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COVERAGE ENHANCEMENT FEATURES

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Coverage Enhancement Features

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the use of Nokia Networks' customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Networks. The document has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Networks will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Networks' liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary correction of errors. Nokia Networks WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it. This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to the applicable laws. NOKIA logo is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright Nokia Networks Oy 2004. All rights reserved.

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Coverage Enhancement Features

Contents
9 9.1 9.2 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 Coverage Enhancement Features 4 Module Objectives 4 Intelligent Coverage Enhancement 4 Idea 4 Handover between Low / High Power TRX 5 Inverse Intelligent Coverage Enhancement 6 Idea 6 Handover for Inverse ICE 8

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Coverage Enhancement Features

Coverage Enhancement Features

9.1

Module Objectives
At the end of the module the participant will be able to: Explain the motivation for ICE Discuss the handover mechanism between high and low power TRXs Demonstrate the difference between ICE and inverse ICE Discuss the handover mechanism between hopping and non hopping TRXs

9.2

Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

9.2.1

Idea
The basic idea of this feature is to realise the coverage and capacity layer with TRXs of different power. Each cell has at least one BCCH TRX transmitting with high power for coverage, and one TRX transmitting with lower power for capacity. This network structure implicates handover between coverage and capacity layer triggered by signal receive level. During call set up the MS is allocated to a high power TRX. If the downlink receive level is good enough, then the MS is handed over to a low power TRX. If the receive level falls below a certain threshold again, the MS is handed over back to the coverage layer. This mechanism is analogue to IUO, where the handover between coverage and capacity layer is based on the C/I ratio. Therefore for ICE the terms regular (= coverage) and super (= capacity) layer often are used as well. ICE is enabled by the same parameter superReuseEstMethod (METH) (HOC)(AVE,MAX,ICE,NONE)(NONE) as IUO, but now it has to be set to ICE instead to AVE or MAX. The type of TRX is defined again by the parameter trxFrequencyType (FRT)(TRX)(0..16)(0). 0 indicates a regular (now high power) TRX, 1 to 16 the frequency group of a super (now low power) TRX as usual (see Fig. 9-1).

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Coverage Enhancement Features

Coverage Enhancement Features

Normal ICE (Idea)

Low power TRX (no BCCH) High power TRX (BCCH) Hopping TRX's

Two layer network Coverage layer = high power TRXs (BCCH) Capacity layer = low power TRXs (no BCCH) Basic parameters superReuseEstMethod trxFrequencyType AVE, MAX, ICE, NONE 0..16 must be set to ICE 0 = coverage (BCCH) TRX 1..16 = capacity (non BCCH) TRX

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 10.05.2004

Fig. 9-1: Normal ICE (idea)

9.2.2

Handover between Low / High Power TRX


The handover between coverage and capacity layer now is triggered by the downlink receive level. It is measured and averaged as usual. If the receive level is better than the threshold defined by superReuseGoodRxLevThreshold (CGR)(HOC)(-110..-47)(-80), handover from high to low power TRX is triggered. The threshold is considered to be exceeded, if at least Px (CGP)(HOC)(1..32)(8) of the last Nx (CGN)(HOC)(1..32)(10) average samples are above the limit. If the receive level falls below the threshold defined by superReuseBadRxLevThreshold (CBR)(HOC)(-110..-47)(-85), handover from low to high power TRX is triggered. The limit must be exceeded by at least Px (CBP)(HOC)(1..32)(2) of the last Nx (CBN) (HOC)(1..32)(6) average samples (see Fig. 9-2). Handover between high and low power TRXs always is an intra cell handover. Handover between low power TRXs of different frequency groups, which is possible as well, is an intra cell handover also. Like IUO, ICE allows direct access to the capacity layer during call set up, if the receive level for the serving high power TRX is high enough. If one average sample exceeds the limit set by directAccessLevel

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Coverage Enhancement Features

(DAL)(TRX)(-109..-47,N)(N), the MS is allocated directly to a low power TRX. With the default setting direct access is disabled. Direct access can be a intra or inter cell handover, from high power SDCCH to low power TCH. If no TCH is available from a low power TRX, it is taken from a high power TRX in both cases.
Coverage Enhancement Features

No rm al IC E (Hand o ver)
Hig h p ow er T R X L o w p ow e r T R X

- 70 - 80 - 90 -100 -110

c all is hand ed o v e r to low p ow er T R X superReuseGoodRxLevThreshold -110..-47 d B m superReuseBadRxLevThreshold -110..-47 d B m c all is hand e d o v e r to hig h p o w e r T R X

Handover Threshold exceeded by at least Px of the last Nx average samples -> intra cell handover from one layer to the other Direct access On the SDCCH, one average sample exceeds directAccessLevel -> TCH taken directly from low power TRX
NO K IA B S S P A R / 10.05.2004

Fig. 9-2: Normal ICE (handover)

9.3

Inverse Intelligent Coverage Enhancement

9.3.1

Idea
Frequency hopping usually is used to improve the capacity of a cellular network. Because of the frequency diversity gain, however, frequency hopping can be used also to improve the coverage. The frequency diversity gain increases with the number of frequencies included in the hopping sequence. The environment effects the gain as well. In rural areas often there is direct line of sight between MS and BTS and thus no strong multi path propagation effect. Thus frequency hopping offers less gain than in a city environment.

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Coverage Enhancement Features

Using frequency hopping to improve coverage, leads to a network design just opposite to ICE, therefore called inverse ICE. The coverage layer now is built of non BCCH TRXs, as these must be the hopping ones. The capacity layer basically is built of BCCH TRXs, which do not hop in case of RF hopping. Inverse ICE is enabled by the same way as ICE, by setting the parameter superReuseEstMethod to ICE. The parameter trxFrequencyType, however, now is applied the other way round. For non BCCH (hopping) TRXs it is to 0, for BCCH (non hopping) TRXs to 1..16 (see Fig. 9-3).
Coverage Enhancement Features

In ve rs e IC E (Id ea)

No n ho p p in g T R X (B C C H) Ho pp pp ing (no B C C H) Ho in g TTR RX X's


Two layer network Coverage layer = hopping TRXs (no BCCH) Capacity layer = at least one non hopping TRX (with BCCH) Use of BCCH TRX inverse to normal ICE Use of frequency hopping for coverage improvement RF hopping required Good frequency diversity gain for city environment (about 4 dB) Basic parameters superReuseEstMethod trxFrequencyType AVE, MAX, ICE, NONE 0..16 must be set to ICE 0 = coverage (no BCCH) TRX 1..16 = capacity (at least one with BCCH) TRX

NO K IA

B S S P AR / 10.05.2004

Fig. 9-3: Inverse ICE (idea)

Of course, the capacity layer also can have hopping TRXs. Consider e.g. a cell with 2 TRXs in the coverage layer (no BCCH, trxFrequencyType = 0 for both) and with 2 TRXs in the capacity layer (one BCCH TRX with trxFrequencyType = 1 and a non BCCH TRX with trxFrequencyType = 2). The hopping characteristics of TRXs in the capacity layer are set by the intelligent frequency hopping parameters underlayHoppingMode, underlayhoppingSequenceNumber, underlayMA, underlayMaioOffset and underlayMaioStep discussed already in chapter Intelligent Underlay Overlay, section Introduction.

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Coverage Enhancement Features

9.3.2

Handover for Inverse ICE


When a call is set up, the MS first is allocated to a SDCCH taken from the BCCH TRX, even if it is at the edge of the cell. This is possible due to the robustness of the BCCH and SDCCH channels. If the path loss is too high, however, than a TCH is taken from a TRX of the coverage layer. The handover between the two layers of an inverse ICE network is triggered by the same thresholds as for an ICE network. If the downlink receive level exceeds superReuseGoodRxLevThreshold, the MS is handed over from the coverage to the capacity layer. If the receive level falls below superReuseBadRxLevThreshold, handover back to the coverage layer is performed (see Fig. 9-4.
Coverage Enhancement Features

In vers e IC E (Hand o ver)


Ho p p ing T R X No n ho p p ing T R X

- 70 - 80 - 90 -100 -110

c all is hand ed o v e r to no n ho p p ing T R X


superReuseGoodRxLevThreshold -110..-47 d B m

F req ue nc y d iv ers ity g ain

superReuseBadRxLevThreshold -110..-47 d B m

c all is hand e d o v e r to ho p p ing T R X

Call set up SDCCH taken from BCCH TRX even at cell edge Too high path loss -> TCH taken from hopping TRX Handover Threshold exceeded by at least Px of the last Nx average samples -> intra cell handover from one layer to the other
NO K IA B S S P A R / 10.05.2004

Fig. 9-4: Inverse ICE (handover)

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