Grammar Lesson Clause Forms: “When” Patterns All languages have ways to express certain ideas, and Cherokee

is no exception. However, the way these ideas get expressed will often be different depending upon the language. This sub-lesson focuses upon the idea of “when” as a “dependent clause” in Cherokee. Before you run screaming out of the room asking “What does that mean?”, all you need to know is that a “dependent clause” is a sentence that has to be part of another sentence to make sense. So if I said “When you get here, start making dinner”, the part that is “When you get here” is a dependent clause – it needs another idea to be said for it to make sense. The statement “depends” upon something else. For this idea of “when,” we are only dealing with this concept as a way to make a clause. In English, you can use “when” as a word to ask a question like “When are you going home?” as well as in making a clause like “When you go home, I‟ll go home too”. But in Cherokee, these are two different ideas that require different words and forms to express them. If you are dealing with a question related to time such as “When are you leaving?” or “When did she say she did that?” these ideas require the use of the Cherokee form /Hila‟iyv/ „when‟ but this form, in Cherokee, is ONLY used as a question marker on a statement. You CANNOT use /hila‟iyv/ in any other way. With the form “when” as a clause, Cherokee has its own way of expressing the idea, and here are a few things that you‟ll find useful to know: (1) Cherokee has different ways of creating the idea of “when” on a statement, but the one thing that is true of all the forms is that you do something to a verb; (2) The way you make the idea “when” will be done differently depending on the “tense” you are speaking in – are you talking about something that happened in the past (past tense), something in the future (future tense), or something that is habitual (habitual tense)? What this means is that there‟s a different way you say “When I left this morning, I forgot to turn off the lights” which happened in the past and “When you leave, don‟t forget to turn off the lights” which will happen in the future if you‟re expressing these ideas in Cherokee; (3) “Context” can be important to how something is said. As a general rule, Cherokee tends to be more “precise” than English. For “when” concepts, Cherokee forms require the ideas to have a cause-and-effect relation between the dependent and independent clause. If you said, “When I left the house, it was raining”, the idea does not lose any meaning to simply say “I left the house, it was raining.” The fact “I left” has no relation on the other fact of “it was raining.” Though in English these can be put together as a dependent and independent clause as in the sample sentence, in Cherokee they are not. But, if you said “When I stopped the car, he would start crying” you have created a statement that does require “when” as part of the idea since the two statements go together – My stopping the car is related to his beginning to cry. (4) Finally, yet another point related to Cherokee‟s precision, there is the case of “when” that can also mean “if” on certain ideas in ENGLISH. If the idea you want to state can be made using the notion of “if” then the form in CHEROKEE is “IF” and not “when.” For the processes outlined here, ONLY those ideas that apply to “when” are covered. You will find that when working with this basic concept in Cherokee, some of the forms will be easier to master while others will be much more difficult. It is recommended that you focus on learning one process first (say, the future form), and then move on to another rather than trying to master all of them at the same time.

To better understand these processes in Cherokee, each type of “when” form will be given by its association and use by TENSE except for the last pattern which deals with “when” clauses of a different nature (these specific constructions are covered with direct attention on them so you will be able to identify them when they are given). The different constructions and tenses covered in this section of the Grammar Lesson on Clause Forms are: (1) (2) (3) Past Tense patterns for saying “when”; Future Tense patterns for saying “when”; and Habitual Tense patterns for saying “when.”

For each of these patterns, the idea will be identified by its heading in terms of the Tense. After the heading, the “process” for constructing the form in that specific tense is briefly stated. The specific verb tense and the aspect stem(s) associated with the construction is identified after the process. Then, a set of sample forms is provided with the “when” pattern specifically noted in the sample forms. The final section in each tense pattern process provides a more thorough explanation of the pattern and any other concepts related to its construction. *One final note on this process. In Cherokee, verbs do NOT use Tone 4 (High-Fall) EXCEPT when expressing the statement or idea as a clause. On ALL clauses in Cherokee, the use of Tone, and more specifically the use of Tone 4 (High-Fall) is the one characteristic required regardless of the type of clause, the tense related to the idea, or the context of the situation, being expressed. This use of Tone acts as a way to clearly mark any given statement as a clause, and the pattern is consistent in all cases. When ending in the /-a/ tense marker, the /-a/ is stressed with the Tone 4 sound, and when the form ends in /-v‟i/ the /-v/ will take the Tone 4 sound marking. Keep this information in mind when reading the patterns outlined here – Even if tone is not identified as part of the process, it MUST be applied on the form as indicated in the description listed here.

Past Tense Patterns for Saying “When” Process Summary: Cherokee has three patterns for expressing “when” on past tense verbs. (1) Put /ji-/ or /j-/ Past Tense Marker on front of verb with high tone on /-v/ tense suffix syllable; or (2) Replace /-v’i/ with /-a/ on end of verb with high tone on syllable preceding /-a/; or (3) Both 1 and 2 – /j-/ on front and /-a/ on end of verb with high tone on syllable preceding /-a/. Verb Types Required and Used: Tense Form and Aspect Stem Past Tense Verb form of Completive Aspect Stem (a.k.a. “Remote Past”). Example Forms: Method 1: /ji-/ or /j-/ Past Time Marker: J-agwahnigisv, jagasgv‟i. „When I left, it was raining‟ Sudali j-agwadetiyvhv, Nvdagi ogada‟nvsv‟i. „When I was six, we moved to Texas.‟ Ji-dogadlosv, nigada vhna wojedohv‟i. „When we met, everyone was there.‟ Ju-wagiluhjv, nigada unahnigisv‟i. „When I arrived, everyone left.‟ Ji-jigo‟v, “osiyo” jiyoselv‟i. „When I saw him, I said “hello.” Ji-jiyvkewsv, uhnalvjv‟i. „When I forgot him, he got mad.‟ Ji-dakinogisv, tla osda yidakinogise‟i. „When I sang, I sang bad.‟ J-agiyejv, kila atlilisv jigesv. „When I woke up, it was early.‟

Method 2: /-a/ replacing /-v‟i/ on end of verb with higher tone on next to last vowel Agwahnigis-a, jagasgv‟i. „When I left, it was raining‟ Sudali agwadetiyvh-a, Nvdagi ogadanvsv‟i. „When I was six, we moved to Texas.‟ Dogadlos-a, nigada vhna wojedohv‟i. „When we met, everyone was there.‟ Wagiiluhj-a, nigada unahnigisv‟i. „When I arrived, everyone left.‟ Jigo‟-a, “osiyo” jiyoselv‟i. „When I saw him, I said “hello.” Jiyvkews-a, uhnalvjv‟i. „When I forgot him, he got mad.‟ Dakinogis-a, tla osda yidakinogise‟i. „When I sang, I sang bad.‟ Agiyej-a, kila atlilisv jigesv. „When I woke up, it was early.‟

Method 3: Using both methods together: /ji-/ Past Time Marker and /-a/ replacing /-v‟i/ J-agwahnigis-a, jagasgv‟i. „When I left, it was raining‟ Sudali j-agwadetiyvh-a, Nvdagi ogadanvsv‟i. „When I was six, we moved to Texas.‟ Ji-jigo‟-a, “osiyo” jiyoselv‟i. „When I saw him, I said “hello.” Ji-jiyvkews-a, uhnalvjv‟i. „When I forgot him, he got mad.‟

An important note regarding the above forms is that, in general, the most common method is the first – just using the past time marker /ji-/ or /j-/ on the verb. This means the most common form used to express “when” on past tense actions is also the hardest to identify learn and grasp because the only process applied is TONE. In some statements, you will have to use the past time marker even if you are using the second method where you replace /-v‟i/ with /-a/ on the verb. These forms will be the same as those in the third method since you are using both processes. Another note worth stating deals with Tone  (Tone 4) as an essential part of making a statement a “clause.” This tone is not used on verbs unless it is a clause, and as a rule it appears on the next to last long vowel in the word. There is one other note to make on this pattern as it relates to those expressions where the idea lacks a direct verb on which to use the processes listed above. Some examples and then explanations to follow would be: Gigage jigesv’i, waksduhnv‟i. „When it was red, I turned it off‟ Junigilosdi jigesv’i, jagwalihelijv‟i. „When it was Friday, I was glad‟ Jiyohli jigesv’i, Jalagi jagiwonisv‟i. „When I was a child, I spoke Cherokee‟ Taldusine diji‟nidohi jigesv’i, digahnehihi gesv. „When I was in 12th Grade, I was a wrestler‟

On all of these forms, the use of /jigesv‟i/ as the form that conveys the notion of “when.” But more than just using /jigesv‟i/, the application of Tone 4 (High-Fall) on the /-v/ tense syllable is required to establish the meaning on these forms as “when.” ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Future Tense Patterns for Saying “When” Process Summary: Use of ONLY tonal change on next to last syllable of the Completive Future Command Tense form; apply high-fall tone (Tone 4) on tense syllable suffix /-v/ of /-v’i/ ending. Verb Types Required and Used: Tense Form and Aspect Stem Future Command Tense Verb form of the Completive Aspect Stem. Example Forms: Wigvyvdanel-v‟i, junahlnohehdi hwigisv‟i. „When I call you, get the phone.‟ Joginenvsv eniluhj-v‟i, jayvsti hinvgalvhv‟i. „When we get home, clean your room.‟ Jisgwad-v‟i, dagvsdelvhi. „When I finish, I will help you.‟ Hihnohehl-v‟i, hlesdi jayetsdi jijvkewsi.‟ „When you tell the story, don‟t forget to laugh‟ Adladidla uditlegi nigalstan-v‟i, tahnigistani. „When the car gets hot, start it‟ Hahnigis-v‟i, sdudi hisduhnv‟i. „When you leave, close the door.‟ Hiwonis-v‟i, hlesdi ehlawe‟i jihiwonisi. „When you speak, don‟t speak quiet.‟ Na hnadvnel-v‟i, eligwu yidehanelohvga. „When you do that, you can play.‟ Hiyolil-v‟i, “osiyo” hiyoselv‟i. „When you greet her, say “hello.”‟ Sakonige yigi, dvlsgwadi janhtesdi. „When it‟s blue, you‟ll know it‟s finished‟

The form used in this process is IDENTICAL to that of the Future Command form in the Completive Aspect Stem save for ONLY a difference in tone heard on the /-v/ sound of the tense suffix /-v‟i/. On Future Command Tense forms, the Tone on the /-v/ sound is TONE 2 whereas in the “when” future tense form, the Tone on the /-v/ sound is TONE 4 (High-Fall). As seen on the same form (Using Numbers for Tonal Marking): /hahnigisv2‟i/ „You Leave (later)‟ Future Command Tense /hahnigisv4‟i/ „When you leave (later)‟ “When” Future Tense Verb Form Remember the Future Command Tense ALWAYS has Tone 2 (/-v2‟i/). In contrast, the Future “when” form ALWAYS has Tone 4 (/-v4‟i/ or /-v‟i/). On both forms vowel length is long. On Future Tense forms, the process outlined here applies to ALL future tense verb forms. This means that the Progressive Future Tense Verb, Completive Future Tense Verb, and Completive Future Command Tense Verb forms will all use this same basic pattern. There is one form here, the last one /Sakonige yigi/ „When it‟s blue‟ that does not fit the pattern. This is because the idea lacks a verb for the process. In cases such as this, the use of the conditional form of the verb „is‟ /yigi/ serves to convey the idea along with the use of high tone. *One last note, you must pronounce full endings on Future Completive forms whether as “when” or Command statements. Thus, say /-v‟i/ at the end (Do not drop final /-i/ on /-v‟i/). ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Habitual Tense Patterns for Saying “When” Process Summary: Apply /yi-/ “Conditional” pre-pronominal prefix, replace tense suffix with /-a/ suffix form on the past tense form of the verb, and Tone 4 applied to last long vowel before /-a/ suffix. Verb Types Required and Used: Tense Form and Aspect Stem Past Tense Verb form of the Completive Aspect Stem. Example Forms: Yi-jawehlvn-a, nigohilv‟i janegujo‟i. „When you joke, you are always mean.‟ Yi-jahnigis-a, sdudi tsdudi handadisgo‟i. „When you leave, remember to close the door.‟ Yi-tsgwad-a, gohusdi dijajeli dehutesgo‟i. „When you finish, pick your things up.‟ Y-uhyvdl-a, wesa nigawesgo‟i. „When it‟s cold, the cat meows.‟

Digilvwsdanhdi y-agili‟ilvs-a, radio‟i aktvdasdo‟i. Yi-jalonuhehl-a, agwanto‟i. „When I drive to work, I listen to the radio.‟ „When you cheat, I know it.‟ Yi-jadatlos-a, hlesdi hyadlvkwsgesdi. „When you win, don‟t be bragging.‟ Goga yi-nulstan-a, agwadawosdi agilvkwdi. „When it‟s summertime, I like to swim‟ Y-agwesdanel-a, nikv‟i agwesdaneho‟i. „When I ache, I ache everywhere.‟ Goga yigi, agwadawosdi agilvkwdi. „When it‟s summer, I like to swim‟

Danisdayohihv na‟v yigi, didahnehdi anadananesvhvsgo‟i yvwi. „When it‟s close to Christmas, people shop for gifts‟ The process for making “when” statements on Habitual Tense forms uses the pre-pronominal prefix /yi-/ and the final tense suffix /-a/ attached to the Completive Past Tense form of the verb (Completive Aspect Stem). The verb is expressed as it would be in the completed past save for the use of the /-a/ suffix instead of the /-v‟i/ tense marker. Take note of the last three example forms. In the first, the pattern is the same as the other forms, but the verb used in expressing the idea is “happen” or “become.” The form /yinulstana/ is a common expressive form meaning “when it become” or “during that time.” The verb in this case is /nigalstanvsga/ (Present Tense). The other two forms, however, are of a different type. In these cases, since there is no verb to apply the process to, the verb “is” in its conditional form is used, /yigi/. Thus if the idea has no direct verb to apply the Habitual Tense “when” process on it, you can use /yigi/ (note that Tone is a factor on the form here) or you may also use /yinulstana/.

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