This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The song celestial…
SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta |
| SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Preface
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It – A Chart
Words as they mean ........................................................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 1 – Arjuna Vishada Yoga Chapter 2 – Sankhya Yoga Chapter 3 – Karma Yoga
........................................................................................................................ 14 ................................................................................................... 17 .............................................................................................. 20 ............................................................................................... 22
Chapter 4 – Gyana Karma Yoga
Chapter 5 – Karma Sanyasa Yoga Chapter 6 – Atman Sanyam Yoga
Chapter 7 – Gyana Vigyana Yoga ................................................................................................ 25 Chapter 8 – Akshra Brahma Yoga
............................................................................................... 27 ............................................................................... 29
Chapter 9 – Raj Vidya Rajaguhya Yoga
Chapter 10 – Vibhuti Yoga .................................................................................................................... 31 Chapter 11 – Vishwa-rupa Darshana Yoga Chapter 12 – Bhakti Yoga
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Chapter 13 – Kshetra Khetragya Vibhaga Yoga Chapter 14 – Guna - Triya Vibhaga Yoga Chapter 15 – Purushotama Yoga
.................................................................................................. 42 ..................................................... 44
Chapter 16 – Daiva-sura Sampad Vibhaga Yoga Chapter 17 – Shradha - triya Vibhaga Yoga Chapter 18 – Moksha Sanyasa Yoga
SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta |
hagwat Gita has a basic thought underlying it, which many may call presumptions. Every reader of logic may say that, “You have presumed the existence of certain facts and what is sought to be established are the presumptions themselves.” Believe me, these basic underlying principles of life are not presumptions, but fundamentals reached after deep inquiry by persons of highest integrity. The endeavour is merely to restate them in a simpler form, to enable clearer and better reflection. Every individual is in a constant struggle to achieve total harmony and perpetual happiness. Every person continues to make serious and sincere efforts to resolve the conflicts within ones’ self and those existing in the world around. In the process, every person at every moment tries to appreciate, understand and express himself to his very best. The expressions are, however, circumscribed and limited by the extent of one’s own exposure, experience, analysis, knowledge and understanding of the conflicts and realisation of the Truth. Reading and understanding Bhagwat Gita is yet another step to help the perception of the conflicts and resolve them or help the perception of absence of such conflicts and negate them. In the absence of correct appreciation, understanding and realization of the Truth, every human being not only thwarts own development and progress towards the Ultimate, but also gets involved in social reactions and interactions which defeat the very purpose of existence. The inability of human being to perceive the Whole or Its true nature brings about thoughts and feelings like disapproval, disappointment, displeasure, annoyance, anger, dissatisfaction, depression, frustration, guilt, fear, jealousy, hatred, melancholy etc. leading to social expressions and social phenomena like lack of sympathy, unfriendliness, hostility, aggression, enmity, abuse, violence, exploitation, brutality, terrorism, poverty, corruption, divorce etc. which religion and law endeavour to minimise and control. This book is neither intended to unsettle the minds of those who are attached to pleasure and power or to invite their opinion. This is meant merely to induce and reinforce in the wise the stimulus and vitality to persistently and precisely carry on their activities, leading to a perfectly harmonised social order and help every other individual to reach Self-realisation… January 10, 2007 Author
| SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta
SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta |
01. Self Atman, Conscience, Consciousness, Cosmic Reality, Cosmic Energy, God, Life Element, Living Spark, Purusha, Soul, Spirit, Truth, Will, Prana etc… (IV phase). A state when after the dissolution of the body, Self becomes Self-existing. Prakriti or every thing other than the Self. The co-existence of the Self and the body, mind and intellect. A process for being, with liberation/ realisation as its purpose. The de-linking of the Self from the body, mind and intellect. The bond between the Self and the body, mind and intellect. The bond between beings. The expression of Self in nature. The part of the being, which perceive the objects (I Phase). The part of the being, which feel the emotions (II Phase). The part of the being, which thinks, reasons, analyses and memorises the thoughts, feelings and actions (III Phase). A state of the being when complete/ total expression/ manifestation of Self takes place through the body, mind and intellect – a state of Satt – Chitt - Anand
03. Nature 04. Being
08. Emotions 09. Art 10. Body
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14. Attachment 15. Wisdom
The bond between the beings and nature The power/ capacity to express/ apply the Truth in nature. The extent of harmony between the body, mind and intellect. The extent of disharmony between the body, mind and intellect. The power of discriminating Self and nature and their manifestations. a. With respect to Self - The extent / capacity of the being to understand the Self and its manifestations and leading to abhaya, asangh and ahimsa. With respect to nature - The extent/ capacity of the being to deal with/control the nature. With respect to Self - The extent of awareness/ knowledge of the being about expressions/ manifestations of the Self. With respect to nature - The extent of awareness/ knowledge of the being of the various interactions and effects of nature. With respect to Self- The training that enables the being to further express the Self and progressively achieve the purpose of life. With respect to nature - The training which enables the being to deal with/ control the nature and progressively achieve complete/ total integrity/ harmony between the body, mind and intellect so as to develop a perfect social order.
Rules to regulate/ keep the body, mind and intellect in harmony/ integrity to enable/ lead the being to realisation/ liberation.
SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta |
Rules that regulate/ keep the society in harmony by regulating the interactions/ effects of being(s) and being(s) and being(s) and nature. The extent of control of a being on Self, other being(s) or nature. The manipulation of being(s) by being(s) to attain power. Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Space Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue and Skin Arms (including legs), Eyelids, Mouth, Genital Organs and Anus A place where prana prathishtha of a Hindu deity has been undertaken and Its powers are regularly invoked by undertaking puja according to rituals. A phonetic combination to invoke the powers of a Devi, Devta, Avatar or any other Hindu deity. A phonetic combination to bring about harmony in nature. A process of going round a deity (except Shiva) to circumscribe its powers / gunas and inculcate within ones own self to achieve the purpose of life.
26. Basic Elements 27. Gyanendriyan 28. Karmendriyan
| SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta
CHAPTER - I
Arjuna Vishada Yoga
hritarashtra said: Gathered together at Kurukshetra as the field of religious activities, what, O Sanjay, did my war-inclined sons and those of Pandu do? Sanjay said: Now seeing the Pandva army arrayed properly the prince Duryodhana drew near his preceptor Drona and spoke these words:
“Behold, O Master, this mighty army of the sons of Pandu, marshaled by the son of Drupada, your talented disciple. Here are mighty archers and peers in warfare to heroic as Bhima and Arjuna. Yujudhana, Virata and Drupada are great chariot-warrior. Dhirshtaketu, Chekitana and the valiant king of Kasi, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Saibya, the best among men. Know you, O the best of the twice born, all those who are our distinguished chiefs, the leaders of my army, I name them for your information. Your venerable self, Bhishma, Karna, Kripa victorious in fight, Aswathama, Vikarna and Saumadathi as well. And there are yet other heroes well trained in warfare, which equipped with manifold weapons and missiles, are ready to lay down their lives for my sake. Unlimited is our army marshalled by Bhishma, but limited is the army of theirs marshalled by Bhima. Now all of you assume positions in your respective directions and protect Bhishma alone, by all means”.
SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta |
In order to embolden Duryodhana, Bhishma the mighty grandsire, the oldest of the Kurus, now raised a lion’s roar and blew his conch. Then suddenly blared forth conches, kettledrums, tabors, trumpets and cow-horns; and tremendous was that noise. Then seated as Madhva and Pandva were in their magnificent chariot yoked to white steads, gracefully blew their divine conchs. Panchjanya was blown by Hrishikesha and Devadatta by Dhananjaya. Vrikodara of terrible exploits blew his great conch, Paundra. The king Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, blew Anantavijaya, Nakula and Sahadeva blew Sughosha and Manipushpaka, and the ruler of Kasi, the adept archer and Shikhandi the great chariot-warrior Dheshtdyumna and Virata and Satyaki, the invincible. O ruler of the earth, Drupada and the sons of Draupadi and the mighty armed son of Subhadra all these as well blew their several conchs. Filling the earth and the sky with reverberation and tumultuous uproar that rent the hearts of the sons of Dhritarashtra. Then, O ruler of the earth, seeing Dhritrashtra sons being positioned and the fight about to commence, Pandva, whose ensign badge is Hanuman, lifting his bow and spoke the following words to Krishna. Arjuna said: Place my chariot, O Achyuta, between the two armies so that I may behold the war indeed that stands here and with whom I must wage this war. I desire to discern those that throng here to fight, intent on pleasing in battle the evilminded son of Dhritrashtra. Sanjaya said: Thus requested by Gudakesha, Hrishikesha, having placed the best of chariots in between the two armies; facing Bhishma and Drona and all the rulers of the earth, spoke, “O, Partha, behold all the Kurus gathered together.” Standing there Partha then beheld in both the armies, paternal uncles, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, cous10 | SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta
ins, sons, grandsons, comrades, fathers-in-law and benefactors. He, the son of Kunti, gazing at those kinsmen posted in positions spoke this in sadness, filed as he was with choking compassion. Arjuna said: Seeing these my kinsmen, collected here prompted by war, my limbs fail me, O Krishna, and my mouth is parched up. My body quivers and my hair stand on end. The bow Gandiva slips from my hand and my skin burns all over. I am unable to stand; my mind whirls as it guise, and Kesava, I see adverse omens. I do not foresee any good ensuing from the slaughter of kinsmen in battle. O Krishna, I hanker not for victory or empire or pleasure even. Of what avail to us is kingdom or enjoyment or even life. O Govinda, those for whose sake we seek kingdom, enjoyments and pleasures, they stand here in battle, staking life and property. Teachers, fathers, sons as well as grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law and other relatives. Though myself be slain by them, I would not, O Madhusudan seek to slay them even for the sake of domination over the three worlds, how then for the earth? What delight can we derive, O Janardana, by doing away with these sons of Dhritrashtra? Sin only will accrue to us by slaying these desperadoes. We should not, therefore, slay the sons of Dhritrashtra, our kinsmen. How can we, O Madhava killing our own kinsmen, be happy? Although these, with understanding clouded by greed, see no guilt in the in termination of a family, no crime in hostility to friends, why should we not learn to recoil from such a sin? O Janardana, we who see evil in the destruction of a family? In the decline of a family, its time-honoured usages perish, with the perishing of sacred rites impiety overtakes the entire family. With the growth of impiety, O Krishna, the family women become unchaste, and women
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getting corrupted, O Varshneya caste admixture ensues. Hell is verily the lot of the family and family destroyers through caste admixture, for, their ancestors fall deprived of manes-cakes and liberation. The everlasting caste virtues and the family merits get ruined because of the caste confusion created by the bad deeds of the family-destroyers. We have heard. O, Janardana, that hell is verily the long lasting abode of the men whose family religious practices have been broken. Goaded by the greed of the pleasures of a kingdom, we are alas, bent on perpetrating the great sin of killing our kinsmen. Should the sons of Dhritarashtra with weapons in hand slay me, unresisting and unarmed in the battle that would indeed the better for me. Sanjay said: So saying, overwhelmed with sorrow in the battlefield, Arjuna sat on the seat of his chariot, abandoning his bow and arrows.
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CHAPTER - II
anjay said: Madhusudana spoke these words to him who was thus overwhelmed with compassion and drowned in distress and whose eyes were drenched in tears of despondency. The Blessed Lord said: Whence has this unmanly, heaven barring and shameful dejection come upon you, at this juncture, O Arjuna? yield not, O Partha to feebleness. It does not befit you. Cast off this petty faint-heartedness; wake up, O vanquisher of foes. Arjuna said: O slayer of Madhusudhan, O slayer of foes, how shall I with arrows counterattack Bishma and Drona, who are worthy of worship? Even to eat the beggar’s bread, is far better in this world than to slay these great souled masters. But if I kill them, my enjoyment of wealth and desires in this world itself will be stained with blood. Whether we should conquer them or they conquer us, I do not know which would be better. These very sons of Dhritarashtra stand before us, after slaying whom we should not care to live. My nature is weighed down with the taint of feeble mindedness; my understanding is confused as to duty. I entreat you; say definitely what is good for me. I am your disciple. Do instruct me who have taken refuge in you. I do not find any remedy to the grief that parches my senses. Though I was to gain unrivalled and prosperous monarchy on earth or even sovereignty over the celestials.
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Sanjay said: After addressing the Lord of the senses thus, Gudakesha, the terror of the foes, submitted to Govinda, I shall not fright and held silence. Then smiling, as it were, Hrishikesha spoke these words to the desponding one placed between the two armies. The Blessed Lord said: O Bharata, you grieve for those who should not be grieved for, yet you spell words of wisdom. The wise grieve neither for the living nor for the dead. Nor I, nor you, nor any of these ruling princes were ever non-existent before nor is it that we shall not cease to be in the future. As the indweller in the body experiences childhood, youth and old age in the body, He also passes on to another body. The serene one is not affected thereby. The contacts of the senses with their objects create, O son of Kunti, feelings of heat and cold, of pain and pleasure. They come and go and are impermanent. Bear them patiently, O Bharata. That man, O the best of men, is fitted for immortality, whom these do not torment, who is balanced in pain and pleasure and steadfast. The unreal has no existence, the real never ceases to be. The truth about both has been realized by the seers. Know that to be verily indestructible by which all this is pervaded. None can effect the destruction of the immutable. These bodies of the indweller, who is eternal, indestructible and immeasurable are said to have an end. Fight, therefore, O Bharata. He who hold Atman as slayer and he who considers it as slain, both of them are ignorant. It slays not, nor is it slain. The Atman is neither born nor does it die. Coming into being and ceasing to be, do not take place in It. It is unborn, eternal, constant and ancient. It is not killed when the body is slain. He who cognizes the Atman as indestructible, eternal, unborn and changeless, how can he slay, O Partha, or cause another to slay? As a man casting
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off worn out garments puts on new ones, so the embodied, casting off worn out bodies, enters into others. Weapons do not cleave the Atman, fire burns it not, water wets it not, and wind dries it not. This self is uncleavable, incombustible and neither wetted nor dried. It is eternal, all pervading, stable immovable and everlasting. This Atman is said to be unmenifested, unthinkable and immutable. Therefore, knowing it as such, you should not grieve. Or if you conceive of Atman as given to constant births and deaths, even then, O mighty armed, you should not sorrow. Death is certain for that which is born, birth is certain for that which is dead. You should not therefore, lament over the inevitable. Beings are all, O Bharata, unmanifested in their origin, manifested in their mid-state and unmanifested again in their end. What is the point then for anguish? One beholds the self as wonderful, another mentions of it as marvelous, another again hears of it as strange, though hearing yet another knows it not at all. This indweller in the bodies of all is ever invulnerable, O Bharata. Therefore, you should not grieve for any thing. Again looking at your own, duty as well, you should not waiver for there is nothing more welcome to a Kshatriya than righteous war. Happy are the Kshatriya, O Partha, who obtain such a warfare that comes unsought as an open gateway to heaven. But if you will not wage this righteous warfare, then forfeiting your own duty and honor, you will incur sin. The great chariot warriors will view you as one fled from the war out of fear, you that were highly esteemed by them will be lightly held. Your enemies will also slander your strength and speak many unseemly words. What can be more painful than that. Slain you will gain heaven, victories you will enjoy the earth. Therefore, rouse up O son of Kunti, resolved to fight. Treating
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alike pain and pleasure, gain and loss, victory and defeat, engage yourself in the battle. Thus you will incur no sin. The ideal of self-knowledge has been presented to you. Hearken now the practice thereof. Endowed with it, O Partha, you will break through the bonds of karma. In this there is no loss of attempt, nor is there any adverse effect. The practices of even a little of this dharma protects one from great fear. To the firm-in-mind, O joy of the Kurus, there is in this but one decision, many branching and endless are the decisions of the infirm-in-mind. The unwise who delight in the flowery words, disputing about the Vedas, say that there is nothing other than this, they are desire-ridden, they hold the attainment of heaven as the goal of birth and its activities, their words are laden with specific rites bringing in pleasure and lordship. There is no fixity of mind for them who cling to pleasure and power and whose discrimination is stolen away. The Vedas enumerate the three gunas. You transcend the three gunas, O Arjuna. Be free from the pair of opposites, ever-balanced, unconcerned with getting and keeping and centered in the Self. To an enlightened Brahma all the Vedas are as useful as a tank when there is a flood everywhere. Seek to perform your duty, but lay not claim to its fruits. Be you not the producer of the fruits of karma, neither shall you lean towards inaction. Perform action, O Dhananjaya, being fixed in yoga, renouncing attachment and even-minded in success and failure; equilibrium is verily yoga. Motivated karma is, O Dhananjaya, far inferior to that performed in the equanimity of mind, take refuge in the evenness of the mind, wretched are the result seekers. The one fixed in equanimity of mind frees oneself in this life from vice and virtues alike, therefore, devote yourself to yoga, work done
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to perfection is verily yoga. The wise, imbued with evenness of mind, renouncing the fruits of their actions, freed from the fetters of births, verily go to the stainless state. When your understanding transcend the taint of delusion, then shall you gain indifference to things heard and those yet to be heard. When your intellect, tossed about by the conflict of opinions, has become poised and firmly fixed in equilibrium, then you shall get into yoga. Arjuna said: What, O Kesava, is the mark of the man of steadfast wisdom, steeped in Samadhi? How does the man firm in wisdom speak, how sit, how walk? The Blessed Lord said: When a man abandons, O Partha, all the desires of the heart and is satisfied in the self by the self, then is he said to be one stable in wisdom. His mind is not perturbed by adversity. He who does not crave for happiness, who is free from fondness, fear and anger, is the Muni of constant wisdom. He who is unattached everywhere, who is not delighted at receiving good or dejected at coming of evil, is poised in wisdom. When also, like a tortoise its limbs, he can withdraw the senses from sense objects, his wisdom is then set firm. Sense objects drop out of the abstinent man, though not the longing for them. His longing also ceases when he intuits the Supreme. The excited senses, O son of Kunti, impetuously carry away the mind of even a wise man, striving for perfection. The yogi having controlled them all, sits focused on Me as the Supreme goal His wisdom is constant whose senses are under subjugation. Brooding on the objects of senses, man develops attachment to them, from attachment comes desire, from desire anger sprouts forth. From anger proceeds delusion, from delusion confused memory, from confused memory the ruin of reason, due to the ruin of reason he
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perishes. But the disciplined yogi, moving among objects with the sense under control and free from attraction and aversion gains in tranquility. In tranquility all his sorrows are destroyed. For the intellect of the tranquil-minded is soon anchored in equilibrium. There is no wisdom in the fickle minded nor is there meditation in him. To the unmeditative, there is no peace. And how can the peace-less enjoy happiness? Just as a gale pushes away a ship on the waters, the mind that yields to the rowing senses carries away his discrimination. Therefore, O mighty-armed, his cognition is well poised, whose senses are completely restrained from their objects. That which is night to all beings, in that the disciplined man wakes. That in which all beings wake, is night to the Atman-cognizing Muni. Not the desire of desires, but that man attains peace, in whom all desires merge as rivers flow into the ocean, which is full and unmoving. That man attains peace who lives devoid of longing, freed from all desires and without the feeling of ‘I’ and ‘Mine’ This O Partha, is the Brahma state. Attaining . this, none is bewildered. Being established in It, even at the death-hour, a man gets into oneness with Brahman.
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CHAPTER - III
rjuna said: If it is held by you, O Janardana, that knowledge is superior to action, why then do you, O Keshava enjoin on me this terrible action. With these perplexing words, you are, as it were, confusing my comprehension. Tell me with certainity the path by pursuing which, I may reach the supreme. The Blessed Lord said: The twofold path was given by me, O sinless one, to the world in the beginning, the path of knowledge to the discerning, the path of work to the active. Man gains not actionlessness by abstaining from activity, nor does he rise to perfection by mere renunciation. None can even remain really actionless even for a moment, for everyone is helplessly driven to action by the gunas, born of Prakriti, That deluded man is called a hypocrite who sits controlling the organs of action, but dwelling in his mind on the objects of senses. But he excels, O Arjuna, who, restraining the senses by the mind unattached directs his organs of action at the path of work. Engage yourself in obligatory work, for action is superior to inaction and if you are inactive, even the mere maintenance of your body would not be possible. The world is bound by actions, other than those performed for the sake of yagya. Do therefore, O son of Kunti, earnestly perform action for yagya alone, free from attachment. Having created mankind in the
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beginning together with yagya, the Prajapati said “By this shall you propagate, this shall be the milch of your desires. Cherish the Devas with this and may those Devas cherish you. Thus cherishing one another, you shall reap the supreme good. Cherished by yagya, the Devas shall bestow on you the enjoyments you desire.” A thief verily is he, who enjoys what is given by them without returning them anything. Those who eat the remains of yagya are freed from all sins, but the sinful ones, who cook food only for themselves, they verily eat sin. From food beings become, from rain is food produced, from yagya rain proceeds, yagya is born of karma. Know karma to have risen from the Veda and the Veda from the imperishable. The all pervading Veda is therefore, ever centered in yagya. He who does not follow on earth the wheel thus revolving, sinful of life and rejoicing in the senses, he O Partha, lives in vain. But the man who rejoices in the self, is satisfied with the self and is centered in the self, for him verily there is no obligatory duty. For him there is in this world no object to acquire by doing an action, nor is there any loss by not doing an action, nor has he to depend on anybody for anything. Therefore, constantly perform your obligatory duty without attachment, for by doing duty without attachment, man verily obtains the supreme as Janaka and others. Having an eye to the guidance of men also you should perform action. Whatever a great man does is followed by others, people go by the example he sets up. There is naught in the three worlds, O Partha that has not been done by Me or anything unattained that might be attained still I engage in action. If ever I did not engage in work relentlessly, O Partha, men would in every respect follow My path. These worlds would perish if I did not do action, I should be the cause of confusion of species
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and I should destroy these beings. As the unenlightened act from attachment to action, O Bharata, so should the enlightened act without attachment, desirous of the guidance of the multitude. Let not the wise man unsettle the mind of ignorant people attached to karma. By doing persistently and precisely, let the wise induce the others in all activities. The gunas of Prakriti perform all karma, with the understanding clouded by egoism, man thinks – I am the doer. But, O mighty armed the one intuitive into the nature of guna and karma knows that gunas as senses abide with gunas as objects and does not become entangled. Those deluded by gunas of Prakriti get attached to the functions of the gunas. The man of perfect knowledge should not unsettle the mediocre whose knowledge is imperfect. Surrendering all actions to Me. with your thoughts resting in self, freed from hope and selfishness and cured of mental fever, engage in battle. Those who ever abide in this teaching of mine, full of shradha and free from caviling, they too are released from actions. But those who carp at my teachings and act not thereon, deluded in all knowledge and devoid of discrimination, know them to be ruined. Even a wise man behaves in conformity with his own nature, what shall restraint avail? Attachment and aversion of the senses for their respective objects are natural, but none comes under their domination, they are verily his enemies. One’s own dharma, though imperfect, is better than the dharma of another well discharged. Better death in one’s own dharma, the dharma of another is full of fear. Arjuna said – But dragged on by what a man commits sin, unwillingly though, O Varshneya constrained as it were by force.
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The Blessed Lord said: It is desire, it is wrath begotten by the rajo guna, all consuming, all sinful, know this as the foe here on earth. As fire is enveloped by smoke, as a mirror by dust, as an embryo by the womb, so is this covered by that. Knowledge is covered, O son of Kunti, by this insatiable fire of desire, the constant foe of the wise. The senses, the mind and the intellect are said to be its seat, by these it deludes man by veiling his wisdom. Therefore, O eminent of the Bharatas, mastering first the senses, slay it – the sinful the destroyer of knowledge and realization. The senses are said to be superior to the body; the mind is superior to the senses, the intellect is superior to the mind, and what is superior to the intellect is Atman. Thus knowledge is superior to the intellect. Restraining the self by the self slay, O mighty armed, the enemy in the form of desire, difficult to overcome.
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CHAPTER - IV
Gyana Karma Sanyasa Yoga
he Blessed Lord said: This imperishable yoga, I declared to Vivasvat; Vivasvat taught it to Manu, Manu told it to Ikshvaku, thus transmitted in regular succession the royal sages know it. This yoga, by long efflux of time decayed in this world, O scorcher of foes. The same ancient yoga has been today told to you by Me, for you are my devotee and friend and this secret is supreme indeed. Arjuna said: Later was your birth, earlier the birth of Vivasvat, how then I to understand that you told it in beginning? The Blessed Lord said: Many are the births taken by Me and you, O Arjuna, I know them all while you know not Prantapa. Though I am unborn, imperishable and the lord of beings, yet subjugating My Prakriti, I come into being by My own maya. Whenever there is decay of dharma and rise of adharma, I embody Myself O Bharata. For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked and for the establishment of dharma, I am born age after age. He who thus knows my divine birth and action in true light, having dropped the body, comes not to birth again, but comes into Me. O Arjuna, freed from passion, fear and anger, filled with Me, taking refuge in Me, purified by penance in the fire of knowledge, many have entered into My Being. In whatever way
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men identify with Me, in the same way do I carry out their desires, men pursue My path, O Partha, in all ways. Longing for success in action on earth, they worship the Devas, for quickly is success born of action in this world of man. The fourfold caste system was created by me by the different distribution of guna and karma. Though I be the author thereof, know me to be actionless and changeless. Neither do actions taint Me nor is the fruits of action desired by Me. He who thus knows Me, is not bound by actions. Having known thus even the ancient seekers after freedom preformed action, therefore, do you perform action, as did the ancient in the olden times. Sages too are perplexed as to what is action, what is inaction. Therefore, I shall tell you what is action, by knowing which you shall be freed from evil. It is needful to discriminate action, to discriminate forbidden action and to discriminate inaction, inscrutable is the way of karma. He who sees inaction in action and action in inaction, he is wise among men, he is a yogi and accomplisher of every thing. Whose doings are all devoid of design and desire for results and whose actions are all burnt by the fire of knowledge, him the sages call wise. Having abandoned attachment to the fruits of action, ever content, depending on nothing, though engaged in karma, verily he does not do anything. Hoping for naught, his mind and self controlled, having abandoned all possessions, performing karma by the body alone, he incurs no sin. Content with what he obtains without effort, free from pair of opposites, without envy, balanced in success and failure, though acting he is not bound. Of one unattached, liberated, with mind absorbed in knowledge, performing work for yagya alone, his entire karma melts away. The oblation is Brahma, the clarified butter is Brahma, offered by Brahma in the fire of Brahma, unto
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Brahma verily he goes who cognizes Brahma alone in his action. Some yogis perform sacrifices to Devas alone, while others offer the self as sacrifice by the self verily in the fire of Brahma. Some offer hearing and other senses as sacrifice in the fire of restraint, while others offer sound and other sense objects as sacrifice in the fire of the senses. Others again offer all the actions of the senses and the functions of the life-energy, as a sacrifice in the fire of self-control, kindled by knowledge. Yet others offer wealth, austerity and yoga as sacrifice, while still others of self-denial and extreme vows, offer sacred study and knowledge as sacrifice. Yet others offer as sacrifice the outgoing breath in the incoming and the incoming in the outgoing, restraining the flow of the outgoing and incoming breaths, solely absorbed in the regulation of the life-energy. Still others of regulated food habits offer in the Pranas the functions thereof. All these knowers of yagya have their sins destroyed by yagya. The eaters of the nectar, the remnants of yagya go to the eternal Brahma. This world is not for the non-sacrificer, O best of the Kurus. Various yagyas such as these are spread out in the storehouse of Vedas. Know them all to be born of karma and thus knowing you shall be free. Knowledge-sacrifice, O scorcher of foes, is superior to wealth sacrifice. All karma in its entirety, O Partha, culminates in knowledge. Seek that enlighten by prostrating, by questioning and by service, the wise, the seers into the Truth will instruct you in that knowledge. Knowing this Partha, you will not again fall into this confusion; by this you will see the whole of the creation in yourself and in Me. Even if you be the most sinful of all sinners, yet shall you cross over all sin by the raft of knowledge. As the blazing fire
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reduces fuel to ashes, O Arjuna, so does the fire of knowledge reduce all karma to ashes. Verily there is no purifier in this world like knowledge. He that is perfected in yoga, realizes it in this own heart in due time. The man of shradha, the devoted, the master of his senses obtains knowledge. Having obtained knowledge he goes promptly to the peace supreme. The ignorant, the man devoid of shradha, the doubting self, goes to destruction. The doubting self has neither this world, nor the next, nor happiness. With work absolved in yoga and doubts rent asunder by knowledge, O Dhananjaya, actions do not bind him, who is poised in the self. Therefore, severing with the sword of knowledge this ignorance born doubt about the self, dwelling in your heart, be established in yoga. Stand up, O Bharata.
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CHAPTER - V
Karma Sanyasa Yoga
rjuna said: Renunciation of action, O Krishna, you commend and again its performance. Of the two, which one is the better? Tell me that conclusively. The Blessed Lord said: Renunciation and performance of action both lead to freedom. Of the two, performance of action is superior to the renunciation of action. He should be known a constant sanyasi, who neither hates nor desires, free from the pair of opposites, O mighty armed, he is easily set free from bondage. Children, not the wise, speak of knowledge and performance of action as different. He who is truly established in one obtains the fruit of both. The stage reached by the karma yogis. He sees who sees gyana and karma yoga as one. Sanyas, O mighty armed, is hard to attain to without karma yoga. The man of meditation, purified by karma yoga quickly goes to Brahma. With the mind purified by karma yoga, the self disciplined and the senses subdued, one who realizes one’s self as the self in all beings, though acting, is not affected. The sage centered in the self should think, “I do nothing at all”. Though seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, going, sleeping, breathing, speaking, emptying, holding, opening and closing the eyes, firm in the thought that the senses move among sense objects. He who acts, abandoning, attachment, dedicating his deeds to Brahman, is untainted by sin as a lotus leaf by water. The yogi, abandoning attachment, performs
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work with the body, the mind, the intellect and the senses only, for self-purification. Abandoning the fruits of action, the yogi attains peace born of steadfastness. Impelled by desire, the non-yogi is bound, attached to fruit. Having mentally renounced all actions, the self disciplined indweller rests happily in the city of nine gates, neither acting nor causing to act. The Lord does not create agency or actions for the world. The Omnipresent does not take note of the merit or demerit of any. Knowledge is veiled by ignorance; mortals are thereby deluded. Shining like the Sun, knowledge reveals the Supreme in them, in whom ignorance is destroyed by self-knowledge. Those who think of That merge in That, get fixed in That, have That as the God, they attain to non-return, their taints being dispelled by knowledge. Man of self-knowledge is same sighted on a Brahma imbibed with learning and humility, a cow, an elephant, a dog and an outcaste. Transitory existence is overcome even here by them whose mind rests on equality. Brahma is flawless and the same in all, therefore, be established in Brahma. Established in Brahma with firm understanding and with no delusion, the knower of Brahma rejoices not, getting what is pleasant and grieves not, getting what is unpleasant. With the self-detached from the external contacts he realizes the bliss in the self. Devoted as he is to the meditation of Brahma, he enjoys imperishable Bliss. The delights that are contact born are verily the wombs of pain, they have, O son of Kunti, a beginning and an end, no wise man rejoices in them. He who is able to resists the impulse of desire and anger even here before he quits the body, he is a yogi, he is a happy man. He whose happiness is within, whose delight is within, whose illumination is within only, that yogi becomes Brahma
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and gains the beatitude of Brahma with sins destroyed, doubts /dualities removed, mind disciplined, being delighted in the welfare of all beings, the rishis attain the beatitude of Brahma. The beatitude of Brahma is both here and hereafter for those sanyasies who have shed lust and anger, subdued their desire and realized the self. Shutting out external objects, fixing the gaze between the eyebrows, equalizing the outward and inward breaths moving in the nostrils, the sage who has controlled the senses, mind and intellect, who is solely pursuing liberation, who has cast away desire, fear and anger, he is verily liberated. Having Me known as the Lord of yogas and asceticisms, as the ruler of all the worlds, as the friends of all beings, he attains peace.
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CHAPTER - VI
Atman Sanyam Yoga
he Blessed Lord said: He who discharges his duty without desiring for its fruits, he is the sanyasi and he is the yogi not he who is without sacred fire and without rites. Know that as yoga, O Pandava, which is called sanyasa, for none becomes a yogi without renouncing sankalpa. Karma is said to be the means of the muni who seeks to attain the yoga; serenity is said to be the means when he has attained to yoga. Then alone is one said to have attained to yoga when, having renounced all sankalpas, one does not get attached to sense objects and actions. Let a man raise himself by his own self; let him not debase himself. For he is himself his friend and himself his foe. To him who has conquered his base self by the divine self, his own self is the friend, but to him who has not subdued the self, his own self acts as the foe. The self disciplined and serene man’s supreme self is constant in cold and heat, pleasure and pain, also in honour and dishonour. That yogi is steadfast who is satisfied with knowledge and wisdom, who remains unshaken, who has conquered the senses, to whom a clod, a stone and a piece of gold are the same. He stands supreme who has equal regard for friends, companions, enemies, neutrals, arbiters, the hateful, the relatives, saints and sinners. A yogi should always try to concentrate his mind living alone in solitude, having subdued his mind and body and got rid of
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desires and possessions. Having firmly fixed in a clear place, his seat neither too nigh nor too low, and having spread over it the kusha - grass, a deer skin and a cloth, one over the other, sitting thereon his seat, making the mind one-pointed and restraining the thinking faculty and the senses, he should practice yoga for self purification. Let him hold the body, head and neck erect and still, gazing at the tip of his nose, without looking around. Firm and fearless, firm in the vow of a brahmachari, subdued in mind, he should sit in yoga thinking on Me and intent on Me alone. Keeping himself ever steadfast in this manner, the yogi of subdued mind attains the peace abiding in Me and culminating in Nirvana. Yoga is not possible for him who eats too much or for him who abstains too much from eating. It is not for him, O Arjuna, who sleeps too much or too little. For him who is moderate in eating and recreation, temperate in his actions, who is regulated in sleep and wakefulness, yoga becomes the destroyer of pain. When the disciplined mind rests in the self-alone, free from desire for objects, then is one said to be established in yoga. ‘As a lamp in a windless place does not flicker’ – this is the simile used for the disciplined mind of yoga practicing concentration on the self. When the mind, disciplined by the practice of yoga, attains quietude and when beholding the self by the self, he is satisfied in the self, when he feels that supreme bliss which is perceived by the intelligence and which transcends the senses and wherein established he never moves from the Reality and having gained which, he thinks that there is no greater gain than that, wherein established he is not shaken even by the heaviest affliction. Let this disconnection from union with pain be known by the name of yoga. This yoga should be practiced with determination and with undistracted mind. Abandoning without reserve all desires
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born of sankalpa and curbing in, by the mind, all the senses from all sides, with his intellect set in firmness let him attain quietude little by little. With the mind fixed on the self let him not think of anything. By whatever cause the wavering and unsteady mind wanders away, let him curb it from that and subjugate it solely to the self. Supreme bliss verily comes to that. yogi whose mind is calm, whose passions are pacified, who has become one with Brahma and who is sinless. Constantly engaging the mind this way, the yogi who has put it away, attains with ease the infinite bliss of contact with Brahma. His mind being harmonized by yoga, he sees himself in all beings and all beings in himself, he sees the same in all. He who sees Me everywhere and sees all in Me, he never becomes lost to Me, nor do I become lost to him. He, who established in oneness, worships Me abiding in all beings, that yogi lives in Me, whatever may be his mode of living. That yogi, O Arjuna, is regarded as the Supreme, who judges pleasure or pain everywhere by the same standard as he applies to himself. Arjuna said: This yoga of equanimity taught by you, O Madhusudana, I do not see any stability in it, because of restlessness. The mind verily is O Krishna, is restless, turbulent, strong and obstinate. It deems it as hard to control as the wind. The Blessed Lord said: Doubtless, O mighty armed the mind is restless and hard to control but by practice and nonattachment, O son of Kunti, it can be controlled. Yoga is hard to attain, I concede, by a man who cannot control himself, but it can be attained by him who has controlled himself and who strives by right means. Arjuna said: He who is unable to control himself, though possessed of faith, whose mind deviates from yoga, what end does he meet with, O Krishna. Having failed to attain perfection in yoga, fallen from both, does he not perish like a rent
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cloud, without any hold, O mighty armed, deluded in the path of Brahma. Design, to dispel completely this doubt of mine, O Krishna, for there is none but yourself who can destroy this doubt. The Blessed Lord said: O Partha, neither in this world nor in the next is there destruction for him, for the doer of good. O my son never comes to grief. Having attained to the worlds of the righteous and having lived for countless years, he who falls from yoga is reborn in the house of the pure and prosperous or he is born in a family of wise yogis only; a birth like this is verily very difficult to obtain in this world. There he regains the knowledge acquired in his former body and he strives more than before for perfection, O joy of the Kurus. By that very former practice, he is led on inspite of himself. Even he who merely wishes to know of yoga rises superior to the performer of Vedic rites. The yogi who strives with assiduity, purified from sins and perfected through many births reaches then the supreme good. The yogi is deemed superior to ascetics, superior to men of knowledge even, he is also superior to ritualists. Therefore, be you a yogi, O Arjuna and of all yogis, he who worships Me with faith, his in-most self merges in Me, him I hold to be the most devout.
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CHAPTER - VII
Gyana Vigyana Yoga
he Blessed Lord said: Listen, O Partha, how, with your mind clinging to Me and taking refuge in Me and practicing yoga, you will without any doubt know Me in full. I shall teach you in full this knowledge combined with realization, which being known, nothing more here remains to be known. Among thousands of men scarcely one strives for perfection, and of those who strives and succeed, scarcely one knows Me in truth. Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect and egoism, thus is My Prakriti divided eight fold. This is My lower Prakriti but different from it, know O mighty armed, My higher Prakriti - the life element, by which this universe is upheld. Know that these two are the womb of all beings. I am the origin and desolation of the universe. There is nothing whatsoever higher than Me. O Dhananjaya. These are strung on Me, as rows of gems on a string. I am the sapidity in water, O sun of Kunti, I am the radiance in moon and sun; I am the syllable Om in all the Vedas, sound in ether and manliness in man. I am the sweet fragrance in earth and the brilliance in fire. I am the life in all beings and the ascetism in ascetics. Know Me, O Partha, as the eternal seed of all beings; I am the intelligence of the intelligent, the splendor of the splendid. I am the strength of the strong devoid of desire and passion. In beings I am desire, not contrary to dharma, O chief of the
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Bharatas and whatever being are the sattvika, of rajas or of tamas, know them to proceed from Me; still I am not in them, they are in Me. Deluded by these three fold dispositions of Prakriti – the gunas, this world does not know Me, who on above them and immutable. Verily this divine illusion of Mine, made up of the gunas, is hard to surmount. But those who take refuge in Me alone, they cross over this illusion. The evildoers, the deluded, the lowest of men, deprived of discrimination by maya and following the way of the asuras, do not seek refuge in Me. Four type of virtuous men worship Me. O Arjuna, the man in distress, the man seeking knowledge, the man seeking wealth and the man imbued with wisdom, O the best of the Bharatas. Of these, the wise man, ever steadfast and devoted to Me, excels, for supremely dear am I to the wise and he is dear to Me. Noble indeed are all these but the wise man, I deem, to the My very self. For steadfast in mind, he is established in Me alone, as the supreme goal. At the end of many births, the man of wisdom takes refuge in Me, realizing that Vasudeva is all that is. Rare indeed is that great soul. But those whose discrimination has been led astray by this or that desire to go to other Gods, following this or that rite, constrained by their own nature. Whatever form any devotee with faith wishes to worship, I make that faith of his steady. Endowed with that faith, he engages in the worship of that form, and from it he obtains his desires, which are being actually ordained by Me. But the fruit that accrues to those men of small intellect is finite. The worshipers of the Gods go to the Gods, My devotees come to Me. Men of poor understanding think of me, the unmanifest as having manifestation, not knowing my supreme
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state, immutable and unsurpassed. I am not revealed at all, as I am veiled by yoga maya. This deluded world knows Me not, the unborn, the unchanging. I know, O Arjuna, the beings of the past, the present and the future, but no one knows Me. By the delusion of the pair of opposites arising from desire and aversion, all beings O Bharatas, are subject to illusion at birth. O harasser of foes, but those men of virtuous deeds whose sins have come to an end, who are freed from the delusion of the pairs of opposites, worship Me, remaining steadfast in their vows. Those who take refuge in Me and strive for deliverance from decay and death, they realize in full that Brahma, the individual self and all karma. Those who realize me in the Adhibuta, in the Adhidaiva and in the Adhiyagya, they of steadfast mind realize Me even in the hour of death.
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CHAPTER - VIII
Akshra Brahma Yoga
rjuna said: What is that Brahma? What is Adhyatma? What is karma? O best among man. What is said to be Adhibhuta and what is called Adhidaiva? Who and how is Adhiyagya here in this body. O Madhusudana? And how at the time of death, art thou to be known by the self-controlled? The Blessed Lord said: I the imperishable Brahma. The supreme dwelling in the individual body is called Adhyatama. The offering which causes the origin of beings is called karma. Adhybhuta pertains to the perishable nature and Purusha is the Adhidaivata. I alone am the Adhiyagya here in this body. O best of the embodied and whoever at the time of death, leaving the body, goes forth remembering Me alone, he attains My being. There is no doubt about this. Whatever being a man thinks of at the last moment when he leaves his body, that alone does he obtain. O Kaunteya, be ever absorbed in the thought thereof. Therefore, at all times think upon Me only and fight with mind and understanding set on Me, you will surely come to Me. With the mind not wandering after any thing else, made steadfast in yoga of constant practice, he who meditates on the supreme resplendent Purusha reaches Him. O Partha, the Omniscient, the Ancient, the Ruler, Minuter than an atom, the supporter of all, of form inconceivable, effulgent like the sun and beyond all darkness, he who meditates on this resplendent, supreme Purusha, at the time of death, with a steady mind,
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devotion and strength of yoga, by fixing the entire Prana in the middle of the eye brows, he reaches Me. That which the knower of Veda call the imperishable and into which enters the sanyasies, self controlled and freed from attachment and desiring which they lead a life of continence, that I shall disclose to you, in brevity. All the gates of the body closed, the mind confined within the heart, having fixed his life energy in the head, engaged in firm yoga, uttering the one syllabled ‘Om Brahma’, thinking of Me, he who departs, leaving the body, attains the supreme Goal. I am easily attainable, O Partha, by that ever-steadfast yogi, who constantly remembers Me daily and thinks of none else. All worlds including that of Brahma are subject to return, O Arjuna, but on reaching me, O son of Kunti, there is no rebirth. Those who know that the day of Brahma lasts a thousand yugas and that his night last a thousand yugas, they are the knower of day and night. At the coming of day all manifest beings proceed from the unmanifested and at the coming of night they merge again in the same, which is called the unmanifested. This multitude of beings, coming forth again and again, merge O Partha, inspite of themselves, at the approach of night, and remanifest themselves at the approach of day. But beyond this unmanifested, there is yet another unmanifested eternal existence, which does not perish even when all existences perish. This unmanifested is called the Imperishable. It is said to be the ultimate goal. Those who attain to it, return not. That is My Supreme abode. That supreme Purusha, O Partha is attainable by unswerving devotion to Him alone within whom all beings dwell, by whom all this is pervaded. Now I shall tell you, O the best of the Bharatas, the time in which the yogis depart never to return and also the time in which they depart to return. Fire, light, day, the bright half of
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the moon and the six months of the northern path of the sun, then going forth, the knower of Brahma go to Brahma. The bright and the dark, these paths are deemed to be the world’s eternal paths by the one man, who goes, not to return, by the other he returns again. Knowing these two paths, O Partha, no yogi is deluded. Therefore, O Arjuna, be steadfast in yoga, at all times. The yogi who knows this transcends the fruits of meritorious deeds attached to the study of the Vedas, sacrifices and gifts and attains to the supreme primeval abode.
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CHAPTER - IX
Rajavidya Rajaguhya Yoga
he Blessed Lord said: To you who do not cavil, I shall surely declare this, the most profound knowledge combined with realization by knowing which you will be released from evil. The sovereign science, the sovereign secret, the supreme purifier is this, directly realizable in accord with dharma, very easy to practice and imperishable. Men devoid of shradha for this dharma do not attain Me, O Oppressor of the foes, but return to the path of the mortal world. All this universe is pervaded by Me, in My unmanifested form, all beings exist in Me, but I do not abide in them. Nor do the beings dwell in Me, behold My divine yoga. Bringing forth and supporting the beings, My self does not dwell in them. As the mighty wind moving everywhere rest in the akasha, know that so do all beings rest in Me. All beings, O Kaunteya, go into My Prakriti, at the end of a kalpa. I generate them again at the beginning of the next kalpa. Animating My Prakriti I send forth again and again all this multitude of beings helpless under the regime of Prakriti. Nor do these acts, O Dhananjaya, bind Me who remain like one unconcerned, unattached to these acts. Because of My proximity. Prakriti produces all this, the moving and the unmoving, the world, therefore, resolves. O son of Kunti fools disregard Me as one clad in human form, not knowing My higher nature as the Great Lord of beings. Of vain hopes, of vain
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actions, of vain knowledge, devoid of discrimination, partaking verily of the delusive nature of Rakshasas and Asuras. But the Mahatmas, O Partha, partaking of the divine nature, worship Me with a single mind, knowing Me as the immutable and the source of all beings. Glorifying Me always, striving, firm in vows, prostrating before Me, they worship Me with devotion, steadfast. Yet others sacrifice with the Yajna of knowledge and worship Me in various ways as the one, as the distinct and as the all faced. I am Kratu, I am Yajna, I am swadha, I am the medicinal hub, I am mantra, I am also the clarified butter, I am fire, I am oblation, I am the Father of this world, the mother, the dispenser and the Grandfather; I am the knowable, the purifier, the syllable Om and also the Rick, the saman and the Yojus. I am the Goad, the supporter, the Lord, the witness, the Abode, the shelter, the friend, the origin, the dissolution, the foundation, the treasure house and the seed imperishable. I give heat, I withhold and send forth the rain; I am immortality and death; I am being as well as non-being, O Arjuna. The knower of the three Vedas, the drinkers of soma, purified of sin, worshipping Me by sacrifices, pray for the way of heaven. They reach the holy world of the Lord of the Devas and enjoy in the heaven the celestial pleasures of Devas. Having enjoyed the vast world of heaven, they return to the world of mortals of the exhaustion of their merits; thus abiding by the injunctions of the three Vedas desiring objects of desires they go and come. To those men who worship Me alone, thinking of no other, who is ever devout, I provide gain and security. Even those devotees who endowed with Sraddha, worship other gods, worship Me alone, O son of Kunti, by the wrong method. I am verily the Enjoyer and the Lord of all Yojnas. But these men do not know Me in reality hence they fall.
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Votaries of the Devas go to Devas; the votaries of the Pitrus go to Pitrus, to the Bhutas go to Bhutas worshippers; My votaries come to Me. Whoever offer Me with devotion, a leaf, a flower, a fruit or water, I accept that, the pious offerings of the pure in heart whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer in sacrifices, whatever you gift away, whatever austerity you practice, O Kauntiya, do it as an offering to Me. This shall you be free from the bondage of actions yielding good and bad results. With the mind firmly set in the yoga of renunciation and liberated, you shall come to Me. I am the same to all beings; to Me there is none hateful, none dear. But those who worship Me with devotion, they are in Me and I also am in them. Even if man of the most sinful conduct worships Me with undeviating devotion, he must be reckoned as righteous, for he has rightly resolved. Soon does he become a man of righteousness and obtains lasting peace. O Kauntiya, know for certain that My devotee never perishes. For those who take refuge in Me, O Partha, though they be of inferior birth-women, vaisyas and sudras- when they attain the supreme Goal. How much more then the holy Brahmanas and devoted royal saints. Having cone into this transient joyless world, do worship Me. Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me; sacrifice unto Me, bow down to Me, taking Me as the Supreme Goal, you will come to me.
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CHAPTER - X
he Blessed Lord said: Once again, O mighty-armed, listen to My supreme word. Out of a desire to do you good I wish of it to your absorbing delight. Neither the hosts of devas nor the great rishis know My origin, for in every respect I am the source of the devas and the great rishis. He who knows Me as unborn and beginningless, as the Great Lord of the world, he among mortals is undeluded and freed from all sins. Intellect, wisdoms, non-delusion, patience, truth, self-restraint, calmness, pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear and fearlessness, non-injury, equanimity, contentment, austerity, charity, fame and obloquy these different qualities of beings arise from Me alone. The seven great rishis and the ancient Manus, endowed with My power were born of My mind and from them have come forth all the creatures in the world. He who knows in truth this glory and power of Mine is endowed with unfaltering yoga, of this there is no doubt. I am the origin of all, from Me all things evolve. The wise know this and adore Me with all their heart. With their minds fixed on Me., with their life absorbed in Me, enlightening each other and ever speaking of Me, they are contented and delighted. To them, ever devout, worshipping Me with love, I give the yoga of discrimination by which they come to Me. Out of pure compassion for them dwelling in their
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hearts, I destroy the ignorance born darkness by the luminous lamp of wisdom. Arjuna said: You are the Supreme Brahma, the Supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier, the Eternal, Divine Purusha, the Primeval Deity, the born, the Omnipresent. All the rishis have thus acclaimed you, as also the Deva rishi Narada, so also Asita, Devala and Vyasas and now you yourself say it to Me. I hold as true, all that you say to me, O Kesava. Neither the devas nor the danavas, O Lord, know your manifestation. Verily you alone know yourself by yourself, O Purushottama, O source of beings, O Lord of being, O God of gods, O Ruler of the world. Condescend to tell without reserve of your divine glories by which glories you remain pervading in all these worlds. How may I know you, O Yogi, by constant meditation? In what various aspects are you, O Lord, to be thought of by me? Tell me again in detail, O Janaradana, of your yoga powers and attrtributes for I am not satisfied with hearing your life infusing words. The Blessed Lord said: Very well. I shall now tell you My divine glories according to their prominence. O best of the Kurus, there is no end to the details of My manifestation. I am the Self, O Gudakesa, seated in the hearts of all beings. I am the beginning, the middle and also the end of all beings. Of the adityas I am Vishnu, of the luminaries the radiant sun; I am Marichi of the Maruts, of the asterisms I am the Moon. Of the vedas I am the sama, I am Vasava among the Devas; of the senses I am the mind and among living beings I am consciousness. Of the Rudras I am Shankara, of the Yakshas and Rakshasas I am Kubera of the Vasus I am Pavaka and of mountains I am Meru. Of priests, O Partha, know Me to be the chief Brihaspati; of generals I am Skanda and of bodies of water I am the ocean. Of the great rishis I am Bhrigu.
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Of utterances I am the monosyllable ‘Om’ Of yagyas I am . japayagya and of unmoving things the Himalaya. Of all trees I am Ashvatha, of Deva Rishis I am Narada; of the Gandharvas I am Chitraratha and of the Siddhas I am the Muni Kapila. Of horses, know Me to be the mentor-born Ucchaisravas, of lordly elephants Airavata and of men the monarch. O weapons I am thunderbolt; of cows I am kamadhenu. I am Kandarpa of the progenitors of serpents I am Vasuki. Of the Nagas I am Ananta; of the water deities I am Varuna; of the Pitrus I am Aryans; of controllers I am Yama. Of the Daivtas I am Prahlada and of beckoners I am Prime; of beasts I am the lord of beasts and Vainatiya of birds. Of purifiers I am the wind, of the wielders of weapon I am Rama, of fishes, I am then Shark and of rivers I am the Ganges. Of created things I am the beginning and the end and also the middle, O Arjuna of the sciences I am the science of the self, of those who debate I am the reason. Of letters I am the letter A and of word compounds I am the dual (Dvandva). I am verily the inexhaustible time, I am the dispenser facing everywhere and I am the all-devouring death. I am the prosperity of those who are to be prosperous and of female qualities I am fame, fortune, speech, memory, intelligence, constancy and forbearance. Of the Saman hymns I am the Brihat- saman, of the mantra I am Gayatri. Of months I am Margasirsha and of seasons I am the flooring spring. I am the gambling of the fraudulent; I am the splendor of the splendid; I am the victory, I am the effort, I am the goodness of the good. Of the Vrishnis I am Vasudeva; of the Pandavas, Dhananjaya, of the sages I am Vyasa and of the seers I am Usara the seer. Of punishers I am the scepter; of those that seek victory I am statesmanship and of secrets I am also silence and I am the wisdom of the wise, and whatever is the seed of
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all beings, that am I. O Arjuna, there is no being whether moving or unmoving that can exist without Me. There is no end of My divine manifestations, O harasser of foes, this is only a brief exposition by Me of the extent of My glories. Whatever being there is glorious, prosperous or powerful, know that to have sprung but from a spark of My splendor. But what need is there, O Arjuna, for this detailed knowledge, I stand supporting the whole universe with a single fragment of Myself.
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CHAPTER - XI
Vishvarupa Darshana Yoga
rjuna said: By the profound discourse concerning the self, which you have delivered out of compassion for me, my delusion has been dispelled. From you, O Lotus eyed, have been hard by me in detail of the origin and dissolution of beings and also of your inexhaustible greatness. As you have declared yourself to be, so it is. O Lord Supreme, yet I desire to see your Ishwara from O Purushottama. If you O Lord think it possible for me to see it, then does O Lord of Yoga show me your Eternal Self? The Blessed Lord said: Behold My forms, O Partha by hundreds and thousands, manifold and divine and of multicolours and shapes. Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the two Ashwins and also the Maruts. Behold, O Bharata many marvels never seen before. Behold here today, O Gudakesa, the whole universe of the moving and the unmoving, and whatever else you desire to see, all integral of My body. But you cannot see Me with these eyes of yours, I give you divine sight, behold My Supreme Yoga. Sanjaya said: Having thus spoken, O king, the great Lord of Yoga, Hari showed to Partha. His supreme Ishwara form, with many mouths and eyes, with many marvelous sights, with many divine ornaments, with many uplifted divine weapons; wearing heavenly garlands and raiment’s, anointed with celestial perfumes all wonderful, resplendent, boundless with faces
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on all sides. If the splendour of a thousand suns were to blaze forth all at once in the sky, that would be like the splendour of that Mahatman. There in the body of the God of Gods, Pandava then saw the whole universe with its many divisions drawn together into one. Then Dhananjaya, struck with amazement, his hair standing on end, bowing down his head to the Lord in adoration, spoke with joined palms. Arjuna said: I see all the Gods, O God, in your body and hosts of all grades of beings. Brahma the Lord, seated on the lotus and all the rishis and celestial serpents. I behold you, infinite in forms on all sides, with countless arms, stomachs, mouths and eyes, neither your end nor the middle for the beginning do I see, O Lord of the Universe, O universal form. I see you with diadem, club and discus; a mass of radiance blazing everywhere, hard to look at, all round dazzling like a glowing fire and sun and immeasurable. You are the imperishable, the Supreme Being to be realized. You are the great treasure house of this universe; you are the imperishable Guardian of the Eternal Dharma. You are the ancient Pursha, I deem, I see you without beginning, middle or end infinite in power, of infinite arms, the sun and the moon being your eyes, the burning fire your Mouth, heating the whole universe with your radiance. This space between heaven and earth and all the quarters are filled by you alone. Having seen this, your Marvelous and terrible for, the three worlds are trembling; with fear, O Mahatman. These hosts of Devas indeed enter into you, some in awe extol you with joined palms, bands of great Rishis and Siddhas pronounce, “May it be well” and praise you with sublime hymns. The Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Sadhyas Vishvas, Asvins, Maruts,
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Ushmapas, hosts of Gandharvas, Yakshas, Aswas and Sidddhas - they are all gazing at you and they are amazed. Seeing your immeasurable form with myriad mouths and eyes, O mightyarmed, with myriad arms, thighs and feet, with myriad stomachs and terrible with myriad tusks – the worlds is terror struck and so am I. When I see you touching the sky blazing with many colours, with mouths wide open, with large fiery eyes, my heart trembles in fear and I find neither courage nor peace. O Vishnu, when I see your mouths terrible with tusks resembling Pralaya-fires, I know not the four quarters nor do I find peace. Be gracious, O Lord of the gods, O Abode of the universe. All the sons of Dhritarashtra, with hosts of kings of the earth, Bhishma, Drona and Sutaputra, with the warrior chiefs of ours, enter hurrying into your mouth, terrible with tusks and fearful to look at. Some are found sticking in the gaps between the teeth with their heads crushed to powder. Truly as the many torrents of river rush towards the ocean, so do these heroes in the world of men fling themselves into your fiercely flaming, mouths? As moths rush headlong into a blazing fire for destruction, so do these creatures hurriedly speed into your mouths for their destruction? Devouring all the worlds an every side with your flaming mouths. You lick your lips. Your fiery rays, filling the whole world with radiance, are burning, O Vishnu. Tell me who you are, so fierce in form. I bow down to you, O God Supreme; have merry. I desire to know you, the Primal one. I know not yoiur purpose. The Blessed Lord said: I am the mighty world-destroying time now engaged in wiping out the world. Even without you the warriors arrayed in hostile armies shall not survive. You therefore, arise and obtain fame. Conquer the enemies and
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enjoy the unrivalled kingdom. By Me have they been verily slain already? You be merely an external cause. O Sauyasachin, Slay Drona, Bhishma, Jayadratha, Karna and other brave warriors who are already doomed by Me. Be not distressed with fear. Fight and you will conquer your enemies in battle. Sanjaya said: Having heard that speech of Kesava, the crowned one (Arjuna) with joined palms, trembling, prostrating himself, again addressed Krishna in a chocked voice, bowing down, overwhelmed with fear. Arjuna said: It is meet, O Hrishikesa that the world is delighted and rejoices in your praise, Rakshasas fly in fear in all directions and all the hosts of siddhas bow to you. And why should they not, O Great souled One, bow to you, greater than all, the Primal cause, even of Brahma, O infinite Being, O Lord of Gods, O abode of the universe; you are the Imperishable, the being and the non-being, that which is the Supreme. You are the Primal God, the ancient Purusha; You are the Supreme Abode. Of all this, you are the knower and the knowable and the Supreme Abode, this universe is pervaded by You. O Being of infinite form, you are Vayu, Yama, Agini, Varuna, the Moon, Prajapati and the great grandfather. Salutation, salutation to you, a thousand times, and again and again salutation to you. Salutation to you before, salutation to you behind, salutation to you on every side. O all infinite in might and immeasurable in strength, You pervade all and therefore, You are all. Whatever I have rashly said from carelessness or love, addressing you as ‘O Krishna, O Yadava, O Sakheti’ looking on you merely as a friend, ignorant , of this your greatness, in whatever way I may have insulted you for jest while at play, reposing, sitting or at meals, when alone, O Achyuta, or in company, that I implore you, immeasurable
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one, to forgive. You are the father of this world, moving and unmoving. You are to be adored by this world, You the Greatest Guru; none there exists, who is equal to You in the three worlds; who then can excel you, O Being of unequalled power. Therefore, bowing down, prostrating my body, I implore You, adorable Lord to forgive me. Bear with me, O Lord, as a father with a son, as a friend with a friend, as a lover with his beloved. I rejoice that I have seen what was never been seen before, but my mind is confounded with fear. Show me that form only, O God, have mercy, O God of Gods, O Abode of the universe, I desire to see you as before, crowned bearing a mace and a discus in the hand, in your former form only, having four arms. O thousand armed, O universal form. The Blessed Lord said: Graciously have I shown you, O Arjuna, this supreme form, by My yoga power. This resplendent, universal infinite, primeval, which none but you have ever seen. Neither by the study of the Vedas, nor by yagyas, nor by gifts, nor by rituals, nor by severe penances, can this form of Mine be seen in the world of men by any one else but you, O hero of the Kurus. Be not afraid nor bewildered on seeing this terrible form of Mine, free from fear and delighted at heart, do you again see this My former form. Sanjaya said: Having spoken thus to Arjuna, Vasudeva showed again His own form, and the great souled one assumed his gentle form and consoled him who was terrified. Arjuna said: Having seen this your gentle human form, O Janaradana, I am now composed and am restored to my own nature. The Blessed Lord said: Very hard it is, indeed, to see this form of Mine, which you have seen. Even the devas are very eager to see this form. Neither by the Vedas, nor by austerity,
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nor by gift, nor by sacrifice can I be seen in this form as you have seen Me. But by unswerving devotion can I, of this form, be known and seen in reality and also entered into, O scorcher of foes. He who does work for Me, who is devoted to Me, who is free from attachment, who is without hatred for any being, he comes to me, O Pandava.
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CHAPTER - XII
rjuna said: Those devotees who, ever steadfast, worship you thus and those again who worship the imperishable, the unmanifest – which of these are better versed in yoga? The Blessed Lord said: Those who have fixed their minds on Me and who, ever steadfast and endowed with supreme shraddha, worship Me – them do I consider perfect in yoga. But those who worship the imperishable, the indefinable, the unmanifest, the omnipresent, the unthinkable, the unchangeable, the immovable, the eternal - having restrained all the senses, even-minded everywhere, engaged in the welfare of all beings-verily they also come into Me. Greater is their difficult whose minds are set on the unmanifested, for the goal of the unmanifested is very hard for the embodied to reach. But those who worship Me, renouncing all actions in Me, regarding Me a the supreme goal, meditating on Me with single minded yoga – for them whose thought is set on Me, I become very soon, O Partha, the deliverer from the ocean of the mortal Sansara. Fix your mind on me alone, let your thoughts dwell in Me. You will hereafter live in Me alone. Of this there is no doubt. If you are not able to fix your mind steadily on Me, O Dhananjaya, then seek to reach Me by abhyasa yoga. If you are unable even to practice abhyasa yoga, be you intent on doing actions for My sake. Even by performing actions for My sake
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you will attain perfection. If you are not able to do even this, then taking refuge in Me, abandon the fruits of all actions with the self-subdued. Better indeed is knowledge than formal abhyasa, better than knowledge is meditation, better than meditation is the renunciation of the fruit of action; peace immediately follows renunciation. He who hates no being, who is friendly and compassionate to all, who is free from the feeling of ‘I’ and ‘Mine’ even minded , in pain and pleasure and forbearing, ever content, steady in meditation, self controlled and possessed of firm conviction, with mind and intellect fixed on Me, he My devotee is dear to Me. He by whom the world is not afflicted and whom the world cannot afflict, he who is free from joy, anger, fear and anxietyhe is dear to Me. He who has no wants, who is pure and prompt, unconcerned, untroubled and who is selfless in all his undertakings, he who is thus devoted to Me, is dear to Me. He who neither rejoices nor hates nor grieves nor desires, renouncing good and evil, full of devotion, he is dear to Me. He who is the same to foe and friend and also in honour and dishonour, who is the same in cold and heat, in pleasure and pain, who is free from attachment, to whom censure and praise are equal, who is silent, content with every thing, homeless, steady minded, full of devotion - that man is dear to Me. They verily who follow this immortal dharma described above endued with Shradha, looking upon Me as the supreme goal, and devoted-they are exceedingly dear to Me.
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CHAPTER - XIII
Kshetra Kshetragya Vibhaga Yoga
rjuna said: Prakriti and Purusha, also the Kshetra and Kshetrajna, knowledge and that which ought to be known, these O, Kehsava, I desire to learn. The Blessed Lord said: This body, O Kaunteya, is called kshetra, the field. He who knows it is called kshetrajna by the sages. And know Me as the kshetrajna in all Kshetras, O Bharata. The knowledge of kshetra and kshetrajna is deemed by Me as true knowledge. Hear briefly from Me, what the kshetra is, what its properties are, what its modifications are, whence is what, and who He is and what His powers are. This has been sung by rishis in many ways, in various distinctive chants, in passages indicative of Brahma, full of reasoning and convincing. The great elements, egoism, intellect, as also the unmenifested the ten senses and the one mind, and the five objects of the senses, desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, the aggregate intelligence, firmness - the kshetra has been thus briefly described with its modifications. Humility, modesty, non injury, forbearance, uprightness, service of the teacher, purity, steadfastness, self control, dispassion towards the objects of the senses and also absence of egoism, perception of evil in birth, death, old age, sickness and pain; unattachment, non identification of self with son, wife, home and the like and constant equanimity in the occurrence of the desirable and the undesirable, unswerving
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devotion to Me in yoga of non separation, resort to sequestered places, distaste for the society of men, constancy in self knowledge, perception of Truth as the end of the knowledge. This is declared to be knowledge and what is opposed to it is ignorance. I shall describe that which has to be known, knowing which one attains to immortality. Beginning-less is the supreme Brahma. It is not said to be ‘sat’ or ‘asat’ with hands and feet everywhere, with eyes and mouths , everywhere, with ears everywhere. He exists enveloping all. Shining by the functions of all the senses, yet without the senses. Absolute, yet sustaining all, devoid of gunas, yet, He experiences them, without and within all beings, the unmoving and also the moving, because of this subtlety, He is incomprehensible, he is far and near. He is undivided and yet he seems to be divided in beings. He is to be known as the supporter of beings. He devours and He generates the light of all lights, He is said to be beyond darkness, knowledge the knowable, the goal of knowledge, seated in the hearts of all. Thus the kshetra, knowledge and that which has to be known has been briefly described. My devotee on knowing this, is fitted for My state. Know that Prakriti and Purusha are both without beginning and know also that all modifications and gunas are born of Prakriti. In the production of the body and the senses, Prakriti is said to be the cause, in the experience of pleasure and pain, Purusha is said to be the cause. Purusha seated in Prakriti, experiences the gunas born of Prakriti. Attachment to the gunas is the cause of his birth in good and evil wombs. The supreme Purusha in this body is also called the spectator, the one who permits, the supporter, the one who experiences, the great lord and the supreme self. He who thus knows the Purusha and Prakriti together with the gunas, is never born again, in whatever way he may live.
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By meditation some behold the self in the self, others by the yoga of knowledge and yet others by karma yoga. Still others, not knowing thus, worship as they have heard from others, they too go beyond death by their devotion to what they have heard. Whatever being is born, the unmoving or the moving, O best of the Bharatas, know it to be form then union of kshetra and kshetrajna. He sees, who sees the supreme Lord, remaining the same in all beings, the eternal in the dying. Because he who sees the Lord seated the same everywhere destroys not the self by the self, therefore, he reaches the supreme goal. He verily sees who sees that all actions are done by Prakriti alone and that the Atman is actionless, when he realizes the whole variety of beings as resting in one and in an evolution form that one alone, then he becomes Brahma. Having no beginning and possessing no gunas, this supreme self, imperishable, though dwelling in the body, O Kaunteya, neither acts nor is tainted. As the all-pervading akash is not tainted by reason of its subtlety, so the self-seated in the body everywhere is not tainted. As the one sun illumines this whole world, so does the Lord of the kshetra illumines the whole kshetra, O Bharata. They who perceive with the eye of wisdom this distinction between the kshetra and the kshetrajna and the deliverance of beings from the Prakriti, they go to the Supreme.
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CHAPTER - XIV
Guna-triya Vibhaga Yoga
he Blessed Lord said: I shall again declare that supreme knowledge, the best of all forms of knowledge by knowing which, all the sages have passed from this world to the highest perfection. They who, having devoted themselves to this knowledge having attained to unity with Me, are neither born at the time of creation nor are they disturbed at the time of dissolution. My womb is the Mahat Brahma (Prakriti), in that I place the germ, thence O Bharata, is the birth of all beings. Whatever forms are produced, O Kaunteya in any womb whatsoever, the great Brahma (Prakriti) is their womb, I the seed-giving father. Sattva, rajas, tamas - three gunas, O mighty armed, born of Prakriti, bind the indestructible embodied one fast in the body. Of these sattva, being stainless is luminous and unobstructive. It binds, O sinless one, by creating attachment to happiness and attachment to knowledge. Know Rajas to be of the nature of passion, the source of thirst and attachment, it binds fast, O Kaunteya, the embodied one by attachment to action. But know tamas to be born of ignorance, deluding all embodied beings, it binds fast, O Bharata, to heedlessness, indolence and sleep. Sattva binds one to happiness and Rajas to action, O Bharata, while tamas verily veils knowledge and binds one to heedlessness. Sattva asserts itself, O Bharata, by predominat58 | SHRIMAT BHAGWAT GITA – Aruneshwar Gupta
ing over rajas and tamas, and rajas over sattva and tamas and tamas over sattva and rajas. When the light of knowledge beams through all the gateways of the body, then it may be known that Sattva is predominant. Greed, activity, the undertaking of actions unrest, longingthese arise, O best of the Bharatas, when rajas is predominant. Indiscrimination, inertness, heedlessness and delusion- these arise, O joy of Kurus, when tamas is predominant. If the embodiment one meets with death when sattva is predominant, then he goes to the pure worlds of those who know the highest. Meeting with death in Rajas, he is born among those attached to action and dying in Tamas, he is born in the wombs of the deluded. The fruit of good action, they say, is sattvika and pure; verily the fruit of Rajas is pain and ignorance is fruit of tamas. From sattva rises wisdom and greed from Rajas; heedlessness and error arise from tamas and also ignorance. Those who are fixed in sattva go upwards; the rajasikas remain in the middle and the tamasikas, abiding in the functions of the lowest gunas, go downwards. When the seer perceives no agent other than the gunas and knows him who is higher than the gunas, he enters into My Being. The embodied one having crossed over these three gunas out of which the body is evolved, is freed from birth, death, decay and pain, and attains to immortality. Arjuna said: What are the marks, O Lord, of him who has crossed over the three Gunas? What is his conduct? And how does he rise above the Gunas? The Blessed Lord said: He, O Pandava who hates not light, activity and delusion, when present, nor longs after them when absent. He who, sitting like one unconcerned is moved not by the gunas, who, knowing that the gunas operate, is firm and
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moves not. Balanced in pleasure and pain, self-abiding, viewing a clod of earth, a stone and gold alike; the same to agreeable and disagreeable firm, the same in censure and praise, the same in honour and dishonour, the same to friend and foe, abandoning all undertakings-he is said to have risen above the Gunas. And he who serves Me with an unswerving devotion, he going beyond the Gunas, is fitted for becoming Brahma for I am abode of Brahma, the Immortal and the Immutable, the Eternal Dharma and Absolute Bliss.
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CHAPTER - XV
he Blessed Lord said: They speak of an imperishable Ashvatha tree with its roots above and branches below. Its leaves are the Vedas, he who knows it is the knower of the Vedas. Below and above spread its branches, nourished by the gunas; sense objects are its buds and below in the world of men stretch its roots, engendering action. Its form is not here perceived as such, neither its end, nor its origin, nor its existence. Having cut asunder this firm rooted ashvatha with the strong axe of non-attachment, then that goal should be sought for, going whither, they do not return again. Seek refuge in that primeval Purusha whence streamed forth the eternal activity. Free from pride and delusion, with the evil of attachment conquered, ever dwelling in the self, their desires being completely stilled, liberated from the pairs of opposites known as pleasure and pain, the undeluded reaches that goal eternal. That the sun illumines not, nor the moon, nor fire, that is My Supreme abode, going whither they return not. An eternal portion of Myself having become the jiva in the world of jivas, attracts the senses, with mind as the sixth, abiding in Prakriti when the Lord obtains a body and when he leaves it, he takes these and goes, as the wind carries the scents from their sources.
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Presiding over the ear, the eye, the touch, the taste and the smell, as also the mind, he experiences objects. The deluded do not see him who departs, stays and enjoys, who is conjoined with the Gunas, but they see who possesses the eye of wisdom. Those who strive endued with yoga, cognize Him dwelling in the self; though striving, the undefined and unintelligent see Him not. That light which residing in the sun illumines the whole world, that which is in the moon and in the fire-know that light to be Mine. Entering the earth I support all beings, by My energy and having become the sapid moon, I nourish all herbs. Abiding in the body of living beings as Vishvanara, associated with prana and aapana, I digest the four kind of food and I am seated in the hearts of all. From Me are memory, knowledge, as well as their loss. I am verily that which has to be known by all the Vedas. I am indeed the author of the Vedanta as well as the knower of the Vedas. There are two Purushas in the world, the perishable and the imperishable, and the Kutastha is called the imperishable. But distinct is the Supreme Purusha called the Highest Self, the indestructible Lord, who pervades and sustains the three worlds. As I transcend the perishable, and am even above the imperishable, therefore, I am known in the world and in the Veda as ‘Purhshottama’ the Highest Purusha. He, who undeluded, knows me as the Highest Self – he knows all, O Bharata, and he worships me with all his heart. Thus, O sinless one, has this most profound teaching being imparted by Me, knowing this a man becomes enlightened, O Bharata, and all his duties are accomplished.
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CHAPTER - XVI
Daiva-sura Sampad Vibhaga Yoga
he Blessed Lord said: Fearlessness, purity of heart, steadfastness in knowledge and yoga, alms giving, control of the senses, yajna, study of the scriptures, austerity and straightforwardness, non-injury, truth, absence of anger, renunciation, serenity, absence of calumny, compassion to beings, uncovetousness, gentleness, modesty, absence of fickleness, vigor, forgiveness, fortitude, purity, absence of hatred, and absence of pride, these belong to one born for a divine state, O Bharata. Ostentation, arrogance and self conceit, anger and also harshness and ignorance belong to one who is born, O Partha, for a demoniac state. The divine nature is deemed for liberation, the demoniacal for bondage. Grieve not, O Pandava, you are born for a divine state. There are two types of beings in this world, the divine and the demoniacal. The divine has been described at length, hear from Me, O Partha, of the demoniacal. The demoniac know not what to do and what to refrain from; neither purity, nor right conduct nor truth is found in them. They say,
“the universe is unreal, without a moral basis, without a God, born of mutual union, brought about by lust, what else?”
Holding this view, these ruined souls of small intellect, of fierce deeds, rise as the enemies of the world for its destruction.
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Filled with insatiable desires, full of hypocrisy, pride and arrogance, holding evil ideas through delusion, they work with impure resolve. Beset with immense cares ending, only with death. Regarding gratification of lust as the highest and feeling sure that that is all, bound by a hundred ties of hope, given over to lust and anger, they strive to secure by unjust means hoards of wealth for sensual gratification.
“This today has been gained by me, this desire I shall fulfill; this is mine, and this earth also shall be mine in future. That enemy has been slain by me, and others also shall I slay. I am a lord, I enjoy, I am successful, powerful and happy. I am rich and well born who else is equal to me? I will sacrifice.”
Thus deluded by ignorance, bewildered by many a fancy, enmeshed in the senses of delusion, addicted to the gratification of lust, they fall into foul hell. Given over to egoism, power, insolence lust and wrath, these malicious people hate me in their own bodies and in those of others. Those cruel haters, worst among men in the world, I hurl these evildoers forever into the wombs of the demons only. Entering into demoniac wombs, the deluded ones, in birth after birth, without ever reaching Me, they thus fall, O Kaunteya, into a condition still lower. Triple is this gate of hell, destructive of the self – lust, anger and greed; therefore should one abandon these three. The man who is liberated from these three gates to darkness, O Kaunteya, practices what is good for him and thus goes to the Supreme Goal. He who casting aside the ordinances of the scriptures, acts on the impulse of desire, attains not perfection, nor happiness nor the Supreme Goal. Therefore, let the scriptures be your authority in deciding what ought to be done and what ought not to be done. Having known what is said in the ordinance of the scriptures you should act here.
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CHAPTER - XVII
Shradha-triya Vibhaga Yoga
rjuna said: What is the nature of the devotion of those, O Krishna, who though disregarding the ordinance of the Shastras, perform sacrifice with Shraddha? Is it one of Sattva, Rajas or Tamas. The Blessed Lord said: The shradha of the embodied is of three kinds, borne of their nature – the sattvika the rajasika and the tamasika. Hear now about it. The Shraddha of every man, O Bharata, is in accordance with his natural disposition. Man is of the nature of shradha; what is shradha is that verily he is. Sattvika men worship the devas, rajasika, the yakshas and the rakshasas, the others – the tamasika men-the pretas and the hosts of bhutas. Those men who practice violent austerities not enjoined by the scriptures, given to hypocrisy and egoism, impelled by the force of lust and attachment, fools that they are, they torture their bodily organs and Me too, who dwell within the body. Know that they are asurika in their resolve. The food also that is dear to all is of three kinds. So are the yagyas, austerities and gifts. Hear now of the distinction of these. The foods that augment vitality, energy, vigour, health, joy and cheerfulness which are savory and epigenous, substantial and agreeable are liked by the sattvika. The food that is bitter, sour, saline, over hot pungent, dry and burning are liked by the rajasika, and are productive of pain, grief and disease. That which is stale, tasteless, stinking, cooked overnight refuse and impure is the food liked by the tamasika.
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That yagya is sattvika which is performed by men desiring no fruit as enjoined by ordinance, with their mind fixed on the yagya alone for its own sake. That which is performed, O best of the Bharatas, in expectation of reward or for self- glorification, know it to be a rajasika yagya. They declare that yagya to be tamasika which is contrary to the ordinances, in which no food is distributed, which is devoid of mantras, gifts and shradha. Worship the Gods of the twice born, of teachers and of the wise. Purity, uprightness, continence and non-injury – these are said to be the austerity of the body. The speech which causes no excitement, which is truthful, pleasant and beneficial and also the practice of sacred recitation, these are said to form the austerity of speech. Serenity of mind, gentleness, silence, selfcontrol and purity of disposition – this is called the mental austerity. This threefold austerity practiced by steadfast men with the utmost shradha, desiring no fruit they call sattvika. The austerity, which is practiced with the object of gaining respect, honour and reverence and with ostentation is here said to be rajasika, it is unstable and transitory. That austerity which is practiced with a foolish obstinacy, with self-torture or for the purpose of destroying another, is declared to be tamasika. That gift which is made to one who can make no return, with the feeling that it is one’s duty to give, and which is given at the right place and time and to a worthy person, that gift is held sattvika. That gift which is given with a view to receive in return, or looking for the fruit, or again grudgingly is accounted as rajasika. The gift that is given at a wrong place or time, to unworthy persons, without respect or with insult that is declared to be tamasika. Om Tat Sat, this has been declared to be the triple
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designation of Brahma. By that were made the Brahma and the Vedas. Therefore, with the utterance of Om carry on the acts of sacrifice, gift and austerity, as enjoined in the scriptures, always undertaken by the followers of the Vedas. Uttering, Tat without aiming at the fruits, carry on the acts of sacrifice and austerity and the various acts of gifts as performed by the seekers of moksha. The word Sat is used in the sense of reality and of goodness and so, also, O Partha, the word Sat is used in the sense of an auspicious act. Steadfastness in sacrifice, austerity and gift is also called Sat and action for the sake of the Lord is also called Sat. Whatever is sacrifice, given or performed and whatever austerity is practiced without shradha, it is called asat, O Partha. It is of no account, here or hereafter.
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CHAPTER - XVIII
Moksha Sanyasa Yoga
rjuna said: I desire to know severally, O mighty-armed, the truth of sanyasa, O Hrishikesha, as also of tyaga O slayer of Kesi. The Blessed Lord said: The renunciation of kamya karma, the sages understand as Sanyasa. The wise declare that the abandonment of the fruits of all actions as tyaga. Some sages declare that all action should be relinquished as evil, while other say that yagya, gift and austerity should not be relinquished. Learn from Me the truth about this abandonment, O best of the Bharatas. Abandonment, verily O best of men, has been declared to be of three kinds. Acts of yagya, gift and austerity should not be given up, but should be performed; yagya, gift and austerity are purifying to the wise. But even these actions should be performed giving up attachment and the fruits, O Partha. This is My certain and best belief. Verily, the abandonment of any obligatory duty is not proper. Such abandonment out of ignorance is declared to be tamasika. He who from fear of bodily trouble abandons action, because it is painful, thus performing a rajasika abandonment, obtains not the fruit thereof. Whatever obligatory work is done, O Arjuna, merely because it ought to be done, abandoning attachment and also the fruit, that abandonment is deemed to be sattvika. The relinquisher imbued with sattva and a steady understanding and with his doubts dispelled, hates
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not a disagreeable work nor is he attached to an agreeable one. It is indeed impossible for an embodied being to renounce actions entirely. But he who renounces the fruits of action, is regarded as one who has renounced. The threefold fruits of action wise, good and mixed accrues after death to one who does not relinquish but there is none ever for the one who renounces, Learn from Me, O mighty armed, the five factors in the accomplishment of all actions, as taught in the Sankhya which is the end of action. The body, the agent, the various senses, the different functions of various sorts and the presiding deity as the fifth. Whatever action a man performs with his body, speech or mind, whether right or wrong-these five are its causes. That being so, the man of perverse mind, who on account of his imperfect understanding looks upon the self, the absolute, as the agent – he does not see at all. He who is free from the notions of egoism and whose understanding is not tainted – though he kills these people, he kills not, nor is he bound. Knowledge, the object of knowledge and the knower form the threefold incitement to action; and the instrument, the object and the agent are the three fold constituents of action. Knowledge, action and actor are declared in the science of gunas to be of three kinds only, according to the distinction of gunas; hear of them also as they are. The knowledge by which the one imperishable Being is seen in all existences, undivided in the divided, knows that that knowledge is sattvika. But that knowledge by which one sees in all beings manifold entities of different kinds as varying from one another- know that that knowledge is rajasika. And the knowledge that clings to one single effect as if it was the whole, and is without reason, without foundation in truth, and trivial, that knowledge is
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declared to be tamasika. An action which is ordained, which is free from attachment, which is done without love or hatred by one not desirous of the fruit, the action is declared to be Sattvika. But that action which is done by one craving for desires or again with egoism or with much effort, that is declared to be rajasika. That action which is undertaken from delusion, without heed to the consequences, loss, injury and ability that is declared to be tamasika. An agent, who is free from attachment, non-egoistic, endued with firmness and zeal and unaffected by success or failure, is called sattvika. Passionate, desiring to obtain the fruit of action, greedy, cruel, impure, moved by joy and sorrow, such an agent is said to be rajasika. Unsteady, vulgar, stubborn, deceitful, malicious, indolent, despondent, procrastinating such an agent is called tamasika. Hear the threefold distinction of understanding and firmness, according to the Gunas, as I explain them exhaustively and severally, O Dhananjaya. The intellect, which knows the paths of work and renunciation, right and wrong action, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation, that intellect, O Partha, is sattvika. The intellect that makes a distorted grasp of dharma and adharma, of what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, that O Partha, is rajasika. That which is enveloped in darkness, regards adharma as dharma and views all things in a perverted way, that intellect, O Partha, is tamasika. The unswerving firmness by which, through yoga, the functions of the mind, the prana and the senses are regulated, that firmness, O Partha, is sattvika. But the firmness, O Arjuna, by which one holds fast to dharma, kama and artha, desirous of the fruit of each from attachment, that firmness, O Partha,
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is rajasika. That by which a stupid man do not give up sleep, fear, grief, despair and also conceit, that firmness, O Partha, is tamasika. And now hear from Me, O chief of the Bharatas the three kinds of happiness. That in which one comes to rejoice by a long practice and in which he reaches the end of his sorrow, that which is like poison at first, but like nectar at the end, that happiness is said to be sattvika, born of the translucence of intellect due to self realization. That happiness which arises from the contact of the senses and their objects and which is like nectar at first, but like poison at the end, it is held to be rajasika. That happiness which deludes the self both at the beginning and at the end and which arises from sleep, sloth and miscomprehension, that is declared to be tamasika. There is no being on earth or again in heaven among the devas, that is liberated from the three gunas, born of Prakriti. The duties of brahmins, kshatriyas and vaishyas as also of shudras, O scorcher of foes, are distributed according to the Gunas born of their own nature. Serenity, self-restraint, austerity, purity, forgiveness, and also uprightness, knowledge, realization belief in a hereafter, these are the duties of the brahmins, born of their own nature. Heroism, vigour, firmness, resourcefulness, not flying from battle, generosity and lordliness are the duties of the kshatriyas born of their own nature. Agriculture, cattle rearing and trade are the duties of the vaishyas, born of their own nature; and action consisting of services is the duty of the shudras born of their own nature. Devoted each to his own duty, man attains the highest perfection. How engaged in his own duty, he attains perfection, that do you hear. He from whom is the evolution of all beings, by whom all this is pervaded, worshipping him with his own duty, man
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attains perfection. Better is one’s own dharma, though imperfect, than the dharma of another well performed. He who does the duty ordained by his own nature incurs no sin. One should not abandon, O Kauanteya, the duty to which one is born, though it is attended with evil; for all undertakings are enveloped by evil, as fire by smoke. He whose intellect is unattached everywhere, who has subdued his self, from whom desires have disappeared, he by renunciation attains the supreme state of freedom from actions. Learn from Me in brief, O Kaunteya, how reaching such perfection, he attains to Brahma that supreme consummation of knowledge. Endowed with pure understanding, restraining the self with firmness, turning away from sound and other objects and abandoning attraction and aversion, dwelling in solitude eating but little, speech, body and mind subdued, always engaged in meditation and concentration, endued with dispassion. Having abandoned egoism, violence, arrogance, desire, enmity, property, free from the notion of ‘I’ and ‘Mine’ and peaceful, he is fit for becoming Brahma. Becoming Brahma, serene minded he neither grieves, nor desires, the same to all beings; he obtains supreme devotion to Me. By devotion he knows Me in truth, what and who I am, then having known Me in truth, he forthwith enters into Me. Doing continually all actions whatsoever, taking refuge in Me, by My grace he reaches the eternal undecaying abode. Mentally resigning all deeds to Me, having Me as the highest goal, resorting to buddhi yoga, do you ever fix your mind on Me. Fixing your mind on Me, you will by My grace, overcome all obstacles, but if from egoism you will not hear Me, you will perish. If filled with egoism, you think “I will not fight” vein is this, your resolve; your nature will compel you. Bound by your
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own karma born of your nature, that which from delusion you wish not to do, even that you shall do helplessly, against your will. O Kaunteya, the lord dwells in the hearts of all beings, O Arjuna, and by his maya causes all beings to resolve as though mounted on a machine. Seek refuge in Him alone with al your heart, O Bharata. By his grace you will gain supreme peace and the eternal abode. Thus has wisdom more profound than all profundities been declared to you by Me. Reflect upon it fully and act as you choose. Listen again to My supreme word, the profoundest of all. You are beloved of Me and steadfast at heart, therefore, I shall tell what is good for you. Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, sacrifice to Me, prostrate before Me, so shall you come to Me. This is My pledge to you, for you are dear to Me. Renounce all dharma and take refuge in Me alone. I shall liberate you from all sins, grieve not. This is never to be spoken by you to one who is devoid of austerities, nor to one who is not devoted, nor to one who does not do service, nor to one who speaks ill of Me. He who with supreme devotion to Me will teach this immensely profound philosophy to My devotees, shall doubtlessly come to Me alone. Nor is there any among men who renders dearer service to Me than he, nor shall there be another on earth dearer to Me then he. And he who will study this sacred dialogue of ours, by him I shall have been worshipped by Gyana Yoga, such is My conviction. And the man, who fears this, full of faith and free from scoff, even he, liberated from evil, shall attain the auspicious regions of righteous. Has this been heard by you, O Partha, with an attentive mind? Has the delusion of your ignorance been destroyed, O Dhananjaya?
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Arjuna said: My delusion is destroyed. I have regained my memory through your grace, O Achyuta, I am firm, and I am free from doubt. I shall act according to your words. Sanjaya said: Thus have I heard this wonderful dialogue between Vasudeva and the high souled Partha, causing my hair to stand on end. Through the grace of Vyasa have I heard the supreme and the most profound yoga directly from Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, himself declaring it? O King, as I recall again and again this wonderful and holy dialogue between Keshva and Arjuna I rejoice again and again. And as often as I recall that most wondrous form of Hari, great is my astonishment, O King, and I rejoice again and again. Wherever Krishna is, is Partha, the wielder of the bow, there are prosperity, victory, expansion, and sound policy, such is my conviction. Sri Krishna Pranama
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