WHAT IS MOTIVATION? People consider it to be a personal trait – that ia some have it some don’t.

In practice inexperienced managers often label people who lack motivation as lazy. But it isn’t true. hat we know is that motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. Individuals differ in their motivational drive. For example ! a student may find reading a "o pages note book very tiring# but the same student may be able to read $%& pages of 'arry Potter (ust in one day. )or the student the change in motivation is driven by the situation. *hus we can say# that the level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times. DEFINITION: +otivation is defined as the processes that account for an individual’s intensity# direction# , persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. -eneral motivation is considered with efforts towards any goal# but we narrow our focus on organizational goals. Key elements are: Intensity which is considered with how hard a person tries. *his is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation. 'owever# high.intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable (ob performance outcomes unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. *herefore# we have to consider the /uality of efforts as well as its intensity. 0ffort that is directed towards# and consistent with the organizations goal’s is the kind of effort that we should be seeking. )inally# motivation has a persistence dimension. *his is a measure of how long a person can maintain their effort. +otivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal. A MYTH OR A SCIENCE? 1People are inherently lazy2. *his isn’t true. 3ll people are not inherently lazy4 and 5laziness’ is more a function of the situation than an inherent individual character. If this statement is meant to imply that all people are inherently lazy# the evidence strongly indicates the contrary# many people today suffer from the opposite affliction.they are overly busy# overworked# and suffer from over exertion. hether externally motivated or internally driven# a good portion of the labour force is anything but lazy. +anagers fre/uently draw the conclusion that people are lazy from watching some of their employees# who may be lazy at work. But these same employees are often /uite industrious in one or more activities off the (ob. People’s need structures differ. 6nfortunately# for employers# works often ranks low in its ability to satisfy individual needs. 7o the same employee who shirks responsibility on the (ob

Physiological and safety needs were described as lo$er(or"er and social# esteem# and self. )rom the standpoint of motivation# the theory would say that although no need is fully gratified# a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. Self-actualization! . . +aslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders.known theory of motivation is 3braham Ma#lo$%# hierarch o! &ee"#' 'e hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs.order needs are satisfied internally =within the person># whereas lower. *he drive to become what one is capable of becoming4 includes growth# achieving one’s potential# and self.may work obsessively on the conditioning and anti/ue car# maintaining an award.factor theory.order needs are predominantly satisfied externally =by things such as pay# union contracts# and tenure>. 7o if you want to motivate someone# according to +aslow# you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying the needs at or above that level. Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm Social! . Physiological! . 6nfortunately# however# research does not generally validate the theory. *hese theories represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown# and practicing managers still regularly use these theories and their terminology in explaining employee motivation. <. In terms of the figure# the individual moves up the steps of the hierarchy. Includes internal esteem factors such as self.actualization as hi)her(or"er &ee"#' *he differentiation between the two orders was made on the premise that higher. +aslow’s need theory has received wide recognition# particularly among practicing managers. EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION *he $8%&s were a fruitful period in the development of motivation concepts. +aslow provided no empirical substantiation# and several studies that sought to validate the ..known explanations for employee motivation.fulfillment 3s each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied# the next need becomes dominant. *hese are the hierarchy of needs theory# *heories 9 and :# and the two. Includes affection# belongingness# acceptance and friendship Esteem! .respect# autonomy and achievement4 and external esteem factors such as status# recognition# and attention %. *hree specific theories were formulated during this period# which although heavily attacked and now /uestionable in terms of validity# are probably still the best. *his can be attributed to the theory’s intuitive logic and ease of understanding. *hese needs are! $. Hierarch o! Nee"# Theor It’s probably safe to say that the most well.winning garden# perfecting bowling skills. Includes hunger# thirst# shelter# sex# and other bodily needs Safety! . ".

In contrast to these negative views about the nature of human beings# +c-regor listed the four positive assumptions that he called Theor Y: $. .theory found no support for it. 7ince employees dislike work# they must be coerced# controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. . 3fter viewing the way the managers dealt with employees# +c-regor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he@she tends to mold his@her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. 0mployees inherently dislike work and# whenever possible# will attempt to avoid it.h #iolo)ical Theor * a&" Theor Y ?ouglas +c-regor proposed two distinct views of human beings! one basically negative# labeled Theor *# and the other basically positive# labeled Theor Y. +ost workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. <. 6nder Theor *# the four assumptions held by managers are! $. ".control if they are committed to the ob(ectives.a+io& E#+eem Social Sa!e+ ... ". People will exercise self. 0mployees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. *he average person can learn to accept# even seek# responsibility. 0mployees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Sel!( Ac+-ali.direction and self. .

0xistence# Celatedness# and growthDhence# the label 0C. 3s a result# conditions surrounding the (ob such as /uality of supervision# pay# company policies# physical working conditions# relations with others# and (ob security were characterized by 'ertzberg as h )ie&e !ac+or#' MODERN THEORIES OF MOTIVATION ER/ +heor Blayton 3lderfer has reworked +aslow’s need hierarchy to align it more closely with the empirical research. In the belief that an individual’s relation to work is basic and that one’s attitude toward work can very well determine success or failure# 'ertzberg investigated the /uestion# 1 hat do people from their (obsA2 'e asked people to describe# in detail# situations in which they felt extremely good or bad about their (obs.<. 3ccording to 'ertzberg# the factors leading to (ob satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to (ob dissatisfaction. *hey include the items that +aslow considered to be physiological and safety needs.making# responsible and challenging (obs# and good group relations as approaches that would maximize an employee’s (ob motivation. *hey will be placating their workforce rather than motivating them. *hese responses were then tabulated and categorized. *hese social and status desires re/uire interaction with others if they are to be satisfied# and they align with +aslow’s social need and the external component of +aslow’s esteem classification. *heory 9 assumes the lower. . +c-regor himself held to the belief that *heory : assumptions were more valid than *heory 9. hat are the motivational implications if you accept +c-regor’s analysisA *he answer is best expressed in the framework presented by +aslow. 'is revised need hierarchy is labeled 0C. *herefore# managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create (ob dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily motivation. *heory : assumes that higher. T$o(Fac+or Theor *he two. *herefore# he proposed ideas such as participative decision.actualization.theory.theory. 3lderfer argues that there are three groups of core needs. *he existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence re/uirements. *he second group of needs are those of relatednessDthe desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships.order needs assume dominate individuals. )inally# 3lderfer isolates growth needsDan intrinsic component from +aslow’s esteem category and the characteristics included under self. *he ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.factor theory =sometimes also called as motivation-hygiene theory) was proposed by psychologist )rederick 'ertzberg.order needs dominate individuals.

*he evidence strongly supports the value of goals.country team gave his s/uad these last words before they approached the line for the league championship race! 1each one of you is physically ready.2 *he research on goal setting theory addresses these issues# and the findings# as you will see# are impressive in terms of the effect that goal specificity# challenge# and feedback have no performance. Need for power: *he need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.order need level is frustrated# the individual’s desire to increase a lower. *hat is# goal tells an employee what needs to be done and how much effort need to be expended. In late $8F&s# 0dwin Gocke proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a ma(or source of work motivation. )rom research into the achievement need# +cBlelland found that high achievers differentiate themselves from others by their desire to do things better. *he theory focuses on three needs! achievements# power# and affiliation.theory counters by noting that when a higher.In contrast to hierarchy of needs theory# the 0C. 0C.level need takes place. Need for affiliation: *he desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Eo one can ever ask more of you than that. 0C. McClella&"%# Theor o! &ee"# +cBlelland’s theory of needs was developed by ?avid +cBlelland and his associates. 7ome people drive to succeed.theory demonstrates that =$> more than one need may be operative at same time# and ="> if the gratification of a higher. *hey are defined as follows! Need for achievement: *he drive to excel# to achieve in relation to a set of standards# to strive to succeed.level need is stifled# the desire to satisfy a lower.level need increases. Eow# get out there and do your best. /oal(Se++i&) +heor -ene Broadwater coach of the 'amilton high school cross.regression dimension. +ore to . *hey have a desire to do something better or more efficiently than it has been done before. *hey are striving for personal achievements rather than rewards of success as per work done. *his drive is the achievement need.theory also contains a frustration.

0mployees make comparisons of their (ob inputs and outcomes relative to those of others. *his is most likely to occur when goals are made public# when the individual has an internal locus of control# and when the goals are self. *his theory is based on the example of +s Hane Pearson who graduated from the state university with a degree in accounting and working with I-%I a public accounting firm with a monthly salary of J<#%%&.the point# we can say that specific goals increase performance4 that difficult goals# when accepted# result in higher performance than do easy goals4 and that feedback leads to higher performance than does no feedback. Self-inside. 2. 'owever Hane’s motivational level has dropped dramatically due to the hiring of the fresh college graduate out of the state university who lacks the one year experience which Hane has gained and was paid J<#K&& which was more than Hane’s salary. E0-i+ Theor It means individuals compare their (ob inputs and outcome with those of others and then respond to eliminate any ine/uities. Self-outside. hen we see the ratio as une/ual we experience e/uity tension and when over rewarded# the tension creates guilt. In other words if we perceive our ratio to be e/ual to that of the relevant others with whom we compare ourselves# a state of e/uity is said to be exist.setting theory presupposes that an individual is committed to the goal4 that is# is determined not to lower or abandon the goal. 3. . Other-outside. *he re!ere&+ that an employee selects adds to the complexity of e/uity theory.set rather than assigned. In this case Hane’s situation illustrates the role that e/uity plays in motivation. *here are < referent comparisons that an employee can use! 1. hich referent an employee chooses will be influenced by the information the employee holds about referents as well as by the attractiveness of the referent. -oal. 4. Other-inside.

*hese propositions have generally been supported with few minor /ualifications./uality units in comparison with e/uitably paid employees. *he theory# therefore focuses on three relationship!. $. <. Performance. 3lthough it has its critics# most evidence is supportive of the theory.. . In more practical terms# expectancy theory says that an employee will be motivated to accept a high level of pressure when he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal4 which will lead to good org rewards such as bonus# a salary increase# or a promotion4 and that the rewards will satisfy the employeeIs personal goals. But some key issues related to this theory are still unclear.personal goals relationship. ".0mployees with short tenure in their current organization tend to have little information about others and on the long tenure rely more heavily on coworkers for comparison. -iven payment by /uality of production# under rewarded employees will produce a large no of low.reward relationship. Co&cl-#io& o! e0-i+ +heor :( *he e/uity theory demonstrates that# for most employees# motivation is influenced significantly by relative rewards as well by absolute rewards.. ". 0ffort performance relationship. *hus on these grounds# the theory establishes the following < propositions related to ine/uitable pay! $. -iven payment by /uantity of production# over rewarded employees will produce fewer# but higher. Expec+a&c Theor :( Burrently# one of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation is victor vroomIs 0xpectancy *heory. -iven payment on time# over rewarded employees will produce more than will e/uitably paid employees. . ./uality# units than e/uitably paid employees. Mea&i&):( 1*he strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individualL. Cewards. -iven payment on time# under rewarded employees will produce poorer /uality of output. 0/uity theory is also related with the pay of the employees.

0ven after ad(usting for changing work attitudes and the growth in white. . Professor’s researchers and (ournalists undoubtedly made their career choices# to some degree# because they wanted (obs that gave them their autonomy# identity# and challenge. 7ome individuals prefer highly complex and challenging (obs4 other prospers in simple# routinized work.difference variable that seems to gain the greatest support for explaining who prefers a challenging (ob and who doesn’t is the strength of an individual’s higher.*hus expectancy theory helps to explain why lot of workers arenIt motivated on their (ob and do only the minimum necessary to get by. ork rarely consumes more than .and. Individuals with high growth needs are more responsive to challenging work. Because of complications like methodological# criterion# and measurement problems# this theory is viewed with caution.collar (obs# it seems unlikely that the number today exceeds <&N *he strongest voice advocating challenging (obs has not been workers. In addition# (ust because we understand what needs a person seeks to satisfy does not ensure that the individual perceives high performance as necessarily leading to the satisfaction to these needs. +any workers meet their higher.file workers actually desire higher.science researchers# and (ournalists.ro!e##io&al Emplo ee# are more "i!!ic-l+ +o mo+i2a+e'' .it’s been professors# social. 3s a contingency model# expectancy theory recognizes that there is no universal principle for explaining everyoneIs motivation. M +h or Scie&ceA E2er o&e $a&+# a challe&)i&) 3o4? *his statement is false.order need satisfaction and will respond positively to challenging (obsA Eo current data are available# but a study from the $8M&s estimated the figure at about $%N. *hat leaves considerable opportunity# even for individuals with strong growth needs# to find higher. *he individual. order needs off the (ob. But for them to pro(ect their needs onto the workforce in general is presumptuous. In spite of all the attention focused by the media# academics and social scientists on human potential and the needs of individuals# there is no evidence to support the vast ma(ority of workers want challenging (obs. In summary# the key to expectancy theory is the understanding of an individualIs goals and the linkage b@w effort and performance# between performance and rewards and# finally# between the rewards and individual goal satisfaction. But what percentage of rank. *here are $FK hours in every individual’s week.order need satisfaction outside the workplace. *hat# of course# is their choice.&N of this time. Eot every employee is looking for a challenging (ob.order needs.

hyA Because professionals don’t respond to the same stimuli that non. *hey also invest regularly . *he strongest is the +cBlelland’s needs theory# which is regarding the relationship between achievement and productivity. *hese were +aslow’s hierarchy# two factor# 0C-# and +cBlelland’s needs theories. 3nd typical rewards# like money and promotions# are rarely effective in encouraging professionals to exert high levels of effort. +oving into management often means cutting off their ties to their profession# losing touch with the latest advances in their field and having to let the skills that they’ve spent years developing become obsolete. in terms of reading# taking courses# attending conferences# and the like . Professional like engineers# accountants# lawyers# nurses# and software designers are different from nonprofessionals. *hey’ve have typically gone to professional schools for years and undergone specialized training to build their proficiencies. to keep their skills current. -ive them autonomy to follow their interests and allow them to structure their work in ways they find productive. *he theories also differ in predictive strengths. *hey’ve have invested a great deal of time and effort in developing their professional skills. 67 Nee" Theor : ( )our theories focused on needs. 87 /oal(#e++i&) +heor : ( . So ho$ "o o.Professional employees are different than your average employees. In addition reward them with recognition. professionals do. S-mmar 5 implica+io&# !or ma&a)er#: ( Summary *he theories which we have discussed so far address different outcomes variables. 3nd they’re more difficult to motivate. *heir loyalty is more towards their profession than to their employer. *his loyalty to the profession and less interest in typical organizational rewards makes motivating professionals more challenging and complex. Provide them with lateral moves that allow them to broaden their experiences. 3nd consider creating alternative career paths that allow them to earn more money and status# without assuming managerial responsibilities.mo+i2a+e pro!e##io&al#? Provide them with ongoing challenges pro(ects. 6sually they tend to be well paid already and they en(oy what they do. Ceward them with educational opportunities – training# workshops# and attending conferences – that allow them to keep current in their field. *hey have strong and a long term commitment to their field of expertise. )or instance# professionals are not typically anxious to give up their work to take on managerial responsibilities.

<7 E0-i+ +heor : ( *his theory also deals with productivity# satisfaction# absence# and turnover variables.> Allo$ emplo ee# +o par+icipa+e i& "eci#io&#: . :7 . Implications $> Reco)&i. <> Li&? re$ar"# +o p-&i#hme&+: ( .*he evidence leads to conclude that goal. But it may be limited to employees who place a high importance on finding meaningfulness in their (obs and who seek control over the key elements in their work.o4 "e#i)& +heor : ( *his theory addresses productivity# satisfaction# absenteeism# and turnover variables. +oreover# spend the time necessary to understand what’s important to each employee. *his can increase employee productivity# commitment to work goals# motivation# and (ob satisfaction.setting theory provides one of the more powerful explanations of this dependent variable. 0mployees can contribute to a number of decisions that affect them! setting work# choosing their own benefits packages# solving productivity and /uality problems# and the like.e I&"i2i"-al Di!!ere&ce#: ( 0mployees have different needs. It makes many of the same assumptions that the rational model makes about individual decision. "> >#e )oal# a&" !ee"4ac?: ( 0mployees should have hard# specific goals# as well as feedback on how well they are faring on pursuit of those goals. . It has proved to offer a relatively powerful explanation of employee productivity# absenteeism and turnover. It does not offer much insight into employee satisfaction or the decision to /uit. =7 Expec+a&c +heor : ( *his theory focused on performance variables. 97 Rei&!orceme&+ +heor : ( *his theory has an impressive record for predicting factors like /uality and /uantity of work# persistence of effort# absenteeism# tardiness# and accident rates. +anagers should not treat them all alike. 3lso# design (obs to align with individual needs and# therefore# maximize the motivation potential in (obs.making. 'owever# it is the strongest when predicting absence and turnover behaviors and weak when predicting differences in employee productivity. But expectancy theory assumes that employees have few constraints on their decision discretion.

%> Chec? +he # #+em !or E0-i+ : ( Cewards should also be perceived by employees as e/uating with the inputs they bring to the (ob. 3t a simplest level# this should mean that experience# skills# abilities# effort# and other obvious inputs should explain differences in performance and# hence# pay# (ob assignments# and other obvious rewards.Cegardless of how closely rewards are actually correlated to performance criteria# if individuals perceive this relationship to be low# the results will be low performance# a decrease in (ob satisfaction# and an increase in turnover and absenteeism. .

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