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Highway Construction and

• Highway materials, test and construction
• Routine maintenance, periodic maintenance
• Common causes of failure
failure, long life roads
The Road Construction Process
• The type of road construction used varies from one job to
another. The type of construction adopted for a particular
road depends on: the volume and nature of traffic to use
the road,
• the nature of the materials available,
• the topography,
• foundation conditions,
• type and availability of construction equipment, and
• financing arrangements and timing.
The Road Construction Process
• Any road construction job consists of number of basic steps, although
the relevant importance and the interaction between these steps will
vary from job to job. These steps can be summarized as:
– planning, programming and pre-construction activities;
– site clearance;
– setting out;
– earthworks;
– bridge construction;
– drainage structures;
– pavement construction;
– placement of road surfacing;
– placement of road furniture; and
– landscaping.
• The eventual aim of the earthworks phase of the construction is to
position the subgrade underlying the pavement layers in the right
location and at the correct level, and to provide drainage. The
operations to be performed are:
• formation of cuttings by excavating through high ground,
• formation of embankments by filling over low ground,
• shaping the finished surface to design levels, and
• excavating for drainage works.
• Th earthworks
The th k is
i often
ft the
th largest
l t task
t k in
i the
th roadd building
b ildi process
and therefore careful planning and organisation are essential. Speed
and efficiency depend very much upon the quantity and types of
earthmoving plant available
Sequence of Operations
• The normal sequence of operations in cut and fill work is:
– In Cut
• excavate to the depth
p necessaryy to reach formation level,,
• transport away from the site undesirable material such as organic
• haul suitable materials from cuts to fill areas, and
• suitably dispose of any excess cut material.
– In Fill
• drain water from depressions and dispose of any unsuitable
underlying material,
• spread fill material in horizontal layers not more than 250 mm thick,
• thoroughly
h hl compact these
h layers
l to required
i d density.
d i
Pavement Construction
• Gravel and Crushed Rock Pavements
– Source: pits,quarries.
pits quarries
– Haulage: trucks.
– Spreading: grader or paver.
– Compaction: higher compaction standard than subgrade; different
roller types used.
– Accuracy of levels important.
• Asphalt Pavements
– Manufacture: fixed plants (up to 400 tonnes per hour), or large
mobile plants.
– Haulage: trucks.
– Placement: paving machine.
– Compaction: rollers - smooth vibrating drum and pneumatic-tyred
– Usually final layer thin to achieve good riding surface.
Pavement Construction
• Cement Concrete Pavements
– Manufacture: ready-mixed
ready mixed batching plant
– Haulage: agitator truck.
– Large quantities: site manufacture + normal trucks.
– Placement: slip-form paver.
– Compaction: internal vibrators + external screeds.
Placement of Road Surfacing
• May be gravel, sprayed bituminous seal, asphalt or cement
Construction of Sprayed Bituminous Surfacing
• Pavement must be sound. For new work: compaction and
trimmingg oof underlying
u de y g gravel
g ve or
o crushed
c us ed rock
oc pavement.
p ve e . For o
existing bituminous surface: patching. Steps:
– Sweep surface - drawn rotary broom + hand sweeping.
– Prepare
P bi
d - transport
t t to
t job
j b by
b roadd or rail
il tanker,
t k or in i
– Flux and/or cutback binder.
– Incorporate adhesion agent.
– Prepare aggregate - stockpiles, precoating
– Spray binder - air temperature should be > 15 C; no rain
should be threatening; mark out spray run- alignment and
start and finish.
– Apply aggregate - quick incorporation into hot bitumen
b f
before excessive
i cooling;
li spreaders
d required;
i d drag
d broom
b to
correct spreading inconsistencies.
– Roll surface - to bed stone; pneumatic-tyred or static steel
drum rollers.
– Drag broom
– Record work - quantities bitumen sprayed,
sprayed aggregate spread,
– Traffic control - throughout steps 1 to 10; minimise traffic
d l
Construction of HMA Road
Preparation for a Sprayed Bituminous
Left: Sweeping a gravel pavement
prior to the application of a prime.
Sweeping is usually carried out with
drawn mechanical brooms, although
some hand sweeping is often
as well.
Preparation for a Sprayed Bituminous
S f i

Right: Damping the pavement.

It is found that a prime or seal
dh better
b tt to
t an underlying
d l i
pavement if the pavement is
g y damp. p

Left: A bitumen road tanker.

Transport of bitumen to the job
site will
usually be by rail tanker or road
Asphalt Production
Right: Batching Plant, Toowoomba. The mix
falls through a series of inclined
vibrating screens and the various size
f i
fractions are storedd in
i hot
h storage bins.
The plant operator then weighs out the
correct proportions of each size for a
single batch. The sizes are mixed and then
the required
q amount of hot bitumen
is added and mixing continued. The batch
is then discharged from the mixer into a
waiting truck, and the batching process

Left: Hot Storage Bins, Brisbane Plant. In the

Brisbane plant, the batches of
hot mix are stored in insulated storage
bins, and this means that arriving trucks
can be filled more rapidly.
Asphalt Paving.
Left: Paving Machine, Front View. This
is a view of the front of a typical
p p , floating
g screed,, ppaving
machine. Tip trucks discharge the hot
asphalt into the front hopper and it is
then conveyed to the rear of the
by a chain and slat conveyor.

Right: Paving Machine,

Machine Rear View.
View This
picture shows a truck with its tray
tipped, discharging mix into the paver.
The operator sits on top and steers the
machine to the required alignment.
Asphalt Paving.
Right: Screed Unit. The screed unit
consists of levelling arms,
a screed pplate which vibrates to act as a
tamper, and thickness controls. It is
supported by the mix which gives it a
floating action.

Left: Reference Beam Attached to

Paver. A long moving reference beam,
on shoes (or skis) can be used to ensure
the screed follows a smooth line
regardless of irregularities in the surface
being paved.
Construction of RCC Road
Placement of dowels and tie bars
Dowel bars location
PCC thickness
Roofing paper
Roofing paper-1
Tie bars
Dowel basket
Placement of reinforcement
Dowels images
Forms,Steel form
Figure 7.113:
Steel Forms
Wooden Form
Removal of Form