion

Additional letter

Supplementary letter

A B – C D Supplementary information specifically for H high-voltage equipment M Mobile during water test S Stationary during water test W Weather conditions

Against access to dangerous parts with Back of hand Finger Tool Wire

76

Missing code numbers replaced with an “x”; additional letter and/or supplementary letter left blank.

Degrees of protection via housing for electrical rotating machines to DIN EN 60034-5 (VDE 0530 Part 5) IP 2 Code initial (International Protection) First code number Protection against contact and protection against foreign matter Second code number Protection against water Letter after code number
0 1 2 3 4 5 Machine not protected Machine protected against foreign matter larger than 50 mm Machine protected against foreign matter larger than 12 mm Machine protected against foreign matter larger than 2.5 mm Machine protected against foreign matter larger than 1 mm Machine protected against dust

3

S

5

First code number

Second code number

0 Machine not protected 1 Machine protected against dripping water 2 Machine protected against dripping water when positioned at angles of up to 15° 3 Machine protected against spray-water 4 Machine protected against splashing water 5 Machine protected against hose-water 6 Machine protected against heavy seas 7 Machine protected against submersion 8 Machine protected against continuous submersion M Protection against water damage whilst the machine is in operation S Protection against water damage whilst the machine is idle W Machine for use under specific weather conditions

Letter after code numbers Letter directly after the IP code letters

Missing code numbers replaced with an “x” 77

Labelling of intrinsically safe electrical equipment
II Labelling for electrical equipment with certificate of conformance or type-examination certificate from an EC testing laboratory or manufacturer certificate for type of protection “n” Category, can be used in Zone 1 for gases or vapours “G”, or Zone 21 for dust “D” E = Built to European standard Ex = Intrinsically safe equipment Type of protection applied o = Oil immersion p = Pressurised enclosure q = Sand filling d = Flameproof enclosure e = Increased safety i = Intrinsic safety n = Zone 2 equipment m = Encapsulation All types of protection used on equipment must be indicated after the type of protection. In the example above: Main type of protection “d” Secondary type of protection “e” 2G EEx de II C T6

5

Area of application explosion group Group I = Protection against firedamp II = Explosion protection Explosion group II subdivided for pressurised enclosure “d” Max. permitted gap II A = > 0.9 mm II B = ≥ 0.5 … 0.9 mm II C = < 0.5 mm Temperature class T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Surface temperature lower than 450°C 300°C 200°C 135°C 100°C 85°C Intrinsically safe circuits “i”: Min. ignition current ratio Ratio based on to methane > 0.8 ≥ 0.45 … 0.8 < 0.45 Ignition temperature higher than 450°C 300°C 200°C 135°C 100°C 85°C

Important standards, guidelines and ordinances ExVO, 94/9/EC, ATEX 95, 99/92/EC, ATEX 137, 78 VDE 0165 series, VDE 0170/0171 series

Limit overtemperatures for electronic machines Extract from IEC 60034-1, DIN EN 60034-1 (VDE 0530 Part 1) Overtemperature limit values for machines cooled indirectly with air

Temperature class

No.

Method of meas.

A E B F H Ther- ResisTher- ResisTher- ResisTher- ResisTher- Resismome- tance e.t.d. mome- tance e.t.d. mome- tance e.t.d. mome- tance e.t.d. mome- tance e.t.d. ter ter ter ter ter K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K – – – – – 80 851) – 60 651) 100 1051) – 125 1301)

1 a) AC windings on 5000 kW (or kVA) machines or more

60

651)

75

80

901)

105

1101)

125

1301)

60

75

80

105

125

65

75

85

110

130

– 50 50 60 – 65 60 – 65 75 75

65

75

– – –

– 70 70

85 80 80

– – –

– 85 85

110 105 105

– – –

– 105 105

130 125 125

– – –

1 b) AC windings on < 5000 kW (or kVA) machines > 200 kW (or kVA) 1 c) AC windings on 200 kW (or kVA) machines with the exception of windings to No. 1 d) or 1 e)2) 1 d) AC windings on < 600 W (or VA) machines2) 1 e) AC windings on machines with self-ventilation, without fans (IC 40) and/or with enclosed windings 2) 2 Commutator windings 3 Field windings on AC and DC machines

1)

2)

These values may have to be adapted for high-voltage AC windings. If the superposition method is being used for windings on machines < 200 kW (or kVA), insulated to temperature classes A, E, B and F, the limit values set for overtemperatures may be exceeded by 5 K.

79

5

Control modes of electrical machines IEC 60034-1 DIN EN 60034-1 (VDE 0530 Part 1)
Control mode Continuous operation Short-time operation Periodic intermittent operation Periodic intermittent operation with influence of starting cycle Periodic intermittent operation with electrical braking Uninterrupted periodic operation Uninterrupted periodic operation with electrical braking Uninterrupted periodic operation with load/speed variation Operation with non-periodic load and speed variation Operation with individual constant loads Designation/Example S1 S2 60 min S3 35% S4 35% JM = 0.25 kgm2 Jext = 0.9 kgm2 S5 35% JM = 0.25 kgm2 Jext = 0.9 kgm2 S6 35% S7 JM = 0.25 kgm2 Jext = 3.5 kgm2 S8 JM = 0.25 kgm2 Jext = 3.5 kgm2 10 kW 25% 20 kW 30% 15 kW 45% S9 additional entry for reference load S10 p/ t = 1.3/0.5, 1/0.4, 0.8/0.3, r/0.2, TL = 0.7

5

JM Moment of inertia of motor Jext Moment of inertia of load Jr.m.s. Motor r.m.s. current For load cycles the duration of which is relatively short compared with the thermal time constant of the machine, simplified formulas may be entered. a) r.m.s. motor load Ir.m.s. =
2 2 2 I1 t1 + I2 t2 + … + In tn T I

I1

I2

I3

I1

Ir.m.s. = Ir · 80

( )
M Mr

2

· cos2 + 1 – cos2 )

t1

t2 T

t3

t

b) In control mode S3, the motor current which can be supplied I may be higher than the rated current Ir. I
IN

I=

Ir t T

=

Ir tR

2 1,6 1 0 0 0,5 1 tR

At P/Pr > 1.6, please consult the manufacturer. tR = Relative duty time How operating frequency affects the ratings of asynchronous motors P n M f [Hz] [%] [%] [%] Pr nr Mr . . . 50 100 100 100 60 100 120 83 How the coolant temperature Tc affects rated power Tc [°C] P [%] Pr . 40 100 45 95 50 90 55 85 60 80

5

How the installation height h affects the rated power h [m above sea level] 1000 P [%] Pr . 100 2000 95 3000 90 4000 85 5000 80 81

Rated currents of motors Power Three-phase Three-phase squirrel-cage motor slipring motor 150 V 260 V 440 V 230 V 400 V 500 V 230 V 400 V 500 V A 6.5 9.7 13 20 25 31 33 44 58 – – – – – – – – – – – A 3.7 6.0 8.1 12 15 19 20 27 36 52 72 89 100 135 170 210 240 330 380 465 A 2.3 3.6 4.8 7.1 10 11 12 16 21 30 43 51 61 80 101 123 143 192 225 275 A 3.9 5.1 6.8 9.6 14 17 18 23 31 44 56 69 83 110 135 160 200 265 305 380 A 2.3 3.0 3.9 5.5 7.9 9.7 11 14 18 25 33 41 47 64 79 95 120 155 180 220 A 1.7 2.3 3.0 4.2 6.0 7.4 7.6 10 14 19 26 32 36 48 59 72 87 115 140 165 A 4.4 6.5 8.5 12 15 18 19 24 31 44 56 69 82 110 135 160 190 250 305 365 A 2.6 3.8 5.0 6.6 8.2 10 11 14 18 25 33 41 47 66 80 93 110 150 175 215 A 2.0 2.9 3.7 5.1 6.2 7.6 8.3 11 14 19 26 32 36 47 58 70 84 110 140 150 DC

kW 0.75 1.1 1.5 2.2 3.0 3.7 4.0 5.5 7.5 11 15 18.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110

5

82

Standardised rated voltages for DC motors Power supply via DC speed controller from mains to DIN 40030
Mains conn. Single-phase Use Industry Three-phase Ship electrical systems DC speed controller circuit

Industry

Rated frequency of 50 50 50 60 B2C, (B6)A, (B2)A, system in Hz (B2)C, B2H (B2)A, (B6)C B6C (B2)C Rated voltage Un of 230 400 400 500*) 690 400 450**) system in V Serial no. Rated voltage (DC) in V 1 160 X 2 180 X 3 280 X 4 310 X 5 420 X 6 470 X 7 520 X 8 600 X 9 720 X 10 810 X 11 350 X 12 410 X
*) **)

5

Not included in DIN IEC 38 “IEC standard voltages, May 1987”. Not included in DIN IEC 38 “IEC standard voltages, May 1987”. Rated voltage acc. to Lloyd’s Shipping Register.

83

Synchronous speeds on three-phase AC motors no = 60 f = 120 f p 2p n = no (1 – s) = 60 s = no – n no f (1 – s) p no = Synchronous speed in rpm n = Operating speed in rpm f = Mains frequency in Hz p = No. of pairs of poles 2p = Number of poles s = Slip

s = 0 Synchronism s = 1 Rotor speed n = 0

5

2p 2 4 6 8 10 12 (14) 16 (18) 20 (22) 24 (26) (28) 30

f = 50 Hz 3000 1500 1000 750 600 500 428.6 375 333.3 300 272.7 250 230.8 214.3 200

f = 60 Hz f = 100 Hz f = 200 Hz f = 400 Hz 3600 1800 1200 900 720 600 514.3 450 400 360 327.3 300 276.9 257.1 240 6000 3000 2000 1500 1200 1000 857.1 750 666.7 600 545.5 500 461.5 428.6 400 12000 6000 4000 3000 2400 2000 1714.3 1500 1333.3 1200 1090.9 1000 923.1 857.1 800 24000 12000 8000 6000 4800 4000 3428.6 3000 2666.7 2400 2181.8 2000 1846.2 1714.3 1600

p 1 2 3 4 5 6 (7) 8 (9) 10 (11) 12 (13) (14) 15

84

Installation of equipment

6

85

Current-carrying capacity of cables or
Type (insulating material PVC) Installation3) Ref. inst. type code2), NYM, NYBUY, NHYRUZY, NYIF, H07V-R, H07V-K, NYIFY A1 A2 B1 Installation in cable conduit single cores in conduit on wall

Installation in thermally insulated walls single cores in conduit in a thermally insulated wall multi-core cable or multi-core sheathed cable in an electrical conduit in a thermally insulated wall

loaded cores nom. crosssection copper conductor mm2

2

3

2

3

2

3

capacity in A IZ In 16.5 167) 21 207) 28 257) – – 36 355) 49 406) – – 65 637) 85 807) 105 1007) 126 1257) 160 1608) 193 1608) 223 2008) 254 2508) 289 2508) 339 3158) 389 3158) IZ In 14.5 137) 19 167) 25 257) – – 33 324) 45 406) – – 59 507) 77 637) 94 807) 114 1007) 144 1257) 174 1608) 199 1608) 229 2008) 260 2508) 303 2508) 348 3158) IZ In 18.5 167) 19.5 167) 27 257) – – 34 324) 46 406) – – 60 507) 80 807) 98 807) 117 1007) 147 1257) 177 1608) 204 2008) 232 2008) 263 2508) 308 2508) 354 3158) IZ In 14 137) 18.5 167) 24 207) – – 31 257) 41 406) – – 55 507) 72 637) 88 807) 105 1007) 133 1257) 159 1257) 182 1608) 208 2008) 236 2008) 277 2508) 316 3158) IZ In 18.5 167) 25 257) 34 324) – – 43 406) 60 507) – – 81 807) 107 1007) 133 1257) 160 1608) 204 2008) 246 2008) 285 2508) –. –. –. –. –. –. –. –. IZ In 16.5 167) 22 207) 30 257) – – 38 355) 53 507) – – 72 637) 94 807) 117 1007) 142 1257) 181 1608) 219 2008) 253 2508) –. –. –. –. –. –. –. –.

6

1.5 2.5 4 4 6 10 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300

86

Footnotes on page 88.

conductors to DIN VDE 0298-4
Type code2), (insulating material PVC) Installation3) Ref. inst. type NYM, NYBUY, NHYRUZY, NYIF, H07V-R, H07V-K, NYIFY B2 C Installation in Installation on a cable conduit wall multi-core cable or single or multi-core multi-core sheathed cable or single or cable in an multi-core sheathed electrical conduit cable conductor on wall NYY, NYCWY, NYKY, NYM, NYMZ, NYMT, NYBUY, NHYRUZY E Free in air multi-core cable or multi-core sheathed cable with spacing of at least 0.3 x diameter D from wall

loaded cores nom. crosssection copper conductor mm2 1.5 2.5 4 4 6 10 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300

2

3

2

3

2

3

capacity in A IZ In 17.5 167) 24 207) 32 324)) – – 40 355) 55 506) – – 73 637) 95 807) 118 1007) 141 1257) 178 1608) 213 2008) 246 2008) –. –. –. –. –. –. –. –. IZ 16 21 29 – 36 49 509) 66 85 105 125 158 190 218 –. –. –. –. In 167) 207)) 257) – 355) 406) 50 637) 807) 1007) 1007) 1257) 1608) 2008) –. –. –. –. IZ 21 29 38 – 49 67 – 90 119 146 178 226 273 317 365 416 489 562 In 207) 257)) 355)) – 406) 636) – 807) 1257)) 1257) 1608) 2008) 2508) 3158) 3158) 4008) 4008) 5008) IZ In 18.5 167) 25 257) 34 324)) 359) 355) 43 406) 60 506) 639) 63 81 807) 102 1007) 126 1257) 153 1257) 195 1608) 236 2008) 275 2508) 317 3158) 361 3158) 427 4008) 492 4008) IZ 23 32 42 – 54 74 – 100 126 157 191 246 299 348 402 460 545 629 In IZ In 207) 19.5 167) 324) 27 257) 406) 36 355) – – – 506) 46 406) 7) 63 64 637) – – – 1007) 85 807) 1257)) 107 1007) 1257) 134 1257) 1608) 162 1608) 2008) 208 2008) 2508) 252 2508) 3158) 293 2508) 4008) 338 3158) 4008). 386 3158) 5008) 456 4008) 5008) 527 5008)

6

Footnotes on page 88.

87

Footnotes to table: Current-carrying capacity of cables or conductors to DIN VDE 0298-4
Current-carrying capacities Iz1) of cables or conductors for fixed installation (installation type A1, A2, B1, B2, C and E) with a permissible conductor temperature of 70 °C and an ambient temperature of 25 °C (Tables A.1 and A.2 from DIN VDE 0298-4 (VDE 0298 Part 4): 1998-11, collated and modified), as well as the selection of overcurrent protection devices for protection against overload.
1)

The current-capacity for cables with concentric cores applies only to multi-core versions. Other current-capacity values for cables are to be found in DIN VDE 0276-603 (VDE 0276 Part 603), Section 3G, Table 15 A list of type codes and details on the standards met by the cables and conductors is to be found in DIN VDE 0298-1 (VDE 0298 Part 1) and DIN VDE 0298-3 (VDE 0298 Part 3) Further installation types; see tables 2 and 7 of DIN VDE 0298-4 (VDE 0298 Part 4) In = 25 A with D- and D0-fuses, which are (at present) not available in Germany for the current rating In = 32 A In = 32 A with curcuit-breakers, which are (at present) not available in Germany for the current rating In = 35 A In = 35 A with D- and D0-fuses, which are (at present) not available in Germany for the current rating In = 40 A At present, D- and D0-fuses are available up to a maximum rating In = 100 A At present, curcuit-breakers are available up to a maximum rating In = 125 A, see also footnote 7 Not valid for installation on a wooden wall

2)

3) 4)

5)

6

6)

7) 8)

9)

Ib = operating current of the circuit In = rated or set current of the protective device IZ = permissible current loading of the conductor or cable Iz = tripping current Conditions: Ib Iz In IZ 1,45 IZ

88

External diameters of conductors and cables The external diameters are average values from different manufacturers
NYM sheathed cable NYY cable with plastic sheathing H 05 RR-F light rubber-sheathed cable (NMH + NMH) DIN 57282 H 05 RN-F heavy rubber-sheathed cable (NMH + NSH) DIN 57282 NYCY cable with concentric conductors and plastic sheathing NYCWY cable with concentric undulating conductors and plastic sheathing
No. of conductors approx. external diameter NYM NYY H 05 RR-F mm 10 11 10 11 13 15 18 20 11 12 14 16 18 22 27 30 – – – – – – – 11 13 15 17 20 25 – – – – mm 11 13 12 13 17 18 20 22 13 14 16 19 23 27 28 28 30 34 39 42 47 55 62 14 15 17 19 21 23 15 18 20 25 mm 9 13 9 10 – – – – 9 11 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 11 13 – – – – – – – – H 07 RN-F mm 10 11 10 12 14 16 23 25 11 13 15 17 23 27 32 36 42 47 53 – – – – 14 17 19 21 26 30 – – – – NYCY

Conversion table AWG / mm2 In Europe, the size of a conductor or cable is normally given as a cross-section in mm2. The designation AWG is sometimes found in catalogs or data sheets. In the USA, the diameter or crosssection of cores is given by a code designation. AWG stands for American Wire Gauge.
AWG American Wire Gauge 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2/0 3/0 4/0 5/0 6/0 Conductor cross-section in mm2 0.0516 0.0646 0.080 0.102 0.105 0.162 0.205 0.255 0.32 0.407 0.51 0.65 0.79 1.01 1.305 1.65 2.08 2.63 3.3 4.15 5.27 6.6 8.34 10.25 13.25 16.9 21.0 26.6 33.7 42.2 53.4 67.5 79.0 103.8 135.0 170.0

Cross-section mm2 2 x 1.5 2 x 2.5 3 x 1.5 3 x 2.5 3x4 3x6 3 x 10 3 x 16 4 x 1.5 4 x 2.5 4x4 4x6 4 x 10 4 x 16 4 x 25 4 x 35 4 x 50 4 x 70 4 x 95 4 x 120 4 x 150 4 x 185 4 x 240 5 x 1.5 5 x 2.5 5x4 5x6 5 x 10 5 x 16 8 x 1.5 10 x 1.5 16 x 1.5 24 x 1.5

mm 12 14 13 14 15 16 18 22 13 15 16 18 21 24 30 31 34 38 43 46 52 60 70 15 17 18 20 – – – – – –

6

89

Connection of electric motors According to EN 60034-5, the power that is stated on the nameplate is always the shaft power P2 of the motor. The input powerP1 and the efficiency can be calculated from the nameplate data and from measurements. 1. DC shunt-wound motor

Simplatron unit

6
JA UA 1B1

A A V

B

J JF A UF F1 V

K

F2 Clockwise

rotation If anti-clockwise rotation required, interchange J and K

M ––

2B2

If the armature (rotor) and field (stator) voltages are the same, then the motor terminals J, K are labelled as C, D

P1 = UA IA + UF IF armature efficiency 90

=

P2 UA IA + UF IF P2 UA IA

A

=

2. Single-phase AC motor

L1 N

J U V

A

U1

U2

Z1

Z2

6

M 1~
Clockwise rotation: if anti-clockwise rotation is required, interchange Z1 and Z2

P1 = U I cos

=

P2 U I cos 91

3. 3-phase motor

L1 L2 L3 J U A V A V

U1 W2 -connection

V1 U2

W1 V2

W2

connection

U1

V2 U2

W1 V2

6

M 3~

M 3~

Clockwise rotation: if anti-clockwise rotation is required, interchange any two phases

generalized: P1 = √ 3 U I cos = P2

√ 3 U I cos

92

4. Frequency inverter and 3-phase motor connected to single-phase supply 1 x 220 ... 230 V

6

93

5. Frequency inverter and 3-phase motor connected to 3-phase supply 3 x 400 ... 460 V / 480 V

6

94

L1 L2 L3 N

PE

1F6
F1 ... F3 K1

1F7

OFF

1G6
Z1

K1 ON

230V˜

VDC 1 5 3 13

F4 F5
14 2.8
L1 PE +UG -UG L2 L3

+

6. Servo-inverter and servomotor

-UG

+UG

PE

T1

T2

K1

I>> I>> I>> 2 4 6

RB

1Q6
PE

U
1 2 3 4 7

V

W

X6

7 62 63

28 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 39 A1 A2 A3 A4 59

Z2

PE

Y1

Y2

X1
+ +

K1 RFR

M ˜
PE

M

R

Brake

Fan

Servomotor

Resolver and temperature sensor

95

6

6

96

Approvals and standards

7

97

Approvals Examples

Belgium Comité Electrotechnique Belge Belgisch Elektrotechnisch Comité (CEBEC) Denmark Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol (DEMKO) Finland (FIMKO)

7

France Union Technique de l’Electricité (UTE) Netherlands Naamloze Vennootschap tot Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialien (KEMA) Norway Norges Elektriske Materiellkontrol (NEMKO) Sweden Svenska Elektriska Materielkontrollanstalten (SEMKO)

98

b d f x kl n s

Switzerland Schweizerischer Elektrotechnischer Verein (SEV) Germany Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) Austria Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik (ÖVE)

USA Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

Listing

Recognition

Canada Canadian Standards Association (CSA)

t v j u r a

7

Russia Gosstandart (GOST Re)

There are new approval requirements in the following countries: Slovakia, Poland, South Africa, China and Russia 99

Approval establishments

USA USA UL Canada CDN CSA Croatia CRO ZIK Romania RO ICECON Russia RUS GOST-R Czech Republic CR EZU Hungary H MEEI South Africa SA SABS Slovakia SK SKTC

u a

7

100

Shipping registration

Germany Germanischer Lloyd GL Great Britain Lloyd’s Register of Shipping LR France Bureau Veritas BV Russia Russian Maritime Register of Shipping RS Italy Registro Italiano Navale RINA Norway Det Norske Veritas DNV Poland Polski Rejestr Statkow PRS 101

7

Important standards and regulations for inverter-fed drives
73/23/EEC 89/336/EEC 98/37/EC CISPR 22 EN 55022 DIN EN 55022 (VDE 0878 Part 22) DIN 19226 DIN 40110 DIN 41751 DIN 41752 DIN 41756 DIN VDE 0298-4 Low voltage Directive Directive on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Directive) Machinery directive Information technology equipment: RFI-characteristics limits and measurement methods

Control technology AC-variables Cooling of semiconductor inverter equipment Power designations of semiconductor inverter equipment Loading of inverters, operating modes, loading classes and load types Use of cables and isolated conductors for power plants; recommended value for maximum current capacity of cables and conductors for laying in buildings and of flexible conductors Law on the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment Enclosure protection for electrical apparatus (equipment) against exterior mechanical effects (IK-Code) Equipment for high-current installations with electronic apparatus Transformers and inductors

7

EMVG EN 50102 DIN EN 50102 (VDE 0470 Part 100) EN 50178 DIN EN 50178 (VDE 0160) EN 50216 DIN EN 50216 (VDE 0532)

102

IEC 60034 EN 60034 DIN EN 60034 (VDE 0530) IEC 60034-5 EN 60034-5 DIN VDE 60034-5 (VDE 0530 Part 5) IEC 60050 DIN IEC 60050 IEC 60146 EN 60146 DIN EN 60146 (VDE 0558) IEC 60204 EN 60204 DIN EN 60204 (VDE 0113)

Rotating electrical machines

Calibration of the enclosure protection for running machines (IP-Code)

Conceptions for current inverters; building and type of function, disqualification, electrical variables, calculations Inverters; basic requirements

Machine safety; electrical equipment Machines

7

103

IEC 60349-2 ENV 60349-2 DIN EN 60349-2 (VDE 0115 Part 400-2) IEC 60364-4-43 IEC 60364-4-473 DIN VDE 0100-430 IEC 60411-2 IEC 60439-1 EN 60439-1 DIN EN 60439-1 (VDE 0660 Part 500) IEC 60529 EN 60529 DIN EN 60529 (VDE 0470 Part 1) IEC 60664 DIN VDE 0110 IEC 60755

Rotating electrical machines in rail and road vehicles; inverter-fed AC motors

Overcurrent protection of cables and conductors

Conductor inverters for rail; complementary technical information Requirement and testing of low-voltage switchgear

Enclosure protection (IP Code)

Isolation coordination for apparatus in low voltage installations General requirements for difference-current activated protective devices Designation system for inverter circuits Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC); test and measurement methods; testing for interference immunity to electrostatic discharge; EMC basic standard Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC); test and measurement methods; testing for interference immunity to high HF electromagnetic fields Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC); test and measurement methods; testing for interference immunity to fast electrostatic transients/bursts; EMC basic standard Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC); test and measurement methods; testing for interference immunity to pulse voltages

7

IEC 60971 DIN IEC 60971 IEC 61000-4-2 EN 61000-4-2 DIN EN 61000-4-2 (VDE 0847 Part 4-2) IEC 61000-4-3 EN 61000-4-3 DIN EN 61000-4-3 (VDE 0847 Part 4-3) IEC 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-4 DIN EN 61000-4-4 (VDE 0847 Part 4-4) IEC 61000-4-5 EN 61000-4-5 DIN EN 61000-4-5 104 (VDE 0847 Part 4-5)

IEC 61000-6-1 EN 61000-6-1 DIN EN 61000-6-1 (VDE 0839 Part 6-1) IEC 61000-6-2 EN 61000-6-2 DIN EN 61000-6-2 (VDE 0839 Part 6-2) IEC 61000-6-4 EN 61000-6-4 DIN EN 61000-6-4 (VDE 0839 Part 6-4) IEC 61131-3 EN 61131-3 DIN EN 61131-3 IEC 61136-1 EN 61136-1 DIN EN 61136-1 IEC 61287-1 IEC 61800-3 EN 61800-3 DIN EN 61800-3 (VDE 0160 Part 100) ISO 9000 EN ISO 9000 DIN EN ISO 9000 ISO 14001 EN ISO 14001 DIN EN ISO 14001 VBG 4 VDE 0100

Electromagnetic compatibility – basic standard interference immunity for residential buildings, shops and small businesses in the textile industry Electromagnetic compatibility – basic standard interference immunity in industrial areas

Electromagnetic compatibility – basic standard interference immunity for industrial areas

Programming languages for programmable logic controllers Controllable electrical drive systems; general requirements, especially for DC-drives Inverters from locomotive; Quality and test procedure EMC product standards for variable-speed electrical drives

7

standards for quality management systems and quality assurance / QM presentation Environmental management systems: specification and instructions for use Accident prevention regulations for electrical plant and equipment Regulations for the installation of high-current equipment with voltage ratings up to 1000 V

105

Index 3-phase motor A Acceleration American Wire Gauge Approval establishments Approvals Areas Armature choke C Cables Circuit symbols Conductors Connections Connectors Contacts Control amplifier Control elements Control loop Control technology Controller/regulator Cooling-medium temperature D DC shunt-wound motor E Earth connections Efficiency Electrical units Enclosure protection Energy Equipment Equipment connections Ex-hazard areas 106

page 92 46, 48, 49 89 100 98 10 66 86 24 87 27 28 31 62 24 64 64 25 81 90 26 71 17 76, 77 12 36 40 78

page F Forces Form-factor Frequency inverter and 3-phase motor Frictional coefficients G Gearbox forms Gearbox temperature Gearing Ground connections I Inverter circuits L Lamps Leadscrew Lengths Lubricants M Magnetic units Mass Materials for geared motors Moment of inertia Moments of inertia Motional resistance Motors O Operating frequency Overtemperature limits 15 66 93, 94 53 70 73 51 26 65 35 51 9 72 17 12 70 14 50 53 74 81 79

107

page P Passive components Positioning drive Power Pressure Protective device R Regulations Relays Resistors Rotation S Semiconductors Shipping registration Signal devices Single-phase AC motor Site altitude Speed (velocity) Standards Switches T Temperature Temperature measurement Torque Torsional angle Translation Transport roller V Voltage ratings for DC motors Volume 108 29 54 15, 45 15 35 102 34 41 44 30 101 35 91 81 45 102 33 16 16 13 52 44 51 83 11

page W Winder dimensioning Winding 58 57

109

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