Deconstructing the Notion of Race

The Sam Sharpe Lecture Series Manchester & Birmingham, England September, 2013 © Ne ille !allam 2013

[F]rom the hour of their birth, some men are marked out for subjection, others for rule…."t is clear that #ust as s$me are b% nature &ree, s$ $thers are b% nature sla es, and &$r these latter the c$nditi$n $& sla er% is b$th bene&icial and #ust

(ree)s *ere b$rn t$ rule barbarians, M$ther, n$t barbarians t$ rule (ree)s+ The% are sla es b% nature, *e ha e &reed$m in $ur bl$$d+ Euripides2

The Blac) s)in is n$t a badge $& shame, but rather a gl$ri$us s%mb$l $& +++ greatness+ Marcus M$siah (ar e% -1../0112033 The abs$lute e4ualit% $& races, ph%sical, p$litical and s$cial is the &$unding st$ne $& the *$rld and human achie ement+ 5T6he $ice $& Science, 7eligi$n, and practical 8$litics is $ne in den%ing the ($d0app$inted e9istence $& super0races $r $& races naturall% and ine itabl% and eternall% in&eri$r+ 8an0'&rican !$ngress, 11212

5T6he s$cial c$nstructi$n $& race d$es n$t ma)e the bi$l$gical e9istence $& race a &act+ The m%th $& bi$l$gical race needs t$ be debun)ed in $ur minds and in $thers:+ 's l$ng as pe$ple belie e that humanit% is ;naturall%< di ided int$ bi$l$gical races, the% *ill gi e a signi&icance and &inalit% t$ ethnic gr$ups that are n$t *arranted+ El$ise Meneses=

There is n$ c$nceptual basis &$r race e9cept racism+

!harles >irschman?


Introduction There are &$ur main reas$ns *h% this e ening:s assignment gi es me much pleasure+ The &irst is the $pp$rtunit% it a&&$rds me t$ isit the @nited Aingd$m $nce again+ "t has ne er ceased t$ amaBe me that, at the height $& its p$*er, this small c$untr% maintained c$ntr$l $ er such a ast p$rti$n $& the earthC B% 1112, apart &r$m its $*n p$pulati$n $& 2? milli$n, Britain ruled 200 milli$n pe$ple ar$und the *$rld/ and b% 1122, Britain c$ntr$lled the *$rld:s largest empire *ith a p$pulati$n $& 2=. milli$n, c$mprising $ne0 &i&th $& the e9isting *$rld p$pulati$n and c$ ering nearl% t*ent%0&i e per cent $& the *$rld:s land space+ . "t is als$ amaBing h$* the percepti$n $& this c$untr% has changed $ er the %ears+ !$nsider thisD the (ree) $rat$r !icer$ $nce ga e *hat he n$ d$ubt c$nsidered *ise c$unsel t$ his &riend, 'tticus+ This is *hat he saidD ;E$ n$t $btain %$ur sla es &r$m Britain because the% are s$ stupid and s$ utterl% incapable $& being taught that the% are n$t &it t$ &$rm a part $& the h$useh$ld $& 'thens+<1 Later, in the se enth centur%, a N$rth '&rican, $ne $& the M$$rs *h$ had c$n4uered Spain, described n$rthern Eur$peans in the &$ll$*ing *a%D ;The% are $& c$ld temperament and ne er reach maturit%+ The% are $& great stature and $& a *hite c$l$ur+ But the% lac) all sharpness $& *it and penetrati$n $& intellect+<10 >$* things ha e changedC T$da%, hardl% *$uld an%$ne paint a p$rtrait $& the pe$ple $& this c$untr% in th$se un&lattering terms+ N$r c$uld an%$ne #usti&iabl% d$ s$ n$* and perhaps als$ e erC The sec$nd reas$n &$r m% pleasure at this app$intment is the $pp$rtunit% t$ be here in the British Midlands *here m% &ather, *h$ *as am$ng th$se *h$ came t$ England in the *a e $& migrati$n &r$m the !aribbean a&ter the Sec$nd F$rld Far,11 spent thirteen %ears $& his adult li&e c$ntributing t$ the de el$pment $& this great c$untr%+ >e came t$ the @A in $rder t$ ensure that he c$uld &ul&il his ec$n$mic resp$nsibilit% as a husband and &ather+ 's s$$n as his t*$ %$ungest children *ere cl$se t$ c$mpleting their >igh Sch$$l educati$n in their h$me c$untr%, he returned t$ Gamaica and shared *ith his &amil% st$ries $& his e9perience $ erseas+ N$ne $& the children m% &ather returned t$ embrace in Gamaica c$nsidered migrati$n t$ the @nited Aingd$m an $pti$n t$ be pursued, but the% *ere grate&ul &$r *hat this c$untr% helped their &ather t$ d$+ The third reas$n &$r the pleasure " &ind in addressing %$u t$da% is the $pp$rtunit% this lecture a&&$rds me t$ be ass$ciated *ith the Sam Sharpe lecture series+ " am particularl% grate&ul that the !$mmittee resp$nsible &$r these lectures accepted m% pr$p$sal $& the sub#ect $& race as the &$cus &$r this lecture+ Especiall% *hen *e remember the $ne *h$se li&e and c$ntributi$n inspired this lecture series, it is entirel% appr$priate that *e sh$uld c$nsider the sub#ect $& race, la%ing bare the astness and the pernici$us nature

Eric Filliams. " grate&ull% ac)n$*ledge the $pp$rtunit% t$ deli er this Sam Sharpe Lecture here in this cit% $& Manchester+ "n m% preparati$n &$r t$da%. the advantage $& it+J "n a *$rd. " recalled the *a% English sla e trader. &etters and chains and padl$c)s *ere needed t$ &asten the 3 . e9plainD Sla e trading demanded g$$ds m$re grues$me than *$$len and c$tt$n manu&actures. namel%. t$ the !aribbean and t$ 'merica+ Much $& the *ealth $& b$th Li erp$$l and Manchester. inhuman and unnatural. *hich *as the centre $& the c$tt$n trade during the nineteenth centur%+ >ere in Birmingham. %et the traders herein ha e as much t$ plead in their $*n e9cuse as can be said &$r s$me $ther branches $& trade. especiall% during the eighteenth centur%. inhuman and unnatural. " recalled the *a% English sla e trader. &r$m this trade pr$ceeds bene&its &ar $ut*eighing all either real $r pretended mishaps and inc$n eniences+12 This cit% $& Manchester *as a signi&icant bene&iciar% $& the sla e trade+ 's Eric Filliams e9plains. rather than a s$ciall% c$nstructed identit%. " grate&ull% ac)n$*ledge the $pp$rtunit% t$ deli er this Sam Sharpe Lecture here in this cit% $& Birmingham+ "n m% preparati$n &$r t$da%. namel%.The capital accumulated b% Li erp$$l &r$m the sla e trade p$ured int$ the hinterland t$ &ertiliBe the energies $& Manchester+<13 ($$ds made in Manchester *ere shipped &r$m Li erp$$l t$ the Sla e !$ast $& '&rica. %et the traders herein ha e as much t$ plead in their $*n e9cuse as can be said &$r s$me $ther branches $& trade. . the advantage $& it+J "n a *$rd. Filliam Snelgra e. *as related t$ the ab$minable 'tlantic trade in ensla ed human beings+ In Birmingham I$urthl%. characteriBed the $pini$n $& British sla e traders during the eighteenth centur%D Th$: t$ tra&&ic in human creatures ma% at &irst sight appear barbar$us. characteriBed the $pini$n $& British sla e traders during the eighteenth centur%D Th$: t$ tra&&ic in human creatures ma% at &irst sight appear barbar$us.$& the sin re&lected in an understanding $& race as a bi$l$gical realit%+ Hur g$al is t$ clearl% identi&% *hat lies at the c$re $& the insidi$us understanding $& race as a pr$pert% $& human beings. Filliam Snelgra e. " *as in Manchester. &r$m this trade pr$ceeds bene&its &ar $ut*eighing all either real $r pretended mishaps and inc$n eniences+12 Kesterda%. " ha e c$me t$ *hat *as $nce the centre $& the gun trade+ Let n$ted !aribbean hist$rian. and t$ e9p$se s$me $& its danger$us implicati$ns+ In Manchester I$urthl%.

a s$ciet% t$ ab$lish sla er% *as started in 1/. Games B$s*ell -1/2001/1=3. "n sic)ness the% are n$t neglected. and intr$duces int$ a much happier state $& li&e+J T$ ab$lish that trade *$uld be t$ Mshut the gates $& merc% $n man)ind+:1.Negr$es m$re securel% $n the sla e shipsJ "r$n bars *ere the trading medium $n a large part $& the '&rican c$ast and *ere e4ui alent t$ &$ur c$pper barsJ (uns &$rmed a regular part $& e er% '&rican carg$+ Birmingham *as the centre $& the gun trade+1= "n the eighteenth centur%. as Eric Filliams states. *r$ught ir$n and nails needed $n the plantati$ns in the Fest "ndies+ "n '&rica. Their *i es and children pr$tected. $nce declared thatD T$ ab$lish a status *hich in all ages ($d has sancti$ned and man has c$ntinued *$uld n$t $nl% be r$bber% t$ an innumerable class $& $ur &ell$*0sub#ects. 4 .it *as a c$mm$n sa%ing that the price $& a Negr$ *as $ne Birmingham gun+<1? "n the late eighteenth centur%. but it *$uld be e9treme cruelt% t$ the '&rican sa ages. Birmingham supplied the sugar st$ es. 0 and *e applaud that de el$pment L *e sh$uld n$t &$rget the e9tent t$ *hich this cit% *as built $n the $ppressi$n $& '&ricans in '&rica and the e9pl$itati$n $& ensla ed '&ricans in the !aribbean+ Continuing the Lecture @nderstanding h$* the @nited Aingd$m &l$urished as a result $& sla er% and the sla e trade. Each has his pr$pert% secure. Birmingham guns *ere e9changed &$r '&rican palm $il+ 'lth$ugh. Birmingham admitted its manu&acturing industr%:s c$nsiderable dependenc% $n the sla e trade+ Birmingham:s businessmen e9plained that . cleanl% l$dging sure. cl$thes. $ne $& %$ur $*n citiBens. B$s*ell:s claims sh$uld surprise n$ $ne &$r he c$nsidered the ensla ed state t$ be superi$r t$ li&e in &reed$m in '&rica+ E$ %$u recall *hat he said in $ne $& his un&$rgettable p$ems depicting h$* happ% and &$rtunate ensla ed pers$ns *ereN The cheer&ul gangC 0 the negr$es see 8er&$rm the tas) $& industr%D E :n at their lab$ur hear them sing. Fhile time &lies 4uic) $n d$*n% *ing..'b$liti$n *$uld ruin the t$*n and imp$ erish its inhabitants+<1/ "n the nineteenth centur%. Iinish:d the bus:ness $& the da%. a p$rti$n $& *h$m it sa es &r$m massacre $r int$lerable b$ndage in their $*n c$untr%. r$llers &$r crushing cane. right here in Birmingham. . N$ human beings are m$re ga%D H& &$$d. Birmingham guns *ere e9changed &$r men and.

the principle $& e4ualit% $& nati$ns and #ust treatment $& their nati$nals+<20 "n resp$nse. he *as n$t as &$rthright in his disdain&ul $pini$n as *as the British I$reign H&&ice in the t*entieth centur%+ The man$eu res $& the @nited States. " *ill discuss the emergence and e9p$sure $& the m%th in&$rming the ide$l$g% $& race and then pr$p$se certain pri$rit% steps that need t$ be ta)en i& the dec$nstructi$n $& the idea $& race is ta)en seri$usl% in the ecclesial c$mmunit%+ Sharpe. the number $& &$rget&ul bene&iciaries $& this legac% seems t$ be $n the decrease+ !hurches in c$untries *h$se hist$r% is mar)ed b% the e9perience $& s%stematicall% $ppressing $thers thr$ugh sla er% need t$ ensure that their ac)n$*ledgement $& the ec$n$mic bene&its the% and their c$mmunities ha e reaped &r$m sla er% is acc$mpanied b% determined e&&$rts t$ r$$t $ut racism &r$m *ithin their ran)s+ The% are als$ called t$ bear pr$phetic *itness t$ the *ider s$ciet% $n behal& $& th$se *h$ su&&er &r$m negati e racial pr$&iling+ " ha e c$me t$ the c$nclusi$n that. *h$ *ere 5 . unless these initiati es include a determined e&&$rt t$ dec$nstruct the n$ti$n $& race. *h$ *as $ne $& the c$llab$rat$rs in the pr$#ect t$ secure liberati$n &r$m ensla ement &$r pe$ple residing in the !aribbean+ '&ter this. " pr$p$se t$ brie&l% characteriBe the relati$n $& ethnicit% and human dignit% in the thin)ing $& Sam Sharpe. t$ deal *ith the legac% and the pre alence $& the sin $& racial pre#udice that *as $nce mani&ested in the ensla ement $& blac) pe$ple in the Fest "ndies+ (rate&ull%. this is *hat the British I$reign H&&ice stated in a c$n&idential mem$randumD The .'nd *hen $ld age brings a release. Nati$nal >er$ $& Gamaica.7'!E EO@'L"TK< 4uesti$n is a highl% c$mbustible $ne++++ The *hite and the c$l$ured races cann$t and *ill n$t amalgamate+ Hne $r the $ther must be the ruling caste++++ There is. there&$re. at present in practical p$litics n$ s$luti$n t$ the race 4uesti$n+21 " ha e been enc$uraged b% ne*s $& s$me $& the initiati es being ta)en b% churches and their leaders here in the @nited Aingd$m in recent decades. Their grate&ul da%s the% end in peace+11 "& B$s*ell:s assumpti$ns ab$ut race re&lected *here England *as in the eighteenth centur%. Human Dignity and Ethnicity The 7ight E9cellent Samuel Sharpe. *as b$rn in Gamaica $& '&rican parents *h$ had been captured and transp$rted t$ Gamaica *here the% *ere ensla ed+22 >is parents *ere am$ng the milli$ns $& pers$ns $& '&rican $rigin. Britain and 'ustralia resulted in the &ailure $& the 1111 8aris 8eace !$n&erence t$ agree the reas$nable pr$p$sal &$r the internati$nal c$mmunit% t$ a&&irm . the e&&$rts ma% &airl% be characteriBed as e4ui alent t$ p$lishing dirt% &l$$rs that *ere n$t &irst scrubbed t$ rem$ e the un*anted and unsightl% particles that stuc) t$ them+ "n this lecture.

" *$uld rather die $n %$nder gall$*s than li e in sla er%. the transatlantic trade in '&ricans has been described asD the largest &$rced human migrati$n in rec$rded hist$r%+ The e9tent $& the human su&&ering ass$ciated *ith this in $luntar% rel$cati$n $& men.&$rcibl% rem$ ed &r$m '&rica *ith the intenti$n $& ensla ement in the !aribbean. *e d$ n$t ha e access t$ an% literar% *$r)s b% Sam Sharpe L the te9t $& serm$ns he preached and the Bible studies he deli ered. Sharpe *as *illing t$ $&&er up his li&e i& his dignit% *ere g$ing t$ be c$ntinuall% disrespected and his humanit% perpetuall% denied+ . all human beings are made b% ($d. sla er% is inc$nsistent *ith biblical teaching $n human &reed$m because it represents &undamentall% disregard &$r the &reed$m $& ($d and readiness t$ dehumaniBe pers$ns+ "t is predicated $n the idea that ensla ers are entitled t$ e9pl$it the ensla ed &$r their $*n material ad antage+ 6 . *e are &$rced t$ rel% $n sec$ndar% s$urces &$r an understanding $& *hat Sharpe belie ed+ M$st $& the a ailable s$urces *ere c$mpiled b% members $& the $ppress$r class that s$ught t$ depri e Sharpe $& his human dignit%+ E en *hen statements are attributed t$ Sharpe. lac)ed a right&ul claim t$ the humanit% the ensla ers reser ed &$r themsel es+ 7es$lute in his re#ecti$n $& this belie&. *ere n$t t$ be regarded as pe$ple *h$ shared the same dignit% and *$rth as th$se *h$ e9pl$ited them+ Sam Sharpe realiBed that the $ppressi e sla eh$lders belie ed that he. *h$ in ests in them dignit% and rights that are inalienable and in i$lable. these are rep$rted b% Eur$peans d$miciled in Gamaica in the nineteenth centur%+ The cumulati e e idence &r$m the a ailable s$urces suggests the &$ll$*ing generaliBed *$rding $& &$ur $& Sharpe:s c$n icti$ns e9pressed in the language $& the c$ntemp$rar% ageD Iirst.< *ere the imm$rtal *$rds he declared be&$re his li&e *as ta)en &r$m him+2= !urrentl%. including the right t$ be &ree+ Sec$nd. &$r e9ample+ Hn acc$unt $& this. N$rth 'merica and S$uth 'merica+23 "ndeed. and th$se *h$se s)in c$l$ur l$$)ed li)e his. Sharpe came t$ see the &undamental err$r $n *hich the sin $& racism rests L the err$r that n$urished the er% r$$ts $& the s%stem $& sla er% as it *as practised in the !aribbean+ This is the $di$us belie& that Sharpe. *$men and children ma% ne er be )n$*n+ But their shipment L pac)ed and st$red beneath the dec) $& ships li)e c$mm$dities L c$nstitutes $ne $& the greatest h$rr$rs $& m$dern times+22 Sharpe accepted the ($spel $& Gesus !hrist preached b% &$rmerl% ensla ed '&ricans *h$ *ent t$ Gamaica *ith the message $& the ($spel+ >is &aith *as als$ in&$rmed b% the teaching $& the missi$naries sent &r$m am$ng the same Eur$pean pe$ple *h$ undert$$) t$ depri e him $& his dignit% and t$ e9pl$it his lab$ur &$r pecuniar% gain+ Ir$m his reading $& the Bible. and $thers li)e him.

Li)e Sharpe. sla er% *as . the% *$uld cease *$r)ing until th$se *h$ r$bbed them $& the bene&its $& their t$il *ere read% t$ $&&er them meaning&ul c$mpensati$n+ 'll the% *ere e9pecting *as 2s ?p per *ee). in the pursuit $& their libert% thr$ugh n$n0 i$lent pr$test.race< *hen *e are re&lecting $n the legac% $& the >$n$urable Samuel Sharpe+ Sharpe )ne* that the practice $& sla er% in the !aribbean *as undergirded b% racist presumpti$ns+ 'cc$rding t$ Meth$dist missi$nar%. Sharpe indenti&ied the Bible as the s$urce &r$m *hich he gained the idea2? Third. the ensla ed are entitled t$ act in sel&0de&ence+ I$urth. *hen.21 the captured '&ricans did n$t )n$* *hat a*aited them in the s$0called Ne* F$rld+ >$*e er. he *$uld rather die than li e in sla er%+<2/ Sharpe did n$t belie e *hite pe$ple had an% right t$ ma)e merchandise $& a human being+ I$r him. the am$unt paid t$ s$0called . the ensla ed l$st e er% semblance $& sel&0determinati$n+ The% *ere n$* listed as part $& the merchandise $n the sugar estate $n *hich the% *ere &$rced t$ *$r)+31 Ensla ed pe$ple in Festern Gamaica resp$nded t$ the denial $& their humanit%. man% $& the '&ricans *h$ su&&ered the sc$urge $& sla er% &elt the brunt $& the i$lent disrespect &$r their dignit% and humanit%+ The% resisted the determined res$l e $& the estates t$ e9tract and bene&it &r$m their lab$ur *ith$ut ade4uatel% c$mpensating them+ E entuall%. since sla er% represents a denial $& human dignit%. piled up in a cellar li)e the $ne at the place n$* called the Sla e !astle in (hana. it seems reas$nable t$ assert that Sharpe underst$$d that c$nsiderati$ns $& ethnicit% *ere &undamental t$ the $perati$n $& the plantati$n ec$n$m% in *hich blac) pe$ple *ere &$rced t$ ser e the interests $& *hite pe$ple+ There is n$ a $iding the 4uesti$n $& ethnicit% and . beginning immediatel% a&ter !hristmas. Sharpe *itnessed t$ ha ing . and &$r his $*n part. the% su&&ered brutal dehumaniBati$n *hile hearing the #$%&ul s$unds $& 'nglicans at *$rship in the r$$m under *hich the% *ere incarcerated+30 'rri ing in the !aribbean and s$ld t$ Eur$pean businessmen b% Eur$pean traders.31. the% enc$unter i$lence &r$m th$se *h$ $ppress them.Sharpe:s belie& that sla er% represents the c$mm$di&icati$n $& the ensla ed and their e9pl$itati$n &$r the bene&it $& the ensla ers is *hat la% at the er% &$undati$n $& the Baptist Far+ 's)ed ab$ut the $rigin $& his idea that all pe$ple ha e a right t$ be &ree.learnt &r$m his Bible that the *hites had n$ m$re right t$ h$ld blac) pe$ple in sla er% than the blac) pe$ple had t$ ma)e the *hite pe$ple sla es. the i$lati$n $& their dignit% and the e9pl$itati$n $& their lab$ur+ The% decided that. the% *$uld ha e had a prem$niti$n $& it. >enr% Bleb%. man% turned t$ i$lent pr$test as a last res$rt+ Fhen Sharpe:s &$rbears passed thr$ugh the d$$r $& n$ return. 1. the ensla ed ha e an $bligati$n t$ ta)e n$n0 i$lent acti$n t$ secure their &reed$m+ "&.a m$nstr$us in#ustice+<2.*$r)h$use men+<32 7 .

cl$se t$ 200 %ears later. .in idi$us distincti$ns< bet*een blac) and *hite sla es. *ere re&ined b% 8 . the% intr$duced . 1. l$$)ed &$r a B$ne $ er *hich t$ e9ert c$ntr$l and t$ e9pand their sphere $& in&luence+ The% turned their attenti$n t$ the s$uth and *est+ B% this time. and blac)s *ere assigned the ardu$us tas)s that needed t$ be d$ne+ E en &ree blac)s *ere identi&ied as ‘abid -plural $& ‘abd 3+20 Fhite "berians li ing in the c$nte9t $& the pre ailing Muslim attitude t$ blac)s shared that attitude themsel es+ 'nd *hen the da%s $& "berian sub#ugati$n b% the M$$rs came t$ an end.31+33 T$ use the *$rds $& Meth$dist Missi$nar%. during the &$urteenth centur%. >enr% Bleb%. h$*e er. " am presenting a lecture in Sharpe:s h$n$ur here in the land that pr$duced the rascals *h$ e9pl$ited Sharpe:s lab$ur in sla er% and then depri ed him $& his li&e+ Eelr$% 7eid0Salm$n claimed3= that.Fhat Sharpe reall% desired *as the purchase $& &reed$m thr$ugh the medium $& a massi e *$r) st$ppage+ Fhat e entuated. at the start $& the ele enth centur%. it *as &$r that *$r) st$ppage and its subse4uent rampage that he and se eral hundred $thers *ere e9ecuted+ T$da%. bet*een /11 and 1212.<3? he had mined the th$ught that Sharpe a&&irmed the e4ualit% $& all human beings and the di ine gi&t $& &reed$m &$r e er%$ne+ 7eid0Salm$n $&&ers a c$mpelling interpretati$n $& Sharpe:s the$l$gical anthr$p$l$g%+ The Emergence and Exposure of the Myth Undergirding Race Ideo ogy Sla er% e9isted l$ng be&$re the Eur$peans built a m$nument in its h$n$ur in the Fest "ndies and it assumed man% &$rms $ er the %ears+3/ '&ter the 7$mans aband$ned this island 5the @nited Aingd$m6 *hich *as a rem$te $utp$st $& their empire and the (ermanic tribes captured it. 7ichard >art. the Spanish and 8$rtuguese p$*ers. *as the dust% brilliance $& the night time s)% as the ensla ed put sugar cane plantati$ns and buildings t$ the t$rch in the e ening $& Eecember 2/. "t is said that. the% repelled their attac)ers and ensla ed th$se *h$m the% t$$) as pris$ners $& *ar+ H er much $& their peri$d $& d$minance. t$ b$rr$* the descripti$n $& Gamaican hist$rian.e9ca ating the la%ers $& +++ m%th$l$g% that engul& +++ the human sub#ect in hist$r%. the% had alread% esp$used n$ti$ns $& the in&eri$rit% $& blac)s *hich. s$me $& the pe$ple *h$ li ed here *ere s$ld int$ sla er%+ "t *as the .ci ilised< 7$mans *h$ intr$duced sla er% t$ the . alth$ugh he himsel& *as prepared t$ die in pursuit $& &reed$m+<32 Ket.barbarians< $& Festern Eur$pe. naming them di&&erentl% L Mabd and mamluk L and treating them di&&erentl%+ Fhite sla es ser ed mainl% as h$useh$ld helpers. the Muslims in "beria ensla ed b$th blac)s and *hites+ 's Games S*eet31 has sh$*n. h$*e er."t *as n$t Sharpe:s purp$se t$ *ade thr$ugh bl$$d t$ &reed$m. nearl% ten percent $& the British p$pulati$n *as ensla ed+ '&ter Muslims &r$m N$rth '&rica c$n4uered the "berian 8eninsula &r$m the 7$mans. a&ter . *h$ is &amiliar *ith the terms empl$%ed b% the sla ers $& th$se da%s+3. in the eighteenth centur%.

in 1. t$ ser e a ne* c$mmercial purp$se+ "ts h$rr$rs *ere intensi&ied a th$usand&$ld+<21 Hrland$ 8atters$n:s identi&icati$n $& sla er% as . h$*e er. in&$rmed the g$ ern$r $& Gamaica thatD There are a race $& beings that cann$t bear pr$sperit%++++ "t *ill be a lapse $& ages be&$re the Negr$ can e en participate $& the blessings $& &reed$m.s$cial death< describes er% *ell the &$rm $& sla er% in the Fest "ndies+ The ensla ed su&&ered a .perpetual state $& dish$n$ur. alm$st be%$nd rec$gniti$n $& its earlier &$rms. the er% name $& the '&rican must cease t$ e9ist in their mem$ries be&$re their cust$ms are $bliterated+23 Strengthening the !oundations of Scientific Racism Man% *ere the Eur$peans *h$ laid the &$undati$ns &$r the rampant disrespect &$r human dignit% that lies at the er% heart $& the idea $& race+ " an >anna&$rd has claimed that . . it *as in the c$nte9t $& a de el$ping pre#udice t$*ard blac) pe$ple+ Sla eh$lders in the !aribbean *ere und$ubtedl% a*are that th$se &r$m *h$se dehumaniBati$n the% pr$&ited *ere pe$ple *h$se ethnic $rigins *ere di&&erent &r$m theirs+ "t is generall% agreed. that *hen the British trade in sla es *as at its height.<22 being permanentl% and i$lentl% alienated &r$m $thers. Gamaica. racist thin)ing had n$t %et achie ed its m$st hein$us &$rm+ H er the centuries.there is er% little e idence $& a c$nsci$us idea $& race until a&ter the 7e&$rmati$n+<22 Fhether this is s$ $r n$t. the de el$ping ide$l$g% $& race *as t$ ac4uire the mas) $& scienti&ic &$undati$n *hich *as e&&ecti e in its p$*er t$ decei e its subscribers+ Scienti&ic racism mischaracteriBed the n$ti$n $& race as a bi$l$gical realit% and be4ueathed a legac% $& *hite racism that man% still struggle t$ $ erc$me t$da%+ N$r *ere the "berians the $nl% $nes *h$ helped c$nstruct the m%th $& blac)s as in&eri$r t$ *hites+ Hther Eur$peans shared liberall% in the manu&acture $& this m$st shame&ul ide$l$gical edi&ice that h$used such pers$ns as a b$$))eeper &r$m the Ne* Karm$uth plantati$n in Pere.the treatment $& 9 . as Games S*eet has said.23. bec$ming s$ciall% dead+ The p$int being made is that *hen Eur$peans intr$duced the instituti$n $& sla er% in the !aribbean.Eur$peans presenting themsel es as scientists int$ an identi&iable and clear racist ide$l$g% *hich predicated blac) in&eri$rit% $n bi$l$gical criteria+ Fhat resulted &r$m the "berian e9pansi$n pr$#ect *as a &$rm $& sla er% that re&lected the deepest depra it% $& the human mind+ 's >art has saidD The ancient instituti$n $& sla er% +++ *as transplanted t$ the 'mericas *here it *as adapted. *h$.

*h$ spea)s a &e* *$rds plainl%+<21 >ume attempted damage c$ntr$l *hen. in his $pini$n. he re ised the &$$tn$te c$ntaining this claim be&$re he died+ >e stated instead that he *as . =2 spelt $ut *hat he called his ."n Gamaica.apt t$ suspect the negr$es t$ be naturall% in&eri$r t$ the *hites< and thatD .the m$st beauti&ul $& the human race+< !laiming that *hites *ere the . Linnaeus. he saidD 10 ."dle blac) pe$ple< in the Fest "ndies. *ere created *ith the end$*ments t$ ma)e them &it t$ ser e their *hite Eur$pean masters+ . *as n$t ad antage$us t$ the $ erall happiness $& human)ind. the% tal) $& $ne Negr$ as a man $& parts and learning.N$ $ne *ill d$ubt 5the6 superi$rit%< $& *hite pe$ple+=1 H er the %ears.There scarcel% e er *as a ci iliBed nati$n $& that -blac)3 c$mple9i$n. n$t $nl% their children.philanthr$pic &riends. Ea id >ume. >ume had little respect &$r blac)s. Th$mas !arl%le and 7$bert An$9+ N$ted British phil$s$pher. adding brie& c$mments $n three Brit$ns 0 !harles Fhite. man% $ther *ell )n$*n &igures helped pr$m$te the idea $& *hite pe$ple as superi$r t$ blac)s+ "n 1. the ph%sician *h$ &$unded the Manchester 7$%al "n&irmar%. acc$rding t$ his utilitarian calculus. criticised &$r this claim. and *h$. but Mtis li)el% he is admired &$r er% slender acc$mplishments li)e a parr$t.K$u ma% $btain an%thing $& the NE(7HES b% $&&ering them str$ng drin).pain&ul dut%< t$ remind them $& the estate $& blac)s *h$. n$r e en an% indi idual eminent either in acti$n $r speculati$n+<=0 Britain pr$duced !harles Fhite. described *hite pe$ple as .There ne er *as a ci iliBed nati$n $& an% c$mple9i$n than *hite< and he $pined that .< Sc$ttish hist$rian. but their *i es and mistresses. "n a &$$tn$te appearing in $ne $& his *$r)s. in 1/11. claimed that pe$ple *h$ li ed in the S$uth .the absence $& an articulated d$ctrine $& racial superi$rit% d$es n$t necessaril% impl% beha i$ural t$lerance in the relati$ns bet*een pe$ples $& s$maticall% di&&erent gr$ups+<2? The list $& pe$ple *h$ helped build the edi&ice $& scienti&ic racism is l$ng and s$me $& the names included in it are li)el% t$ surprise th$se *h$ are n$t su&&icientl% &amiliar *ith s$me $& their *ritings+ " *ill re&er brie&l% t$ aspects $& the c$ntributi$n $& >ume.are in&eri$r t$ the rest $& the species and are incapable $& higher attainment $& the human mind+<2/ 'lth$ugh he did n$t supp$rt sla er% *hich. in an address t$ th$se he deemed his . >ume said thisD .21. Blumenbach and !u ier. Th$mas !arl%le. and ma% easil% pre ail up$n them t$ sell. &$r a case $& brand%+<2. *h$m he described in the &$ll$*ing *$rdsD .< Fhite saidD .blac) '&ricans &r$m the Middle 'ges t$ the earl% m$dern peri$d appears t$ be racism *ith$ut race+<2= This is in )eeping *ith Hrland$ 8atters$n:s $bser ati$n that .m$st rem$ ed &r$m brute creati$n. indeed.

Linnaeus ad$pted a &$ur0&$ld categ$riBati$n $& pe$ple as &$ll$*sD • • • • >$m$ Eur$peaeus. Blac) pe$ple are di&&erent &r$m *hite pe$ple .ha e the right J t$ be compelled t$ *$r) as he *as & e er%thing as much as in c$l$ur+<=1 .blac) races< cann$t bec$me ci iliBed+ . *h$ had c$nstructed him *ith such and such pre&igurements $& capabilit%+ 'nd " incessantl% pra% >ea en. *ith blac) s)in and characteriBed as ind$lent and g$ erned b% caprice+?3 11 . *h$ sent the &$ll$*ing message t$ the S*edish scientist. and >$m$ '&er. British anat$mist. it stamps the manJ+ The races $& men J di&&er &r$m each $ther *idel% 0 m$st *idel%+ <=2 . ha ing *hite s)in and identi&ied as gentle and g$ erned b% la*s. the richest and the p$$rest. a ps%ch$l$gical in&eri$rit% in the dar) races generall%J 5$*ing t$6 perhaps speci&ic characters in the 4ualit% $& the brain itsel&+<=/ An$9 c$ncluded that the . the *hitest ali)e. and t$ do the Ma)erQs *ill. the dar) races stand still. in $ther regi$ns $& the *$rld. >$m$ 'siaticus. still c$mmands its band $& supp$rters t$da%.5T6he races $& men are n$t the result $& accident. *ith red s)in and said t$ be ch$leric -irritable and easil% angered3 and g$ erned b% cust$ms.=0.Tell him " )n$* n$ greater man $n earth+<?1 Linnaeus had de el$ped a ta9$n$m%?2 *hich included categ$ries $& species *ith *hite Eur$peans at the t$p and blac) '&ricans at the b$tt$m $& the human species+ "n this ta9$n$m% *hich. perhaps. had attained precisel% the same right. the &air pr$gress+<=? . and c$nse4uentl%. LinnaeusD .< he said. the di ine right $& being c$mpelled -i& RpermittedR *ill n$t ans*er3 t$ d$ *hat *$r) the% are app$inted &$r. hardl% is there an% d$ubt c$ncerning !arl Linnaeus: signi&icant c$ntributi$n t$ the attempt t$ predicate racism $n the &$undati$n $& science+ "t *as n$ less a pers$n than the S*iss phil$s$pher. *ith %ell$* s)in and described as haught% and g$ erned b% $pini$n. all men. the% are n$t c$n ertible int$ each $ther b% an% c$ntri ance *hats$e er+ The eternal la*s $& nature must pre ail+<== . 7$bert An$9.< he said. .Fith me.L$$) all $ er the gl$be. Gean Gac4ues 7$usseau. . and n$t t$ g$ idle an$ther minute. >$m$ 'mericanus. $r hereditar% descent.The races $& men *hen care&ull% e9amined *ill be &$und t$ sh$* remar)able organic di&&erences+<?0 Fhate er ma% be the disparate estimates $& the c$ntributi$n $& each $& the pers$ns *e ha e menti$ned.Their &uture hist$r% must resemble the past+ The Sa9$n race *ill ne er t$lerate them+<=. in a li&e s$ sh$rtC< "n 1." &eel disp$sed t$ thin) that there must be a ph%sical. is e er%thing.race.=3 argued passi$natel% &$r the superi$rit% $& *hite pe$ple $ er especiall% blac) pe$ple+ . and the blac) is al*a%s the same.

reduced Blumenbach:s race classi&icati$n &r$m &i e t$ threeD !aucasian. the M$ng$lian $r %ell$* race.the m$st degraded $& human races. deemed respectable b% the unsuspecting. the Mala%an $r br$*n race. *ere . Blumenbach did n$t claim that the classi&icati$n s%stem he de el$ped *as immutable+ ?? "n the nineteenth centur%. the edi&ice $& e il that racism represents &$und &inal &$rm+ Fith the passage $& time. the Irench B$$l$gist. s$metimes re&erred t$ as (e$rges !u ier. On the Natural Varieties of Mankind. he attributed s)in c$l$ur t$ ge$graph% and diet and he c$ncluded the '&ricans. pre ailing $pini$n $n race became mar)edl% di&&erent &r$m it *as in the se enteenth and eighteenth centuries+ "n the a&termath $& F$rld Far ".Fhat Linnaeus attempted *as a scienti&ic ta9$n$m% in *hich s)in c$l$ur and beha i$ural characteristics *ere alleged t$ be related bi$l$gicall%+ >is the$r% pr$ ided *hat he c$nsidered a scienti&ic &$undati$n &$r classi&%ing pe$ple+ "t pr$ ided the bedr$c) $n *hich scienti&ic racism *as erected+ Hn this &$undati$n. Blumenbach held thatD .5T6he *hite c$l$r h$lds the &irst place.< *ith pe$ple $& $ther s)in c$l$ur being mere degenerates $& the $riginal+?= E entuall%. c$mprising *hite pe$ple *ith 'dam and E e as their pr$genit$r in *hat !u ier claimed *as the $riginal race. a 8eace !$n&erence *as c$n ened in 8aris *hich *as e9pected t$ herald a ne* *$rld $rder rising &r$m the ash heap created b% the *ar+ S$me participants h$ped the c$n&erence *$uld a&&irm the principle $& e4ualit% am$ng pe$ple 12 . he said. Each race *as deemed . and Ethi$pians L blac) pe$ple+ Blac)s. M$ng$lian L %ell$* pe$ple. in *hich the idea $& race achie ed &ull e9pressi$n as an ide$l$g%. Gean LS$p$ld !u ier. bel$ng t$ the human &amil% and are n$t in&eri$r t$ the $ther s$0called races+ "n $ther *$rds.the claim that there 5are6 immutable ma#$r di isi$ns $& human)ind. the stud% $& .64 the (erman G$hann Blumenbach identi&ied &i e arieties $& human)indD the !aucasian $r *hite race. and the 'merican $r red race+ 't &irst. the Ethi$pian $r blac) race.race< that Linnaeus started *as t$ mushr$$m+ "n 1/1=. in the third editi$n $& his *$r). man% pe$ple subscribed t$ .a h$m$gene$us gr$up $& indi iduals bi$l$gicall% $r linguisticall% similar t$ $ne an$ther and s%stematicall% distinguishable< &r$m $ther s$0called races+?1 H er time. each *ith bi$l$gicall% transmitted characteristics+<?. *h$se &$rm appr$aches that $& the beast and *h$se intelligence is n$*here great en$ugh t$ arri e at regular g$ ernment+<?/ "t t$$) man% %ears &$r the scienti&ic c$mmunit% t$ e&&ecti el% e9p$se the pseud$0science that *as used t$ #usti&% *hite pe$ple sub#ugating blac) pe$ple and t$ pr$ ide a bul*ar) against the ad ance the march t$*ard emancipati$n $& sla er% and the humaniBati$n $& sla eh$lders+ De"un#ing the Myth of Bio ogica Race "n the p$st0Enlightenment peri$d.

appr$ ed a res$luti$n a&&irming the Eeclarati$n $n the Eliminati$n $& 'll I$rms $& 7acial Eiscriminati$n+ 'cc$rding t$ that declarati$n. Scienti&ic and !ultural HrganiBati$n -@NES!H3 issued a Statement on Race. @NES!H ga e &uller e9pressi$n t$ its understanding $& race in a Statement on Race and Racial Prejudice. h$m$ sapiens+ T1 I$r all practical s$cial purp$ses. the @nited Nati$ns issued the "nternati$nal Eeclarati$n $& >uman 7ights. >ar$ld Nich$ls$n bal)ed at an% suggesti$n that.the terri&ic the$r% $& the e4ualit% $& the *hite man *ith the blac)+</0 British 8rime Minister Ll$%d (e$rge 0 a pr$&essed Baptist t$ b$$t L made an impassi$ned plea &$r Irance n$t t$ train *hat he termed .< n$t t$ menti$n *hat he termed . an "nternati$nal Ea% &$r the Eliminati$n $& 7acial Eiscriminati$n *as designated+ B% 11?/. . in 11?3. the @N ad$pted and $pened &$r signature and rati&icati$n the "nternati$nal !$n enti$n $n the Eliminati$n $& 'll I$rms $& 7acial Eiscriminati$n+ ' %ear later./3 declaring thatD Scientists ha e reached general agreement in rec$gniBing that man)ind is $ne. .implied the e4ualit% $& the %ell$* man *ith the *hite man. S$uth '&rica and 'ustralia. it t$$) @S 8resident F$$dr$* Fils$n t$ ensure the derailment $& the intenti$n $& the ma#$rit% $n the League $& Nati$ns !$mmissi$n t$ a&&irm . the @N (eneral 'ssembl%.the principle $& e4ualit% $& nati$ns and #ust treatment $& nati$nals+</2 Fhen. especiall% Britain. s$ciall% un#ust and danger$us. the gr$und*$r) *as laid &$r the &urther undermining $& the assumpti$ns in&$rming the ide$l$g% $& race and the practice $& racism+ T*$ %ears later. t$ maintain the principle $& racial ine4ualit%+ The British representati e./= ' @NES!H c$mmittee $& e9perts &r$m se enteen c$untries declaredD 'll men -sic3 li ing t$da% bel$ng t$ the same species and descend &r$m the same st$c)+ T3a !urrent bi$l$gical )n$*ledge d$es n$t permit us t$ impute cultural achie ements t$ di&&erences in genetic p$tential+ T3c 7acism &alsel% claims that there is a scienti&ic basis &$r arranging gr$ups hierarchicall% in terms $& ps%ch$l$gical and cultural characteristics that are immutable and innate+ T= 13 . m$rall% c$ndemnable. the c$ntributi$ns $& signi&icant *hite delegates underlined the &irm res$l e $& certain nati$ns. that all men -sic3 bel$ng t$ the same d$ctrine $& racial di&&erentiati$n $r superi$rit% is scienti&icall% &alse. the @nited Nati$ns Educati$nal. in 112.big nigger armies+</1 "n the end.deemed t$ bel$ng t$ di&&erent racial gr$upings+ >$*e er. and +++ there is n$ #usti&icati$n &$r racial discriminati$n either in the$r% $r in practice+</2 "n 11?=. @S'.. Mrace: is n$t s$ much a bi$l$gical phen$men$n as a s$cial m%th +++ 5that6 has created an en$rm$us am$unt $& s$cial damage+ T12 's m$re and m$re pe$ple began t$ agree that racism *as inc$nsistent *ith respect &$r human rights.

and $bstacles t$. despite the e&&$rts $& the internati$nal c$mmunit%.< and rea&&irming that . c$nstitute seri$us i$lati$ns $&. clearl% demarcated. *e c$nclude that present0da% ine4ualities bet*een s$0called . the @N (eneral 'ssembl% ad$pted the "nternati$nal !$n enti$n $n the Suppressi$n and 8unishment $& the !rime $& 'partheid+ "t als$ declared 11/3011. Uen$ph$bia and 7elated "nt$lerance rea&&irmed cust$mar% principles earlier adumbrated+ N$tabl%. it rec$gniBed. subse4uentl%. *here the% am$unt t$ racism and racial discriminati$n. the @N &$und it necessar% t$ declare a sec$nd. and the sec$nd in Eurban. the &ull en#$%ment $& all human rights and den% the sel&0 e ident truth that all human beings are b$rn &ree and e4ual in dignit% and rights. 9en$ph$bia and related int$lerance. +++ and are am$ng the r$$t causes $& man% internal and internati$nal c$n&licts.2 as the Eecade &$r 'cti$n t$ !$mbat 7acism and 7acial Eiscriminati$n+ The h$pe *as that the peri$d *$uld be used &$r c$ncrete acti$n t$ eliminate the e ils it identi&ied+ Needless t$ sa%. rich in di ersit%< the !$n&erence emphasiBed the need &$r . al$ng *ith the$ries that attempt t$ determine the e9istence $& s$0called distinct human races.Euring the 11/0s. at the end $& the decade. racial discriminati$ an% d$ctrine $& racial superi$rit%.a gl$bal &ight against racism. certain gr$ups *ithin the scienti&ic c$mmunit% made signi&icant decisi$ns t$ register their re#ecti$n $& the ide$l$g% $& race+ Ta)e. and later. racial discriminati$n. the Statement $n . and p$litical circumstances+/? The @N c$n ened F$rld !$n&erences t$ !$mbat 7acism and 7acial Eiscriminati$n+ The &irst t$$) place in (ene a in 11/.7ace< issued in 111. b% the 'merican 'nthr$p$l$gical 'ss$ciati$n+ "t e9plicitl% states thatD Fith the ast e9pansi$n $& scienti&ic )n$*ledge +++ it has bec$me clear that human p$pulati$ns are n$t unambigu$us. S$uth '&rica in 2001+ The !$n&erence Statement// pr$duced b% the Sec$nd F$rld !$n&erence against 7acism. 7acial Eiscriminati$n. bi$l$gicall% distinct gr$ups++++ (i en *hat *e )n$* ab$ut the capacit% $& n$rmal humans t$ achie e and &uncti$n *ithin an% culture.30 1112 and 111202003 respecti el%+ Euring this third decade.racial< gr$ups are n$t c$nse4uences $& their bi$l$gical inheritance but pr$ducts $& hist$rical and c$ntemp$rar% s$cial. &$r e9ample. racial discriminati$n.racism. . little had changed in attitudes t$ race+ N$t surprisingl% there&$re. educati$nal. 9en$ph$bia and related int$lerance+< The !$n&erence a&&irmed that .all pe$ples and indi iduals c$nstitute $ne human &amil%. ec$n$mic.*ith gra e c$ncern that. the principal $b#ecti es $& the three Eecades t$ !$mbat 7acism and 7acial Eiscriminati$n 5had6 n$t been attained and that c$untless human beings 5c$ntinued6 t$ the present da% t$ be ictims $& racism. +++ and the c$nse4uent &$rced displacement $& p$pulati$ns+< Iirml% . a third Eecade &$r 'cti$n t$ !$mbat 7acism and 7acial Eiscriminati$n L 11. 14 .

man% $& *h$m ha e helped clari&% that race is a s$ciall% c$nstructed identit%+ "t d$es n$t c$rresp$nd t$ an% set $& bi$l$gical &eatures *hich *ere $nce used as a basis &$r di iding human)ind int$ di&&erent racial gr$upings+ "t is n$* generall% a&&irmed that bi$l$gicall% there is $nl% $ne race L the human race+ 'nd the .< such a thing . n$r ha e there e er been in the past+< Meneses c$ncludes that . and share a c$mm$n descent+ 'll li ing human p$pulati$ns ha e e $l ed &r$m $ne c$mm$n ancestral gr$up $ er the same peri$d $& time+ T1 I$r centuries.a matter $& pri$rit% &$r the internati$nal c$mmunit%+< The !$n&erence als$ pr$p$sed a pr$gramme $& acti$n designed t$ address the sc$urge $& racism that c$ntinues t$ be e ident t$da%+ Since that c$n&erence. >$m$ sapiens. &urther acti$n has been ta)en in the scienti&ic c$mmunit% t$ help c$ns$lidate the gains c$ntingent up$n the re#ecti$n $& the alleged scienti&ic &$undati$n &$r the idea $& a &irm lin) bet*een bi$l$g% and . in her succinct summar% $& the basis $& the re#ecti$n $& the pseud$science $& race.9en$ph$bia and related int$lerance and all their abh$rrent and e $l ing &$rms and mani&estati$ns< and called this .in the bi$l$gical *$rld< . n$r has there e er been. .as race+</1 The alleged scienti&ic basis &$r the n$ti$n $& bi$l$gical race has been re#ected b% m$st scientists. but represent a strateg% $& d$minant ethnic gr$ups that *ish t$ assert their superi$rit% $ er $thers+ The e9istence $& s$0called .races< is highl% c$ntested+ 15 .there is n$ such thing. s$ci$l$gists and anthr$p$l$gists.human beings as a *h$le c$nstitute a er% narr$* gene p$$l++++ 5H6ther species ha e &ar m$re ariati$n than 5humans6 d$+< Sec$nd. sch$lars ha e s$ught t$ c$mprehend patterns in nature b% classi&%ing li ing things+ 'ttempts t$ classi&% human p$pulati$ns in this manner ha e been *h$ll% misplaced+++ 5>6umanit% cann$t be classi&ied int$ discreet ge$graphical categ$ries $n the basis $& bi$l$gical di&&erences+ T= There is n$ necessar% c$nc$rdance bet*een bi$l$gical characteristics and culturall% de&ined gr$ups+ T10 El$ise Meneses. . the "nternati$nal @ni$n $& 'nthr$p$l$gical and Ethn$l$gical Sciences issued its $*n Statement $n 7ace and 7acism in *hich it declared thatD 'll humans li ing t$da% bel$ng t$ a single species.races< *e ha e rei&ied are s$cial c$nstructs that are n$t based $n bi$l$g%. presents three p$stulates+ Iirst./. .slight ariati$ns bet*een p$pulati$ns d$ n$t indicate race lines++++ 5>umans6 are all geneticall% related+ There are n$ pure st$c)s am$ng us.race<+ "n 2011.m$st $& the ph%sical ariati$n that d$es e9ist 5am$ng humans6 is spread thr$ugh$ut the entire human p$pulati$n< and is n$t characteristic $& an% speci&ic gr$up *ithin the p$pulati$n+ Third.

N$t surprisingl%. there&$re. " *ill suggest that the churches initiate a speci&ic acti$n t$ help it $ erc$me its apath% $n issues $& race+ Iirst. animated b% the rene*ed c$mmitment t$ implement the acti$n items that " *ill identi&%. b% *h$se $*n $liti$n. the church needs t$ e9p$se a &undamental misunderstanding $& the di ine nature that undergirds the ide$l$g% $& race+ This is the err$r $& segregating human &reed$m &r$m its &$undati$n and gr$unding in di ine &reed$m+ ($d. *hen the F$rld !$uncil $& !hurches. has end$*ed human)ind *ith the gi&t $& &reed$m+ "n s$ ereign &reed$m. deliberated $n the sub#ect $& race and racism at its &$urth assembl% in 11?. and • e&&$rts t$ discriminate against and e9clude the $utgr$up &r$m &ull participati$n in the li&e $& the c$mmunit%+. L and the !$uncil did this in the c$nte9t $& the discussi$n $n race that *as ta)ing place in the internati$nal c$mmunit% L it identi&ied the &eatures $& racism as &$ll$*sD • ethn$centric pride in $ne:s $*n racial gr$up. " end this lecture *ith s$me acti$n items that are gr$unded in the &aith $& the church that c$uld re $luti$niBe the *a% the church deals *ith the sub#ect $& race+ Eec$nstructing the n$ti$n $& race and. the *$rld *as created and. ($d best$*s libert% $n human beings *h$m ($d has made and ($d *ills that that libert% be respected+ The denial $& the &reed$m that rightl% bel$ngs t$ each human 16 . • belie& that these gr$up characteristics are &undamentall% bi$l$gical in nature and are transmitted t$ succeeding generati$ns • str$ng negati e &eelings t$*ards $ther gr$ups *h$ d$ n$t share the de&ining characteristics $& their gr$up. s$me imp$rtant steps need t$ be ta)en+ " menti$n brie&l% &$ur $& these steps that are r$$ted in a Trinitarian &rame*$r) that issues int$ *hat " regard as a resp$nsible the$l$gical anthr$p$l$g%+ "n light $& these. human beings are entrusted *ith the ste*ardship $& creati$n. • pre&erence &$r the 5alleged6 distinguishing characteristics $& that gr$up. in *h$se pr$ idence. the church ma% register &urther pr$gress $n the r$ad t$ trul% l$ ing $thers &$ll$*ing the pattern Gesus has taught and e9empli&ied+ Loo#ing to$ard the !uture The ass$ciati$n $& bi$l$g% and race c$nstitutes the er% &$undati$n $& the pr$blem $& race and racist ide$l$g%+ This ide$l$g% is a human creati$n designed b$th t$ ma)e ine4ualit% bet*een pe$ple appear t$ be inb$rn and t$ rein&$rce the belie& that it is part $& the ta)en0&$r0granted landscape $& human li&e+ "& !hristians t$da% are t$ c$me t$ terms *ith the seri$us pr$blem re&lected in the p$pular understanding $& race. all the clari&%ing statements ab$ut race ha e n$t succeeded in eliminating the pr$blem $& racism+ N$t surprisingl%.0 @n&$rtunatel%. *e are &$cusing $n the sub#ect $& race in this lecture+ Because racism is a pr$blem as much *ithin the church c$mmunit% as $utside $& it.

1 !$mmenting $n the biblical narrati e $& creati$n.($d breathed the Spirit $& liberati$n. thr$ugh his li&e. the *a% $& the &$ll$*er $& !hrist *ill re&lect the grammar $& that mutual respect and a ape l$ e that are per&ectl% inh$spitable t$ an% claim $& inherent superi$rit% $& $ne pers$n $ er an$ther+ Hur !hrist$centric &aith deri es &r$m !hrist:s acti$n in brea)ing d$*n the *alls that separate pe$ple &r$m $ne an$ther. &alse pride $r the pursuit $& p$*er. and t$ de el$p the res$l e t$ *$r) c$nsistentl% t$ $ erc$me. the S$uth '&rican g$ ernment in 111? e9pressed its understanding $& ubuntu in the &$ll$*ing terms+ "buntu isD the principle $& caring &$r each $therQs *ell0being+++ and a spirit $& mutual supp$rt++++ Each indi idualQs humanit% is ideall% e9pressed thr$ugh his $r her 17 .2 T$ den% human beings the capacit% &reel% t$ e9ercise their libert% is t$ &l% in the &ace $& the creat$r *h$ is the gi er $& &reed$m+ The church needs t$ redisc$ er and ac)n$*ledge the lin) bet*een di ine &reed$m and human &reed$m and place this lin) at the centre $& its disc$urse $n *hat it means t$ be a part $& the creati$n that ($d has made+ Sec$nd. death and resurrecti$n. .Fhene er the church &ails t$ ma)e the c$nnecti$n bet*een di ine &reed$m and human &reed$m. E*ight >$p)ins has e9plained that .being represents a re#ecti$n $& the di ine design &$r creati$n+ 's N$el Ers)ine has said. it supp$rts and gi es its blessings t$ ici$us structures $& $ppressi$n in $ur *$rld+<. ($d s*ings the d$$r *ide $pen &$r the rene*al and re0in ig$rati$n $& *hat it means t$ be trul% human+ ($d enables pe$ple t$ see the sel& and the $ther as e4uall% alid e9pressi$ns $& ($d:s m%steri$us acti$n in creati$n and redempti$n+ Then. Gesus !hrist secures ict$r% $ er sin.the &reed$m inherent in ($d:s $*n sel&+<. int$ the er% act $& creati$n itsel& +++ -(en 2D/3<. human beings *ere br$ught int$ e9istence t$ be in e4ual relati$nship at each stage $& their interacti$ns++++ ($d implanted liberati$n in the created human beings +++ 5s$ that6 this liberati$n ma% be enacted $n the e er%da% and $rdinar% le els $& e9istence+<. releasing them &$r the *h$les$me en#$%ment $& ubuntu+ "n a !hite Paper $n Fel&are. the seri$us pr$blem that inheres in a bi$l$gical understanding $& . sin is at *$r) in human)ind+ Fhen.race<+ Fhen *e all$* $ur ($d0gi en &reed$m t$ be c$ntaminated b% dist$rted understandings. !hristians ma% need t$ intenti$nall% re0engage the Christocentric faith that highl% alues *hat ($d has acc$mplished &$r the sal ati$n $& the *$rld thr$ugh the sacri&ice $& !hrist+ This is an imp$rtant re4uirement i& *e are t$ c$me t$ terms *ith.2 The &reed$m each human being recei es is . the Spirit t$ be &ree.3 The gi&t $& &reed$m entails &reed$mD t$ en#$% all $& ($d:s *$r) *ith$ut +++ e9ternal negati e restrains $& an% )ind+ "n sum.

that $ne sees the &ull mani&estati$n $& the &reed$m be4ueathed t$ all !hristians+ This &reed$m is mar)ed b% sel&0empt%ing l$ e L the l$ e that reaches $ut &$r the sa)e $& the bel$ ed. unenlightened. in&idels. *h$ is the ic$n $& the in isible ($d. ab$riginals $r nati es. and that in&$rm the stere$t%pes *e in ent and the instituti$ns *e de el$p+.relati$nship *ith $thers and theirs in turn thr$ugh a rec$gniti$n $& the indi idualQs humanit%+ @buntu means that pe$ple are pe$ple thr$ugh $ther pe$ple+ "t als$ ac)n$*ledges b$th the rights and the resp$nsibilities $& e er% citiBen in pr$m$ting indi idual and s$cietal *ell0being+. that *e create and utiliBe as identit% mar)ers that ser e t$ gal aniBe $ur &eelings $& superi$rit% $ er $thers+ "nstead. *e are capable $& imagining h$* human di ersit% &inds a sa&e h$me *ithin the $ne m%stical b$d% $& !hrist *here n$ $ne is demeaned $r disrespected and all *h$ c$n&ess !hrist are *elc$me at the Table $& li&e+. ma)es us c$mplicit in the sin &r$m *h$se perpetrati$n *e c$ntinue t$ reap pri ileges and bene&its+ "t is the >$l% Spirit *h$ *ill help us detect *hat !harles Mills calls #he Racial 18 . sa ages.silent racism< L the unsp$)en racist th$ughts and unac)n$*ledged racist assumpti$ns that in&$rm the attitudes man% pe$ple displa%. gl$r%. human beings discern the c$nt$urs $& *hat Barbara Trepagnier calls . $r . pagans. children./ The Spirit al$ne can cleanse $ur minds enabling us t$ understand *a%s in *hich man% $& us are bene&iciaries $& instituti$nal racism *hich. a trinitarian !hrist$centric &aith *ill n$t acc$mm$date the negati e images $& $thers. and *e c$nstruct these identities in $rder t$ maintain d$minance $ er them in patr$niBing *a%s+ Fith a trul% !hrist$centric &aith. a ital need e9ists &$r the redisc$ er% $& the pneumato ogica dimensions $& &aith&ul !hristian li ing+ Hnl% s$ *ill the church be read% t$ appr$priate the p$*er t$ discern the *a%s in *hich sin is at *$r) in the structures and arrangements that ser e the cause $& human d$minati$n+ The >$l% Spirit $pens $ur understanding t$ $ur $cati$nal $bligati$n t$ li e *ith the s%mph$n% $& e9istential relatedness *ith ($d and *ith $ther human beings *ithin the c$mmunit% $& the *h$le creati$n+ Enli ened b% the >$l% Spirit. *hether *e li)e it $r n$t. *e *ill assign t$ each L and t$ all pers$ns L the primar% identit% $& a human being+ Fith &ell$* !hristians *e *ill a&&irm $ur shared identit% in Gesus !hrist+ 8e$ple ha e an incredible capacit% &$r in enting identities &$r gr$ups $& pe$ple bel$nging t$ $ther cultures+ Fe call them barbarians.success<+ The sel&less l$ e that is part and parcel $& $ur resp$nse t$ !hrist is a strateg% t$ secure the liberati$n $& creati$n+ !hrist$centric &aith $pens up space &$r c$ enantal partnerships geared t$*ard the edi&icati$n $& all and aimed at the *el&are $& the *h$le c$mmunit%+ Third.= "n the perspecti e $& ubuntu. heathen.? "t is supremel% in Gesus !hrist. rather than as part $& a utilitarian game pursued in search $& pers$nal h$n$ur. and $& $therness.

GVrgen M$ltmann caught a glimpse $& the &reed$m the >$l% Spirit brings *hen he re&erred t$ the church as . the negati e identities *e c$nstruct &$r $ursel es and &$r $thers cann$t stand in the light $& the ne* realit% ($d calls the church t$ un eil be&$re the *$rld+ "n this realit%. c$ntemp$rar% !hristians need t$ read the Bible *ith e%es *ide $pen s$ as t$ be able t$ discern. the sharp edges $& the dagger $& racism *ill be rendered useless against the bedr$c) $& in&$rmed &aith+ 19 . Gesus: ethic $& radical l$ e $& neighb$ur+ 's G+ Aamer$n !arter has p$inted $ut. . each pers$n appears as a child $& ($d *ith the heritage $& that &reed$m *hich is gi en in !hrist+ 's a c$mmunit% li ing under the reign $& !hrist. the s$cial $rder+<13 Fhen this *a% $& reading Scripture is pursued. *here the pernici$us &$rces $& this *$rld ha e been undermined and the cruel p$*ers dethr$ned. *ith #$%&ul aband$$ple are &reed &r$m the $ppressi$n *hich separates them &r$m $thers< and &rees them .an $rder $& &reed$m< in *hich. against the grain $& s$me d$minant readings.&$r &ree &ell$*ship *ith $ne an$ther<+.<10 se eral challenges ma% be met and $ erc$me+ Iirst. $ne:s appr$ach *ill th$r$ughl% undermine the claims $& th$se *h$ ma)e the !reat$r culpable &$r the racist ide$l$g% that denies the e4ual dignit% $& all human beings created b% the $ne ($d+ 7acists acc$mplish this b% claiming that the instinct t$ regard $thers as in&eri$r t$ $nesel& is c$nsistent *ith di ine pr$ idence+ This applies especiall% t$ *hite pe$ple *h$ are inherit$rs $& *hat !ar$line 7ed&earn describes as . and is implicit in. the church bec$mes.. much $& $ur c$ntemp$rar% p$litical disc$urse and arrangements+.against. the radical imp$rtance $& the creati$n $& human)ind in the image $& ($d+ The li ing $ut $& the &aith $n the bedr$c) $& an in&$rmed and de&ensible theo ogica anthropo ogy is the sine %ua non $& genuine !hristian discipleship+ B% reading the scriptures in the )e% $& this r$unded the$l$gical anthr$p$l$g% that . . !hrist &$ll$*ers need t$ engage the creati e the$l$gical imaginati$n that ma)es p$ssible a reading $& Scripture .a &ell$*ship $& the &ree<+ "t is .$ontract that is presupp$sed b% the s$cial c$ntractarianism that in&$rms. th$se *h$ read Scripture thr$ugh the lens $& a mature the$l$gical anthr$p$l$g% *ill be led t$ identi&% *ith the th$r$ughg$ing criti4ue $& s$cial in#ustice in the traditi$n $& the great pr$phets $& ancient "srael and t$ embrace. $ne *ill be disp$sed t$ re#ect the heretical claims regarding ensla ement $& blac) pe$ple as #ust pa%ment &$r the sin $& >am+ 11 Sec$nd.the the$l$gical racism that humanit% *as $riginall% Fhite+<12 Third. discipleship and ne* &ell$*ship< mani&esting *hat it means t$ be &reed b% !hrist+ ' redisc$ er% b$th $& the place $& the >$l% Spirit in the li&e $& !hrist0&$ll$*ers and $& the pr$cess $& sancti&icati$n in a belie er:s li&e is $& ital imp$rtance &$r the li ing $ut $& the l$ ing relati$ns that sh$uld characteriBe the !hristian c$mmunit%+ I$urth.1 "n this c$mmunit%. rather than *ithin.interr$gates *hat pe$ple are created and called t$ be and t$ d$. as he said. in the *$rds $& M$ltmann.the &ell$*ship $& !hrist thr$ugh &aith and h$pe.

that re&uses t$ a&&irm that th$se !hristians *h$ practise and de&end it are c$mpr$mising their standing in !hrist. p$litical and ec$n$mic c$nse4uences $& racism. such a c$ngregati$n has turned its bac) $n the truth $& the ($spel and has bec$me a pseud$0church+ "t *as in his pr$&$und disapp$intment *ith the church under NaBi (erman%. and m$re speci&icall%. certain church c$ngregati$ns. the Eutch 7e&$rm !hurch in S$uth '&rica. is needed in $ur times+ Nati$nal ecclesial c$mmuni$ns need t$ declare a status confessionis in relati$n t$ their member churches. &$r e9ample. #e$pardiBed the integrit% $& the ($spel and re#ected s$lidarit% *ith the b$d% $& !hrist+1. and are li ing in c$rp$rate betra%al $&. s$cial.2+1/ This de el$pment *as $ccasi$ned b% the crisis created b% the attitude $& certain churches t$ apartheid+ Thr$ugh their supp$rt and de&ence $& instituti$nal racism. their member c$ngregati$ns that practise racism and end$rse racist ide$l$g%+ The reas$n " ma)e this appeal is that the pr$blem $& racism has pr$ en t$ be intractable+ The resp$nsi eness $& secti$ns $& the church c$mmunit% t$ the ubi4uit% $& racism has been sluggish+ Ecclesial inacti$n. " urge that the drastic acti$n $& declaring that a status confessionis has arri ed in relati$n t$ certain churches. the true g$spel and its #ust demands+1? 't least t*$ !hristian F$rld !$mmuni$ns applied the c$ncept $& status confessionis in their relati$n t$ apartheid+ The Lutheran F$rld Iederati$n -LFI3 t$$) this acti$n in 11// and the F$rld 'lliance -n$* F$rld !$mmuni$n3 $& 7e&$rmed !hurches -F!7!3 did the same in 11. and that re&rains &r$m ta)ing c$ncrete and decisi e acti$n t$ r$$t $ut racism &r$m its li&e+ B% n$t participating in the struggle t$ $ erc$me racism. the church declares that !hristians and churches de&ending a p$siti$n that is pr$&$undl% unchristian are guilt% $& heres%+ This means that the ecclesial pr$p$nents and de&enders $& seri$usl% &la*ed s$ci$0p$litical and ethical belie&s are seen t$ be dis4uali&%ing themsel es &r$m participati$n in the *ider &amil% $& !hrist:s church+ The% can n$ l$nger be regarded as churches in the true sense because the% ha e &$rsa)en."n the light $& all that has been said. that is. ma% " assert that perhaps *e n$* need t$ determine *hether a status confessionis has arri ed in relati$n t$ an% church c$ngregati$n that denies that racism is sin. has de astating c$nse4uences &$r the *itness $& the church and the integrit% $& the g$spel it preaches+ The inacti$n $& s$me church c$ngregati$ns is t$$ disastr$us t$ be ign$red+ E er% c$ngregati$n has an $bligati$n t$ pla% its part in l$$sening the m$rtar cementing the bric)*$r) $& pre#udice and hate+ Erastic acti$n needs t$ be ta)en that $bliges each church c$ngregati$n t$ ta)e 20 . *ith the *atering d$*n $& the &irst dra&t $& the Bethel !$n&essi$n. that is. This idea re&ers t$ the e9istence $& a situati$n that threatens t$ destr$% the integrit% $& the church:s c$n&essi$n $& &aith+ Such a situati$n demands a restatement $& the &aith that ine itabl% includes a distincti$n bet*een Mtrue: and M&alse: !hurch+1= B% in $)ing the status confessionis.12 that Eietrich B$nh$e&&er called attenti$n t$ status confessionis. in the &ace $& the religi$us.

see. Edit$r Selected !ritin s and Speeches of Marcus )ar. Edit$rs+ -Ne* K$r).e'( *is !ork and +mpact -Trent$nD '&rica F$rld 8ress. Edit$r+ #he Political Philosoph' and Opinions of Marcus )ar.Science and the M%th $& Bi$l$gical 7ace< in #his Side of *ea. 'm% (ar e%. &$r e9ample. ?2 and ?=+ " an >anna&$rd has claimed that 'rist$tle:s ideas $n sla er% ha e been . that *hat " ha e suggested *$uld c$ntribute t$ that understanding $& li&e t$gether that is c$nsistent *ith the church:s isi$n $& the )ingd$m $& ($d+11 Sh$uld the dec$nstructi$n $& $ur racialiBed *$rld ie* be achie ed. in $thers. MassD E$ er 8ublicati$ns. created in the image $& ($d.+ = El$ise >iebert Meneses.e' -E$ er.eclaration to the !ord b% the Sec$nd 8an0'&rican !$ngress $& 1121 cited in Filliam E+ B+ EuB$is #he !orld and -frica.e' or -frica for the -fricans 1123 -E$ er. and in $ur *$rld the #$% $& l$ ing as Gesus did. 11?33. 200/3. 20013. in Social and Political Philosoph'( Readin s from Plato to )handi Edited b% G$hn S$mer ille and 7$nald Sant$ni -Ne* K$r)D 'nch$r B$$)s. the &$ur steps " ha e identi&ied and the suggesti$n " ha e made &$r the church:s res$lute acti$n against racism *ill n$t ade4uatel% resp$nd t$ Fillie Gennings: call &$r a radical trans&$rmati$n $& the !hristian imaginati$n that *$uld e ince a rec$n&igurati$n $& li ing spaces int$ l$cati$ns *here pe$ple can imagine ne* *a%s $& c$nnecting *ith each $ther and desire ne* patterns $& s$cial #$ining+ " h$pe.ention of Racism in $lassical -nti%uit' -8rincet$nD 8rincet$n @ni ersit% 8ress. 3= 21 . and G$seph Wiegler -!ambridgeD !ambridge @ni ersit% 8ress. 7upert Le*is and 8atric) Br%an. H9&$rd @ni ersit% 8ress. Politics& B$$) 1 8art =. 20023+ 4 . +phi enia in -ulis& 120001201. 111?3+ See especiall% 8art "" $& the b$$)+ !&+ Ben#amin "saac:s assignment $& the designati$n .gr$ssl% misinterpreted and $ erpla%ed<+ >e belie es that generati$ns $& sch$lars ha e attributed t$ the (ree)s and 7$man racial attitudes the% did n$t p$ssess+ See his Race( #he *istor' of an +dea in the !est -Fashingt$n E!D The F$$dr$* Fils$n !enter 8ress. 11.en( Race& /thnicit'& and $hristian 0aith 7$bert 8riest and 'l ar$ Nie$t$0 racism< t$ &$rms $& pre#udice in classical anti4uit%+ See his #he +n. . 11123. 11?2 ed+3D 23.. a ailable at httpDXXclassics+mit+eduXEuripidesXiphiYaul+html 3 Hn Marcus (ar e%:s li&e. Ben#amin "saac.a stand and that *arns e er% ecclesial c$ngregati$n $& the inadmissible c$mpr$mise that is inherent in inacti$n $n the racism &r$nt+ 8erhaps. 320=?+ 2 Euripides. )ar. MassD The Ma#$rit% 8ress.race< n$ l$nger pre ail *ithin the ecclesial c$mmunit%+ "t *ill be p$ssible &$r the churches t$ e9hibit their c$mmitment t$ realiBe in themsel es. churches *ill launch $ut int$ a *$rld in *hich all pe$ple. Ne* K$r)D "nternati$nal 8ublishers. it *ill be p$ssible &$r the churches t$ de el$p the capacit% t$ en isi$n a ne* s$cial $rder in *hich ine4ualities based $n assumpti$ns $& . $& sharing and caring as Gesus did. but als$ h$* t$ engage in &ierce c$mpetiti$n t$ $utd$ $ne an$ther in sh$*ing h$n$ur and e9tending a hand $& sel&less l$ e t$ each $ther+ 1 'rist$tle. Edited b% Miriam Elia 0Ield$n.7acismD ' 7ati$naliBati$n $& 8re#udice in (reece and 7$me< in Ori ins of Racism in the !est.?3 and B$b Blaisdell. 20023 and his essa% . ma% learn &r$m them n$t $nl% h$* t$ li e in peace *ith #ustice. and $& bearing c$mpelling *itness t$ li&e in c$mmunit% mar)ed b% $neness *ith !hrist+ Then. h$*e er.

Milt$n !at$ and Err$l Barr$*. 20033. cited in Eric Filliams. =0+ 13 Eric Filliams.ocuments +llustrati.e #rade -L$nd$nD 1/=23. 20013.ie1 30 -232002.10. Race& +5 and 6ansen -L$nd$nD 7$utledge & Aegan 8aul. .:8ettic$at 7ebelli$n:ND F$men in Emancipati$n< in /mancipation( #he 3essons and the 3e ac' Edit$r+ >$pet$n Eunn -Aingst$nD 'ra*a) 8ublicati$ns.e #rade -L$nd$nD 1/=23. 20023. . cited in Eric Filliams. 11?/3. 111. man% students &r$m the !aribbean tra elled t$ Britain t$ &urther their studies+ Eugenia !harles. bet*een 1212 and 1. $apitalism and Sla./0. 11?23. $apitalism and Sla. 1?001?1.3& ?30?2+ . Edit$r+ #he Poetr' of Sla. but suggests that. . 6 Edit$r -L$nd$nD The (rampian !lub. . -H9&$rdD H9&$rd @ni ersit% 8ress.Ee gra e is de h$me &$r such as *e+< See Perene Shepherd. 11. 7$% 'ugier and Ll$%d Braith*aite+ See (ladst$ne Mills. $olonial !est +ndian Students in 2ritain -M$na. . $icero 3etters to -tticus 1ith an /n lish #ranslation b' /. . 200/3. @ni ersit% $& the Fest "ndies 8ress. 120+ 20 8aul Lauren.The Hrigins and Eemise $& the !$ncepti$n $& 7ace<.er' -L$nd$n. 11. 11.2+' -L$nd$n. Po1er and Prejudice( #he Politics and . "t appears that the &igure $& 1= milli$n is increasingl% being &$und t$ be acceptable am$ng man% researchers+ 22 .iscrimination -B$ulderD Fest ie*.e of the *istor' of the Sla. said t$ be a &icti$nal n$ el. =0+ 15 Eric Filliams. $apitalism and Sla. 111/3. Niall Iergus$n. . 113+ "nterestingl%. 201 cited in Ori ins of Racism in the Fest Edited b% Miriam Elia 0Ield$n.. 1.!harles >irschman . 2003+ 1 !ited in Pincent 8arill$. that the number *as s$me ele en milli$n+ Basil Ea ids$n.+ !&+ 8aul Lauren:s c$mments $n Brist$l. the numbers are m$re li)el% &$rt% t$ &i&t% milli$n+ -See his !est -frica and the -tlantic Sla. i0 9ii+ 12Filliam Snelgra e.Ne1 -ccount of Some Parts of )uinea and the Sla.O !instedt& M-& of Ma dalen $olle e& O4ford -L$nd$nD Filliam >einemann Ltd+ & !ambridgeD >ar ard @ni ersit% 8ress. "n 2usha<s Mistress. an ensla ed *$man named !atherine replied t$ an in itati$n t$ return h$me in the &$ll$*ing *$rds.ised and /4panded /dition -B$st$nD'& . /mpire( #he Rise and . 'ndre Eeutsch.e. Population and . Po1er and Prejudice& 11+ 21 8aul Lauren. 1?001?1. ?01. 21/+ 11 "n the a&termath $& F$rld Far "". and Nantes in Po1er and Prejudice& 1/+ 12Filliam Snelgra e.2+ 16 Eric Filliams. ?. Edit$r .er'.emise of the 2ritish !orld Order and the 3essons for )lobal Po1er -Ne* K$r)D Basic B$$)s.I$re*$rd< t$ Ll$%d Braith*aite. Li erp$$l.elopment Re. 11?23D . $apitalism and Sla.#heolo ' of the 2lack -tlantic Stru le for 3iberation -Aingst$nD "an 7andle'( -n -n lo7-merican -ntholo '& 896478:6.e #rade > the pr$cess $& $btaining pe$ple &$r ensla ement and th$se *h$ died $n b$ard the sla e ships *hen cr$ssing the 'tlantic $cean. E+!++ 11300113=3 "". $r the @ni ersal Empire $& L$ e<+ See Marcus F$$d. Burning for 0reedom( . ?.2+ 17 EliBabeth E$nnan. 10 !ited in Games Il%nn.N$ 'b$liti$n $& Sla er%./0. 11?23. "nderstandin Race and /thnic Relations -B$st$nD 'll%n and Bac$n.Ne1 -ccount of Some Parts of )uinea and the Sla./?3D 11?+ 11 Ir$m B$s*ell:s 1/11 p$em. $apitalism and Sla.e #rade in -merica -Fashingt$n. 20013. Br$*n. 20123+ 23 N$ $ne reall% )n$*s h$* man% '&ricans *ere transp$rted &r$m their c$ntinent &$r ensla ement in the !aribbean and the 'mericas+ >ugh Th$mas. &uture 8rime Ministers in the !aribbean *ere am$ng them+ 'ls$ am$ng them *ere &uture $utstanding @F" pr$&ess$rs such as E$uglas >all.e #rade& 844=7 8:9= -Ne* K$r)D T$uchst$ne. 2os1ell& 1ith a Memoir and -nnotations+ !harles 7$ stream/ letterstoatticuswins03ciceuo t!page/n7/mo"e/'. #he -frican Sla. #he Sla. Po1er and Prejudice& 102+ 22 8erhaps the m$st c$mprehensi e bibli$graph% $n Sam Sharpe is a ailable in Eelr$% 7eid0Salm$n. cited in Eric Filliams. 1/.3+ ' ailable $nline at http://archive.e #rade( #he Stor' of the -tlantic Sla.+ / 8aul ($rd$n Lauren.e Trade -Ear es SalaamD East '&rican 8ublishing >$' -L$nd$n. 'ndre Eeutsch.iplomac' of Racial . estimates that. Michael Manle%. 'ndre Eeutsch.03D 1=0100 -Z2/13 suggests the estimated number *as t*ent% milli$n+ Falter 7$dne% estimates that 1= milli$n ensla ed '&ricans reached the 'merican c$ntinent and the !aribbean. adding th$se )illed in '&rica . See 2os1elliana& #he $ommonplace 2ook of 6. Michael Smith. $apitalism and Sla. Ben#amin "saac and G$seph Wiegler -!ambridgeD !ambridge @ni ersit% 8ress.

. Sla.3+ 44 Race( #he *istor' of an +dea in the !est -Fashingt$n. 10/+ 3= Eelr$% 7eid Salm$n. Hrland$ 8atters$n. 111=3D 10=+ Hrland$ 8atters$n has re&used t$ identi&% c$mm$di&icati$n as the de&ining mar) $& sla er%. Sla. see Filliam St+ !lair. Edit$rs+ #he Routled e *istor' of Sla. 11.'+ P$lume 1 deals *ith The 'ncient Mediterranean F$rld./+ 45 #ames S*eet. EnglandD >ar ard @ni ersit% 8ress. Samuel Sharpe( 0rom Sla. li est$c) and machines in their in ent$r%+ Sla.22 >ilar% Bec)les and Perene Shepherd.oor of No Return( #he *istor' of the $ape $oast $astle and the -tlantic Sla. -Barbad$s. .< the ensla ed being under the direct p$*er $& an$ther+ "t represented a &$rm $& e9c$mmunicati$n L the ensla ed being denied independent s$cial e9istence L *ith the ensla ed being alienated &r$m all rights and $bligati$ns related t$ their birth and their bl$$d relati$ns+ 23 (+ (ilbert t$ ($ ern$r+ !HX13/X1== -21 Hct$ber 1. 1111. Eelr$% 7eid Salm$n. cited in !a*le% B$lt. 22?.pers$nal d$minati$n. 20113. 20113. 1. Sla. #he .6amaican #estament -Ne* K$r)D 8eter Lang.ie1 =0. Mass and L$nd$n.23+ 8atters$n characteriBes sla er% as an e9treme &$rm $& . 200?3+ 30 Hn the !astle. 111?3. P$lume 2 0' and $ontemporar' $hristianit'+ Edit$r 'nth$n% 7eddie -Surre% and Perm$ntD 'shgate 8ublishing !$+. #he $ross and the Machete. Gamaica. 3+V& No.The "berian 7$$ts $& 'merican 7acist Th$ught< !illiam and Mar' 5uarterl'& =1 n$+ 1 -Ganuar% 111/3D 123 L 1??+ 39 .eath Stru les& 88: cited in Finst$n La*s$n. 200/3+ Earlier the b$$) appeared in the @nited Aingd$m as #he )rand'& 11+ 42 Hrland$ 8atters$n. #he $ross and the Machete& 10?010/+ 2. 20123+ 21 See Filliam St+ !lair. .e Population and /conom' in 6amaica& 8:=978:?4. pre&erring l$ss $& &reed$m as the primar% inde9+ See his Sla.03. .er' and Social . Ialls !hurchD Baptist F$rld 'lliance. ?'. 11. 2lacks in 2onda e -Aingst$nD "nstitute $& S$cial and Ec$n$mic 7esearch. 21+ 2= Bleb% . 11. 220+ 47 .e Stud' -!ambridge.e Stud' -!ambridge.The "mpact $& the >aitian 7e $luti$n and Emancipati$n in Gamaica< in /mancipation( #he 3essons and the 3e ac' Edit$r+ >$pet$n Eunn -Aingst$nD 'ra*a) 8ublicati$ns. I$r the brie& discussi$n $n the e $luti$n $& sla er% in Eur$pe.H& Nati$nal !haracters< 3+221 -1/2. EnglandD >ar ard @ni ersit% 8ress. namel%. E!D The F$$dr$* Fils$n 8ress. cited in Braith*aite. Mass and L$nd$n. P$lume 3 L 'E 1220L'E 1.eath. #radin Souls( /urope<s #ransatlantic #rade in -fricans& 2icentennial $aribbean Reflection -Aingst$nD "an 7andle 8ublishers. Reli ion and Race( -frican and /uropean Roots in $onflict > . #he . UU -/213.The Sla e Trade and the @nh$l% TriangleD ' !aribbean 8erspecti e< in 2aptist 0aith and !itness 2ook 4. .8 cited in Ee $n Eic). 1.4B& .3D 139784@. 200/3.Iaith and the (all$*s. cited in Ee $n Eic).>$peD ' !aribbean 8erspecti e< /cumenical Re. 8 A6anuar' 8CC9B.e to National *ero -Aingst$nD Bustamante "nstitute $& 8ublic '&&airs. *e dra* e9tensi el% $n t*$ *$r)s.$omparati.The "berian 7$$ts.eath( . 20103.e /mporium -8r$&ile B$$)s.#heolo ' of the 2lack -tlantic Stru le for 3iberation -Aingst$nD "an' and Social .3+ 32 Filliam Anibb.e #rade -Ne* K$r)D BlueBridge. Sla. Vol. #he $ross and the Machete& 10?+ 2/ Ir$m the 2elmore Papers.23+ 't his death.Iaith and the (all$*sD The !$st $& Liberati$n< in 2lack #heolo '& Sla. . cited in Ea e St+ '+ ($sse.The "berian 7$$ts $& 7acist Th$ught< !illiam and Mar' 5uarterl'. 1=1+ 2? #he 2aptist Reporter& 6ul' 8:64( ?=.233. the #ur% estimated Sam Sharpe:s alue at [1?+10+ See !+S+ 7eid. 7ichard >art.3 cited in Race( #he *istor' of an +dea& 21=3 31 23 . P$lume 1.< 1?=+ 46 Hrland$ 8atters$n. and the &$ur0 $lume hist$r% $& sla er% published b% !ambridge @ni ersit% press in 2011 and 2012 as the $ambrid e !orld *istor' of 1ho -bolished Sla. 1=+ 33 See Ne ille !allam. .eath( .0202000+ 3. 200/3. (ad >euman and Tre $r Burnard.< 1=3+ 3/' and Social . P$lume 2 0 'E =0001220.02. 1230 1??+ 40 . n$+ 2 -'pril 111. 11. @ni ersit% $& the Fest "ndies. 99ii. 32 Scenes in the $aribbean Sea( 2ein Sketches from a Missionar'<s Notebook A3ondon& 8:.The "berian 7$$ts.oor of No Return+ Barr% >igman e9plains h$* the sla eh$lders included ensla ed pers$ns. 0reedom in the Makin of !estern $ulture -Ne* K$r)D Basic B$$)s. Edited b% Iaust$ Pasc$ncel$s. 2urnin for 0reedom( . 1=101?=+ 3? 7eid0Salm$n. British 8arliamentar% !ho -bolished Sla. Trinidad & T$bag$D The @ni ersit% 8ress. 111?3.$omparati. &$r e9ample.< 12=012?+ 21 >' -Ne* K$r)D 7$utledge. and Games S*eet. cited in Ee $n Eic).

@@ and is *idel% a ailable+ /= See n$te 21 ab$ e+ /? The Statement is a ailable atD httpDXX***+aaanet+$rgXstmtsXracepp+htm+ // The te9t is accessible at httpDXX***+un+$rgXF!'7Xdurban+pd& /.>ume:s 7e ised 7acism< -*ume Studies UUP". Edit$rs+ #his Side of *ea.. 11?13+ The te9t is a ailable atD httpDXXunesd$c+unesc$+$rgXimagesX0012X001221X1221?2e$+pd& /2 8reamble t$ the Eeclarati$n. 2=?02=/+ ?. see 'ar$n (arrett has said in his essa% $n . 2=2. 200/3.a. 11?1 reprint3. cited in 8aul Lauren. Linnaeus di ided human)ind int$ . at the @N (eneral 'ssembl% meeting in 8aris. delegates *ere able t$ agree t$ *$r) t$*ard pr$ducing a @ni ersal Eeclarati$n $& >uman 7ights+ /3 I$r the @NES!H statements $n race.en& 3302?+ 63 "n >anna&$rd:s *$rds. Bl$ise Meneses. Race( #he *istor' of an +dea. chap 3+ Than)&ull%. -Hn this. $l+ 1. &$r e9ample. 1. 112. /ssa's and #reatises on Se. 0our Statements on the Race 5uestion -8arisD @nesc$. 1/+ 69 >anna&$rd. 111?3.ifferent -nimals and Ve etables -L$nd$nD Eill%. 'ls$ published as Ea id >ume. 1/113. cited in Lauren. 1/+ /0 Peacemakin & 8C8C. (reen.en( Race& /thnicit'& and the $hristian 0aith -Ne* K$r)D H9&$rd @ni ersit% 8ress. &$r e9ample. 121 =/ #he Races of Man& 1=1+ =. . 21+ =2 . 202+ ?2 The 11// editi$n $& the *$r) is a ailable $nline atD httpDXX***+blumenbach+in&$XYXEeY(enerisYhumaniY 1stYEd+html+ ?= On the Natural Varieties of Mankind& 3rd Editi$n 1/1= -Ne* K$r)D Bergman. #he Mismeasure of Man. 3=031+ See 21 48 24 .=03. Edited b% T (reen and T (r$se -L$nd$nD L$ngmans. ?30/2+ See als$ " an >anna&$rd. 13+ == #he Races of Man& 12 =? #he Races of Man.Science and the M%th $& Bi$l$gical 7ace< in 7$bert 8riest and 'l ar$ Nie es.H& Nati$nal !haracters< in #he Philosophical !orks of .Science and the M%th $& Bi$l$gical 7ace< in 7$bert 8riest and 'l ar$ Nie es.Y3+html+ ?2 See his S'stema Naturae & 1/3=+ Hn his pseud$0scienti&ic c$ntributi$n t$ the understanding $& race.?3.3 "D11?3 /2 Lauren. 1?2 =1 #he Races of Man. 2?1. see @NES!H. ?/00?/1+ httpDXX***+e&m+bris+ac+u)XhetXcarl%leX$ccasi$n+htm =3 #he Races of Man( .. Eecember 112. n$ 1 -'pril 20003D 1/101//3 >ume ne er succeeded in den%ing he had e9pressed a racist $pini$n+ =1 Re ular )radation of Man& and in . Ear) 'siatic. 1. ==0+ =0 Fhether $r n$t >ume *as resp$nding t$ Games Beattie:s dem$liti$n $& his claim c$ncerning pe$ple *h$ *ere n$t *hite.213. 11/33. . 20/0213+ ?/ Hn Gean !u ier. >anna&$rd. 2013 atD httpDXX***+linnaeus+ uu+seX$nlineXli&eX. *h$se &ull te9t *as published b% the @nited Nati$ns in *uman Ri hts( $ompilation of +nternational +nstruments of the "nited Nations& -Ne* K$r)D @nited Nati$ns. Po1er and Prejudice& 21+ 66 See >anna&$rd. #he . Stephen ($uld. see. #he Races of Man. see. Edit$rs+ #his Side of * *ume& Volume ?. Po1er and Prejudice& 10?.Of National $haracters. Po1er and Prejudice. and Blac) Negr$+< See his Race( #he *istor'. 'ccessible at httpDXXb$$)s+g$$gle+c$mXb$$)sNid\U*OU''''K''G&printsec\&r$ntc$ er&s$urce\gbsYgeYsummar%Yr& cad\0] \$nepage&4&&\&alse =2 #he Races of Man.Hccasi$nal Eisc$urses $n the Negr$ Ouesti$n< 0raser<s Ma aDine 20 -Eecember 1.0ra ment -8hiladelphiaD Lea & Blanchard. B$st$nD>$ught$n Mi&&lin !$mpan%.eral Subjects+ "n T*$ P$lumes -L$nd$n and Edinburgh. 11333D 12=+ /1 Lauren.Fhite Eur$pean. 7ed 'merican.raftin of the $o.enant -Ne* K$r)D 8utnam. 7e ised and E9panded+ -Ne* K$r)D N$rt$n and !$+. Ea id Miller. 1///3. 1?3+ ?0 #he Races of Man. p$pularl% called (e$rges !u ier. 132. 10+ Emphasis added+ ?1 Ir$m the @ni ersit% $& @ppsala:s 3innE on 3ine accessed $n 'ugust 13. 3+2=/ in Race( #he *istor' of an +dea& 21?+ .

e Reli ion and 2lack #heolo ' -Minneap$lisD I$rtress 8ress.2 E*ight >$p)ins. &$r e9ample. in deri ing the $rigin $& ser itude &r$m human acti$ns. 2110212+ 10 E*ight >$p)ins. 11123. 1?1+ 11 Hn this. 8'D Guds$n 8ress. 7aceD ' The$l$gical 'cc$unt -Ne* K$r)D H9&$rd @ni ersit% 8ress. translated b% L$uise L$$mis and published in Ne* K$r) b% Blac) in 1121+ 12 . it *as she*n that there is n$thing repugnant t$ natural #ustice.en&leshing $n s$cial li&e< Sam Sharpe:s . #he $oncept of "buntu as a $ohesi. Shatterin the M'th of Race -Palle% I$rge. see. F+ G+ Ndaba. . and it is in this sense that legal *riters maintain the $pini$n that sla er% is repugnant t$ nature+ Ket. #he 0or in of Races( Race and Scripture in the Protestant -tlantic !orld& 86==7@=== -!ambridgeD !ambridge @ni ersit% 8ress. 20033 and Genni&er (lane%. #he Racial $ontract -"thaca. apart &r$m human instituti$ns and cust$ms. 200.2200221 . . >ermann Sasse. and Michael Battle.o1n& "p and O. 233+ 12 This is the c$n&essi$n that *as dra&ted in 1133 b% Eietrich B$nh$e&&er. Sla. G$e Te&&$. "buntu in $omparison to !estern Philosophies -8ret$riaD @buntu Sch$$l $& 8hil$s$ph%.o1n& "p and O. >ug$ (r$tius $nce stated thatD . Ne* K$r)D Hrbis B$$)s. 7eligi$n. Fim+ Pan Binsbergen. 1/0 110+ . 20003 230?1+ /1 I$r a &uller e9p$siti$n $& the m%th $& bi$l$gical race. in a &$rmer part $& this treatise. 231+ . chapter /.0 N$rman ($$dall. and $thers+ "t *as an e&&$rt t$ c$n&ess the !hristian &aith in the midst $& a situati$n *hen !hristian s$lidarit% *ith the Ge*ish pe$ple *as seri$usl% in 4uesti$n+ 1= G$hn Ee (ruch%. &$r e9ampleD Ea id ($ldenberg. ('D Mercer @ni ersit% 8ress. "buntu and Reli ion+ -8ret$riaD @buntu Sch$$l $& 8hil$s$ph%.1 #he $hurch in the Po1er of the *ol' Spirit( . See !harles Mills. 200=3. 'ttie Pan Nie)er). M" D Filliam B+ Eerdmans 8ublishing. 111+ "n a recent paper.2 E*ight >$p)ins.als$.ide E9panded Editi$n-B$ulderD 8aradigm 8ublishers.1. &$r e9ample.= S$uth '&rican ($ ernment (aBette. EnglandD 'shgate. Reconciliation( #he "buntu #heolo ' of .er( Sla. Edit$rs. 11/=3. #his Side of *ea. 120+ 13 G+ Aamer$n !arter.3. 11. 11123. .er' in /arl' $hristianit' -Minneap$lisD I$rtress 8ress. =30. 111/3+ . . 'nna 8er)ins has emphasiBed the imp$rtance $& . 2000+ .esmond #utu -!le eland.eness -Ne* K$r)D 7and$m >$use. 20103.e jure belli et pacis+ See B$$) 2 !hapter = and B$$)' and $ontemporar' $hristianit'. 11. *hether &$unded up$n c$mpact $r crime+< . 200=3. n$ men can be sla Richardson& F-partheid& *eres' and the $hurch in South -frica< The G$urnal $& 7eligi$us Ethics+ Vol.i.en( Race& /thnicit'& and $hristian 0aith -Ne* K$r)DDH9&$rd @ni ersit% 8ress.arin & #rustin Spirit( 2onhoeffer<s 0riend /berhard 2eth e -Minneap$lisD I$rtress 8ress.$aribbean Perspecti.13. see !$lin Aidd. 221+ .< Gamaican the$l$gian. 1112.e -Mar%)n$ll. #o1ards a $onceptualiDation of "buntu+ 8ret$riaD @buntu Sch$$l $& 8hil$s$ph%. . Eesm$nd Tutu. 200?3 and Ea id @nander. 02X02X111?+ Hn ubuntu.. Ireed$m and Gamaica at Ii&t%. Ea e @nander. 84& No. see. 2012+ .religi$us ideal $& &reed$m+< The paper *as deli ered at the Sam Sharpe !$n&erence in Aingst$n $n Eecember 1. #he $urse of *am( Race and Sla.33+ C6 See& for e4ample&' in earl' 6udaism& $hristianit' and +slam -8rincet$nD 8rincet$n @ni ersit% 8ress. 111/3+ .8r$phetic $& Ireed$m S$$n !$me<D 7e&lecti$ns $n Sam Sharpe.$ontribution to the Messianic /cclesiolo ' -San Irancisc$D >arper!$llins. in its prime al state.3 E*ight >$p)ins.3. 2ein *uman( Race& $ulture& and Reli ion -Minneap$lisD I$rtress 8ress. 2001. 1+ See als$ G$hn Ee (ruch% and !harles Pilla0Picenci$. NKD !$rnell @ni ersit%. H>D 8ilgrim 8ress./ Silent Racism( *o1 !ell7Meanin !hite People Perpetuate the Racial . !hen )od<s $hildren )et #o ether( Memoir of Race -Mac$n.ecoloniDin #heolo '( .' Legac% $& Sla er% L Blac) *ith the Sla es $r Mulatt$ *ith the Sla ersN 'n English Gamaican The$l$gical 7e&lecti$n $n the Tra#ect$ries $& MMi9ed 7ace !ateg$ries:< in 2lack #heolo '& Sla. . 20003. Festern "mages $& Hthers and Htherness< in 7$bert 8riest and 'l ar$ Nie es. 11113.o1n& "p and O. 231 . 200?3 and Emanuel Mc!all. Shattering the M%th $& 7aceD (enetic 7ealities and Biblical Truths -Palle% I$rgeD Guds$n (e$rg MerB. . G$e Te&&$.1 N$el Ers)ine. 11?.? See 8aul >iebert. 200/3.@buntu and the (l$balisati$n $& S$uthern '&rican Th$ught and S$ciet%+< 5uest( -n -frican 6ournal of Philosoph' UP -10 23.B% the la* $& nature. No 0uture 1ithout 0or i. /dited b' -nthon' Reddie -Iarnham. 20103 . 200/+ "t is interesting t$ n$te that n$ted internati$nal la*%er. Edit$rs+ -partheid is *eres' -(rand 7apids. Edit$r+ #he "ppsala Report 8C6:( Official Report of the 0ourth -ssembl' of the !orld $ouncil of $hurches& "ppsala& 6ul' 47@=& 8C6: -(ene aD F!!.e Moral Value -8ret$riaD @buntu Sch$$l $& 8hil$s$ph%. 11123. 8 ASprin & 8C:6B& 87@8G 3ennart *enricksson& ' G$urne% *ith a Status 25 .

in the !FME.3i. See G+ Ee$tis 7$berts. TanBania. Merc% Hdu%$%e and (e$rge Tsetsis -(ene a< F!! 8ublicati$ns.'nti0semitism is sin against ($d and man+R This *as an earl% indicati$n that the ecumenical b$d% *$uld n$t be un*illing t$ declare itsel& in status confessionis *ith regard t$ a seri$us s$cial issue *ith deep m$ral implicati$ns+ See Man<s . 220=1. 20103+ Gennings alleges the replacement $& race *ith a .el' 3e ac'( /ssa's in *onor of Robert Preus& Aurt E+ Mar4uart G$hn 7+ Stephens$n B#arne F+ Teigen.racialism< in an% &$rm is an Rinherent blasphem%R against the nature $& ($d *h$ has created human beings in ($d:s $*n image and that the !al inism esp$used b% the Eutch 7e&$rmed !hurch in S$uth '&rica as . 8ublishers. 2onhoeffer and Iin ( Speakin #ruth to Po1er -FestminsterD G$hn An$9 8ress.isorder and )od<s .. and in the 2010 !le eland !$n&erence $n 7acism T$da% e9press *hat appears t$ be a rene*ed e&&$rt t$ assert F!!:s seri$usness regarding the pr$blem $& racism that persists despite all the e&&$rts t$ $ erc$me it+ 11 See Fillie Gennings. in 'ugust and place0centered identit%< that )eeps .Eradicating 7acismD ' !entral 'genda &$r the Iaith and Hrder M$ ement< in /cumenical 7e ie*.2+ 't their 'ssembl% in Eebrecen.sub0!hristian< Rli)e all heresies and de iati$ns &r$m !ath$lic truth +++ is sub0!hristianR+ = Nau ht for Jour $omfort -(arden !it%. including signi&icant *$r) in Iaith and Hrder.1+ "n 11=?.!$n&essi$nis+ 'nal%sis $& an apartheid related c$n&lict bet*een the Eutch 7e&$rmed !hurch in S$uth '&rica and the F$rld 'lliance $& 7e&$rmed !hurches. in 2001. >ungar%. S$uth '&rica in 2001. &r$m its inaugural 'ssembl% in 'msterdam in 112. and the recent E$$rn !$n&erence in @trecht. 200=3. . 1/301//+ The n$ti$n $& status confessionis has deep r$$ts in the 7e&$rmati$n+ 97 The LFI decisi$n *as made at their si9th assembl% in Ear es Salaam. 11213. and >ugh Mc!ullum.+ N$+ 2 -'pril 111?3.ement Volume ?& 8C6:7@===& Edited b% G$hn Briggs. Uen$ph$bia and 7elated "nt$lerance in Eurban.*istor' of the /cumenical Mo. imp$rtant de el$pments $n the racism &r$nt ha e ta)en place in F!!. 32=03/2+ Since 2000. Edit$rs+ -I$rt Fa%ne. 11=?3+ H& c$urse. Ge&&re% (r$s. and 8eter L$dberg..esi n( #he -msterdam -ssembl' Series -Ne* K$r)D >arper & Br$thers. #he $hristian +ma ination( #heolo ' and the Ori ins of Race -Ne* >a en & L$nd$nD Kale @ni ersit% 8ress. . P$lume 2/. 20023. and thr$ugh the !entral !$mmittee+ F!!:s $&&icial participati$n in the @N0sp$ns$red F$rld !$n&erence against 7acism. in Gune 11// and the F'7!:s a&&irmati$n *as issued at their (eneral !$uncil in Htta*a. N$+ 1 -Gannuar% 111=3. F!! had declared that .'partheid as a !hurch Ei iding "ssue.7acism and Ethnicit%< in . F'7! had initiated a processus confessionis in a last push t$ educate the churches $n such issues as ec$n$mic #ustice pri$r t$ the declarati$n $& a status confessionis+ 1.di&&erent *a%s $& li&e that ann$unce in itati$ns &$r #$ining+< 26 . t*ent%0$ne %ears be&$re the LFI arri ed at its decisi$n. c11.20111.< #he /cumenical Re. NKD E$ubleda%. but instead a ne* $rder in *hich b$undar%0de&%ing relati$nships *ill mar) the ne* li ing spaces created b% a ne* $rder that h$sts . .rene*ing *ith each generati$n $& race0&$rmed children+<>e d$es n$t belie e the eliminati$n $& race is *hat is needed. !anada. English 'nglican bish$p Tre $r >uddlest$n had declared that .ie1. P$lume 2. 20 &&+ 'ls$ a ailable atD httpDXX***+cts&*+netXmediaXpd&sX>amann'partheidandST'T@S!HNIESS"HN"S+pd&.=3. .0. 11. "nd+ D !$nc$rdia The$l$gical Seminar%. The Netherlands. in 111/. A "ppsala( S1edish institute of Missionar' Research& @=8=BG >enr% >amann FStatus !$n&essi$nisH in . 7acial Eiscriminati$n.