Material in Atomic Plant

Cladding material

8/8/2009

Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST Universi

Introduction

In nuclear reactors, cladding is the outer layer of the fuel rods, standing between the coolant and the nuclear fuel. It is made of a corrosion-resistant material with low absorption cross section for thermal neutrons with excellent heat transfer, usually Zircaloy or steel in modern constructions, or magnesium oxide with small amount of aluminum. The cladding serves several purposes and two primary purposes are: first, to prevent contact and chemical reactions between the nuclear fuel and the coolant or the moderator if a moderator is present, or both if both coolant and moderator are present; and second, to prevent the radioactive fission products .
8/8/2009 Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST University

Materials of cladding
 Zircaloy  Stainless

steel

8/8/2009

Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST University

What is the zirconium?

Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40, strong transition metal, silvery white, the structure of its crystal is hexagonal close-packed and other properties shown in next table[1]

8/8/2009

Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST University

Density

6.52  g·cm−3

Young's modulus

68  GPa

Electrical resistivity

(20 °C) 421 n Ω·m

Melting point

1855 °C Shear modulus 33  GPa Thermal conductivit y (300 K) 22.6  W·m−1·K−1

Boiling point

4409 °C Poisson ratio 0.34 hardness 650  MPa

Specific heat capacity

(25 °C) 25.36   J·mol−1·K−1 Phase solid

Thermal expansion

(25 °C) 5.7  µm·m−1·K−1

8/8/2009

Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST University

Type of zirconium alloys

Zircaloy-1 consists of zirconium with 2.5% tin. However its corrosion rate was increasing over time, and to counter this effect other elements had to be added. Zircaloy-2 (Zry-2) consist of 98.25 weight % zirconium with 1.45% tin, 0.10% chromium, 0.135% iron, 0.055% nickel and 0.01% hafnium. Other sources specify Zircaloy-2 as zirconium with 1.20-1.70% tin, 0.07-0.20% iron, 0.05-0.15% chromium, and 0.03-0.08% nickel, with tin content at lower and the iron/chromium/nickel content at the higher end of the specification. Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) consists of 98.23 weight % zirconium with 1.45% tin, 0.21% iron 0.1% chromium, and 0.01%

8/8/2009

Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST University

Stainless steel

Stainless steel is an alloy consisting mostly of iron, with a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade, where Carbon and other elements act as a hardening agent, preventing dislocations in the iron atom crystal lattice from sliding past one another.[3]

8/8/2009

Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST University

Physical and Mechanical properties

The physical and mechanical properties of stainless steels are quite different from those of commonly used nonferrous alloys such as aluminum and copper alloys, however when comparing the stainless families with carbon steels, many similarities in properties exist, although there are some key differences, like carbon steels the density of stainless steel is about 8 g/cm3 , and stainless steels have a high modulus of elasticity (200 MPa), and high thermal conductivity, and have high electrical resistivity, strength, ductility, and toughness are excellent compared with other materials.[6]

8/8/2009

Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST University

References:
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1- Standard composition library (sec M8) 2- Boards oh appeal of the European patent office 3- Wikipedia 4- Austenitic stainless steels , microstructure and mechanical properties, P.MARSHAU, Elsevier applied science publisher page 413 5- http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doccollections/nuregs/contract/cr6275/ 6- Stainless steels/ Joseph R.Davis, ASM international. Hand book committee (page 8,9)

8/8/2009

Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST University

TANK YOU.
 Questions?

8/8/2009

Omar Sharief AL_yahia/JUST University