Appl.
sei. Res.
Section A, Vol.
13
THE
RAYLEIGH
AND
STOKES
PROBLEMS
WlTH
AN
INCOMPRESSIBLE
NONNEWTONIAN
FLUID
by
WILLIAM
H.
SCHWARZ
Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Califor~lia, U.S.A.
Summary
The Rayleigh problem or impulsive motion of a flat plate has been solved using a perturbation scheme when the surrounding fluid is representable by the constitutive equations of Oldroyd or Coleman and Noll. The shear stress and normal stress at the wall were expressed allalytically for this unsteady motion. Further, an exact solution of the equations was found for a special case of the constitutive equations. The motion of the fluid above a harmonically oscillating plate or the Stokes problem has been determined for a special nonNewtonian fluid. The penetration of the shear ware into the fluid, the energy dissipation,
the velocity profiles and the shear
and normal stresses
at
the wall were
expressed and compared to an equivalent Newtonian fluid. Some of the features of these nonNewtonian fluids were examined in simple shearing flows, and techniques to calculate some of the material
constants discussed.
§ 1. Introduction.
In
order to analyze the
motion
of
a
fluid
in
a
complicated situation, it is offen desirable to consider problems with simplified boundary and initial conditions. The Rayleigh problem, or the impulsive start of a flat plate in an infinite fluid and the Stokes problem which is an oscillating plate in an infinite fluid are examined using several different hortlinear constitutive equations to represent the fluid. These problems have been previ ously solved for Newtonian fluids with a variety of external con ditions, for example, with compressibility effects and magnetic fields, and this approach has served as a platform to examine more complex situations such as boundary layer and unsteady flows. Further, using different constitutive equations should give added

161

162 WILLIAM H.
SCHWARZ
insight into the various representations currently used to describe nonNewtonian fluids*).
§ 2. Rayleigh problem with an Oldroyd 6constant/luid.
The consti
tutive equation for the extra stress tensor proposed by Oldroyd 1°)
for an incompressible nonNewtonian fluid may be written in rectangular cartesian tensor form as:
~tis tiTc @ 11 ~Õ + 
~odi~tjä/*l(tijdjs @ täkdij) + vltäldjl~ik = 

~d,k 
~ 
(2.1) 

2/*0 
dik @ i2 
~0 
2/*2ei]djlc @ v2eJleJl(}ik 
, 

where 

aßls 
aB,» 
+ w,jBjÆ + wsjB~j. 
(2.2) 

~ö B'~ 
 
ao 
+ u~g~xj 

Further 

di»  ~(u~, k 1 u»,t); 1 ° 
h• 
= 
P«~ + P~l», 
(2.3) 

where p~~ is the defined as 
total 
stress tensor 
and wi~ is the vorticity tensor 

w~~ 
= ~(u~, 1 ~  
ui, 
~). 
(2.4) 

Now 
Oldroyd 10) points out that 
when 
~1 =/*1 
> 
i2 
= 
#2 
>~ 0 

(fluid B), the equation represents materials which show a positive 

Weissenberg effect, that is, rise up along a rotating shaft in the 

fluid. Further, 
in simple shearing 
flows the Weissenberg 
con 

jecture 
(P~2 = 
Pa3) 
is satisfied. Representative 
of this 
class 
are 
some dilute polymer solutions. Equation (2.1) may be rewritten as
t,~ +
Dti~
21 ~
+
~od~~tjj+ vldä##d,s =
=
2/*0
ei~ +
i2
Dö
eis
+
v2ejlejla~s
,
where
D DÕ Bis =
tBi~
aO
+
aß,s
ui ~
+
t w,mBmlc +
wsmBIm  e,mBmlc  esmBtm.
(2.5)
(2.6)
*) ttere, an incompressible nonNewtonian fluid is orte which does not obey the linear
constitutive equation p~~ =
P~*k +
2/*od,~.
RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS
163
This equation of state has six constants,
21, ~0,
Vl, #0,
~2 and
v2,
and the methods
of measurement
of some
of these
quantities
is
discussed in § 3.
Onedimensional unsteady flows will now be considered where
Define
8
(
822
0
) =(
8X3
) =u2=u3=0.
(2.7)
^{ô}^{#}^{l} = •,
8x2
0
= u~O/vo,
Tsk
=
hk/pu 2,
E~lc =
~~~vo/U~,
K
=
vo,~/uL
Y
=
uylvo,
Us
=
us~u,
Xs
=
xsu/vo,
Wi~ = wskvo/U 2,
(2.8)
where
u
is
the
characteristic
velocity of the
plate
and
vo =
¢oß.
For this flow situation, the rate of strain and vorticity components
are all zero except
E21 =
El2 =
½K,
W2z =
W12 =
½K.
(2.9)
The stress components may now be written as
Tl2 +
8T1280
KT22
]
+ ~n
K
~
Tss
=
K
8K
+ en,80
(2.10)
where
and
~0/).1 =
$,
I'1/~1 =
~:,
V2/~1 =
~,
~,2/~,1 =
8,
1t ~
~lU2/VO, (2.11)
Tl1
+
It
[8Tll 80
1
2KTI2]
+
~nT12K =
(~ 
2~) rtK 2,
(2.12a)
T22
8T22
@ it~Õ
+ }rtKT12
:
~nK 2,
(2.12b)
Taa +
8T83
n~Õ
+
~nKT12 =
~rtK 2.
(2.12c)
The equations of motion are written in rectangular cartesian form as :
F 8us
8us ]
_
~L~+u~~~
0ps~
~x~
8p
~x, +
8ts»
~x~
(2.13)

H. 
SCHWARZ 
These reduce to 

aU(O, Y) 
~T12 

ao 
aY 

and 
(2.14)
aT22 
aP 
aTa2 

 
 
0, 
 0. 

aY 
8Y 
aY 

The continuity equation beeomes 

~ui 
OUi 

axt  
aXt 
 trace 
&~ = 
0. 

The 
above equations 
will be solved using 
a perturbation 

nique 
similar 
to 
that adopted 
by 
Leslie a) 
and 
Caswell 

Schwarza) 
for 
the very 
slow motion 
past 
a sphere 
of 
a 

Newtonian fluid representable by equation (2.4). Let 

B 
: B(O) 
q ltB(1) 
@ n2B(2) 
q_ .... 

where B represents any of the components U, K, 
T~~ or 
P, 
(2.15)
(2.16)
tech
and
non
(2.17)
and n
is a small parameter. This series may be inserted into the equation
of motion, equation (2.14) and the stress equations (2.10) and (2.12).
Equating terms in equal powers of n, obtain for the zero _{T}_{M} approxi
marion or the Newtonian problem
aU(O) 
aTm(o) 
a2U(O) 

a~ 
aY 
 
ay~' 
(2.18) 

which is the onedimensional, homogeneous heat equation. 

Also 
T~ °) 
= 
T(0) = ~2j 
T(0) = 33 
0. 
(2.19) 
The fluid mechanical problem considered by Rayleigh will be
considered, that is, an infinite plate in an infinite medium initially
at rest which is given an impulsive start to some velocity u. The 

boundary and initial conditions in dimensionless form become 

U(O>O,O) 
= 
1, 
U(O,Y>co) 
=0, U(O, Y) =0. 
(2.20a,b,c) 
The solution of equation (2.18) with conditions (2.20) is written
U(°)
=
erfcr] =
1
~/~
__
e t'dt=
1 erf
~T
~~~,~
and
RAYLEIGH AND
STOKES PROBLEMS
K(o) 
I
1
(~0)~
exp (~~).
] 65
(2.22)
The first approximation to the equations of motion obtained by equating terms of order It is written
8U(1) 
8K(1) 
82K(O) 

ôO 
8Y  
(e 
1) 808~' 

which becomes 

8U(1) 
8K(1)(l_s){3 
y 
_y3} 

80 
8Y 
4~/~ 
O~ 
8Va 
0 } 
exp (tl2), 

with boundary and initial conditions" 

U(~)[O,O~ =0; U(0[O,Y~ooJ 
=0, 

U(i)[0, Y] =0; 
i= 
1,2 ..... 
(2.23)
(2.24)
(2.25)
The stress components are written as"
T(1) @
~11
2K(°)T~ °)1 [ 8[K(°)T~°) 1 =
(~ 2e)EK(°)I 2, (2.25a)
T(1)
22
@
__
"80
(2.25b)
and
T(1)
33
8T3(°)
@
_{8}_{O}
+
~K(°)T[ °) = V EK(O)J2,
T(1) @
12
8TJo)
80

K(1)
+
8K(o)
e
801
(2.œ5c)
(2.25d)
With equations
(2.19) and (2.25), write
T(1)
ii
~
[2(1

e) +
3(~

~)][K(°)] 2
(2.26)
To find the specia] solutions to the inhomogeneous hcat cquation (2.24) ler
Oa¢(~]).
(2.27)
166 WILLIAM
H.
SCHWARZ
Equation
(2.24) then becomes
O«l[L(a)~a]  Oal[Ó(a)(~) @ 2t]B(a)(~)  4g~(a)(~]) ~ =
tl
t
_
(1

v'=
e)
O2"E6~e_,= _
4*/a e_n=3.
(2.28)
With a = 1, the solution of this inhomogeneous ordinary differ
ential equation (2.28) may be found by standard techniques. How
ever, observe that 
the 
linear 
operator 
L(_I), 
operating 
on ,]m e~ = 

gives 

L(_I)E*] m e n=] = 
e '' 
Em(m  1) ~]m2 
(2m 
 
2)/]mj. 
(2.29) 

If m 
= 
3, obtain 
the right 
hand bracket of equation (2.28), and 

U(1)(Y, 
O) 
 
(1 
 
e) via e ,=. 
(2.30) 

ex/= 

The 
solution 
to 
the 
homogeneous 
heat 
equation (2.24) 
may 
be 

combined with the special solution, equation 
(2.30) to give 

t/ U(1)(Y, O) =Olle*°d~k U(1)(~/o) (1  «) ya 
(2.31) 

t/o 

With 
conditions 
(2.25), obtain 

U(1)(Y, O)  
(1  
e) 
ya 
e ~v4°. 
(2.32) 

Also 
8x/= 
Ot 

(I 
 
~) 

K(1)  
2~/7 Os 
e"" 
[3*]2  
2,]4]. 
(2.33) 

The 
second 
approximation 
may 
be obtained 
by equating terms 

of order 
two in the expansion 
in terms of 
n and 
find for the stress 

components: 

_{1}_{2} 
_{}_{{}_{} 
_{9}_{0} 
K(ó)T(~ 1) [ ~~ _{«} _{V}_{K}_{(}_{0}_{)} _{T}_{(}_{1}_{)}_{q} i~ äK(1) 

= 
K(2) 
+ 
s, 
(2.33a) 

a0 
RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS 
t67 

T (2) @ 
[ V~ll ~T(1) 
2K(O)T~~ ) j K(1)T~~ )] + 

~li 
80 

4 ~ [K(°)T~ 1) @ 
K(1)T~ °)] = 
(r]  2e)[2K(°)K(1)], (2.33b) 

~2eT(~)+ 
2T(1) ~~228_Ö_+ 
}[K(°)T[i) + K(i)T~°)]  r][2K(°)K(i)]' 
(2.33c) 

ST(1) 

~33 
80 
} $ [K(°)T~~ ) + K(1)T~~)] = 
n[2K(O)K(1)], (2.33d) 

and the equation of motion 

8U(2) 
~'w(2) o~i~ 

80 
8Y 
 
O, 
(2.34) 

with 
the 
boundary and 
initial 
conditions 
(2.25). 
Equation (2.34) 

becomes 

~U(2) 
cOK(2) 

D0 
8Y 
 
71 e'~ 
(98(  
15tl 
+ 
55~/a  
321/5 } 4~]73 } 

1 
72 e 
n~" Oz[~ti 
 
5~ a J tiP] + 
7a02[~ eZ'~~], (2.35) 

where 

(1 e)2 
(1 ~) 

71 
4~/~ 
, 
y2 
,V/~ 
, 

3 

73 
: ~ 
7(W  
~:)(1 
 ~~') 
 
«(1 
 
e)]. 
(2.36) 

The same setup 
may 
be 
used 
to 
find 
the 
special 
solutions 
of 

equation (2.35) 
as 
was 
used 
in 
equations 
(2.27) 
and 
(2.28). The 

terms 
involving the yl 
and 72 coefficients may 
be obtained 
from 

the ordinary inhomogeneous differential equation 

L(_2)[¢(_~)(~)] = ~(_~)~~) + 2~¢(_2)~~) + 8¢(_~)(~) = ~tt t \ 3 t 

= 
471[" 
] 
 
472[. 
]. (2.37) 
With the observation that
L(_2)E~
e '~~]
=
e"'
[m(m

1) ~m*,
_
(2m

6)
~m],
(2.38)
168 WILLIAM H.
SCHWARZ
The solutions which cover the yl and y2 parts
are
(1

s) 2
e_,~ ~ (_~~,73
+
~lt] 5
_
½,/7)
_
4s(le)
1/~
e"
(
~~3_
~5)
4
_{"}
(2.39)
The remaining special solution may be obtained by finding so
lutions 
to 
the homogeneous 
equation 
L(_1)[¢(_1) ~ and using the 

variation 
of parameters 
method 
to 
find the 
solution 
of 
the 
in 

homogeneous equation 

12 

L(~)[¢(1){~)]  
:n~ 
[(~ 
 ~')(1 
 
~$) 
 
$] 
fl 
e a'~2. 
(2.40) 

The homogeneous solutions are written 

1FI(I',~,~2), 1. 
i Te _,~2, 
(2.41) 
where 1Fl(a; b; x) is the confluent hypergeometric fUllction. Now, the solution of the inhomogeneous equation (2.40) is written
_4y3[e_~~lFl(_½;l
_.
t]2)(~t]e_3~
,
2_ 1/7c
121/3
erI(1/3*])
+
~] e '~ f~e 3~2 1FI(è;
0
½; ~2) dt
.
^{+}
(2.42)
ùThe complete solution to equation (2.35) becomes
1/~
4e(1

e)
e '~'
02
n
and with conditions (2.25), U(2) (70 =
O) =
f12 =
O.
(2.43)
RAYLEIGH 
AND 
STOKES PROBLEMS 
169 

Of interest 
is 
the 
shear 
stress at the wall given by 
TI2(*] = 
0). 

Since 

Tlz= 
T i2(°) q nT{ 1) + 
~2T(2) ,, 12 
+ 
... 
(2.44) 

then 

1 
(1 
 
«) 

Tlz(r/= 
0) 
= 
(~O)} 
 ~ =½0 

• [½+ 
(~ 
 ~)( 
1t 
 



11~+ .... 



The value of the extra normal 
stress at the wall T22 is given by 

(~~) 
(W~)~(1æ) 
ii2 [ .... 

T22(~ 
= 
0) 
 
7~O __ 
11 @ 
~0 
2 
These results indicate that the solutions obtained by the pertur
bation technique are not valid as O + 0. The series would diverge
unless n < 0 or 0 > 21. Toms (1958) has found A1 to be about i sec.
for a solution of poly (methyl) methacrylate in nbutylacetate. We
would expect, however, the results to be applicable for times suf
ficiently large, or shear stress sufficiently small.
§ 3.
Discussion o/Oldroyd's
6constant constitutive equation.
0 l d
royd 1°) has
shown
material
which
is
that
for
a steady
simple
shearing
flow of
a
represented
by
the
6constant
constitutive
equation, the extra shearing stress tl2 becomes
where
t12
=
~F(~)=
~ ~o
(1 q
(1
+
*
2
«2K )
al~z)
'
~2
=
V2(~,1

a~]0)
@
*]0~2;
ô'l
"~ Vl[~.l

~No]
I
~oil
(3.1)
(3.2)
and F(K) is called the shear dependent viscosity. In terms of the
dimensionless variables of equations (2.11), we may write
~2

ô'z
=
A~E(rJ

~)(I

~$)

$(I

e)].
(3.3)
With
the requirement
that
the
shear
stress is a monotonic
in
creasing function of the rate
of shear,
i.e.,
_{ô}_{t}_{1}_{2}_{/}_{a}_{K} _{>}_{~} 0, and
noting
170 WlLLIAM
H. SCHWARZ
the experimental work of 
Roberts14), 
Oldroyd 
sets the 
ine 

quality 

81 > 
A «, 
1 A ~> ~«1 > 
0. 
(3.4) 

Also from the work of Toms quality 
and 
StrawbridgeÀ5) 16), the ine 

21 > 
22 > 
0 
(3.5) 

is found. Equation (3.1) may 
also be 
used to 
show that 
the Oldroyd 
model predicts an upper and lower limiting viscosity since as
K , 
o, 
F(~) 
, 
ffo, 
(3.6) 

and as 

K + 
OO, 
F(K) > ff0(~2/(}1. 
(3.7) 

However 

~ ~<~< 
1. 
(3.8) 
ffl
This fluid has a viscosity which seems to decrease with increasing
shear rate and at most can have a reduced
viscosity of oneninth
the lower Newtonian viscosity, and is called pseudoplastic.
The ratios of the upper limiting viscosity to the lower limiting viscosity is given by dz/#l. Polyisobutylene in decalin exhibits this effect and values for the two ranges were obtained by Brodnyan,
Gaskins
and
Philippoffl).
Similar data for polystyrene in
decalin have been given by Merrill, Mickley,
Ram
and
Per
kinson~). Data from simple shearing experiments allow calculation of
~~. 
~i
by
Lim
K~o
[
L
~(K)/K 
£i
#0 1
'
=
#o(ä2

äl).
(3.9)
The normal stress components in simple shear are given by:
and
tll
~= [(ff0vZ

2Z2)
t
(2~,1 Vl)
t22 =
[#0v2 
vlF(K2)]
Kz,
Æ(K2)] K 2,
(3.10)
As will be discussed in a later section, Coleman and Noll 4) have shown that any nonlinear fluid in steady, simpleshearing motion
RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS
171
may be described by three material functions
el(s: 2) =
t11 tsa;
(r2(K2) =
t22 t88;
7(s:) =
t12.
(3.11)
In terms of the material constants of the Oldroyd
«~(~2) = 2[~~
+ ~~~(~)],
«~(,~)
=
o;
,(,:)
=
,~F(K).
model:
(3.12)
It must be remarked that
in the theory of simple fluids, the Weis
senberg
conjecture
does not
appear
and
in
general
a2(K2) =
0.
There is still uncertainty concerning this concept (Mar k o vitz
and
BrownS)).
1
21 
TI2(~ = 0) .......
22
.[1+
(«2«,)
u2olu2o
ffo
ffo
3
4
(~1
2i,2)
~~0~
~1114
¢o2
p2+
....
(3.13)
T22 (*7 =
0) 
(~2  ~1)
~O
u2p
ffo
+
(~2 
2~1 +
~0~
Z2)
Zl
1i 4
__
ff,~
02 +
....
The velocity distribution is given by
(3.14)
U=
{1 
erf *7} 
n
{(1

«)
~/zr
.73
0
e~~
_n2
{(1 ~)2
~/~
e~'
02
~.7~
[
+T
11.75

½*77]+
4e(ls)
+
~/~
e~2
0 ~.
[
15,a_
n,
4
12
'~~1
+~õ(aaal).
I" e ~2
• L6
,F,(~;
t/
q*Te ~' Je 3«' $iFl(1;
0
1; $2)d$/}
t ....
(3.15)
From the measurements of Tores and Strawbridge, e is positive hence the nonNewtonian effect is to reduce the veloeity profile.
172 WILLIAM H. SCHWARZ
Further,
there
is
Newtonian
fluids
not
or
the
the
universal velocity profile obtained for
zeroth approximation since the non
Newtonian terms have a power of O in the denominator. It is seen
however, that as time becomes large, the fluid acts as if it were
Newtonian.
In the formulae for the velocity distribution and the shear stress
at the wall, all the material coefficients which describe the fluid are
obtainable from present viseometric techniques. However, the ma
terial coefficients vl and v2 which appear in the equation for the
normal stress (3.10) have not been determined.
§ 4. Rayleigh's problem with a RivlinEricksen fluid. 
If 
a fluid 
is 

representable 
by 
a 
constitutive 
equation 
in which 
the 
stress 
is 

proportional 
to 
the 
spatial gradient 
of the 
velocity, 
the 
acceler 

ation, and 
higher 
acceleration 
terms, 
Rivlin and 
Ericksen 
la) 

have shown 
that 
the general 
tensor 
form 
for an 
isotropic 
fluid 

which is properly invariant 
to 
the 
coordinate system 
may 
be 

written in matrix form as 

= 
/(A1, A2, 
Aa 
), 
(4.1) 

where T 
is the extra stress 
matrix 
and 
the matrix 
A1 
has the 

components 

a}1) 
= 
(ui,j 
@ u],i) 
= 
2eij; 
A1 = 2D. 
(4.2) 

Also the components of the higher order matrices An 
(n 
> 
1) 
are 

given by ~(n) __ ~*ii 
c~a(n1) ij ôt 
_{_ U/Ca:(;.~,Æ1)_{_ ~~~1)Uk,j _~ ~k] ù (nl) Uk, t. 
(4.3) 
The latter equation is written in a rectangular cartesian tensor
form, which is suitable for this problem.
The functional form of equation (4.1) may be assumed to 
be 
a 

polynomial representation and Rivlinl2), 
and Rivlin and Erick 
sen la) have shown that for Ar = 0 when r > 2, the most general
form of equation (4.1) for an incompressible fluid is
P = «0I @ «lA1 @ Œ2A2 @ «aA~ + Œ4A~ @ «5(AIA2 + A2A1) @
@ Œ6(A~A2 + A2A~) + ŒT(A1A~ + A~A1) + «s(A1A 2 +A~A1)~ 
(4.4) 

The 
general 
theory 
states 
that 
the 
coefficients 
«~ 
are 
to 
be 
RAYLEIGIt
AND
STOKES
PROBLEMS
173
polynomial expressions in the eight scalar invariants
tr A~,
tr A~,
trA1A2, trA~A2, trA1A~, trA1A2, trA1 and trA2. These are
2
2
easily shown to be of the form
«~ =
G(~~, ,~)
=
ô[i)~~ +
~~~)~4 +
...
+
~~%~ +
q c~(2i)K2k2 @
...
q (}~i)Kak q õ2(i)K5k @ ...
(4.5)
for the Rayleigh problem.
The
complexity of this
set
of equations
is enormous,
and
the
classification of a fluid by the set
of coefficients (/~~~>, ?!% Õff)) for
this simple onedimensional I!ow, seems to be asking too much
from even the most patient
experimentalist.
Further,
a basic
as
sumption has been made, namely that A r = 0 when r > 2. For the
type of flow being discussed, Aa, _{A}_{4}
_{.}_{.}_{.}_{.}
_{,}_{A}_{n} _{:}_{/}_{=} _{0} unless the coef
ficients of these matrices are identically zero. Further, there are no
estimates at present to tell which of the terms are more important.
Coleman
and Noll 4) have used the concept of a simple fluid
(NollS)) and a smoothness assumption to show that for slow
motions, the simple fluid may be approximated to various orders
by certain special RivlinEricksen tensors.
The constitutive equation which represents a second order fluid
is given as
= 
&A1 
+ ¢2A2 + 
C~(A~), 
(4.6) 

and for a third order fluid8): 

= 
[& 
+ 46 tr(A~)2~ A~ + 
&A2 
+ ¢~A~ + 

H ~4Aa H ¢5(A1A2 t A2A1), 
(4.7) 
where the ¢~ are material c°nstants. In the approximation scheme
which is used to solve the resulting equations, it is necessary to have
the parameter noc tt small, hence the method of solution is com
patible with the form of the eonstitutive equation.
For the system previously considered, that is, an infinite flat
plate in a medium of nonlinear fluid, the only nonzero com
ponents 
of a}~ ) are 
~12 (')=(~) ~2~ 
= 
K. Then the stress components 

(4.7) become: 

hl 
= 
CaK2 + 
2¢5~,~, 
(4.7a) 

t22 = 
(242 ~ 43) K2 I (644 @ 245) Kk, 
(4.7b) 

taa = 
0 
= t13 ~ t2a 
(4.7c) 

H. 
SCHWARZ 

and 

tl2 = 
t2i  ¢1~c + ¢2k + 
¢4;~ + 
2(¢+ + 
¢6) K3. 

Define the dimensionless quantities 

,'o = 
¢1b, 
~ 
• 
¢~u*/p,~o~, r~ = 
¢3/¢~, 
rt 
= ¢i¢1/¢~ 
(i 
> 

Tl~ 
= t~k/pU~. 

Then equations (4.7) become: 

Tll 
: 
s3nK 2 + 2e5rt2KK, 

T22 : 
(2 ~ ra) ~K 2 ~ (6r4 + 2r5) ~t2K]iT; 
Tsa 
= 
0 

and 

TI~ 
= 
K 
+ 
L/~ + ~2Vr4/~ + 
2(r6 
+ 
rs) K31. 
(4.7d)
3);
(4.8)
(4.9a)
(4.9b)
Making the assumpfion that
B
:
B(0) +
~tB(1) +
~2B(2) +
...
,
(4.10)
where B stands
for T,k,
U, K,
I~, and ~7, obtain:
T(O)
_{1}_{2}
_{=}
K (°)
+
Tl 1) :
K (1) ~ /17(0),
Also
and
T(2)
_{1}_{2}
_{7}
___
K (2)
+
E (1) +
r4K (°) +
2(e5 +
rô)[K(°)] 2.
^{T}^{(}^{O}^{)}
11

T(O)
22
=
Ta(~  0,
Til ) =
e3[K(0)] 2",
~22T(1):
(2
~
eS) [K(O)] 2
T(2)
22
T~] ) :
(2 +
e3[2K(1)K(O)] + 2r512K(°)/17(°)];
e3)[2K(1)K(O)] +
(6e4 +
2rõ)K(°)K(°).
(4. I 1)
(4.12)
(4.13)
_{(}_{4}_{.}_{1}_{4}_{)}
(4.15)
The equations of motion then become
~U(o)
eO
~2U(O)
ôy~

0,
~U(1)
eO
32U(1)
ôyz
_
0
ôY
~(o)
(4.16)
and
~U(2)
aO
~2U(2)
aY 2
__

0
~Y
[~(1) +
r4~(o) +
2(r5 +
r6)[K(°)]8].
(4.17)
The initial and boundary conditions are given by equations (2.20). The solutions of the equations (4.16) are readily found by the
RAYLEIGH AND
STOKES PROBLEMS
175
methods previously discussed as:
U(O)(O, Y)
=
1 
erf(4);
K (°) 
 1
(~0)~
exp(42),
{4.18)
U (1) (0,
Y) =

1

8,V'a
ya
0~
e rù/4o,
K(1 )
1
~C2~0~ expl 42(342  244)].
(4.19)
Equation (4.17) becomes
U(2)
30
~2 U(2) 

c~Y2 

_ __ 1 
0 .3 e ~2 [ 15 ] 5543 
 
3245 + 
447] 
+ 

4C9r 

8 4 
~ 

+ 
03 
e,° 
(154 
 
2043 
+ 
4~5) 
+ 

____ 

16CJr 

+ 6(e5 } e6) 
0~ 4 
e_~, 

as 

1 
e ~~ 
(~43 ~ lq4õ 
½47) Av 

 
 

v'~ 
O2 

S4 
e 'l 
24(e5 q 
e6) 

+ 16~/~r 
~O 
(~43  
45)  
~ri0 

• (eß,,F, 
( 1.½; 4~,)4 eae 
~/~r/3 erI(V34) + 

+ 
4 e'~f e3~" ~1F1(½; 1; ~2) d~}. 

0 

at 
the 
wall 
are found to be 

1 
1 
[1 
2(e5+e6) 
ü]~ 
 

0) 
(~rO)½ ],V/~~O t 
2 
zr 

3 

 4C~ O ~ e4ü 2 
fr 
... 
, 

(2 @ e3)  
ü 
(3e4 q 
e5) 
~t2 } .... 

0) 
zrO 
;tO 2 
and the solution is written
U(2) (O, Y)
The stress components
T12(4 =
and
T2~(~ =
(4.20)
(4.21)
(4.22)
(4.23)
176 WILLIAM
H.
SCHWARZ
The velocity distribution becomes
U(O,Y) =
1erf~+fi
+
F
e~
~
n2
x/z, 02
L
+
s4
16x/zc
e ~~
0 2
8x/z~ 
O 9 e~~ 
+ 

(_~~a 
+ ¥~5 _ 
½#7) + 

24(e5 + 
e6) 

(~_~a_~5)_ 
~~0 

~ e ~, x/~B/32 erf(x/5~) 
k 

. 
(4.24) 

(4.23) and (4.24) 
e, ' 1FI(_~; 1~,~2)
~ e'~ le=3*'
+
~IFI(1; ½; ~2) d~} 1
0
The material constants which appear in (4.22),
may be evaluated from steady state viscometric data except for e4 and s5 (es + s6 may be determined). These techniques are. discussed in §6.
§ 5.
An exact solution to the Ray!eigh problem/or the linear consti
tutive equation, 
if 
the fluid may be reprësented 
by 
I) Coleman 

and Noll's second order 
fluid or 
2) 
the 
RivlinEricksen 
Iluid 

where the coefficients «1 = 
0 
for 
i > 
3 
and 
the remaining coef 

ficients are constant, written 
then the 
equation of motion is linear 
and 
is 

DU 
= 
D2U + 
ô 
(D2U~ 
(5.1) 

co 
o y2 
fi gõ 
\ a~ 
/ 
" 
The boundary and initial conditions are given by equations (2.20a, b, c) and the stress component t12 is written in dimensionless form as
T12 =
K
k nR.
(5.2)
Equation (5.1) may be readily solved in integral form by means of the Fourier transform. Define
Us(O, ~) ~
oo
U(O, Y) sin(~Y) dY.
o
(5.3)
RAYLEIGH
AND
STOKES
PROBLEMS
177
Transforming (5.1), obtain
0
oo
gdo,
¢) +
¢2
1 +
fi¢~
G(¢,T)
=
=
[1
+
fi~2]
d
u(o,
o)
,
or
o
06)
G(o,
~) +
1 ÷
fi$2
G(¢,
T)
=
1 ÷ft¢ 2
"
(5.4)
(5.5)
The first order linear equation has the solution
1 [lexp(_l 
"~20 

and since 

oo 

g(o, 
Y) 
= 
~ 
Us(O, ~) sin(~Y) d~, 
(5.7) 

0 

therefore 

oo 

U(O, 
Y) 
= 
1 
2 
exp 

0 

The stress 
at 
the 
wall is given by 
(5.2) 
or 

co 

TI~[Y = 
O]  
Jr 
exp I + 
Re~ 
d~ + 

0 

co 

2 
~ 
~ 

÷ 
 n j 
exp[~20/(l 
,. ÷ n~2)] d~. 
(5.9) 

o 

If the stress 
equation is of the form 

T12 = K 
+ 
~ 
+ 
e4fi2/~ + 
terms [_K~ _{K} _{I}_{v}_{,} K v, 
... 
]. 
(5.10) 
then the transformed equation of motion, which is analogous to (5.5) becomes
[2]t~
=
¢2Us(¢, 0) +
(1 +¢2h )
oUs(¢, O)
oO
+
+
O~Us
~4~¢ 2 g~
(¢, o)
+
....
(5.1 I)
178 WILLIAM
H.
SCHWARZ
which is a linear ordinary differential equation with constant coef
ficients. This may be readily solved for each specific case and the
velocity distribution in physical space found by the inverse trans
form (5.7).
Equation (5.8) reduces to (2.21) when ~t = 0. However, when
rt :/: 0, then (5.8)taust generally be solved by numerical qua
drature. When the terms in (5.10) are zero, (5.10) represents the
Coleman and Noll third order fluid with either (65 + 68) negli
gibly small or the rate of strain K sufficiently small so as to neglect
the nonlinear term K 3.
§ 6. Evaluation 
o/ 
the constants 
o~ the constitutive 
equations 
o~ 

Coleman and Noll. 
In simple steady shear flow, where the velocity 

field is given by 

Ul 
~ 
KX2; 
U2 
~ 
U8 
= 
0 
(6./) 

and 

~~1~ 
__ 
2e12 
= 
K = 
constant, 
(6.2) 
the stress components for fluids up to fourthorder have been given
by Caswell2). For a third order fluid, equation (4.7), the stress
components are
tll
=
53K2;
t22 :
(252 +
53) K2;
taa :
tl~ =
51«
+
2(5õ
+
56) ~a.
0,
(6.3)
(6.4)
For this fluid, the material constants may be determined in terms
of the material functions (3.11) as:
51 
= 
fl0 
= 
Lim [r(~)/K], 
(6.5) 

Je+0 

52 = 
Lim 
a2(K)  al(«) 
(6.6) 

K~___>0 
2K 2 
' 

(55 k 56) 
= 
Lim 
(6.7) 

~~~0 
2'~2 
' 
and
K2>0
Caswell 2) and Markovitz
and Brown 6) have discussed some
of the methods for measuring the material functions.
RAYLEIGH 
AND 
STOKES 
PROBLEMS 
179 
§ 7. Steady harmonic motion/the Stokes problem. 
The equation of 
motion (2.13) for the constitutive equation (4.6) is written as
~Ü
sb
~2Ü 
~ 
~2Ü 

 
(7.1) 

ô~2~ + 
m 
86 
ô~2 
, 
where the dimensionless quantities are defined
c7
=
u/ü;
~
yü
=;
1~0
b
=
0ü~
;
~0
rrt
¢~ü2
pv~
"
'
VO

P
;
Tl2
=
t12/plI2;
Q
=
~ov0/u 2.
The wall is assumed to oscillate as
~(o, o)
=
ü cos ~0;
Ü(ô,
o)
=
oos ~ô,
(7.2)
(7.3)
and also to obtain the steady state sohltion (after the transient has
decayed), set
Ü(O, Y)
~ Ü(Y) e~»°.
(7.4)
Making this substitution into equation (7.1), obtain
and hence
where
a~Ü(~)
df
2
(mg~ +
in)
Ü(2)
=
o,
(1 @ Q2m 2)
O(~)
=
A e~~
+
B e~~',
B2 _
m~92 +
iQ
1 t C22m2
The
constant B =
0 by equation (2.20b), and call
where
B2~Z=a+ib,
a=
rot92
1 ts92m 2'
b
Q
1 tz92m 2
Now
2
:5
i
2
(7.5)
_{(}_{7}_{.}_{6}_{)}
(7.7)
(7.8)
(7.9)
.
(7.10)
180 WILLIAM H. SCHWARZ
Only the positive terms are acceptable, hence
and
Ü
^
(O,
~)
=
^
Re[Ü(~) e*»O],
(7.12)
therefore
exp{
• cos ~f2O
+ %/ä22+ b2 )½Y'I"
(7.13)
The constant
(7.13) becomes
A was evaluated with
e~uation (7.3)
as
one,
and
where
Ü(ô,
~)
=
exp Ea'2]
oos [~)ô

õ'2J,
B 
2(1
+
m2f) 2)
+
2(1
+
]~.
f22m2) ½
(7.14)
(7.15)
In dimensional variables, (7.14) may be written
where
Eof]
eos [co0 
flY],
(7.16)
«~
=
[~b2
Y
~~
o)2
~o
2(1
+
1
~~co~l~l~) +
co
1 ~.
2~o(1 + ~~co~l~~)~
(7.17)
When m = 0, this becomes the classic Newtonian flow case which is written as
,@,y) =üexp

Y~0
y
cos Eco0 
(co/2~0)~y~.
(7.18)
Values of velocity were calculated for different values of m and
D, and are shown in figures 
1 and 
2. 
It is observed that 
the non 

Newtonian effect does not arise until IX2ml = 
0[1]. 
In order to see how this nonNewtonian parameter affects the
RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS
1 8 1
] 82 
WILLIAM H. 
SCHWARZ 

TABLE 
I 

Maximum 
shear stress at 
the wall 

Tie 
(I1t 
= 
 
10 4) 
Tl2 (11t = 
0) 

~Q 
 rrt~Q 
NonNewtonian 
Newtonian 

1.0 
0 
1.0 
1.0 

10.0 
i0a 
3.16 
3.16 

102 
10~ 
10.1 
10.0 

10 a 
i01 
56.3 
31.623 

104 
1 
119.1 
100.0 

105 
10 
1002.7 
316.23 

oo 
oo 
gl [nt[~ = 
oo 
oo 
polyisobutylene solution in decalin and the shear stress is reduced.
When 
m 
= 
0 (nonNewtonian fluid), (7.21) beeomes 

2F12 = 
~/E Œcos(Dô + 
~/4). (7.23) 

Therefore, 
the 
stress at 
the 
wall is 
out of phase with and leads the 

velocity by a/4 radians. For a nonNewtonian fluid, as Irn~l be 

comes larger, the lag angle between the maxima of the stress and 

velocity becomes less, and is in phase with the plate when Imf)l = 
1, 
then leads the plate, becoming asymptotic to a/4.
The extranormal stress exerted on the wall is given by
E1 
(1 } trt2f)2) ~ cos (2DO q arctan (mD)l)l.
(7.24)
Of interest is the fact that the cyelie frequeney of the normal stress
is twice that of the cyclic velocity and shear stress.
A boundary layer or shear ware thickness may be defined as
~~E¢2
co 2
1
~o
~~
At y = 6, the maximum amplitude of the shear ware has diminished
to 1/e of the maximum value at the wall. This parameter then indi
cates the penetration 
of the shear wave into 
the 
fluid. For 
a New 
tonian fluid, (¢z = 0), d = (~o/2~o)d. For a solution of 15% 
poly 
isobutylene in decalin, values of d are compared to an equivalent
Newtonian fluid of the same zero shear stress viscosity in Iigure 3.
For small values of ra, the shear ware
thickness is the same as for
RAYLEIGH AND STOKES PROBLEMS
183
the Newtonian fluid. For large values of co, d + oo. At these values
of m however,
the
constitutive
equation
would probably not be applicable.
of
a
second
order
fluid
~2 
=11250 dynescrn~sec 2 

q~t 
= 
9320 
poise 

~L 
= 
Icm/sec 

8 (cm) 
IOs 

= 
i 
i 

I0 i0. 2 
tO_i 
I00 
¢"ts'~b
/
/
10I
Fig. 3.
Variation of shear wave thickness wischfrequency for a
nonNewtonian fluid.
Of interest is to calculate the dissipation of energy for this case,
the loeal dissipation function is given by
= 
2T 
: 
D 
= 
2hfitj. 
(7.26) 

When the stress tensor is given by (4.6), (7.26) becomes 

0~ = 2~le~jd~j q ~2a}~)eji q 2~ae~ketcjej~. 
(7.27) 

Define the invariants of D as 

ItrD; 
II 
 
tr 
D2; 
III 
= 
det 
D. 
(7.28) 

Then, 

 
 
~2aq ej~. 
(7.29) 

For this onedimensional, incompressible flow 

I 
= 
III 
= 
0 
(7.30) 

and 

= 
4~K2 + 
~2K£. 
(7.31) 

The 
average dissipation per 
unit 
area per 
unit 
time of energy 

into heat 
may also be calculated by computing the work 
