the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the editors of The Journal of Interdisciplinary History

"Vivre Noblement": Material Culture and Elite Identity in Late Medieval Flanders Author(s): Wim De Clercq, Jan Dumolyn and Jelle Haemers Source: The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Summer, 2007), pp. 1-31 Published by: The MIT Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 21/04/2013 12:29
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History,xxxvIII:I (Summer, 2007), 1-3 I. Journalof Interdisciplinary

Wim De Clercq, Jan Dumolyn, andJelle Haemers

diate relationships; such is their social utility. People show and advance their status through material display and conspicuous consumption. As Grassby says, material culture sheds light on how people understood themselves. Material culture and the reorganization of cultural space become delicate tools that individuals deliberately and interactively use to develop their cultural identity and social standing. Since material culture is not an independent, stable referent for evaluating cultural history, both material culture and cultural space have to be studied as a multifaceted creation that perpetually communicates with the social environment. The social nature of material culture is evident at both the discursive and material levels. By re-defining or creating space in a dominant manner, individuals encroach on existing physical and social frameworks of culture, replacing them with new cultural categories to focus their identities.'
WimIDe Clercq is an academic staff member of the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History of Europe, University of Ghent. He is the author of "L'habitat gallo-romain en Flandre-Orientale (Belgique): Essai de caracterisationapres annees de fouilles dans la civitas to et du Nord Menapiorum et Nerviorum (1990-2001)," Revue du Nord-Archdologiede la Picardie
de la France, 353 (2003), 161-179; co-editor, with Ingrid In't Ven, of Een lijn door het landschap: Archeologie en het vTn project 1997-1998 (Brussels, 2005).

"Vivre Noblement": MaterialCulture and Elite Identity in Late Medieval Flanders Material goods me-

Jan Dumolyn is a postdoctoral research fellow of the FWO-Vlaanderen (Foundation for Scientific Research of Flanders), at the Department of Medieval History, University of en vorstelijke ambtenaren in het graafschapVlaanderen Ghent. He is the author of Staatsvorming
(1419-1477) (Antwerpen, 2003); De Brugse opstand van 1436-1438 (Kortrijk, 1997).

Jelle Haemers is an academic staff member of the Department of Medieval History, University of Ghent-Federal Science Policy of Belgium (IAP VI, 32). He is the author of De om het stedelijke Gentse opstand:De strijdtussenrivaliserende netwerken kapitaal(Kortrijk, 2004); co-author, with Jan Dumolyn, of "Patternsof Urban Rebellion in Medieval Flanders,"Journal
of Medieval History, XXXI (2005), 369-393.

The authors thank Marc Boone and Frederik Buylaert for their comments and Shennan Hutton for help with translation.
C 2007 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and The Journal of Interdisciplinary

History, Inc. HisI Richard Grassby, "Material Culture and Cultural History,"Journalof Interdisciplinary tory,XXXV (2005), 594, 595. For urban space, see Peter Arnade, Martha Howell, and Walter Simons, "Fertile Spaces:The Productivity of Urban Space in Northern Europe," Journalof Interdisciplinary History,XXXII (2002), 515-548 (introduction to a special issue entitled, "The Productivity of Urban Space in Northern Europe").

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Individuals' identities can be studied through their representations-that is, written evidence about them (chronicles and archival documents) combined with the archaeological artifacts, architectural space, and art history associated with them. Cases in
point are Peter Bladelin (c. 1410-1472) and William Hugonet two late medieval self-made men, who rose from (c. 1420-1477),

wealthy, though non-noble, families to become high-ranking officials at the Burgundian court, with access to the small inner circle around the Valois dukes of Burgundy. In 1448, Bladelin, having obtained a license from Duke Philip the Good, founded a large new town of 200 hectares and built a castle at Middelburg, near Bruges in the county of Flanders (Figure I). Bladelin served as an important financial councilor for the duke; after 1452, he bore the title Lord of Middelburg. Following his death, the fief was bought by the powerful William Hugonet, chancelor of Burgundy. This article examines how these men interacted with their material environment in an attempt to understand their place within the culture of fifteenth-century political elites in Western Europe. This case study of Middelburg shows that "new men" in governmental administrations invested their economic capital in the construction of an elite identity. Through radical transformation of their physical environment and interaction with material culture, these two parvenus created a powerful self-image that stressed their recently gained power and authority. Thus did Bladelin and Hugonet establish material links with the highest noble ranks. They also negotiated their social position by imitating the patterns of display exhibited by the duke and the high-ranking nobles at the court of Burgundy. In this fruitful dialogue between man and material culture, material culture and architectural space were socially shaped, while at the same time material culture and architectural space socially shaped the men themselves.

The fifteenth century witnessed increased social mobility among the elite groups in medieval Flanders. The centralizing dynasty of the Valois dukes of Burgundy, Philip the Good (14191467) and Charles the Bold (1467-1477), tried to construct a

"modern state" by employing the services of the well-trained urban political elites of Flanders. In the later Middle Ages, class bar-

This content downloaded from on Sun, 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

1997). In time." Sociological Theory. 16." in idem(ed. the prince rewarded his loyal servants with money."as defined by Bourdieu-that they could invest to enable their own social and cultural strategies. non (1363-1477)(Paris. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .). 1999). BertrandSchnerb. and a new social group of officialscame into prominence. the upperlayersof this group of councilorsand officerssought to become a new "statenobility. Wim Blockmans. 1 Geographical Setting of Middelburg North Sea Scheldtestuary Zwin iiii i ii Hoke uis iii~i:iiiiiiiiiir~ji0 5kmi"iiiiiil i i ilsi i 1 * Bruges 15km riersbetween the nobility and the roturiers (commoners)began to breakdown. 228-261.2 This content downloaded from 188."The processof state formationprovided them with formsof "capital"-in the broadsense of "auxiliary means" or "resources.188 on Sun. which strengthenedits grip oped a professionalized bureaucracy. the role of elites. see Jean-Philippe Genet (ed. 1996). "Rethinking the State: Genesis and Structure of the BureaucraticField.25.Ruling Classes and the Growth of State Power. "Introduction: Power Elites. A Historyof Power People. 1-18.XII (1994). L'Etat moderne: gen se: bilans et perspectives (Paris. On the concept of the "modern state" and graafschap Vlaanderen." ActaHistoriae VII (1997).171. 1990). L'EtatbourguigNeerlandicae. and prestige. it develspecialistsin law.). PowerElitesand StateBuilding(London. Staatsvorming en vorstelijke ambtenaren in het 1419-1477 (Antwerp. Like other emerging states.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 3 Fig. Wolfgang Reinhard. power. on society. 2 Pierre Bourdieu.States(Antwerp. 2003). administration. As they accumulatedwealth. State Servants. Eventually. Walter Prevenier. "Officials in Town and Countryside in the Low Countries: Social and Professional Developments from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century.Markets. in Europe: 1-18. Dumolyn. the Burgundianstate needed and finance.

the accumulation of landed property. a rural district in the western part of the county of Flanders. in the service of the state.Journal of Interdisciplinary History. it determined how the public perceived other forms of capital. conspicuous consumption. Attention to material culture can reveal how these officials deployed their capital. Nobility. 68-1oi. 1952-1955). JAN DUMOLYN." As manifested in public space. tastes. 1-28. Lcgistesetgens de des ducs de Bourgogne Philippele Bon et Charlesle Tembraire finances au XVe si&le:les conseillers (Brussels." Speculum. His father. Outlineof a Theoryof Praxis(New York. For more information about social capital.4 BLADELIN AND HUGONET: BURGHERS IN THE SERVICE OF THE DUKE Bladelin's life is reasonably well documented. Thorstein Veblen.188 on Sun. See. 1999). alliances with daughters of uncontested noble families. the upper echelon of officers gained money and political influence. Mimicry of the splendor and culture of the Burgundian court-including the establishment of religious foundations-was fundamental to this process of upward social mobility. Economic capital includes money and forms of direct property. AND JELLE HAEMERS Bourdieu distinguishes different types of capital. and the Exhibition of Estate 4 On vivrenoblement. elements of this symbolic capital included lordship over a village or town. The Theoryof the LeisureClass:An Economic Study of Institutions(New York. or recognition of the other types of capital. The highest-ranking officers generally pursued noble status.4 WIM DE CLERCQ. cultural capital covers educational qualifications. as the cases of Bladelin and Hugonet show. perception. in genderposities. 679-681.XXIX (Winter and Spring. and symbolic capital is the acknowledgement. became a rich burgher in the commercial gateway city of 3 Bourdieu." Verslagen a different context. This content downloaded from 188. He descended from a non-noble family in Veurne-Ambacht. they tried to construct their families around a patrilineal heritage. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .not only for themselves but also for their descendants. "Estate. see "Patternsof Social Capital. Imitating the nobility. 1902). Jan Dumolyn. For bourgeois upstarts aspiring to a higher social standing. All of these elements of noble symbolic capital involved material components. "Patriarchaalpatrimonialisme. social capital comprises social relationships and networks.3 Nobility was a specific form of "symbolic capital. while they consolidated their social networks. in the Later Middle Ages. De vrouw als object in sociale transacties in het laatmiddeleeuwse Vlaanderen: familiale strategieen en voorGenderstudies-UGent. magnificent urban residences. see Howard Kaminsky. 1977).25." a special issue in two parts. a noble lifestyle. vivrenoblement. and rural castles. LXVIII (1993). and cultural goods. 339-782. Jean Bartier.171. Thus. van het Centrum XII (2003). also named Peter.

445-447. Bladelin acted as the duke's agent within the city.5 In 1444. Pieter Donche. "Le chevalier Bladelin. 224. Fortune Koller. In 1435. Au service de la Toisond'Or (les officiers) (Dijon. 6 Blockmans and Prevenier. an office awarded exclusively to rich burghers since it carried a personal financial responsibility. According to Chastelain. Bladelin collected the fine that the rebellious city owed to the duke.171. Around 1447. "Bladelin (le chevalier Pierre). Oeuvresde Chastellain This content downloaded from 188. Joseph Jean De Smet. Bladelin the younger began his political career in the service of the city where he was appointed councilor in I430. 424-436. one of the most important financial posts in the Burgundian state. the duke rewarded Bladelin for his services by granting him the office of general receiver of all finances. XXXVI (2000). In "riche 1446. 1999). 81-104. 1971). idem. Woordenboek. in general." ibid. De Brugseopstandvan 1436-1438 (Kortrijk-Heule. 1369-1530 (Philadelphia. The Promised Lands: The Low CountriesunderBurgundian Rule. and Bladelin took full advantage of his opportunity. The most recent and complete biography is Max Martens. Financial officers could use the large sums of money in their care for their own personal investment." Nationaal Biografisch II (1967).25. to the detriment of the middle-class rebels." Vlaamse Stam. 353-392.6 Nationale 5 See. 143. et la ville de Middelbourg en Flandre." near the town.Joseph Kervyn de Lettenhove (ed. Pieter Bladelin en Middelburg (Middelburg. "Nieuwe biografische gegevens over Pieter Bladelin.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 5 Bruges and built a castle. 1868). Dumolyn. surnommi Leestmakere. he became the treasurer of the illustrious knightly Order of the Golden Fleece. de stichter van Middelburg. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .XXII (1866). founded by Duke Philip the Good. In 1440. He probably also operated as an advisor for the renovations of the ducal residence in Bruges from 1446 to 1452. he married Margaret van de Vageviere. Greta Milis-Proost. Pieter. called "De Leeste. 208." Jaarboekvan de heemkundige kring Het AmbachtMaldegem.. 244-250. 60-62. "Aanvullingen bij de biografie van Pieter Bladelin. Bladelin was de biensdefortuneoutremesure"(wealthy beyond measure). a Burgundian chronicler. 1994). 61-63. During the 1436 revolt of Bruges against Duke Philip the Good. making him responsible for the practical organization of the pageantry at the Burgundian court." Bulletinde l'Academie Royale de Belgique. Between 1436 and 1440. he also became master of the Burgundian court (maistre d'ostel). he was treasurerof Bruges.). trying to find a compromise between the central government and the urban elites.V (1999). completed by idem. "De familie Bladelin in de KasselrijVeurne van 1230 tot de 16de eeuw. daughter of a wealthy Bruges family. X (2004). II. "Bladelin. I87. idem." Biographic (Brussels. the duke appointed Bladelin treasurer and governor general of Burgundian state finance. After the revolt.188 on Sun. 1997).

JAN DUMOLYN. In 1464. 44. councilor and master of the court of our lord the Duke of Burgundy.188 on Sun. 271-273.tresorierde Middelbourg 8 Some of the material that follows is a summary of Haemers. 417-438. 117-126." in Antoni Maczak and Elisabeth Muller-Luckner (eds. although the Ghentenars took revenge by destroying his countryseat in the village of Wingene. Brokerage and Corruption as Symptoms of Incipient State Formation in the Burgundian-Habsburg Netherlands. Episodesde la vie des duesde Bourgogne taal (Kortrijk-Heule. as a clever diplomat. Buylaert en Flandre. they lost their wealth in a judicial battle over his testament. 1468. for example. By then. "Middelburg na Pieter This content downloaded from 188. he had acquired a "noble" identity in the city registers of Ghent. he presented himself as "knight. Charles "Testament de PierreBladelin." without mention of his bourgeois background or his connections with his hometown of Bruges. 1844). 2004). Blockmans. bought out the heirs for an enormous sum of money. chancelor of Duke Charles the Bold.)." Annales de la Sociedtd'Emulationde Bruges. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1937). he was one of the ducal officers commissioned to appoint new mayors and aldermen in Bruges. fi I9r.fondateur de Verschelde. William Hugonet. 7 Haemers. and 1472. several noblemen tried to take advantage of his lucrative heritage. 1465. To keep up their status.6 WIM DE CLERCQ. 301-303. noblemen had to accumulate economic capital-financial and economic profits. Once again he acted as an intermediary between the ducal court and Bruges. He died in April 1472.25. City Archives of Ghent 301/48. a Bruges (Bruges. he prevented the people of Bruges from joining Ghent in rebellion against the duke. 9-10. 267. AND JELLE HAEMERS In 1452. Count of Flanders.conseilleret maitred'h6tel du duc de Bourgogne. In his will. or rewards and gifts. Between 1468 and 1470. thereby becoming the new lord of Middelburg. V.7 After Bladelin's death. 1464 (we thank Frederik l'ordre de la Toison d'Or. lord of Middelburg in Flanders. "Investeren in sociaal kapitaal: Netwerken en sociale transacties van Bourgondische ambtenaren. he could climb the ladder of the Burgundian state in a spectacular way. "Patronage. De Gentse opstand (1449-1453).XXX (1879). Bladelin must have been knighted. 1988). yielded by seigniorial incomes. He used his different official functions to operate as a power broker between the government and its subjects. De strijd tussen netwerken orn het stedelijke kapi- for thisreference). Klientelsysteme im Europaderfrrihen Neuzeit (Munich. XXVIII (2002). In 1476.171. 17 mars 1472. granted by the empowering lord. Albert Van Zuylen Van Nyevelt. October 17." Tijdschrift voor Sociale Geschiedenis. and his financial means.' (Brussels. But Bladelin's heirs did not succeed in accumulating economic capital. Dumolyn. Thanks to this position. 1467.

stad en adel om sociale erkenning en politieke macht (1472-1492). the finest jewel in his crown. money. 135. He bought houses in Mechelen. Kanzler Herzog Karls des Kiihnen. 197-213. the burghers of Ghent exeBladelin: De juridische en militaire strijd tussen vorst. "Zur Biographie von Guillaume Hugonet. At the time of his appointment. he entered the service of Duke Philip the Good in 1455 and garnered further social recognition in 1467 through his marriage to Louise de LayS.25. which participated frequently in the city politics of Macon. Liz. Hugonet carried out the duke's autocratic policy. which had reduced the urban elites' power. He displayed his influential position by accumulating symbolic capital and inhabiting a prestigious castle." Bulletin de la Commission Royale d'Histoire. Brussels. Rik Opsommer. La noblesse dincvan XII: Essai de synthese(Paris. Philippe Contamine. II. 51-162. the daughter of a noble family from the Beaujolais.CXLII au royaume de France de Philippele Bel a Louis (2005). Bruges occupied Hugonet's castle of Middelburg in March 1477.IX (1984). "Compte du tutelle de Loyse de LayS. serving as a chief architect of the political ideology of the central state.169 (2003). Charles the Bold. 1479. who. After Charles the Bold was killed in battle at Nancy in 1477." Fifteenth-Century Studies. and Bruges. becoming viscount of Ypres in 1474.171. university-trained jurist." in Festschrift fiir HermannHeimpel am Hof derHerzogevon Burgund: (G6ttingen. and fiefs (he became lord of Sailliant. Charles the Bold systematically rewarded him with gifts. This content downloaded from 188. "Burgundian Political Ideas between LaurentiusPignon and Guillaume Hugonet. Ommedat leengoed es thoochste in de 14de en 15de eeuw (Brussels. 1972). but he had become a trusted friend.). Hugonet's new political position required that he own property throughout the Burgundian empire. 443-48 I-reprinted in idem. 1995). 2002). As an intelligent. etc. Hugonet descended from a non-noble family. 215-265. Burgundy. veuve du chancelier Hugonet.' Like Bladelin. in 1476.188 on Sun. der weerelt:het leenrecht in Vlaanderen 9 The biography of Hugonet is based on Werner Paravicini. Menschen Gesammelte Aufsitz (Stuttgart.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 7 Like Bladelin. knighted him and appointed him to head the ducal administration as chancelor of Burgundy. the Flemish cities imprisoned the officials of his autocratic regime. Hugonet set great store by outward appearances. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I24-I25-and on Veronique Flammang. Arno Vanderjagt. As chancelor. 345. Hugonet had served Charles the Bold for only six years." Handelingen van het Genootschapvoor Geschiedenis. Considering him responsible for the duke's policies. 1997). But Hugonet's close connection with the duke and his policies also ruined his career. Espasse. He climbed further up the political hierarchy in the regime of Philip's successor. in 1471. and obtained the fief of Middelburg.

XXXI (2005). How exactly did Bladelin and Hugonet employ their power to construct their elite identities? A NEW TOWN Like other high-ranking officers. 42-72. a public statement proclaiming their standing. FOUNDING invested much of the money that he had gained from Bladelin Io For the revolt of 1477. the castle of Middelburg became a pawn in the war between the rebels and the new count of Flanders. see Dumolyn and Haemers. he could not survive-politically or physically-the dramatic death of his master. Because Hugonet's political authority was based on his relationship with Charles the Bold. Sixteenth Centuries (New York. under the auspices of the Habsburg dynasty. Marc Boone. JAN DUMOLYN. husband of Mary of Burgundy. Charles' heir." in John Bromley and Ernst Kossmann (eds.188 on Sun. descendants of this "noblesse de robe" family inhabited the fief of Middelburg." The castle was the crowning achievement of both Bladelin and Hugonet. their power. Bruges captured and partially destroyed the castle. (I974)." Revue Historique. "Lajustice en spectacle: Lajustice urbaine en Flandre et la crise du pouvoir 'bourguignon' (1477-1488).171. But after a new revolt in 1483. This content downloaded from 188. 33-46.). 1964). restore it. AND JELLE HAEMERS cuted him in April 1477.). In the late 1480s. Only after the civil war ended in 1492 could William Hugonet II take possession of it and. Collaboration with the rebels earned John De Baenst. Archduke Maximilian of Austria. see Blockmans (ed."Journal of MedievalHistory. and their close relationship with the upper class. 363-393.CXL 257-368. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 43-65. the Bruges rebels once again seized his castle and his fief. Monarchies. his widow and children. CXXV (2003). The several privileges that the dukes awarded to Bladelin and Hugonet to enhance the prestige of their official rank also increased the power of the Burgundian state. Frederik Hugenholtz. Later that year. an ambitious noble and one of Bladelin's former heirs. 1477: Le privilegegendralet les privilhges de Mariede Bourgogne pourles Pays-Bas(Kortrijk-Heule." Bulletinde la Commission Royale d'Histoire. 1985). I Blockmans. For revolts in general. regionaux "The 1477 Crisis in the Burgundian Duke's Dominions.d'apres des documents inedits. the city of Bruges bestowed the property of Hugonet on his heirs. Helmut The Netherlands States Generalsand Parliaments: in the Fifteenthand Koenigsberger. the right to live in the castle and enjoy its prestige.10 Shortly after the revolt of 1477. "Autocratie ou polyarchie? La lutte pour le pouvoir politique en Flandre de 1482 I1492. 2001).25.8 WIM DE CLERCQ. They occupied the castle to emphasize the city's power over the countryside. Maximilian was imprisoned in Bruges in 1488. For almost a century. "Patterns of Urban Rebellion in Medieval Flanders. Britain and the Netherlands (Groningen.

Claeys. 160." Jaarboekvan de heemkundige kringHet Ambacht Maldegem. Dumolyn. heer van Poelvoorde. Hoven en bankenin Noord en Zuid (Assen.25.'" After 1448. Jacobs and P. Geschiedenis (Bruges. This content downloaded from 188. 49-79. Opsommer. rectangular plan divided by a regular grid of streets. Ter Heule. hof van Middelburg. Nave (eds. That same year. commercial workshops.12 Bladelin possessed several other seigneuries: He was lord of Poelvoorde. It was ducal policy to grant important fiefs to chief officers to assist them in their efforts to achieve noble status. Ten Paercke. and Vijve. giving it to Bladelin as a fief and manor. Poedelberch. In 1433. later became the site of the new town. I5-16.188 on Sun. For ten years. burggraafvan Vijve. the modern plots similar to those 12 The small ruralestate. Bladelin bought this fief from Le Fevre and united it with other fiefs. Ten Paercke. all of them relatively small Flemish fiefs. "De Wetachtige Kamer van Vlaanderen en de ondergeschikte leenhove circa 15oo: Enkele opmerkingen omtrent de Vlaamse feodale piramide. 1988). G.). 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "Pouvoir d'Etat et enrichissement personnel: investissements et strategiesd"accumulation mis en oeuvre par les officiers des ducs de Bourgogne en Flandre. and owned by the abbey of Middelburg-in-Zeeland (Holland). 1994). Scaecx. located in the parish of Heile. 35. 1867). Ter Heule en Gorinchem. the duke assembled this complex into a single property called the Hof van Middelburg in Vlaanderen. This attempt to buy divided parcels and unite them into a single feudal possession was typical of successful. In 1444." in B. bought the Hof van Middelburg from the abbey of Middelburg in Zeeland. Het hof Bladelin te Bru•gge (Bruges. in which living areas. The plan divided the town into six main plots. Poedelberch. Bladelin's urban planners laid out the new town in a symmetrical. Cappelhout. Scaecx. CXI (forthcoming).MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 9 serving the state in landed property. In 1440. II. and religious and administrative buildings were carefully situated (Figure 2)." Le Moyen Age. 32. Cappelhout. which was established in 1280. He tried to accomplish a similar accumulation and concentration of land in the vicinity of Courtrai and on the isle of Cadzand. Village lordship augmented both (noble) symbolic capital and personal authority. Gorinchem. late medieval officers in Flanders. he began buying land in Heile parish and elsewhere. in Vlaenderen van Middelburg 13 Verschelde. Bladelin accumulated different parcels with the purpose of uniting them.171. "Pieter Bladelin. Bladelin kept the name Middelburg but added the suffix "-inFlanders" to distinguish it from another Middelburg. such as the Brieven van Aartrijke and the Paddepoele in Maldegem. Martens.X (2oo4). his brother-in-law. The street grid remains intact to this day. Bladelin constructed the new town of Middelburg and the castle next to it. Colard le Fevre.

2 The New Town of Middelburg(DrawingBased on the Combined Evidence from Excavationsand the Van Deventer Map. 1550) Water Buildings Religiuous or official buildings Streetsandsquares D Greenareas Watchtowers mill SCity + Church and otherreligious buildings 7 indicated on Van Deventer's I550 map.188 on Sun.25. the layout of Middelburg'sstreet grid had a striking axiality. Although plannersand surveyorsof new towns generallyfavoredsymmetryand a rectangular site.171. JAN DUMOLYN.the main streetof the town randirectlyto the entranceof the castle domain.IO WIM DE CLERCQ. AND JELLE HAEMERS Fig. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The same road continued beyond the populated areatowardBruges in one direction and Aardenburg in the This content downloaded from 188. c.

the city planners took optimal advantage of a pre-existing (Roman?) road connecting Bruges and Aardenburg as a central axis in their design. 1880).15 Both castellans had to develop a strategy to keep their town economically viable. This micro-region had no need for another major centre of production or commerce. with the permission of the duke.171. A bridge spanned the 25-meter-wide moat between the castle and the town. it already had such important economic and strategic cities as Bruges. and the sea. 34. and church) and the public space outside the town. Couturme This content downloaded from 188. It was.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 1 II other. Bladelin obtained the duke's permission to organize an annual fair in his town. and thus to Damme. harbor. Geschiedenis mission to establish a mayor and seven aldermen in Middelburg. 209-212. He also ordered the digging of a small canal to connect Middelburg to the river Lieve. 14 The urban planners used significant spatial elements. At the southwestern side of the town. thus connecting the castle-the dominant centre of the private space-with the central areas inside (marketplace. These later new towns were inspired by the symmetry of Greek and Roman models of city planning. which set the castle in a wide watery landscape. Bladelin attracted coppersmiths from Dinant-recently sub14 Nicola Coldstream. which did not possess privileges as did the young town. Sluis. Bladelin received the duke's per15 Verschelde. independent of the surrounding area. van Middelburg. MedievalArchitecture (New York. for all intents and purposes. an important economic vein connecting Ghent with the ports around the Zwin. a wall. the lord added gates and a wall. Bruges. and later (1466). the city moat was connected with the moats of the castle. In 1465. 2002). In 1458. a new city. They separated the new power center from the countryside. ruled by the inhabitant of the castle.25. The city hall that Bladelin constructed was yet another symbol of Middelburg's status. See Louis Gilliodts-Van du Francde Bruges(Bruges. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Damme. and Aardenburg. like a moat. and town gates to distinguish the new town from the countryside and illustrate its distinct prestige. The large waterworks that surrounded the castle consisted of two large rectangular moats. separated from each other by an earthen bank.188 on Sun. III. A moat completely surrounded the city. This axiality emphasized the special position of the castle and its owner in the physical and mental conceptualization of the town. Presumably. Severen. Bladelin and later Hugonet selected certain crafts to be the economic base for the city. 126.

Raymond Van Uytven. "De Veille Montagne en het tot de Geschiedenis. DwarfsamongGiants: The FlemishUrbanNetworkin the LateMiddleAges (Louvain. Licensing the installation of crafts in the new town was crucial to the creation and use of elite identity in elite networks. the English King Edward IV granted Middelburg lucrative trade privileges. such as the wool staple of northern England and the right to sell copper within a wide area. De kermisweek van 1470. they were also nexuses of economic markets. AND JELLE HAEMERS jugated by the duke-where metal working was a specialty. He constructed it to express his dominance over the area and to justify his noble aspirations. the economic incentives improved the status of the new town. the ducal family ordered tapestries from local weavers during a two-week stay at Middelburg Castle.12 j WIM DE CLERCQ. In short." Publications du CentreEuropdeen d'Eitudes Bourguignonnes (XIV-XVIe s." WorldArchaeology. Livia Visser-Fuchs. 1472-1478.IV van Middelburg." VII (1993). "Notice sur Middelbourg en Flandre. XXIII (I99i). Flammang.17 Bladelin did not create this late medieval town for economic reasons. Geschiedenis 50. galmeimonopolie van de Schetsen. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .XXXII (1881-1882)." Kunst: Tijdschrift letteren. Cauchies. (1836). P. and weavers of high-quality tapestry and other workmen to move inside the city walls. For the economic geography of the county of Flanders.). 8.171.25. another high-ranking Burgundian nobleman. Bladelin's aspirations to noble status seem to have motivated him to possess 16 De Smet.188 on Sun. "De lDinantsche voor Kunst en Koperslagers en hun verblijf te Middelburg-in-Vlaanderen. In 1472. These high-end crafts made the city economically less vulnerable to agricultural crises. of Rank: New Studies in Archaeology 1994). drove Bladelin to found the town. Wason The Archeology (New York. JAN DUMOLYN. especially in northwestern Europe. 97-10o4. 388. Historians have noted that the founding of medieval cities was much rarer in the late Middle Ages than in earlier periods." Bijdragen Alexandre Pinchart. 332-348. "Edward Bijdragenuit het Meetjesland. Buge.16 Specialized craft production also implied access to particular resources as well as to markets. along with rivalry within his own social class. Martens. argues that a quest for glory and eternity. Towns were not only political entities. the families of craftsmen remained active in the city for the next 120 years. J. 77-81. LXXXIV (200oo). XLIV (2004). since skilled artisanship was considered as much a political activity as an economic or artistic one. "La fabrication de tapisserie de haute-lisse 'aMiddelbourg en Flandre. presumably for services that Bladelin had rendered him during his exile." 107-108. Heemkundige IV's Grants of Privileges to People and Places in the Low Countries. 1997). o09.191-203." Messagerdes scienceshistoriques. For instance. who compared the investments of Bladelin and Jean de Lannoy. This content downloaded from 188. "Some Political Aspects of Craft Specialization. 157.see Peter Stabel. "Compte. VIII (1904). "Voornaam bezoek te Middelburg. 17 Peter Peregrine. Verschelde." Annales de la Societrd'Emulationde Bruges.

See Joseph Morsel. Hugonet likewise commissioned a portrait-this one by Hugo van der Goes-that turned out to be a masterpiece(alsoin Berlin). "La fabrication. and charitable projects that enhanced their social standing. next to a nativity scene. 19 Pinchart. Bladelinwas famousfor the triptychthat he commissioned. who mostly invested in landed property-seems to have createdthe town as an arenato projecthis social and politicalambitionsand to displayhis new identity as a nobleman. 1450/60).one of the masterpiecesof the Flemish Primitives. His portrait (now in Berlin) was painted by Rogier van der Weyden at some point between 1456 and 1461. The two masterpiecesare exceptionalbecause their owners occupy the middle.171. According to Rutte. the close connection with a powerful feudal overlord. ' 18 Many medieval cities were creations of local lords. the castle. Their power and social statusalso allowed them to invest in the cultural and spiritual capital that were essential to "vivre noblement." in "De Jacques Coeura Renault. 2004). Jean-Marie Cauchies." 388.25.188 on Sun. CollectionHistoire. politics. "Deux grands commis Tijdschrift. 225. "L'arsenal chancelier de Bourgogne. Art historianssuspect that in 1470. Bladelin-in contrastto most other nobles. Although economic successwas a sine qua non for Middelburg'sfuture viability. Flammang. of the canvas. 58. ratherthan one of the wings. Penserle pouvoir This content downloaded from 188. "Falen of slagen: Motieven bij laat-Middeleeuwse stadsstichtingen.). the town. L'aristocratie La domination socialeen Occident mndievale: sidcle)(Paris.The triptychserved Bladelin as a mode of self-representation. Geogrqfisch bitisseurs de villes dans les Pays-Bas Bourguignons: Jean de Lannoy et Pierre Bladelin (vers et Organisations. and commercialprosperity. I-I I). with a castle and town in the background. strategy. ideology. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." HistorischXVIII [2002]. Organisations (Toulouse." in Dominique Boutet and Jacques Verger (eds. and economics were the prevailing motives for founding new towns in the late medieval Low Countries (Reinout Rutte. but most of them were established in an earlier period. This painting contains referencesto all of the secularand religious underpinningsof the idealized feudal lordshipto which Bladelin aspired:the production of religious art.which also featuresshops selling copper. Paravicini.18 CULTURAL AND SPIRITUAL ASPIRATIONS Both Bladelin and Hugonet were wealthy enough to initiate cultural. Anke and Werner intellectuel d'un homme de pouvoir: Les livres de Guillaume Hugonet.religious." was a sign Hugonet's enormouscollections of books and tapestries of his intellectual(andluxurious)life style." Gestionnaires Gestion." 61-71.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 13 Middleburg and its castle as icons of feudal lordship.Bladelin and his wife appear on the left panel of the triptych. status. 1995). "Compte. New towns in the late medieval period are rare in North(Ve-XXVe western Europe.

198 I). the establishment of a church was also a pillar of feudal lordship in the townscape. (Brussels. 190. Sebastian in 146o. Paul in Middelburg and.14 WIM DE CLERCQ. 150. both Bladelin and Hugonet donated rents to the hospital-just as the Burgundian duchess. 1IO. Hugo van der Goes (Antwerp. 45-52." 243. et de littmrature 2000).).376-385. 205-208. Dr." in ArchivumArtis Lovaniense. Together with the masses offered for his salvation. Like the acquisition of landed property. and two chaplains to the church of Middelburg. Mary of Burgundy. Peter and St. Bladelin arranged to be buried in the church of St. Bijdragentot de Geschiedenisvan de Kunst in de Nederlanden. This content downloaded from 188. except for those noble councilors who still preferred the parish church in their own lordships. "Patternsin Patronage: Distinction and Imitation in the Patronage of Painted Art by Burgundian Courtiers in the Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries." Gazette des Beaux Arts. 47-50. He patronized the church himself. designed to commemorate the noble deeds of the deceased and to keep their presence vivid. William II Hugonet continued the spiritual pursuits of his predecessor by establishing a Poor Clares cloister at Middelburg in his sister was the first abbess. Corpus catalogorunl Countries. and the possession of a castle. even long after their deaths. Albert Derolez. JAN DUMOLYN. Maximilian of Austria. did in 148 I-"for the salvation of their soul. Haemers. but his foundation held much more significance. The Court as a Stage: Englandand the Low Countries in the Later Middle Ages (Woodbridge. the jurisdiction over a town. K.25. 18-90go. i515. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." in Stephen Gunn and Anteun Janse (eds. Elisabeth Dhanens. 261-325.200oo). Peter and St. CIX (1987).171. It was typical for the comital councilors in Flanders to be buried in the great collegiate churches established and patronized by the counts of Flanders. 208. to be carried to the church by forty local paupers. opgedragen aan Prof Em. Steppe (Louvain. and her husband. According to his last will. John in his new city and probably the archer's guild of St.IV. Verschelde. a parish priest. 1998).188 on Sun. if he died outside his city. 182. Community and Fortification in Medieval England (London. In their wills. Laurinda Dixon."20 Bladelin and Hugonet participated in a common upper-class practice.J. "Nieuwe gegevens betreffende de Bladelin-retabel. Provinces of Brabantand Hainaut Belgii: The MedievalBooklistsof the Southern Lowu. he received permis- sion to add a chapter of six canons. "Middelburg. Castles and Landscapes: Power. 20 Oliver Creighton. "Portraitsand Politics in Two Triptychs by Rogier van der Weyden. 53-69. Bladelin built a church dedicated to St. Dhanens. AND JELLE HAEMERS To establish his religious credentials. In 1470. 2oo6). toegeschreven aan Rogier van der Weyden. and Wouter Bracke. Bladelin founded a hospital dedicated to St. the (still existing) luxurious tomb of Bladelin ocau MoyenAgqe Etudesd'histoire (VIIIc-XVe sichle): offertes Fran(oise Autrand (Paris. Benjamin Victor. 2005). Geschiedenis van Middelburg. In 1452. Paul in the heart of the town between 1452 and 1460. Hanno Wijsman.

Castles were visible manifestations of seigniorial authority and conspicuous consumption. 22 mort dansla region l'au-deld: et la religion d'Avignona lafin du MoyenAge (vers1320-' vers148o)(Rome. Biographie. This content downloaded from 188. and drawbridges. Album PierreCockshaw(forthcoming). 23 Morsel." 1-12. and Bruges. Yet the symbolism of warfare persisted. Paravicini. more palatial residences. Ldgistes et gens." in Jean-Marie Duvosquel and Ann Kelders (eds. La comptabilite les hommes.25. Bladelin built his large residence in the Bruges Naaldenstraat. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .171. socially speaking. Brussels. and defensive focus in their landscapes." Tijdschrift 21 332-349. Behindthe Castle Gate: FromMedievalto ReMedieval Architecture. the castle fortress had given way to less military. Ioo. Their symbolic power often surpassed their military importance. 122-123. "Zur Dumolyn and Katrien Moermans. Creighton.21 THE MIDDELBURG CASTLE: ARCHITECTURE IN DIALOGUE WITH A NO- The single most dominant expression of noble aspirations and claims to public space was the castle of Middelburg.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 15 cupied a prominent position in the liturgical atmosphere of the city. 1488). as the centerpieces of seigniorial space.). but a castle's crenellation served as an announcement that.188 on Sun. "Distinctie en memorie: Symbolische investeringen in de eeuwigheid door laatmiddeleeuwse voor Geschiedenis. Few were seriously defensible. which evolved into the aristocratic residential palaces of the sixteenthcentury Renaissance. 65. MatthewJohnson. L'aristocratie. "Testament. but he also restored the castle of Sailliant in Burgundy. Apart from the construction of a new town. He also possessed smaller castles at Wingene and Oostkamp. It is the clearest example of the personal building program that both of these men undertook and of their urge for a noble lifestyle. the owner of the house had arrived.23 Middelburg castle was built between 1448 and 1450. moats. Coldstream. Hugonet was the owner of houses in Mechelen.22 Castles. "Un grand commis de 1'Etatburgundo-habsbourgeois face la mort: le testament et la s6pulture de Pierre Lanchals (Bruges. should be viewed as the residential." 130. In this final act of representation for posterity. both Bladelin and Hugonet had initiated large private building programs for castles and urban residences. and Landscapes. CXVI (2003). today BLE IDENTITY de Contemporary cases of commemoration are studied by Jean Chiffoleau. still called castles. Castles naissance (London. 168. I980). 240. hoge ambtenaren in het graafschapVlaanderen. Verschelde. Coldstream notes that by 1300. maintained all of the symbolic martial details: towers. 2002). In 1435. Boone. villages near Bruges. gatehouses. These buildings. administrative. Bladelin wanted to display his noble credentials.

AND JELLE HAEMERS only the foundationsremain.188 on Sun.but it never fully recovered from the attack of 1604 by the Spanish commander Ambrogio Spinola.the patternof access.24 This content downloaded from 188. As a strategicfortressin the front line between the Spanish and Dutch troops duringthe Dutch Revolt. enclav&es day only the foundations are left.biggest and most important fief of the Franc of Bruges. JAN DUMOLYN. It disappeared quickly. the castle had totally fallen into disrepair. possiblyfollowing the 1488 destruction. directed againstMaximilianof ing an assault Austria. and the choice and spatialdeployment of building materials. Vincennes [France]). "Archeologisch onderzoek in Middelburg-in-Vlaanderen: Drie jaar opgravingen op het kringHet opper.25. de Bnruges: Coutumesdespetitesvilles et seigneuries Coutumesdespays et comtede Flandre. the architecturaldesign of the castle. they add substantialarchitecturalinformation for those partsof the castle that had already been destroyed or had disappeared after 1604. The residence was re-occupied after the attack but repeatedlyseized during the Dutch Revolt of the sixteenth centuryand (re-)occupiedby armiesof differentorigin during the late sixteenthand seventeenthcenturies.and the site became a quarryfor bricks. ready to be totally dismantled."By the beginning of the eighteenth century.171. Archives de l'Armee de Terre. A plan dating from c. . in 1702. charter of 26 Mars 1607. which totally destroyed large sections of it.Excavationsrevealedthat a partof the southernwing was repairedin the fifteenth century. See De Clercq. desolated and destroyed . suggest a determined and 24 Our knowledge of the castle'slayout is based on both archival and archaeological data. particularlysuch material remains as foundations and building materials. Although no standingwalls arepreservedon the site. offer especially detailed information (Fonds Midlebourg. The southern corner tower was never rebuilt. Gilliodts-Van Severen. a witness from Damme describedit. once "the most beautiful. a French military engineer.Quartier III." Jaarboekvan de heemkundige AmbachtMaldegem. .revealed from the excavations and from a plan made in 1702." as a "ruin. 1488. Fonds Maldegem Ambacht. charters Maldegem en Middelburg.X (2004).The castlewas heavily damageddurby the Flemishcities.. . 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. State Archives of Ghent..en neerhof van het kasteel van Pieter Bladelin. Moreover. 14. Pedro Pype.16 WIM DE CLERCQ. the castlebecame a victim of militarymisfortuneafter 1579.most likely during the twelve-year truce when the lordshipof Middelburgconstituteda part of the was replacedby earthworks. In 1607. The excavated parts of the castle fit perfectly with these documents. (Brussels. and Steven Mortier.provides insight into the social meaning of the edifice. i608 for the reconstruction of the city defenses and an elaborate plan with drawings by Senneton de Chermont. 1891). 272-294.ToA close examinationof the archaeologicalexcavation results.

creating the impression of a much larger building.25.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 17 highly symbolic conceptualization. The next stage was the front of the outer court. The entrance was flanked by two small halfrounded towers. and increasingly. Both of these parts were made of brick with a parament of fine white sandstone from the Gobertange quarries (province of Brabant-Wallon. visitors were once again confronted with the identity of the owner in a sort of reception room. a decorative element introduced by John the Fearless. confront the status and identity of the owner while progressing through the different stages of the castle and its environs. Excavations and maps show that the lower court was a T-shaped construction. III (1997). The re-organization of space and the use of architectural "levels" as nonverbal communicators established the lord's identity and transmitted it to the outside world. They would gradually. 27o-degree towers on the corners. into the castle (the de facto heart of the town) after crossing the moat via a bridge that gave access to the first part of the castle domain-the lower court. To create this effect.188 on Sun. and adopted by Philip as the emblem of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Judging from the spatial patterns in the archaeological discoveries. the large moat that separated the world of the citizens from that of the lord. the castle and the surrounding domain were deliberately built to be seen in stages. The first stage was marked by a material and mental barrier. and two other small. Belgium) under and just above the waterline. this room was paved with tiles bearing Bladelin's emblem and the motif of the firesteel." JaarboekVan de heemkundige kringHet Ambacht Maldegem. from the viewpoint of the town (Figure 3). This was a startling departure from the normal architectural style of lower courts. where riders finally left their horses. 179-189.25 Just inside the complex proper. The spatial patterning of building materials found in the moat at the front-side of the lower court showed an intense clustering of finely hewn white sandstone. Philip the Good's father. with its distinctive architectural features. "Het kasteel van Middelburg. The other end of the lower court included a gallery and an herb garden. Visitors could come directly from the center of the city. This content downloaded from 188. its longest side faced the city.171. its commercial and religious core. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which typically housed 25 Martens. The castle domain consisted of two parts laid out on the main axis that runs through the landscape and the city.

21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Showing the Spatial Pattern of Finds and the the Duke Rooms.171.188 on Sun.Fig.25. 3 Plan of the Castle of Middelburg.stoves withemblemsof the Lord. Emblemsof Bladelin and Frontof the innercourt the Order of the GoldenFlee andallies andmoat 14 Privateresidenceof the Lord > > Deco Plan based on 1702 map (gun-holespro Excavatedparts SNew 0 --lO"'m viewpoint / change in perception This content downloaded from 188.

The main residence.27 The upper court. Les chevaliers (Frankfurt am Main. In the next stage. This content downloaded from 188. beyond another moat. impressing Bladelin's and Hugonet's guests even before they entered the actual domain." Revuefranfaised'hdraldique et de sigillographie. The entrance to the upper court became visible only at the bridge. flanked the entrance. Uberden Umgangmit Lob und Tadel: Normative Adelsliteratur und politische Kommunikation im burgundischenHofadel. Placing all of these impressive architectural elements on only one side of the building created an asymmetrical design. a three-quarter-rounded stair tower. and did not feature an elite design. Bernhard Sterchi. Jean sans Peur: Le prince meurtrier (Paris. stood massive towers 12 meters wide.26 The lower court was separated from the upper court by another moat. Massive rounded towers at the corners. 2000). the walls became narrower at the entrance to the building. accessible via a 26 Jacques Laurent. 2005). Raphael de Smedt. On the Order of the Golden Fleece and its objectives. The presence of the elaborate floor points to the unique nature of the Middelburg castle complex.25.5 meters and consisted of masonry 2. in the interior of the lower court. 2005). even grander monuments to the lord's identity. 8 meters wide.188 on Sun. 1430-15o6 de l'Ordrede la Toison d'Or au XVe siecle (Turnhout.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 19 personnel and facilities. which was not revealed until the end of the prolonged entrance. the floor and other architectural elements played an essential role in advertising the lord's identity. For John the Fearless.30 meters thick. I (1938). see Schnerb. Histoire de l'ordrede la Toison d'Or depuis son institution jusqu'ai la cessationdes chapitres gnderaux(Brussels. part of the double-moated waterworks that surrounded the castle. which had no towers. Even at the outer stages of the castle. The front wall with its five towers (three large ones and two smaller staircases giving access to them) contrasted with the other walls. 27 The corner towers had a diameter of 12. consisted of a square enclosure around which the buildings were arranged. consisting of the rooms where the lord lived and met with his guests. These shifts in architectural design displayed the power of the castle's lord. "Le briquet de la maison de Bourgogne.171. 1830). except for a half-rounded tower in the middle of the southwestern side. and a large halfrounded tower. see Baron de Reiffenberg. 55-64. an overpowering display that heightened visitors' awareness of the owner's identity and power. was situated on the side opposite the entrance to the court. grouped closely together. as if hastening visitors toward the main goal-the upper court and the residence of the castle's lord. In addition. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

IMITATING NOBLECULTURE The plethora of decorative elements and architecturalembellishments in the Middelburg castle all heightened the statusof the residence and its lord. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .28 This ambitiousprivatearchitectural project also bearsa strikresemblance to the ing building programand materialculture of the Burgundian dukes. The staircase almost literally lifted visitors to the higher level of the lord's private space.and large townhouses were intended to display their power and to make them the center of attention throughout their territories. Arnade. Mass. they also featured materials that flaunted the lord's identity (as discussedbelow).These techdisplaying expensive. status. Painterssuch as William de Ritser graced the ducal residence in Ghent with the heraldic emblems of nologically innovative heating systems were not only rare and Burgundy-the ther). Moreover. Henri Lefebvre. de l'espace. Psychosociologie 1998).25. JAN DUMOLYN. Some of these rooms had large fireplaces.188 on Sun. designed landscapes.gardens. "Meaningful Constructions: Spatial and Functional Analysis of Medieval Building. organizing..textes rassembles. and reducing it to their own scale. 62-63." 529.or Germollesin Burembellishedthe interiorsand exteriors gundy. Within the main building. by actualizingits subdivisions. artistsand gardeners of ducal residences. The Middelburgcastle'sarchitectural divisions or barriers were symbolicstepsthrough which the many layersof the lord's identity became apparent. "Jamaisoutre (never fur- 28 Graham Fairclough. 348-366. This content downloaded from 188. perceptual.In Dijon. space is a mix of conceptual.20 WIM DE CLERCQ. Rouvres. Howell." Antiquity. People can conquer space only by dividing. and others contained highly decorated stoves the heraldicmotifs of the lord and his allies." The luxury of the palace reflected the authority of the dukes and legitimized their claim to power. Abraham Moles and Elisabeth Rohmer. deer parks. AND JELLE HAEMERS grand staircase. whose castles. and Simons. developing them into remarkablespaces of artisticinnovation. 2003).and nobility. and representational attributes. mis en forme et presentus par VictorSchwach(Paris. The Productionof Space (Malden. they conveyed the immaterialmessageof power.As Lefebvre argued. Argilly. rooms were built on three different stages. "Fertile Spaces. as well as magnificent symbols of the centralized Burgundianstate. by investing heavily in the Ghent residencesand grantingspecializedduties firesteel and the slogan.LXVI (1992).171.

'"29 Striking parallels can also be drawn to areas outside the Burgundian sphere. 290-292." ibid. "Late-Medieval Houses as an Expression of Social Status.25.171. This content downloaded from 188. 140-141. Brugge en Gent ten tijde van Filips de Goede. the dukes attempted to link urban power elites financially to the court and the Burgundian state apparatus. The English nouveaux riches of the later Middle Ages constructed many residences designed to accommodate household. Boone and Th&rese de symbolique Hemptinne." HistoricalResearch. LIV (2000). 93-134. soldier. "City.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 21 to local corporations. civil servants. 2004).188 on Sun. (re)built castles broadcasting their new social position..). and guests and to reflect the owner's achievements as a state official. who climbed the social ladder through service in the wars of Edward III. 1995). 296-3 14. The licenses to add crenellations. with square or round towers and imposing gatehouses. Powerful officials. lord of Bodiam. and they were built to a scale comparable to. as well as by increasing wealth. or recently ennobled gentleman. given by Richard II. 137-139. Court and Public Ritual in the Oudheidkunde Studies in Society and History." in Artfrom the Courtof Bur- gundy: The Patronage of Philip the Bold and ohn the Fearless (1364-1419) (Paris. 157-158. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The fact that they were often built on new level sites and had only one defensive ward indicates their function as symbols of power rather than defensive structures. Luxurious castles were the symbol of their arrival. 156-164. Arnade. The "New Castles" in England also exemplify the social advancement of such self-made men as merchants. and financiers. They were constructed as units and always completed in a relatively short time. XXIX Late-Medieval Burgundian Netherlands. 1997). 30o Francois Matarasso. 295." in Paravicini (ed. those of long-established families. family. La ville des ceremonies: Essai sur la communication dans les anciensPays-Bas bourguignons (Turnhout. These buildings had a rectangular plan featuring an open court. "Bourgondische residenties in het graafschapVlaanderen: Rijsel. Zeremoniel (Sigmaringen. such as Edward Dalyngrigge. 2004). "Decor of Ducal Residences. The English Castle (London." Comparative (1997). and sometimes surpassing.LXXVIII (2005). all of them contributing to the ducal "theatre-state. Patrice Beck. Other high-ranking officers of the Burgundian state also moved to Ghent and Bruges and invested in city dwellings. Elodie Lecuppre-Desjardin. Anthony Emery. allowed certain English dignitaries to express their social advancement. KristaDeJonghe. "Espace urbain et ambition princieres: les presences materielles de l'autorite und Raum princiere dans le Gand me'dieval (12e sibcle-i540)." Handelingenvan de Maatschappij en voor Geschiedenis van Gent."3 29 Sophie Cassagnes-Brouquet. "The Ducal Residences: Architecture as the Theatre of Power.

containing flakes of mica and unidentified black inclusions (Figure 4). imitation.). In Johnson's words. The surface of the tiles is tin-glazed. and the stove tiles from the residence reveal patterns of networking. too. The floor tiles found at the lower court. and display of wealth designed to associate the self-made man with the duke and the highest nobility. contrived his building program to be an important step in negotiating his social position.188 on Sun. Patrick John Robb (eds. The floor tiles consist of three different types. Village. Agency in Archaeology Mitchell-Fox. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Many objects served as material signs of immaterial elements of identity. like Bladelin. is inscribed with "PB.31 IDENTITIES THROUGH MATERIAL CULTURE Matemore much from castle to a intenrial objects Middelburg point sive process of identity construction than has been found in the castles of the English nouveaux riches. who. JAN DUMOLYN.Hamlet and Field: ChangingMedievalSettlements in Central-England (Manchester. for example. at Kenilworth Castle. Lord Cromwell at Tattershall Castle. it. 2000). One type of rectangular tile depicts two intersecting banderols-one with the initials "PB" and the other with small leaves (bladelinmeans "small leaf" in Middle-Dutch). CONSTRUCTING 31 Johnson. and power relations. the natural "habitat" of Bladelin and Hugonet. AND JELLE HAEMERS Johnson noted the similarity in the building programs by Lord Dalyngrigge at Bodiam Castle. and Christopher Dyer. 231-. Cromwell was a mid-fifteenth-century treasurer. all of which were made in a nonlocal clay of pink-greyish color. These significant emblematic markers expose the social aspirations of the inhabitants of the castle and their relationship with the network of high-ranking people around his court. "Self-Made Men and the Staging of Agency.171." In this series.25. giving access circuitously. This content downloaded from 188. 218. Another type of floor tile is square. as Johnson shows. the two letters are interwoven with a bundle of small leaves." Castles such as Middelburg and its English equivalents were highly visible. Carenza Lewis. physical manifestations of seigniorial authority in an imitative age." in Marcia-Anne Dobres and (New York. "The castle reveals itself gradually to the visitor. social networks. Earl of Leicester.22 WIM DE CLERCQ. 1997). and Lord Dudley. covering a white background on which illustrations in blue and purple (cobaltoxide) were painted. Status was communicated through movement through the building.

indicating a deliberate emblematic cross-referencing in secular and religious space. This symbol seems to have been Bladelin's favorite emblem. being the unique symbol of the duke and the Order of the Golden 32 Martens. In the layout of the floor. ? tD ." v7.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 23 Fig. Found in Middelburg. The circle in the middle contains a firesteel striking a flintstone. since it is also on his tomb in the church of Middelburg and on the ceiling of the gallery in his Bruges residence (Figure 5a). the points where four tiles join at each corner form the "P" or "B" in alternating order.• :•. This content downloaded from 188. . "Pieter Bladelin en Middelburg.188 on Sun.32 The third group of floor tiles shows a circle in the centre of a square and a one-quarter circle in each corner. These same emblems appear on some clerical robes and probably also on a painting that has disappearedfrom the church.25. The firesteel. Flames of fire shoot in various directions. Depicting (P)ieter (B)ladelinand the Firesteel 210.•:. each containing one-quarter of a letter.171. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. 4 Tin-Glazed Floor Tiles of Spanish Origin..

du XIIf au XVIf sidcle(Lyon. John of Gironne. 34 The cuerdoseca and arista production techniques indicate the Spanish origin of the Middelburg tin-glazed tiles.Jean Fouquet(Utrecht. 2ooo). 197I). Because of its typically Spanish mica-rich material. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . See ValenciaVlaanderen. thereby stressing the strength and lasting character of their mar33 I)e Jonghe. "Medieval Tin-Glazed Painted Tiles in North-West Europe. 1997). "Bourgondische residenties. In the late fourteenth century.24 WIM DE CLERCQ. a contemporary of Bladelin who was also a voorEtienne Chevanon-noble upstart at the French court. dukes Philip the Bold and John of Berry invited Spanish craftsmen John of Valence. 1992). Carreaux (Paris. Ceracmica found on objects related to Etienne Chevalier. We are grateful to Frans Caigny and Leon Geyskens for their helpful remarks and suggestions about these tiles. the chancelor of Burgundy. 1384 (Mehun-sur-Yevre. Christopher Norton. en France defaience Imagesdupouvoir:Pavements This content downloaded from 188. The (slightly older) tinglazed tiles found on the site of the ducal residence in Arras are decorated with the arms of Burgundy. A more close connection.188 on Sun. de Pavement du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 173. the letters N(icolas) and G(uigone) are interwoven." Journalof the Society XXVIII (1984). which were produced using traditional Moorish methods and used in elite architecture throughout Western Europe. Bladelin's tiles can be traced to Spanish craftsmen working in their hometown of Manises. is also found in the palaces of the Burgundian dukes. Bladelin ordered his tiles from Spain. 1992). indicating the names of the chancelor and his wife. See also Jeannine Rosen and Thierry Cr6pin-Leblond (eds."4 Similar patterns of interwoven letters appear on lead-glazed tiles in the Hotel-Dieu at Beaune (Burgundy). The large ceiling beams of the great room of Bladelin's house in Bruges were also decorated with the heraldic devices of the duke and the firesteel (Figure 5b). JAN DUMOLYN. built in the middle of the fifteenth century by Nicolas Rolin. On these tiles. See Claude Schaefer. 133for MedievalArchaeology.25. 6o-68. AND JELLE HAEMERS Fleece. 219." io6. or at least a network of their contacts that he could access. idem. Getijdenboek lier. was renowned for its tin-glazed tiles. Philippe Bon. These special tiles have been found only in a few places. To say that this material was expensive would be an understatement. Personal initials are also ceramiek--Valencia-Flandes. however. The Valencia region.Middeleeuwse medieval(Bruges.171. and particularly the production area of Manises. and John le Voleur to make tiles on command for their castles and palaces. de France:Les carreaux defaience au decor Les premiers"blues" peintfabriques pour le duc de Berry.). Bladelin may have had connections to these artists. can be observed in the tin-glazed tiles in the palace of the duke of Berry.33 Like the nobles at court.

"Bladelin'sResidence in the Bruges Naaldenstraat b The Ceiling Beam in the "HofBladelin.Fig. 5 a Emblem (P)ieter (B)ladelinin the Ceiling of the Gallery at the "Hof Bladelin..: F:::i_--_:: S. This content downloaded from 188."Decoratedwith the Firesteeland the HeraldicMotifs of the Dukes of Burgundy j.171.25. wii:: ::i::.188 on Sun. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

Elisabeth Chalmin-Sirot.such as audienceareasand dining rooms where lords met their guests. palais: Qu'est-ce-qu'un palais medieval? Christian de M&rindol.These rooms.).. Aux marchesdu et archeologiques Donneeshistoriques (Paris.Besideshis importantoffice. JAN DUMOLYN. This content downloaded from 188. Dirk De Vos. and from 1463 until 1477. Rogier van der Weyden: het volledigeoeuvre(Antwerp."Essaisur la distinction des espaces par le decor • l' poque medievale: iconologie et topographie. the heraldic motifs and emblems referringto the lord and his allies would be conspicuous. L'Etat bourguignon. 2001). 200oo).). AND JELLE HAEMERS riage. 73. 36 Claudia Offmann and Manfred Schneider. Genevois et Savoyard (XIVe-XVe sikcles). Bladelinand Louiswere often together.171." in Annie Renoux (ed. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . this contemporarycolleague of Bladelin at the ducal court was also a bureaucraticcareeristwho made his fortunefrom his loyal serviceto the duke. he was governor of the county of Holland.36 Severalstove tiles from Middelburgoffer tangibleevidence of between materialculture and the construction of the relationship identity. He was also renowned as a rich artpatron. 1999). "Patterns in Patronage. La spendeurdes Rolin: Un m&cknat privo a' la cour de 238-246. In 1472. "Les modkles princiers et leur imitation dans le milieu seigneurial en territoire. In the 146os and 1470s.35 The next remarkablediscoveries are the several stove tiles specifically made to order (Figure 6).26 WIM DE CLERCQ. Von der Feuerstelle zum KachelofenHeizanlagen und Ofenkeramikvom Mittelalter bis zur Neuzeit (Stralsund. this powerful noblemanbecame earlof Winchester. See Stephen Kemperdick. Louis of Bruges had significant political influence at the Burgundiancourt." ibid. Becausestoves took a centralposition in importantchambers.188 on Sun. this non-noble jurist developed an important building program that continues to mark his identity.As a sign of their political cooperation. Rolin also or(Paris. These niche-like.when the fleeing English King EdwardIV found accommodation in Louis' pompous palace in Bruges." 64-67. The firstseriesof stove tiles depicts the combined heraldic symbols of Louis of Bruges. Wijsman. lord of Gruuthuseand his wife (Figure6a). Bourgogne dered an altarpiece to be painted by Rogier Van der Weyden. 65-69. were hierarchically superior to less specialized halls. 1I 8-I 19. semitubularpieces were the main buildingblocks of innovative heating systems originally from Eastern Europe that the Flemish elites installedin Ghent and Bruges afterthe mid-fifteenth century. Rogier van der Weyden (Cologne. Like Bladelin. where semipublicfunctions sometimes occurred. Schnerb. 1999). and as a ges35 Brigitte Maurice-Chabard (ed.25. Like Bladelin. 1999). As loyal confidantsof the duke in the city of Brugeswho sought to increasetheirpoliticalinfluence there.

" Monulmenten en Landschlappen. 55. 6 Stove Tiles with Arms of Gruuthuse (a.188 on Sun. Figure 6e: City Archaeological Service of Bruges... IX (1990). and Related Pieces Found in Brussels (d) and Bruges (e) 25cm a .Fig. d. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 188. SOURCES Figure 6d: Anna Buyle. "Meer over de fragmenten van een kacheltegel uit het Hof van Hoogstraaten te Brussel: het embleem van Isabella van Portugal. Maximilian of Austria and Maria of Burgundy (b).. c).171.25.

the nobles of the Burgundiancourt arrangeda marriagebetween Mary and Maximilian of Austria. The presence of the stove tiles in the castle of Middelburgsymbolizedthe social network and the social capitalof the lord. Lord of la Gruthuyse and Earl of Winchester.situatednear the ducal court (Figure 6d). Personal communication by Bieke Hillewaert.). in /laanderen. Bladelin and Louis together prevented Ghent rebels from entering the city of Bruges. Woltering. in 2004. 52-56.28 WIM DE CLERCQ. whom they expected to be a competent militaryleaderin the war againstthe Frenchking Louis XI. AND JELLE HAEMERS ture typical of Burgundiangift exchange. Since Mary died in 1482. these tiles can be datedafterthis year and before the death of Bladelin in 1472.171. for example. 188-194. the production of the stove tile would seem to date before that year.' de Brusselse verblijfplaats van Antoine de Lalaing. and Bladelin. Malcolm Vale. Middeleeuwse 337. 1427-1492 (Bruges. Englandand the Low Countries I. 263beerput uit het Hof van Hoogstraten te Brussel.)." in Caroline Barron and Nigel in the Late MiddleAges (New York.37 The firesteel on these tiles cross-referenceGruuthuse with the duke. en monumentenzorg toestanden: geschiedenis (Amersfoort. Verwers. Hoogstraaten. the Order of the Golden Fleece. 1995).3The last series of stove tiles excavated in Middelburg show the heraldicmotifs of Mary of Burgundy and the single-headed eagle. 38 Anna Buyle. "Grafelijk afval: Onderzoek van een Landschappen. the tiles were 37 See.). Scheepstra (eds. See also SebastiaanOstkamp. Dirk Van Eenooghe and Marcel Celis.188 on Sun.V (1995/6). the privileges of Bladelin's city were extended (Haemers. discovereda fragmentof a stove tile decorated with a double-headed eagle and a chain of firesteels (Figure 6e). althoughit might have been the result of a later propagandaeffort. the firesteel does not appear on stove tiles found in Gruuthuse's residence in Bruges." Archeologie 301." Monumenten en VII (1988). "Fragmenten van de kacheloven van Lodewijk van Gruuthuse te Brugge. "An Anglo-Burgundian Nobleman and Art Patron: Louis de Bruges." in P. the ducal residenceat Bruges. Dirk Van Eenooghe. The firesteel also appearson stove tiles found in palaces of state officersand noblemen in Brussels. Lodewiijk van Gruuthuse: Mecenasen Europeesdiplomaatca. De Gentse opstand. Since Gruuthusewas received as a member of the Order in 1461. 115-13 Saul (eds. "Het 'Hof van Landschappen."Jaarboekvan de Stad Brugge(1989). "Symbolen van huwelijk en familie op de materiele cultuur van de hoogste adel (ca. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and G. JAN DUMOLYN. This content downloaded from 188. 14oo-1525).25. In April 1477. See Stephane Vandenberghe. As a result. a few months afterthe death of Duke Charles. They materialized the "immaterial" social capitalthat the lord of the castle possessed. 1992). In 1452. 305Archeologie. Gruuthusemight have provided stove tiles for Bladelin's castle. Martens (ed. Remarkably. W. "Maer over de fragmenten van een kacheltegel uit het Hof van Hoogstraaten te Brussel: het embleem van Isabella van Portugal. city-archaeological service of Bruges. 301)." Monumenten en IX (1990). the pre-eminent symbol of the Habsburgdynasty (Figure 6b). 2002). 36-63. However. Excavations at the Prinsenhof.

21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 188.To confirmtheir new socialstanding. Hugonet's pursuit of a noble lineage had attained its final goal: His family was elevated into the higher society of the Habsburg state. despite the decapitation of William I Hugonet. The Middelburg objects were highly significant emblematic markers. Their bureaucraticcompetence and their close relationship with the duke of Burgundy resultedin personalfinancialprofits that they invested in symbolic capital-the acquisitionof a noble status. the Gruuthuse tiles). Bladelinclaimed his social position by claiming space. Thus was his identity represented. This act of dominance was un39 William II Hugonet was one of Emperor Charles V's councilors (Haemers. Bladelin not only expressed a certain level of status through their cost and rarity.However. CONSTRUCTING MATERIAL AND IMMATERIAL IDENTITIES Bladelin and Hugonet successfullyexploited the opportunitiesoffered by the emergence of the modern state in Western Europe. but he also participated in a cultural tradition that derived from the milieu of the highest nobility.these self-mademen had to embrace "vivre noblement. which included specific types of clothing and behavior." They assumeda noble life style.MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 29 most likely a gift from the duchess to the Hugonet family. as this articledemonstrates. status.they also employed a much more extensive materialculture to establishtheir new identities. indicating aspects of identity. not the least of which was Bladelin'screationof a new town. By depicting his personal initials in association with the emblems of the duke of Burgundy. his membership in the noblest of noble orders-the Golden Fleece-and his feudal overlord. and power. By deliberately using these tiles in the architectural space of his castle. Again. his descendants still had the patronage of the Habsburg dynasty. While some of these objects were typical examples of the gift-exchange common in Burgundian culture (for example. this princely favor shows that.25.171. "Middelburg. he both honored the dynasty and underlined his noble status by symbolically intermingling himself." 260). others were clearly made on the orders of the owner (for example the Bladelin tiles).39 The tiles show a pattern of material culture limited to the ducal court and its members.188 on Sun. maybe as a part of their religious foundation of 1481 in the church of Middelburg. Immaterial relations became materialized and exposed. the duke of Burgundy.

1999).25. JAN DUMOLYN. AND JELLE HAEMERS Fig. and Art-Historical Information (3D by AnImotions) precedented in late medieval Flanders. 20-34. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A new city and a grand castle. Shouwing Status:Representation of SocialPositionsin the Late MiddleAge (Turnhout. literally." 702-703.).171. in Blockmans and Janse (eds. 40 Kaminsky.Moreover." and other essays. "Estate Nobility.188 on Sun. Van Uytven. 7 Possible Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Middelburg Castle. This content downloaded from 188. "Showing off One's Rank in the Middle Ages. Based on Archaeological. Archival.30 WIM DE CLERCQ. Bladelin and Hugonet crowned their social-climbingachievementsby copying the architecturalpatterns and material culture of ducal residences. fashioned with the icons of feudal lordship-a crenulatedtown and castleconformingto specificpatternsof material culture-contains a social meaning that derives."4 Space is a reification of social relations.

25. the social stigma of relatively humble origins needed the overcompensation of an exuberant way of life to purvey noble distinction. Kaminsky. Shaping UrbanIdentityin Late MedievalEurope (Louvain. "Self-Made Man. The meaning of their use of material culture becomes clear only within narrative contexts. Howell. and it was also close enough to the economic source of social success." 157. 41 Arnade. This content downloaded from 188." 215. Blockmans."Journalof UrbanHistory. Bladelin's space acquired meaning precisely as a result of its ability to display social status.4' Noble identity involved conspicuous consumption and the display of symbolic capital. the castle and its rich furniture legitimized Bladelin's and Hugonet's newly gained social position as self-made men. Johnson. Thus was cultural identity materially translated into a readable symbolic language. XXX (2oo3). "Estate Nobility. The material expressions of status and identity generated by Bladelin. for self-made men like Bladelin and Hugonet to thrive. which. Matarosso. 2000). the Bruges market and its financial networks. Middelburg was an ideal place to live the noble life. however. and Simons. socially shaped space became a theater of social relations.188 on Sun. "Material Culture. i33.42 Bladelin and Hugonet continuously manipulated material culture to create an environment that emanated noble identity." 542. Material culture contributed to "vivre noblement" identity." 709. Emery. 21 Apr 2013 12:29:11 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Hugonet.171. Identity found expression through material culture and architecture. Their history must be situated against a social and historical background in which conscious personal aspirations and contemporary cultural movements play prominent roles. 42 Grassby. In their dialogue with material culture. In turn. is also the product of social and political action and interaction. On the influence of social identity on the creation of (urban) space. Identity. contributed to material culture. and other selfmade men in the fifteenth century were more than just the consumer habits of wealthy men. "Reshaping Cities: The Staging of Political Transformation. "Fertile Spaces." 596. For new power holders like Bladelin and Hugonet. in turn. "Late-Medieval Houses. and luxurious residences were conspicuous statements in elite society. see Boone and Stabel (eds.).MATERIAL CULTURE AND ELITE IDENTITY 31 from the materiality itself. The morphology of the city and the castle of Middelburg are suitable expressions of a noble ideology. English Castle. 7-20.

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