MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY

EXAMINATION GUIDELINES

GRADE 12 2009

This guideline consists of 10 pages.

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Mechanical Technology

2 NSC

DoE/Examination Guidelines 2009

Introduction: The purpose of these guidelines is to assist teachers and learners in their preparation for the National Senior Certificate (NSC) examination for Mechanical Technology. These guidelines should be used in conjunction with the following documents 1. The National Curriculum Statement (NCS) 2. The content framework in the Learning Program Guidelines (LPGs) dated January 2008 3. The Subject Assessment Guidelines (SAGs) dated January 2008 Content to be covered: The following table provides an elaboration of the content to be covered. ASSESSMENT STANDARD CONTENT ELABORATION Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations; ONE Safety Machine specific safety measures; Advanced tools and specific safety measures. equipment

Identify tools and equipment from drawings; TWO Tools and equipment Describe purpose, functions and principles of specialized tools and equipment; Label tools and equipment from given drawings. Draw a table to classify materials according to their properties and uses; Reasons why certain products are made from enhanced materials taking into cognizance the environmental aspects. Cutting methods on a milling machine i.e. up-cut, down-cut and gang milling; FOUR Terminology Identification of milling cutters for a milling machine; Three methods of indexing i.e. plain,
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THREE

Engineering Materials

Mechanical Technology

3 NSC

DoE/Examination Guidelines 2009

direct/rapid and differential indexing with calculations; Calculations on spindle speeds. ASSESSMENT STANDARD CONTENT ELLABORATION Identification of welding defects from drawings; causes, correction methods; Labeling of drawings on destructive and non-destructive weld tests; FIVE Joining Methods Description, analysis and application of weld tests; Labeling of diagrams/sketches and description of Metal Arc Gas Shielded (MAGS) or Metal Inert Gas Shielded (MIGS) welding. SIX Forces Young’s Modulus of Elasticity – Stress and Strain. Calculations and theory. Properties of lubricating oil and cutting fluid; SEVEN Maintenance Reasons and procedure for replacing engine oil, transmission oil, differential oil; Replacement of bearings, belt and chain drives and clutches Calculations on speed ratios (gears, pulleys); Belt speed and lengths for open and crossed belt drives; Torque and power for friction clutches; EIGHT Systems and Control Input and output movement, work done on levers; Velocity ratio; mechanical advantage; Pressure, volume and piston diameters for hydraulic and pneumatic systems Velocity ratio and mechanical advantage on wheels and axles.
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Mechanical Technology

4 NSC

DoE/Examination Guidelines 2009

ASSESSMENT STANDARD

CONTENT Blowers: •

ELLABORATION

Super chargers Turbo chargers Roots blowers Vane pumps Centrifugal pumps

NINE

Turbines and pumps

• • • •

WEIGHTING OF THE ASSESSMENT STANDARDS (According to the SAG document):

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6

Assessment Standards 1–9 6 and 8 2 3 1, 4 and 5 7 and 9

Content covered Multiple-choice questions Forces and Systems and Control Tools and Equipment Materials Safety, Terminology (Manufacturing Process) and Joining Methods Maintenance and Turbines TOTAL

Marks 20 50 20 20 50 40 200

Time 15 minutes 55 minutes 15 minutes 15 minutes 45 minutes 35 minutes 180 minutes

COGNITIVE LEVELS (According to Bloom’s Taxonomy):
COGNITIVE LEVEL Lower order questions Middle order questions Higher order questions PERCENTAGE ± 30% ± 40% ± 30%

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Mechanical Technology

5 NSC

DoE/Examination Guidelines 2009

FORMULA SHEET FOR MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY – GRADE 12

1.

BELT DRIVES 1.1
Belt speed =

π DN
60

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Belt speed =

π ( D + t )× N 60

(t = belt thickness)

Belt mass = Area × length × density (A = thickness × width)

Speed ratio =

Diameter of driven pulley Diameter of driver pulley

N1 D1 = N 2 D2
π( D + d ) ( D - d ) 2 Open-belt length = + + 2c 2 4c π( D + d ) ( D + d ) 2 Crossed -belt length = + + 2c 2 4c 2πNT Power ( P ) = 60
Ratio of tight side to slack side = (T1 − T2 ) π D N 60 T1 T2

1.9

1.10

Power =

where T1 = force in the tight side

1.11

Width =

T1 permissible tensile force

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Mechanical Technology

6 NSC

DoE/Examination Guidelines 2009

2.

FRICTION CLUTCHES 2.1
Torque ( T ) = µWnR µ = coefficient of friction W = total force n = number of friction surfaces R = effective radius

2.2

Power ( P ) =

2πNT 60

3.

STRESS AND STRAIN 3.1
Stress = Force Area or ( σ = F ) A

3.2

Strain ( ε ) =

change in length ( ΔL ) original length ( L ) stress strain or ( σ ) ε

3.3

Young' s mod ulus ( E ) =

3.4

Ashaft =

πd 2
4 π(D 2 − d 2 ) 4

3.5 4.

Apipe =

HYDRAULICS 4.1 4.2 4.3
Force ( F ) Area ( A ) Volume = Cross - sectional area × stroke length ( l or s ) Pressure ( P ) =
Work done = force × distance

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7 NSC

DoE/Examination Guidelines 2009

5.

WHEEL AND AXLE 5.1
Velocity ratio ( VR ) = effort distance 2D = load distance d 2 − d1 Load ( W ) Effort ( F ) MA × 100% VR Load ( W ) Effort ( F )

5.2

Mechanical advantage ( MA ) =

5.3 6. LEVERS 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

Mechanical efficiency ( ηmech ) =

Mechanical advantage ( MA ) =

Input movement ( IM ) = Effort × distance moved by effort Output movement ( OM ) = Load × distance moved by load

Velocity ratio ( VR ) =

Input movement Output movement

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Mechanical Technology

8 NSC

DoE/Examination Guidelines 2009

7.

GEAR DRIVES 7.1
Power ( P ) = 2πNT 60

7.2

Gear ratio =
N input N output

Product of the number of teeth on driven gears Product of the number of teeth on driving gears

7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6

=

Product of the number of teeth on driven gears Product of the number of teeth on driving gears

Torque = force × radius Torque transmitte d = gear ratio × input torque

Module ( m ) =

Pitch -circle diameter ( PCD ) Number of teeth ( T )

7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14

N1T1 = N 2T2
Pitch -circle diameter ( PCD ) = circular pitch ( CP ) × number of teeth ( T ) π

Outside diameter ( OD ) = PCD + 2 module Addendum ( a ) = module ( m ) Dedendum ( b ) = 1,157 m Cutting depth ( h ) = 2,157 m Clearance ( c ) = 0,157 m Circular pitch ( CP ) = m × π or or or Dedendum ( b ) = 1,25 m Cutting depth ( h ) = 2,25 m Clearance ( c ) = 0,25 m

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DoE/Examination Guidelines 2009

8.

SCREW THREADS 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7
Pitch diameter = Outside diamter − ½pitch Pitch circumfere nce = π × pitch diameter Lead = pitch × number of starts

Helix angle: tan Ø =

Lead Pitch circumference

Leading tool angle = 90° – (helix angle + clearance angle) Following/Trailing angle = 90° + (helix angle – clearance angle)
Number of turns = height lead

9.

CINCINNATI DIVIDING HEAD TABLE FOR THE MILLING MACHINE Hole circles Side 1 Side 2 24 46 25 47 28 49 30 51 34 53 37 54 38 57 39 58 41 59 42 62 43 66

Standard change gears 24 x 2 9.1 28 32 40
40 n

44

48

56

64

72

86

100

Simple indexing =

( where n = number of divisions ) Dr (A − n) 40 = × A 1 Dv

9.2

Change gears:

Dr 40 = ( A − n )× A Dv

or

or
Dr 40 = (N − n) × N Dv

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Mechanical Technology

10 NSC

DoE/Examination Guidelines 2009

10.

CALCULATIONS OF FEED 10.1 Feed (f) = f1 × T × N Where: f = feed in millimeters per minute f1 = feed per tooth in millimeters T = number of teeth on cutter N = number of revolutions of cutter per minute 10.2 Cutting speed (V) = π × D × N Where: D = diameter of the cutter in meters ****************************

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