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INTRODUCTION TO POLICY

Mike Dale

POLICY
course of action adopted by government

policies are diverse with no constant themes

Policies are issued by Governments, and many other official bodies and associations to describe and define specific goals and the means to achieve them to categorise and prioritise work to describe the actions and limits of an organisations function to offer guidance on the purpose of the organisation (i.e. what it will and will not do).

Other dimensions...they are introduced as a way of making Changes Improvements Modernisation Expansion Formalising what may have been an informal expectation (i.e. data protection), OR to promote Protect

Government policies can either be... internal (appertaining to the work and function of the Government) external (appertaining to government provisions) Health Education Employment Housing Social Welfare Environment

social welfare provides the people with a safe surrounding, satisfaction of basic needs and maximizes opportunity for mobility (Wahab 2008).

Policies can either be targeted at


Whole populations - in this instance reforms, or policies influence services that benefit whole populations, for example provision of street lighting, sanitary systems, encouraging the development of industry therefore creating new job opportunities. Vulnerable groups this may involve introducing new laws related to children, such as compulsory schooling, improving or expanding high education facilities, policies of this nature can also extend to minority groups, or groups who need special consideration such as those with learning difficulties, mental health problems or physical disabilities. Policies directed at the poor also come under this section. Developing resources as with the above two categories this one has wide reaching implications and may involve natural resources, imports and exports of goods, services and products. It can also overlap with the vulnerable groups for example education, health and welfare, and education, or with whole populations subsidisation of agriculture, or promoting tourism.

Economic development is essential to welfare

Where such systems exist they do not simply operate in tandem, they form a complex web of services. Some charitable organisations are Government supported Some policies supported or influenced by international groups such as the World Health Organisation, United Nations, Red Cross, World Wildlife Fund, Fair Trade, International Centre for Transitional Justice, World Cancer Research Fund International International Institute for Sustainable

Nurses should not see themselves in isolation They are not only influenced by health policy They are not only concerned with ill-health

All policies have the potential to effect nursing

HiV Communicable as well as other non-communicable diseases MRSA Ischemic Heart Disease Allergies Asthma Malaysia is to be a nation of healthy individuals, families and communities, through a health system that is equitable, affordable, efficient, technologically appropriate, environmentally adaptable and consumerfriendly, with emphasis on quality, innovation, health promotion and respect for human dignity and which promotes individual's responsibility and community participation towards an enhanced quality of life.
(Strategic Plan 2006 2010)

The mission of the MOH is to build partnerships for health, to motivate and facilitate the people to:
fully attain their health potential appreciate health as a valuable asset

take positive actions to further improve and sustain their health status (Strategic Plan 2006 2010)

Policies are like any other tool or piece of equipment


Influence

Government Associations
Policy

Interpretation

Senior Managers

Staff
Operationalisation

Interpret

Prepare

Operate

References
Briggs, A. (1961) The Welfare State in historical perspective. In The Welfare State Reader (2006), Christopher Pierson and Francis G. Castles (eds). Polity. London. Spicker, P. (1995) Social Policy: themes and approaches. Prentice Hall Harvester Wheatsheaf. London.

Wahab, H. A. (2008) Public perception on social welfare care in Malaysia. Available at: http://www.jkm.gov.my/jkm/index.php?option=com_content&view=ar ticle&id=221%3Apublic-perception-on-social-welfare-care-inmalaysia&catid=49%3Ajurnal&Itemid=86&lang=ms

Sources consulted
Strategic Plan 2006 2010 "Towards Achieving Better Health through Consolidation of Services Ministry of Health Malaysia Vision 2020 The Way Forward. Working Paper presented by Dr Mahathir Mohamad at the Malaysian Business Council Welcome speech by Chua Jui Meng at the 2003 International Nursing Conference, Shangrila Resort Hotel Kota Kinabalu, Sabah 9th Malaysian Plan 2006 2010