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Appl.

sei. Res.

Section A, Vol.

13

THE

RAYLEIGH

AND

STOKES

PROBLEMS

WlTH

AN

INCOMPRESSIBLE

NON-NEWTONIAN

FLUID

by

WILLIAM

H.

SCHWARZ

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Califor~lia, U.S.A.

Summary

The Rayleigh problem or impulsive motion of a flat plate has been solved using a perturbation scheme when the surrounding fluid is representable by the constitutive equations of Oldroyd or Coleman and Noll. The shear stress and normal stress at the wall were expressed allalytically for this unsteady motion. Further, an exact solution of the equations was found for a special case of the constitutive equations. The motion of the fluid above a harmonically oscillating plate or the Stokes problem has been determined for a special non-Newtonian fluid. The penetration of the shear ware into the fluid, the energy dissipation,

the velocity profiles and the shear

and normal stresses

at

the wall were

expressed and compared to an equivalent Newtonian fluid. Some of the features of these non-Newtonian fluids were examined in simple shearing flows, and techniques to calculate some of the material

constants discussed.

§ 1. Introduction.

In

order to analyze the

motion

of

a

fluid

in

a

complicated situation, it is offen desirable to consider problems with simplified boundary and initial conditions. The Rayleigh problem, or the impulsive start of a flat plate in an infinite fluid and the Stokes problem which is an oscillating plate in an infinite fluid are examined using several different hort-linear constitutive equations to represent the fluid. These problems have been previ- ously solved for Newtonian fluids with a variety of external con- ditions, for example, with compressibility effects and magnetic fields, and this approach has served as a platform to examine more complex situations such as boundary layer and unsteady flows. Further, using different constitutive equations should give added

--

161

--

  • 162 WILLIAM H.

SCHWARZ

insight into the various representations currently used to describe non-Newtonian fluids*).

§ 2. Rayleigh problem with an Oldroyd 6-constant/luid.

The consti-

tutive equation for the extra stress tensor proposed by Oldroyd 1°)

for an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid may be written in rectangular cartesian tensor form as:

~tis

tiTc @ 11 ~Õ-

+

~odi~tjä--/*l(tijdjs @ täkdij) + vltäldjl~ik =

 
 

~d,k

 

~

(2.1)

 

2/*0

dik @ i2

~0

2/*2ei]djlc @ v2eJleJl(}ik

,

where

 

aßls

aB,»

+ w,jBjÆ + wsjB~j.

 

(2.2)

 

B'~

-

ao

+ u~-g~xj

Further

 

di» ---- ~(u~, k -1- u»,t);

1

°

h•

=

P«~ +

P~l»,

 

(2.3)

where p~~ is the defined as

total

stress tensor

and wi~ is the vorticity tensor

 

w~~

=

~(u~, 1

~ -

ui,

~).

(2.4)

Now

Oldroyd 10) points out

that

when

~1 =/*1

>

i2

=

#2

>~ 0

(fluid B), the equation represents materials which show a positive

Weissenberg effect, that is, rise up along a rotating shaft in the

fluid. Further,

in simple shearing

flows the

Weissenberg

 

con-

jecture

(P~2 =

Pa3)

is satisfied.

Representative

of this

class

are

some dilute polymer solutions. Equation (2.1) may be rewritten as

t,~ +

Dti~

21 ~

+

~od~~tjj+ vldä##d,s =

=

2/*0

[

ei~ +

i2

»

-Dö

eis

+

v2ejlejla~s

?

,

where

D D-Õ Bis =--

tBi~

aO

+

aß,s

ui ~

+

-t- w,mBmlc +

wsmBIm -- e,mBmlc -- esmBtm.

(2.5)

(2.6)

*) ttere, an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid is orte which does not obey the linear

constitutive equation p~~ =

--P~*k +

2/*od,~.

RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS

163

This equation of state has six constants,

21, ~0,

Vl, #0,

~2 and

v2,

and the methods

of measurement

of some

of these

quantities

is

discussed in § 3.

One-dimensional unsteady flows will now be considered where

Define

8

--(

822

0

) =--(

8X3

) =u2=u3=0.

(2.7)

ô#l = •,

8x2

0

= u~O/vo,

Tsk

=

hk/pu 2,

E~lc =

~~~vo/U~,

K

=

vo,~/uL

Y

=

uylvo,

Us

=

us~u,

Xs

=

xsu/vo,

Wi~ = wskvo/U 2,

(2.8)

where

u

is

the

characteristic

velocity of the

plate

and

vo =

¢oß.

For this flow situation, the rate of strain and vorticity components

are all zero except

E21 =

El2 =

½K,

W2z =

--W12 =

½K.

(2.9)

The stress components may now be written as

Tl2 +

[

8T1280

KT22

]

-+- ~n

K

~-

Tss

=

K

8K

+ en--,80

(2.10)

where

and

~0/).1 =

$,

I'1/~1 =

~:,

V2/~1 =

~,

~,2/~,1 =

8,

1t ~

~lU2/VO, (2.11)

Tl1

+

It

[8Tll 80

-1

2KTI2]

+

~nT12K =

(~ --

2~) rtK 2,

(2.12a)

T22

8T22

@ it~Õ-

-+- }rtKT12

:

~nK 2,

(2.12b)

Taa +

8T83

n-~Õ-

+

~nKT12 =

~rtK 2.

(2.12c)

The equations of motion are written in rectangular cartesian form as :

F 8us

8us ]

_

~L~+u~~~

0ps~

~x~

8p

~x, +

8ts»

~x~

(2.13)

  • 164 WILLIAM

H.

SCHWARZ

These reduce to

aU(O, Y)

~T12

ao

aY

and

(2.14)

 

aT22

aP

aTa2

 

--

--

0,

--

0.

 

aY

8Y

aY

The continuity equation beeomes

 
 

~ui

OUi

axt-- --

aXt

-- trace

&~ =

0.

The

above equations

will be solved using

a perturbation

nique

similar

to

that

adopted

by

Leslie a)

and

Caswell

Schwarza)

for

the

very

slow motion

past

a

sphere

of

a

Newtonian fluid representable by equation (2.4). Let

 
 

B

:

B(O)

q-

ltB(1)

 

@

n2B(2)

q_

....

where B represents any of the components U,

K,

T~~ or

P,

(2.15)

(2.16)

tech-

and

non-

(2.17)

and n

is a small parameter. This series may be inserted into the equation

of motion, equation (2.14) and the stress equations (2.10) and (2.12).

Equating terms in equal powers of n, obtain for the zero TM approxi-

marion or the Newtonian problem

 

aU(O)

aTm(o)

a2U(O)

a~--

aY

--

ay~'

(2.18)

which is the one-dimensional, homogeneous heat equation.

Also

T~ °)

=

T(0) =

-~2j

T(0) =

33

0.

(2.19)

The fluid mechanical problem considered by Rayleigh will be

considered, that is, an infinite plate in an infinite medium initially

at rest

which is given an impulsive start

to some velocity u. The

boundary and initial conditions in dimensionless form become

U(O>O,O)

=

1,

U(O,Y-->co)

=-0,

U(O, Y) =0.

(2.20a,b,c)

The solution of equation (2.18) with conditions (2.20) is written

U(°)

=

erfcr] =

1

E ~ ]
0

~/~

~.r

__

e -t'dt=

1 --erf

~T

~~~,~

and

RAYLEIGH AND

STOKES PROBLEMS

K(o) --

I

--1

(~0)~

exp (--~~).

] 65

(2.22)

The first approximation to the equations of motion obtained by equating terms of order It is written

 

8U(1)

8K(1)

82K(O)

 

ôO

8Y

--

(e--

1)

808~'

which becomes

 

8U(1)

8K(1)(l_s){3

 

y

_y3}

 

80

8Y

4~/~

O~

8Va

0 }

exp (--tl2),

with boundary and initial conditions"

 
 

U(~)[O,O~ =0;

U(0[O,Y~ooJ

=0,

U(i)[0, Y] =0;

i=

1,2 .....

(2.23)

(2.24)

(2.25)

The stress components are written as"

T(1) @

11

1

ST(°) 80

~11

2K(°)T~ °)1 -[- 8[K(°)T~°) 1 =

(~ --2e)EK(°)I 2, (2.25a)

T(1)

22

8r(¢)

@

__

"80

-~- ~K(O)T~°) = ~EK(O)J~,

(2.25b)

and

T(1)

33

8T3(°)

@--

8O

+

~K(°)T[ °) = V EK(O)J2,

T(1) @

12

8TJo)

80

--

K(1)

+

8K(o)

e

8---01

(2.œ5c)

(2.25d)

With equations

(2.19) and (2.25), write

T(1)

ii

~--

[2(1

--

e) +

3(~

--

~)][K(°)] 2

(2.26)

To find the specia] solutions to the inhomogeneous hcat cquation (2.24) ler

U(~I)(Y, O) =

Oa¢(~]).

(2.27)

  • 166 WILLIAM

H.

SCHWARZ

Equation

(2.24) then becomes

O«-l[L(a)~a] ---- Oa-l[Ó(a)(~) @ 2t]B(a)(~) -- 4g~(a)(~]) ~ =

tl

t

_

--(1

--

v'=

e)

O-2"E6~e_,= _

4*/a e_n=3.

(2.28)

With a = --1, the solution of this inhomogeneous ordinary differ-

ential equation (2.28) may be found by standard techniques. How-

ever, observe that

the

linear

operator

L(_I),

operating

on

,]m e-~ =

gives

L(_I)E*] m e -n=] =

 

e -''

Em(m --

1) ~]m-2

(2m

--

2)/]mj.

(2.29)

If m

=

3, obtain

the right

hand bracket

of equation

(2.28), and

 
 

U(1)(Y,

O)

--

--(1

--

e)

via e -,=.

 

(2.30)

 

ex/=

 

The

solution

to

the

homogeneous

heat

equation

(2.24)

may

be

combined with the special solution, equation

(2.30) to give

 

t/

U(1)(Y, O) =Olle-*°d~-k U(1)(~/o) (1 -- «) ya

 

(2.31)

 

t/o

With

conditions

 

(2.25), obtain

 
 

U(1)(Y, O)

--

--(1

--

e)

ya

e -~v4°.

 

(2.32)

Also

8x/=

Ot

 

-(I

-

~)

 

K(1) --

2~/7 Os

e-""

[3*]2 --

2,]4].

 

(2.33)

The

second

approximation

may

be obtained

by equating

terms

of order

two in the expansion

in terms

of

n

and

 

find

for the

stress

components:

 
 

12

-{-

90

K(ó)T(~ 1)

-[- ~-~

«

VK(0) T(1)q

i~

äK(1)

 
 

=

K(2)

+

s----,

 

(2.33a)

 

a0

 

RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS

 

t67

T (2) @

[

V~ll ~T(1)

 

2K(O)T~~ ) j- K(1)T~~ )] +

 

~li

80

4-

~ [K(°)T~ 1) @

K(1)T~ °)] =

(r] -- 2e)[2K(°)K(1)],

(2.33b)

~2eT(~)+

2T(1)

~~228_Ö_+

}[K(°)T[i) +

K(i)T~°)] -- r][2K(°)K(i)]'

(2.33c)

ST(1)

~33

80

-}- $

[K(°)T~~ ) + K(1)T~~)] =

n[2K(O)K(1)],

(2.33d)

and the equation of motion

 
 

8U(2)

 

~'w(2)

o~i~

 
 

80

8Y

--

O,

(2.34)

with

the

boundary

and

initial

conditions

(2.25).

Equation

(2.34)

becomes

 

~U(2)

cOK(2)

 

D0

8Y

--

71 e-'~

(9-8( -

15tl

+

55~/a --

321/5 -}- 4~]73 -}-

 
 

-1-

72 e

-n~" O-z[~ti

 

--

5~ a -J- tiP] +

7a0-2[~ e-Z'~~],

(2.35)

where

 

(1 --e)2

 

(1 --~)

 
 

71--

4~/~

,

y2--

,V/~

 

,

 

3

 

73

:

-~-

7(W --

~:)(1

 

--

~~')

--

«(1

--

e)].

(2.36)

The same set-up

may

be

used

to

find

the

 

special

solutions

of

equation (2.35)

 

as

was

used

in

equations

(2.27)

and

(2.28). The

terms

involving the yl

and 72 coefficients may

be obtained

from

the ordinary inhomogeneous differential equation

 

L(_2)[¢(_~)(~)] = ~(_~)~~) + 2~¢(_2)~~) + 8¢(_~)(~) =

~tt

t

\ 3

t

 
 

=

--471["

 

]

--

472[.

].

(2.37)

With the observation that

L(_2)E~

e -'~~]

=

e-"'

[m(m

--

1) ~m-*,

_

(2m

--

6)

~m],

(2.38)

  • 168 WILLIAM H.

SCHWARZ

The solutions which cover the yl and y2 parts

are

--(1

--

s) 2

e_,~ ~ (_~~,73

+

~l-t] 5

_

½,/7)

_

4s(l--e)

1/~

e-"

(

~~3_

~5)

4

"

(2.39)

The remaining special solution may be obtained by finding so-

lutions

to

the

homogeneous

 

equation

L(_1)[¢(_1) ~ and using the

variation

of parameters

method

to

find the

solution

of

the

in-

homogeneous equation

 
 

--12

L(-~)[¢(-1){~)] --

:n~

[(~

--

~')(1

--

~-$)

--

$]

fl

e -a'~2.

(2.40)

The homogeneous solutions are written

 
 

1FI(I',~,--~2),

1.

i Te _,~2,

 

(2.41)

where 1Fl(a; b; x) is the confluent hypergeometric fUllction. Now, the solution of the inhomogeneous equation (2.40) is written

_4y3[e_~~lFl(_½;l

_.

t]2)(~t]e_3~

,

2_ 1/7c

121/3

erI(1/3*])

+

~] e -'~ f~e -3~2 1FI(--è;

0

½; ~2) dt

]

.

+

(2.42)

ùThe complete solution to equation (2.35) becomes

1/~

4e(1

--

e)

e -'~'

02

n

_~ ~--.~f e-35~$1~FI(_½; 1 . $2)d$}

0

and with conditions (2.25), U(2) (70 =

O) =

f12 =

O.

]+

(2.43)

 

RAYLEIGH

AND

STOKES

PROBLEMS

 

169

Of interest

is

the

shear

stress at

the

wall given by

TI2(*] =

0).

Since

 

Tlz=

T i2(°) q-

nT{ 1) +

~2T(2)

,,

12

+

...

(2.44)

then

 

--1

(1

--

«)

Tlz(r/=

0)

=

(~O)}

--

~ =½0

 

+

(~

-

~)(

1t

--

 
  • 3 1--e

 
 

--11~+

....

 
 
  • 4 ~~O~

 

The value of the extra normal

stress at

the wall

T22 is given by

 
 

(~--~)

(W--~)--~(1--æ)

ii2 -[- ....

T22(~

=

0)

--

7~O

__

11 @

 

~0

2

These results indicate that the solutions obtained by the pertur-

bation technique are not valid as O -+ 0. The series would diverge

unless n < 0 or 0 > 21. Toms (1958) has found A1 to be about i sec.

for a solution of poly (methyl) methacrylate in n-butyl-acetate. We

would expect, however, the results to be applicable for times suf-

ficiently large, or shear stress sufficiently small.

§ 3.

Discussion o/Oldroyd's

6-constant constitutive equation.

0 l d-

royd 1°) has

shown

material

which

is

that

for

a steady

simple

shearing

flow of

a

represented

by

the

6-constant

constitutive

equation, the extra shearing stress tl2 becomes

where

t12

=

~F(~)=

~ ~o

(1 q-

(1

+

*

2

«2K )

al~z)

'

~2

=

V2(~,1

--

a~]0)

@

*]0~2;

ô'l

"~-- Vl[~.l

--

~No]

-I-

~oil

(3.1)

(3.2)

and F(K) is called the shear dependent viscosity. In terms of the

dimensionless variables of equations (2.11), we may write

~2

--

ô'z

=

A~E(rJ

-

~)(I

--

~-$)

--

$(I

--

e)].

(3.3)

With

the requirement

that

the

shear

stress is a monotonic

in-

creasing function of the rate

of shear,

i.e.,

ôt12/aK >~ 0, and

noting

  • 170 WlLLIAM

H. SCHWARZ

the

experimental work of

Roberts14),

Oldroyd

sets the

ine-

quality

 

81 >

A

«,

1

A

~> ~«1 >

0.

(3.4)

Also from the work of Toms quality

and

StrawbridgeÀ5) 16),

the ine-

 

21 >

22 >

0

(3.5)

is found. Equation (3.1) may

also be

used to

show that

the

Oldroyd

model predicts an upper and lower limiting viscosity since as

 

K -,

o,

F(~)

-,

ffo,

(3.6)

and as

 

K -+

OO,

F(K)

--> ff0(~2/(}1.

(3.7)

However

 

~- ~<--~<

1.

(3.8)

ffl

This fluid has a viscosity which seems to decrease with increasing

shear rate and at most can have a reduced

viscosity of one-ninth

the lower Newtonian viscosity, and is called pseudoplastic.

The ratios of the upper limiting viscosity to the lower limiting viscosity is given by dz/#l. Polyisobutylene in decalin exhibits this effect and values for the two ranges were obtained by Brodnyan,

Gaskins

and

Philippoffl).

Similar data for polystyrene in

decalin have been given by Merrill, Mickley,

Ram

and

Per-

kinson~). Data from simple shearing experiments allow calculation of

~~. --

~i

by

Lim

K~o

[

L

~(K)/K --

-£i

#0 1

'

=

#o(ä2

--

äl).

(3.9)

The normal stress components in simple shear are given by:

and

tll

~-= [(ff0vZ

--

2Z2)

-t-

(2~,1 --Vl)

t22 -=

[#0v2 --

vlF(K2)]

Kz,

Æ(K2)] K 2,

(3.10)

As will be discussed in a later section, Coleman and Noll 4) have shown that any non-linear fluid in steady, simple-shearing motion

RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS

171

may be described by three material functions

el(s: 2) =

t11-- tsa;

(r2(K2) =

t22-- t88;

7(s:) =

t12.

(3.11)

In terms of the material constants of the Oldroyd

«~(~2) = 2[-~~

+ ~-~~(~)],

«~(,~)

=

o;

,-(,:)

=

,~F(K).

model:

(3.12)

It must be remarked that

in the theory of simple fluids, the Weis-

senberg

conjecture

does not

appear

and

in

general

a2(K2) =

0.

There is still uncertainty concerning this concept (Mar k o vitz

and

BrownS)).

1

21 --

TI2(~ = 0) .......

22

.[1+

(«2-«,)

u2olu2o

ffo

ffo

3

4

(~1-

2i,2)

~~0~

~1114

¢o2

p2+

....

(3.13)

T22 (*7 =

0) --

(~2 -- ~1)

~O

u2p

ffo

+

(~2 -

2~1 +

~0~

Z2)

Zl

1i 4

__

ff,~

02 +

....

The velocity distribution is given by

(3.14)

U=

{1 --

erf *7} --

n

{(1

--

«)

~/zr

.73

0

e-~~--

_n2

{-(1 -~)2

~/~

e-~'

02

~.7~

[---

+T

11.75

--

½*77]+

4e(l--s)

+

~/~

e-~2

0 ~.

[

15,a_

-n-,

.75 ]

4

12

'~~1

+-~õ(aa-al).

I-" e -~2

L-6-

,F,(-~;

-~; *72){*7e-~,' _ V~/12 erf(V5 .7)) +

t/

q-*Te -~' Je -3«' $iFl(--1;

0

1; $2)d$/}

-t- ....

(3.15)

From the measurements of Tores and Strawbridge, e is positive hence the non-Newtonian effect is to reduce the veloeity profile.

  • 172 WILLIAM H. SCHWARZ

Further,

there

is

Newtonian

fluids

not

or

the

the

universal velocity profile obtained for

zeroth approximation since the non-

Newtonian terms have a power of O in the denominator. It is seen

however, that as time becomes large, the fluid acts as if it were

Newtonian.

In the formulae for the velocity distribution and the shear stress

at the wall, all the material coefficients which describe the fluid are

obtainable from present viseometric techniques. However, the ma-

terial coefficients vl and v2 which appear in the equation for the

normal stress (3.10) have not been determined.

§ 4. Rayleigh's problem with a Rivlin-Ericksen fluid.

If

a fluid

is

representable

 

by

a

constitutive

equation

in

which

the

stress

is

proportional

to

the

spatial

gradient

of the

velocity,

the

acceler-

ation,

and

higher

acceleration

terms,

Rivlin

and

Ericksen

la)

have

shown

that

the

general

tensor

form

for

an

isotropic

fluid

which is properly invariant

to

the

coordinate

system

may

be

written in matrix form as

 
 

=

/(A1, A2,

Aa

),

(4.1)

where

T

is

the

extra

stress

matrix

and

the

matrix

A1

has

the

components

 
 

a}1)

=

(ui,j

@

u],i)

=

2eij;

A1

=

2D.

(4.2)

Also the components of the higher order matrices An

(n

>

1)

are

given by

~(n) __

~*ii

c~a(n-1)

ij

ôt

 

_{_ U/Ca:(;.~,Æ1)_{_ ~~~--1)Uk,j _~ ~k]

ù (n-l) Uk, t.

(4.3)

The latter equation is written in a rectangular cartesian tensor

form, which is suitable for this problem.

The

functional form of equation (4.1) may be assumed to

be

a

polynomial representation and Rivlinl2),

and Rivlin

and Erick-

sen la) have shown that for Ar = 0 when r > 2, the most general

form of equation (4.1) for an incompressible fluid is

P = «0I @ «lA1 @ Œ2A2 @ «aA~ + Œ4A~ @ «5(AIA2 + A2A1) @

@ Œ6(A~A2 + A2A~) + ŒT(A1A~ + A~A1) + «s(A1A 2 +A~A1)~

(4.4)

The

general

theory

states

that

the

coefficients

«~

are

to

be

RAYLEIGIt

AND

STOKES

PROBLEMS

173

polynomial expressions in the eight scalar invariants

tr A~,

tr A~,

trA1A2, trA~A2, trA1A~, trA1A2, trA1 and trA2. These are

2

2

easily shown to be of the form

«~ =

G(~~, ,~)

=

ô[i)~~ +

~~~)~4 +

...

+

~~%~ +

q- c~(2i)K2k2 @

...

q- (}~i)Kak q- õ2(i)K5k @ ...

(4.5)

for the Rayleigh problem.

The

complexity of this

set

of equations

is enormous,

and

the

classification of a fluid by the set

of coefficients (/~~~>, ?!% Õff)) for

this simple one-dimensional I!ow, seems to be asking too much

from even the most patient

experimentalist.

Further,

a basic

as-

sumption has been made, namely that A r = 0 when r > 2. For the

type of flow being discussed, Aa, A4

....

,An :/= 0 unless the coef-

ficients of these matrices are identically zero. Further, there are no

estimates at present to tell which of the terms are more important.

Coleman

and Noll 4) have used the concept of a simple fluid

(NollS)) and a smoothness assumption to show that for slow

motions, the simple fluid may be approximated to various orders

by certain special Rivlin-Ericksen tensors.

The constitutive equation which represents a second order fluid

is given as

 

=

&A1

+

¢2A2 +

C~(A~),

(4.6)

and for a third order fluid8):

 

=

[&

+

46 tr(A~)2~ A~ +

&A2

+

¢~A~ +

 

-H ~4Aa -H ¢5(A1A2 -t- A2A1),

(4.7)

where the ¢~ are material c°nstants. In the approximation scheme

which is used to solve the resulting equations, it is necessary to have

the parameter noc tt small, hence the method of solution is com-

patible with the form of the eonstitutive equation.

For the system previously considered, that is, an infinite flat

plate in a medium of non-linear fluid, the only non-zero com-

ponents

of

a}~ ) are

 

~12

-(')=-(~)

~2~

=

K. Then

the stress components

(4.7) become:

 

hl

=

CaK2 +

2¢5~,~,

 

(4.7a)

t22 =

(242 -~- 43) K2 -I- (644 @ 245) Kk,

(4.7b)

taa =

0

=

t13 -~- t2a

 

(4.7c)

  • 174 WILLIAM

H.

SCHWARZ

 

and

 

tl2 =

t2i ---- ¢1~c +

¢2k +

¢4;~ +

2(¢+ +

¢6) K3.

 

Define the dimensionless quantities

 

,'o =

¢1b,

~

¢~u*/p,~o~,

r~ =

¢3/¢~,

rt

=

¢i¢1/¢~

 

(i

>

 

Tl~

=

t~k/pU~.

 

Then equations (4.7) become:

 
 

Tll

:

s3nK 2 +

2e5rt2KK,

 

T22 :

(2 -~- ra) ~K 2 ~- (6r4 + 2r5) ~t2K]iT;

Tsa

=

0

and

 

TI~

=

K

+

L/~ +

~2Vr4/~ +

2(r6

+

rs) K31.

 

(4.7d)

3);

(4.8)

(4.9a)

(4.9b)

Making the assumpfion that

B

:

B(0) +

~tB(1) +

~2B(2) +

...

,

(4.10)

where B stands

for T,k,

U, K,

I~, and ~7, obtain:

T(O)

12

=

K (°)

+

Tl 1) :

K (1) -~ -/17(0),

Also

and

T(2)

12

7

___

K (2)

+

E (1) +

r4K (°) +

2(e5 +

rô)[K(°)] 2.

T(O)

11

----

T(O)

22

=

Ta(~ ---- 0,

Til ) =

e3[K(0)] 2",

~22T(1):

(2

-~-

eS) [K(O)] 2

T(2)

22

T~] ) :

(2 +

e3[2K(1)K(O)] + 2r512K(°)/17(°)];

e3)[2K(1)K(O)] +

(6e4 +

2rõ)K(°)K(°).

(4. I 1)

(4.12)

(4.13)

(4.14)

(4.15)

The equations of motion then become

~U(o)

eO

~2U(O)

ôy~

--

0,

~U(1)

eO

32U(1)

ôyz

_

0

ôY

~(o)

(4.16)

and

~U(2)

aO

~2U(2)

aY 2

__

--

0

~Y

[~(1) +

r4~(o) +

2(r5 +

r6)[K(°)]8].

(4.17)

The initial and boundary conditions are given by equations (2.20). The solutions of the equations (4.16) are readily found by the

RAYLEIGH AND

STOKES PROBLEMS

175

methods previously discussed as:

U(O)(O, Y)

=

1 --

erf(4);

K (°) --

-- --1

(~0)~

exp(--42),

{4.18)

U (1) (0,

Y) =

--

1

-

8,V'a

ya

0~

e- rù/4o,

K(1 )--

--1

~C2--~0~ expl-- 42(342 -- 244)].

(4.19)

Equation (4.17) becomes

U(2)

30

~2 U(2)

 

c~Y2

_

__

1

0 .3

e -~2 [--- 15 -]- 5543

--

3245 +

447]

 

+

4C9r

 
 

8 4

~

+

0-3

e-,°

(154

-

2043

+

4~5)

+

____

 

16CJr

 

+

6(e5 -}- e6)

0-~ 4

e_~,

 
 

as

 
 

1

e -~~

(--~-43 -~ lq4õ

 

½47) Av

 

--

--

 

v'~

O2

   
 

S4

e -'l

24(e5 q-

e6)

 

+

16~/~r

 

~O

(~43 --

45)

--

 

~ri0

 

• (eß,,F,

(

1.½; 4~,)4 e-ae

 

~/~r/3 erI(V34) +

+

4 e-'~f

e-3~" ~1F1(--½; 1; ~2) d~}.

 
 

0

 

at

the

wall

are

found to be

 
 

1

1

[1

2(e5+e6)

ü]~

 

-

0)-

(~rO)½ -]-,V/~~O t

2

zr

 

3

 

--

4C~

O ~

e4ü 2

fr-

...

,

 

(2 @ e3)

--

ü

(3e4 q-

e5)

~t2 -}- ....

 

0)

zrO

 

;tO 2

and the solution is written

U(2) (O, Y)

The stress components

T12(4 =

and

T2~(~ =

(4.20)

(4.21)

(4.22)

(4.23)

  • 176 WILLIAM

H.

SCHWARZ

The velocity distribution becomes

U(O,Y) =

1--erf~+fi

+

F--

e-~

~

n2

x/z, 02

L

+

s4

16x/zc

e -~~

0 2

8x/z~

O 9 e-~~

+

(_~~a

+

¥~5 _

½#7) +

 

24(e5 +

e6)

(~_~a_~5)_

~~0

 

~ e- ~,

x/~-B/32 erf(x/5~)

-k

 

.

(4.24)

 

(4.23) and (4.24)

e-, ' 1FI(_~; 1~,~2)

~ e-'~ le=3*'

+

~IFI(--1; ½; ~2) d~} 1

0

The material constants which appear in (4.22),

may be evaluated from steady state viscometric data except for e4 and s5 (es + s6 may be determined). These techniques are. discussed in §6.

§ 5.

An exact solution to the Ray!eigh problem/or the linear consti-

tutive equation,

if

the fluid may be reprësented

by

I)

Coleman

and Noll's

second order

fluid or

2)

the

Rivlin-Ericksen

Iluid

where the coefficients «1 =

0

for

i

>

3

and

the remaining coef-

ficients are constant, written

then the

equation

of motion is linear

and

is

 

DU

=

D2U +

 

ô

(D2U~

 

(5.1)

co

o y2

fi -gõ

\ a-~

/

"

The boundary and initial conditions are given by equations (2.20a, b, c) and the stress component t12 is written in dimensionless form as

T12 =

K

-k nR.

(5.2)

Equation (5.1) may be readily solved in integral form by means of the Fourier transform. Define

Us(O, ~) ~

oo

U(O, Y) sin(~Y) dY.

o

(5.3)

RAYLEIGH

AND

STOKES

PROBLEMS

177

Transforming (5.1), obtain

0

oo

gdo,

¢) +

¢2

1 +

fi¢~

G(¢,T)

=

=

[1

+

fi~2]

-d

u(o,

o)

]

,

or

o

06)

G(o,

~) +

1 ÷

fi$2

G(¢,

T)

=

1 ÷ft¢ 2

"

(5.4)

(5.5)

The first order linear equation has the solution

 

1 [l--exp(_l

"~20

and since

 

oo

 

g(o,

Y)

=

-~

Us(O, ~) sin(~Y) d~,

 

(5.7)

 

0

therefore

 

oo

U(O,

Y)

=

1

2

exp

 

0

The stress

at

the

wall is given by

(5.2)

or

 

co

TI~[Y =

O] --

Jr

exp

I +

Re~

d~ +

 

0

co

 

2

~

~

 

÷

-- n j

exp[--~20/(l

,.

÷ n~2)] d~.

 

(5.9)

 

o

If the stress

equation is of the form

 

T12 =

K

+

~

+

e4fi2/~ +

terms [_K~ K Iv, K v,

...

].

(5.10)

then the transformed equation of motion, which is analogous to (5.5) becomes

[2]t~

=

¢2Us(¢, 0) +

(1 +¢2h )

oUs(¢, O)

oO

+

+

O~Us

~4~¢ 2 -g~

(¢, o)

+

....

(5.1 I)

  • 178 WILLIAM

H.

SCHWARZ

which is a linear ordinary differential equation with constant coef-

ficients. This may be readily solved for each specific case and the

velocity distribution in physical space found by the inverse trans-

form (5.7).

Equation (5.8) reduces to (2.21) when ~t = 0. However, when

rt :/: 0, then (5.8)taust generally be solved by numerical qua-

drature. When the terms in (5.10) are zero, (5.10) represents the

Coleman and Noll third order fluid with either (65 + 68) negli-

gibly small or the rate of strain K sufficiently small so as to neglect

the non-linear term K 3.

§ 6. Evaluation

o/

the constants

o~ the constitutive

equations

o~

Coleman and Noll.

In simple steady shear flow, where the velocity

field is given by

 

Ul

~

KX2;

U2

~

U8

=

0

(6./)

and

 

~~1~

__

2e12

=

K =

constant,

(6.2)

the stress components for fluids up to fourth-order have been given

by Caswell2). For a third order fluid, equation (4.7), the stress

components are

tll

=

53K2;

t22 :

(252 +

53) K2;

taa :

tl~ =

51«

+

2(5õ

+

56) ~a.

0,

(6.3)

(6.4)

For this fluid, the material constants may be determined in terms

of the material functions (3.11) as:

51

=

fl0

=

Lim [r(~)/K],

 

(6.5)

 

Je--+0

52 =

Lim

a2(K) -- al(«)

 

(6.6)

K~___>0

2K 2

'

(55 -k 56)

=

Lim

(6.7)

 

~~-~0

2'~2

'

and

K2--->0

Caswell 2) and Markovitz

and Brown 6) have discussed some

of the methods for measuring the material functions.

RAYLEIGH

AND

STOKES

PROBLEMS

179

§ 7. Steady harmonic motion/the Stokes problem.

The equation of

motion (2.13) for the constitutive equation (4.6) is written as

sb

 

~2Ü

~

~2Ü

-

(7.1)

 

ô~2~ +

m

86

ô~2

,

where the dimensionless quantities are defined

c7

=

u/ü;

~

=--;

1~0

b

=

0ü~

--;

~0

rrt--

¢~ü2

pv~

"

'

VO

--

P

;

Tl2

=

t12/plI2;

Q

=

~ov0/u 2.

The wall is assumed to oscillate as

~(o, o)

=

ü cos ~0;

Ü(ô,

o)

=

oos ~ô,

(7.2)

(7.3)

and also to obtain the steady state sohltion (after the transient has

decayed), set

Ü(O, Y)

-~ Ü(Y) e~»°.

(7.4)

Making this substitution into equation (7.1), obtain

and hence

where

a~Ü(~)

df

2

(mg~ +

in)

Ü(2)

=

o,

(1 @ Q2m 2)

O(~)

=

A e-~~

+

B e~~',

B2 _

m~92 +

iQ

1 -t- -C22m2

The

constant B =

0 by equation (2.20b), and call

where

B2~-Z=a+ib,

a=

rot92

1 -t-s92m 2'

b--

Q

1 -t-z92m 2

Now

2

:5

i

2

(7.5)

(7.6)

(7.7)

(7.8)

(7.9)

.

(7.10)

  • 180 WILLIAM H. SCHWARZ

Only the positive terms are acceptable, hence

Ü(~)=Aexp{_Ia+~/äY-+b~l~z

2

.[---a+~/ä-2-+~-]~]

~

-'[-

AYI (711)

and

Ü

^

(O,

~)

=

^

Re[Ü(~) e*»O],

(7.12)

therefore

Ü(O, ~)

exp{

fi a + ~v/ä2 + b2 ] '

2

}

• cos ~f2O

-- (--a

+ %/ä22+ b2 )½Y'I"

(7.13)

The constant

(7.13) becomes

A was evaluated with

e~uation (7.3)

as

one,

and

where

Ü(ô,

~)

=

exp E-a'2]

oos [~)ô

-

õ'2J,

c~--~

B --

~ rrt~Q2

2(1

+

m2f) 2)

+

2(1

+

~Q

]~.

f22m2) ½

(7.14)

(7.15)

In dimensional variables, (7.14) may be written

where

u(O, y) = ü exp

E--of]

eos [co0 --

flY],

(7.16)

«~

=

[~b2

Y

~~

o)2

~o

2(1

+

1

~~co~l~l~) +

co

1 ~.

2~o(1 + ~~co~l~~)~

(7.17)

When m = 0, this becomes the classic Newtonian flow case which is written as

,@,y) =üexp

-

Y~0

y

cos Eco0 -

(co/2~0)~y~.

(7.18)

Values of velocity were calculated for different values of m and

D,

and are shown in figures

1 and

2.

It

is observed that

the non-

Newtonian

effect does not arise until IX2ml =

0[1].

In order to see how this non-Newtonian parameter affects the

RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS

1 8 1

y Dimensionless Distonce Y Dirnensionless Distance 0.08 0.30 \ \ ~=0 ; ~'i = t.OXlO s
y Dimensionless
Distonce
Y Dirnensionless
Distance
0.08
0.30
\
\
~=0
; ~'i = t.OXlO s
\
0=0~ ~~I.OXlO~
~
Newl~NanWL~ 0
0.06 i
\
--Newtonian3rL=O
....
non-Newtonlan
\~
....
non~Newfonian
ù~=-I.OXIO"~
q.rL~_l.O ×i0-4
0.20
\ \ \
\\
\'
\ \
O'OZ
\ ,\
\\\\
0.02
//
°.2
o14
"
--
0.0
0.2
014
h
--
-o12
-01~Dimensionles~ Velocity
Ü DJmensionless Velocity
Fig.
1.
Comparison of velocity pro-
Fig. 2. Comparison of velocity pro-
file
for
a
Newtonian
and
a
non-
file
for
a
Newtonian
and
a
non-
Newtonian fluid.
Newtonian fluid.
maximum
shear stress
at
the
wall
during a cycle,
we can calculate
tl2 =/z0K
+
¢2~.
(7.19)
Equation
(7.19) may be made non-dimensional
as
^
T1~
=
K
+
mK,
(7.20)
where
r~~ =
t12Ipü2;
K
=
eÜle~.
With equation (7.13),
obtain for the shear stress
at
the
wall
T12
-
[--~t
+
~1319] cos(~c~O) -~- Efl -t- 0~lTIff2] sin(f2ô).
(7.21)
The maximum shear stress occurs at
ôm~x =
arc ran
[
!
-6 mf2Œ7 f2-1.
(7.22)
-
_
~ßJ
The difference between the maximum shear stress during a cycle for
a non-Newtonian
fluid
and
a
corresponding
Newtonian
fluid
is
shown in Table I. The constant
ra roughly
corresponds
to
a
15%

] 82

WILLIAM

H.

SCHWARZ

 
 

TABLE

I

 

Maximum

shear stress at

the wall

 

--Tie

(I1t

=

--

10 -4)

--Tl2

(11t =

0)

 

~Q

-- rrt~Q

Non-Newtonian

Newtonian

1.0

0

1.0

 

1.0

10.0

i0-a

3.16

 

3.16

102

10-~

10.1

 

10.0

10 a

i0-1

56.3

31.623

104

1

119.1

100.0

105

10

1002.7

316.23

oo

oo

gl [nt[~ =

oo

oo

polyisobutylene solution in decalin and the shear stress is reduced.

When

m

=

0 (non-Newtonian fluid), (7.21) beeomes

 
 

2F12 =

--~/E Œcos(Dô +

~/4).

(7.23)

Therefore,

 

the

stress at

the

wall is

out

of phase with

and leads the

velocity by a/4 radians. For a non-Newtonian fluid, as Irn~l be-

comes larger, the lag angle between the maxima of the stress and

velocity becomes less, and is in phase with the plate when Imf)l =

1,

then leads the plate, becoming asymptotic to a/4.

The extra-normal stress exerted on the wall is given by

^

I-2¢~+ ¢~.J

E1 --

(1 -}- trt2f)2) -~ cos (2DO q- arctan (mD)-l)l.

(7.24)

Of interest is the fact that the cyelie frequeney of the normal stress

is twice that of the cyclic velocity and shear stress.

A boundary layer or shear ware thickness may be defined as

~~E¢2

co 2

1

~o

~-~

At y = 6, the maximum amplitude of the shear ware has diminished

to 1/e of the maximum value at the wall. This parameter then indi-

cates the penetration

of the shear wave into

the

fluid. For

a New-

tonian fluid, (¢z = 0), d = (~o/2~o)d. For a solution of 15%

poly-

isobutylene in decalin, values of d are compared to an equivalent

Newtonian fluid of the same zero shear stress viscosity in Iigure 3.

For small values of ra, the shear ware

thickness is the same as for

RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS

183

the Newtonian fluid. For large values of co, d -+ oo. At these values

of m however,

the

constitutive

equation

would probably not be applicable.

of

a

second

order

fluid

 

~2

=-11250 dynes-crn-~sec 2

q~t

=

9320

poise

~L

=

Icm/sec

8 (cm)

IOs

=

i

i

I0 i0. 2

tO_i

I00

¢"ts'~-b

/

/

/

10I

Fig. 3.

Variation of shear wave thickness wischfrequency for a

non-Newtonian fluid.

Of interest is to calculate the dissipation of energy for this case,

the loeal dissipation function is given by

 

=

2T

:

D

=

2hfitj.

(7.26)

When the stress tensor is given by (4.6), (7.26) becomes

 

0~ =

2~le~jd~j q- ~2a}~)eji q- 2~ae~ketcjej~.

 

(7.27)

Define the invariants of D as

 
 

I--trD;

II

--

tr

D2;

III

=

det

D.

(7.28)

Then,

 

----

--

~2aq ej~.

(7.29)

For this one-dimensional, incompressible flow

 
 

I

=

III

=

0

(7.30)

and

 

=

4~K2 +

~2K£.

 

(7.31)

The

average

dissipation per

unit

area per

unit

time

of energy

into heat

may

also be calculated by computing the work