Design of Electrical Services for
Preface to third edition Preface to fourth edition 1 Accessories 2 Cable 3 Wiring 4 Cable rating ! Circuits Distribution " $ighting # Po&er 9 Protection 1% $ightning 'rotection 11 Design e(a)'le vi viii 1 29 42 9 "" # 1%3 12# 131 212 2 !
Cha'ter 1 Accessories
*ntroduction +ro) the user,s 'oint of vie& the electricit- service in a building consists of light s&itches. soc/ets. cloc/ connectors. coo/er control units and si)ilar outlets0 Such fittings are collectivel- /no&n as accessories1 this na)e ca)e about because the- are accessorto the &iring. &hich is the )ain substance of the installation fro) the designer,s and installer,s 'oint of vie&0 2o the). the &a- the outlets are served is the )a3or interest. but it is 4uite secondar- to the user &ho is concerned onl- &ith the a''earance and function of the outlet0 *n the co)'lete electrical installation of a building the &iring and accessories are interde'endent and neither can be full- understood &ithout the other1 a start has to be )ade so)e&here ho&ever. and in this boo/ it is 'ro'osed to consider accessories first0 S&itches A s&itch is used to )a/e or interru't a circuit0 5or)all- &hen one tal/s of s&itches one has in )ind light s&itches &hich turn lights on and off0 A co)'lete s&itch consists of three 'arts0 2here is the )echanis) itself. a bo( containing it. and a front 'late over it0 2he bo( is fi(ed to the &all. and the cables going to the s&itch are dra&n into the bo(0 After this the cables are connected to the )echanis)0 2o carr- out this o'eration the electrician )ust 'ull the cables a&a- fro) the &all sufficientl- to give hi)self roo) to &or/ on the bac/ of the )echanis)0 6e then 'ushes the )echanis) bac/ into the bo( and the length of cable that he had to 'ull out fro) the &all beco)es slac/ inside the bo(0 *t is therefore i)'ortant that the bo( is large enough to acco))odate a certain a)ount of slac/ cable at the bac/ of the )echanis)0 Standard bo(es for recessing &ithin a &all are 1 . 2!. 3! and 4")) dee'0 So)eti)es the &iring is done not in the de'th of the structural &all. but &ithin the thic/ness of the 'laster0 +or use &ith such &iring. bo(es are )ade 1 )) dee' 7'laster de'th bo(es80 *t is often necessar- to install &iring and accessories e('osed on the surface of &all0 +or such a''lications surface bo(es are )ade &hich are both )ore robust and neater in a''earance than bo(es &hich are to be recessed in &alls and )ade flush &ith the surface. although the- are )ade to si)ilar de'th0 2-'ical bo(es of both t-'es are sho&n in +igure 1010
Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 101 Bo(es 7Courtes- of 90:0 Electric $td8
;oc/er o'erated s&itches are illustrated in +igure 1020 *t has a roc/er &hich is 'ivoted at its centre and &hich carries a s'ring<loaded ball0 2he ball 'resses on the )oving contact and the co)bination acts li/e a toggle1 the s'ring al&a-s forces the )oving contact into one of its t&o e(tre)e 'ositions0 2he s&itch shuts &hen the botto) of the roc/er is 'ressed and o'ens &hen the to' is 'ressed0 2he advantages of the roc/er s&itch are that it is easier to o'erate and that it is al)ost i)'ossible to hold it half o'en. even deliberatel-0 2he disadvantages are that it is not so eas- to see at a glance &hether it is on or off and that it is )ore easil- s&itched fro) one 'osition to the other b- an accidental /noc/0
+igure 102 S&itch )echanis)s
2here is a )a(i)u) current &hich the contacts of an. and a )a(i)u) voltage that the contact ga' can &ithstand0 A s&itch )ust not be 'ut in a circuit &hich carries a current greater than that &hich the s&itch can brea/0 9ost )anufacturers )a/e s&itches in standard ca'acities. or 2%A and the higher rating of 4!A for control of instantaneous sho&er units0 Discharge lights are an inductive load.
. the lo&er being rated at !. . and the induced voltage surge &hich occurs &hen an inductive load is bro/en )ust be ta/en into account in selecting a s&itch for.'articular s&itch can )a/e or brea/. 1!.
are useful for si)ulating 'o&er failure on e)ergenc. discharge lights re4uire control gear.a /e.regulations often )a/e it i)'ossible to use ordinar.lighting lu)inaires0 Safet.useful for schools and the 'ublic areas of bloc/s of flats0 2he careta/er has a /e. fluorescent lighting0 *t &as for this reason that so)e of the older s&itches had to be de< rated &hen the. o'erated fro) an insulating cord hanging fro) the s&itch0 2he cord rotates a ca) through a ratchet0 2hus &hen the cord is 'ulled the ca) is turned through a fraction of a turn and &hen the cord is released the ca) sta-s 'ut0 2he s&itch has a fi(ed contact and a )oving contact in the for) of a leaf s'ring0 *n the off 'osition the s'ring /ee's the contacts o'en0 A 'ull on the cord turns the ca) and brings a lobe of the ca) to 'ress against the s'ring and close the contacts0 2he ne(t 'ull on the cord brings the lobe off the s'ring and allo&s the contacts to o'en0 Since each 'ull on the cord rotates the ca) onl.or roc/er and &hich is scre&ed to lugs on the bo(0 Standard bo(es al&a-s have lugs for that 'ur'ose0 A s&itch &ith a se'arate front 'late is called a grid s&itch0 Alternativel. and s'ecial bo(es to ta/e these asse)blies are also available0 2he standard s&itch bo(es described so far are intended either to be fi(ed on a &all or to be recessed in it0 5arro& bo(es and s&itches are also )ade &hich can be recessed &ithin the &idth of the architrave of a door0 2hese are /no&n as architrave s&itches0 2he grid s&itch sho&n in +igure 103 is of the architrave 'attern0 Another t-'e of s&itch is )ade &hich has no 'rotruding lever or roc/er.Design of electrical services for buildings
sa-.the discharge lights0 2he *EE >uidance 5ote 1 Selection and Erection of E4ui')ent.co)bination &hich )a. but s&itches in current 'roduction are suitable for inductive loads u' to their no)inal rating0 A !A rating is not as large as one )ight thin/ at first sight0 *f ten tungsten la)'s of 1%%W 23%= each are controlled fro) one 'oint.voltage0 Alternativel.the )anufacturers data should be used &hich &ill -ield a )ore econo)ical value0 +or lighting sche)es in larger buildings such as 'ublic buildings. but is o'erated b. the total current to be s&itched is 403!A0 6o&ever. the ca) has several lobes around its circu)ference0 2he s&itch itself is on the ceiling and the cord hangs do&n to nor)al s&itch height0
.nu)ber of s&itches to be )ade u' fro) individual )echanis)s0 Standard grids and front 'lates are available for al)ost an.be a 'late s&itch. and the *EE ?n<Site >uide reco))ends that the in'ut current to a discharge light is calculated b7rated la)' &atts@10#8Asu''l.'art of a turn.&ere used for discharge lights.be re4uired.&ith &hich he can o'erate the lights but unauthoriBed 'ersons cannot turn lights on or off0 2he.&hich has to be inserted into the s&itch0 2his t-'e of s&itch is ver.s&itches in certain Bones in bathroo)s0 +or such situations ceiling s&itches are )ade.the s&itch )a. in &hich case the front 'late is )ade as 'art of the s&itch and not as a se'arate 'iece0 Both 'late and grid s&itches are illustrated in +igure 1030 >rid s&itches are so called because &ith this t-'e several )echanis)s can be asse)bled on a s'ecial steel grid0 2his )a/es it 'ossible for ban/s of an. it is often advisable to use s&itches higher than the lo&est ratings0 When the s&itch is cabled and inserted in its bo( it needs a front 'late over it0 2his is often a loose co)'onent &ith a hole &hich fits over the doll. 'o&er losses occur &ithin the control gear0 2his )ust be ta/en into consideration &hen calculating the current ta/en b.
of 90:0 Electric $td8
*n order that 'o&er e4ui')ent can be full.of 90:0 Electric $td8
+igure 104 Double 'ole s&itch 7Courtes.or single 'ole s&itch.isolated it is often desirable to use a double 'ole s&itch0 2his e('ression )eans a s&itch &hich o'ens both the 'hase and neutral circuits0 2he )echanis) is si)ilar to that of an ordinar. but there
+igure 103 S&itches 7Courtes.
be older installations still in e(istence and 'lugs and soc/ets for use &ith the) are still being )anufactured0 2he older fittings. 'er)anentl.integral &ith the outlet0 *n >reat Britain the )a3orit. a s&itch is incor'orated in the soc/et outlet. there )a. 3%. and is disconnected &hen the 'lug is 'ulled out0 *f. or &hatever other use is envisaged engraved on the front 'late0 2he usual rating of double 'ole s&itches are 1!.live0 2he a''liance to be connected is turned on as soon as the 'lug is 'ushed into the soc/et. it is essential &ith all 'resent<da. !A and 1!A0 2he 1!A 'attern is still used in the .older installations.)ethods of &iring buildings0 2-'ical soc/et outlets are illustrated in +igure 10!0 *t &ill be seen that the.difference being that both the 'hase and neutral are s&itched0 A double 'ole s&itch is sho&n in +igure 1040 Double 'ole s&itches are also )ade &ith a neon indicator and for 'utting in recessed bo(es0 Double 'ole 'ull< cord s&itches are used for local control of electric sho&er units in bathroo)s and sho&er roo)s0 2here are certain ver. and a &all s&itch at the door&a. C+an. therefore. all have round 'ins and soc/ets0 2he. therefore. and are designed to acce't 13A 'lugs0 2hese 'lugs have three rectangular 'ins and the soc/ets have three corres'onding rectangular slots to ta/e the 'ins0 Each 'lug also has a fuse inside it. and the third one is for a se'arate circuit 'rotective conductor0 *t should be noted that although a se'arate circuit 'rotective conductor &as not al&a-s 'rovided on )an. even &ilfull-. into a soc/et of a different rating0 Plugs and soc/ets rated at 2 and !A are available in both t&o and three<'in versions. electric fire or electronic e4ui')ent0 2he general arrange)ent of soc/et outlets is si)ilar to that of s&itches0 2here is a bo( to house the outlet.are rated at 2A. the s&itch )ust be turned on before the line contact beco)es connected to the su''l-0 2he
.side1 the onl.e'ublic of South Africa0 2he s'acing of the 'ins and soc/ets are different for the different ratings0 2his )a/es sure that a 'lug of one rating cannot be inserted. and the fusing arrange)ents of the building &iring need 'rotect onl.Design of electrical services for buildings are t&o contacts &or/ing side b. ho&ever. 2%. the outlet itself and finall. 4! and %A0 Soc/et outlets A soc/et outlet is a fe)ale soc/et connected to the 'o&er &iring in the building and &ill acce't the )ale 'lug attached at the end of the fle(ible cord of an a''liance such as a vacuu) cleaner.are available &ith and &ithout s&itches0 Dns&itched soc/ets have the contacts 'er)anentlconnected to the &iring and are.a front 'late0 *n the case of soc/et outlets the front 'late is usuall.controls the lighting soc/et circuit0 2he reading la)'s are then all turned on together0 2&o of the three 'ins are for the line and neutral cables.. so that each a''liance has its o&n fuse at the feeding end of its fle(ible cable or cord0 2his 'rotects the cable or cord.of soc/et outlets intended for do)estic or co))ercial use are BS 13 3 soc/ets.co))on a''lications of s&itches such as &ater heaters and fans0 So)e )anufacturers. CBath.the 'er)anent fi(ed &iring of the building0 6o&ever. but those of 1!A<rating are )ade onl. )a/e double 'ole s&itches &ith the &ords C6eater..&ith three 'ins0 2he s)aller< rated soc/ets are useful in situations &here s&itching of reading la)'s is re4uired0 2he soc/ets are installed around the roo) in suitable locations.
have no soc/ets for a 'lug to be 'ushed into0 2he outlet connection is 'er)anentl.be able to turn the a''liance on and off. soc/et outlets can be recessed into a &all &ith the front flush &ith the face of the &all or the.have a fuse.'erfor) the sa)e function as a soc/et and 'lug co)bination. such as for an electric hand dr-er in a 'ublic toilet0 *f this is a 'roble).)inded 'eo'le &ho find electricit.'erha's be regretted that uns&itched soc/ets are )ade at all0 A further refine)ent to a soc/et outlet is the addition of a neon indicator light &hich sho&s &hen the soc/et is s&itched on0 2his can be reassuring to )echanicall. there being ter)inals for this 'ur'ose &ithin the unit1 the outlet cable is brought out of the unit either underneath or through the front0 $i/e soc/et outlets. and in fact )an. the.can be )ounted co)'letel. fused connection units can be s&itched or uns&itched and can be &ith or &ithout a neon indicator0 2he disadvantages are that it costs a little )ore and that unauthoriBed 'ersons )a.if the. for connecting fi(ed as o''osed to 'ortable electric fires. &hich has develo'ed a fault0 $i/e s&itches. the difference being that the t&o 'arts cannot be se'arated as the 'lug and soc/et can0 2he./no&n as fused s'ur units are used for connecting a single 'er)anentl. the. then uns&itched fuse s'ur units are available0 2he.are used.a s)all finger or a 'iece of )etal0 5e&er t-'es of 'lug have the rear end of the 'ins insulated so that the 'roble) &ith older t-'es of 'lug to' has been alleviated0 Also if an a''liance connected to the 'lug is fault. such as
.difficult and feel ha''ier if so)ething visible ha''ens &hen a s&itch is turned on0 *t is also convenient for seeing at a glance &hether it is the 'o&er su''l.'eo'le do this0 2he s&itched soc/et outlets in a house are then left 'er)anentl.'osition it could be touched b. 'eo'le &ill not learn to use e4ui')ent 'ro'erl. and in that the.that has failed or the a''liance connected to the 'lug.are used to connect )ains<su''lied e4ui')ent in bathroo)s.differ in that the. and it )a.are not 'rovided &ith it.and ta/es an e(cessive current arcing can occur as the 'lug is 'ushed in and out0 2hese haBards are avoided if the soc/et is not s&itched on until after the 'lug has been 'ushed in0 ?f course there is nothing to sto' a householder s&itching the soc/et on first and 'ushing the 'lug in after&ards.cabled.fi(ed a''liance to the &iring0 2he.are si)ilar to soc/et outlets and are connected to the &iring in the sa)e &a-0 2he.Accessories
s&itch )echanis)s built into soc/et outlets for this 'ur'ose are of the sa)e t-'e as those used for lighting s&itches0 *t is 'ossible to leave a 'lug half in and half out of a soc/et so that on older t-'es of 'lug. for e(a)'le.s&itched on. 'arts of the bare 'ins are left e('osed0 *f the soc/et is 'er)anentl.live the e('osed 'art of one of the 'ins is live and in this half<&a.are often used &hen a fi(ed a''liance is to be served fro) a ring )ain circuit serving soc/et outlets as &ell as the fi(ed a''liance0 +igure 10 sho&s so)e t-'ical fused connection units0 Ph-sicall-. so that the advantage of a s&itch is lost0 6o&ever.on the surface0 2he soc/et outlets illustrated in +igure 10! are of both t-'es0 +used connection units +used connection units collo4uiall. &ater heaters and other e4ui')ent of this sort0 Electricall-. &hich is accessible for re'lace)ent fro) the front.
Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 10! Soc/et outlets 7Courtes. in Bones &here connection of such e4ui')ent is 'er)itted1 the installation of )ains<su''lied soc/et outlets is 'rohibited in bathroo)s and sho&er roo)s in the D:0
.heated to&el rails.of 90:0 Electric $td8
in &hich case the soc/ets are 'er)anentl.isolating the out'ut fro) the in'ut0 2he out'ut then is earth<free0
.live.being suitable for fitting into a standard dee' bo(0 +igure 10" sho&s a shaver outlet &hich has the asse)bl. &hich incor'orates a safet. as is the case &ith uns&itched soc/et outlets0 2he. the asse)bl.of 90:0 Electric $td8
Shaver outlets 2he use of shaver outlets is described in Cha'ter 90 2he outlet itself consists of a t&o<'in soc/et &ith a s&itch.isolating transfor)er electricall.on the bac/ of the front 'late and is suitable for fitting into a bo( recessed in the bathroo) &all0 So)e shaver outlets are uns&itched.of 90:0 Electric $td8
+igure 10" Shaver outlet 7Courtes.&ith BS E5 %"42.Accessories
+igure 10 +used connection units 7Courtes.are also available in s&itched versions &ith neon indicators0 A shaver outlet fitted in a bathroo) or sho&er roo) )ust co)'l.
it is usuall.su''lied as a loose 'iece &ith the coo/er control unit0
Bo(es 2he use of bo(es for housing s&itches and other accessories has alread. to the side of the coo/er so that the o'erators can s&itch off the coo/er 4uic/l. &hich is let in flush &ith the &all to )a/e a neat outlet fro) the &all to the coo/er0 2he fle( outlet is nor)all.reach. and the t-'e of bo( used is the sa)e as that used for housing s&itches0 As stated in the section on s&itches.&ithout 'utting the)selves in danger0 2he cable fro) the unit to the coo/er is usuall. recessing &ithin the narro& de'th of 'laster
.a 3%A8 s&itch &ith outgoing ter)inals for a 'er)anent cable connection to the coo/er and &hich also contain an ordinar. that is to sa-. access )ust be 'rovided into the conduit for 'ulling the cable in0 Also &here the 'aths of cables branch t&o or )ore conduits )ust be connected together0 +or both these reasons. bo(es are available for recessing in &alls.hidden in the &all and co)es out at lo& level behind the coo/er0 A s'ecial fle( outlet cover is )ade to fi( on the surface of a bo(. on o'ening.13A s&itched soc/et outlet0 2he coo/er s&itch is double 'ole.been described0 2he sa)e bo(es are used for conduit installations0 When &iring is done b.convenient to have a soc/et outlet near the coo/er in addition to the coo/er s&itch itself0 Coo/er control units are.dra&ing cable through conduit.of 90:0 Electric $td8
A coo/er control unit is sho&n in +igure 10#0 Again units are available for both flush and surface fi(ing0 2he unit is )ounted &ithin eas.in an e)ergenc. )ade &hich have a 4!A 7so)eti)es onl. a bo( of so)e sort is needed for use &ith conduit. therefore. and the unit also has a substantial ter)inal for the circuit 'rotective conductors0
+igure 10# Coo/er control unit 7Courtes. it disconnects both 'hase and neutral lines.Design of electrical services for buildings
Coo/er control unit Electric coo/ers ta/e a )uch larger current than )ost other do)estic a''liances0 2hetherefore re4uire heavier s&itches than those used for lighting or in soc/et outlets0 9oreover.
for the electrician on site to /noc/ out an.i)'ortant &hen a 'lastic conduit s-ste) is used &hich necessitates the use of a se'arate circuit 'rotective conductor0 2here )ust then be so)e )eans of connecting the circuit 'rotective conductor to the accessor.and this can beco)e difficult if there is no suitable ter)inal in the bo( for )a/ing the connection0 *t is also reco))ended that an accessor.direction and in an'osition0
+igure 109 Cover 'lates
*n addition to rectangular bo(es of the sort illustrated.) is 'rovided &ith a lead bet&een the earth ter)inal on the bo( and the accessor-.one of the) out in order to )a/e a hole in the bo(0 2he hole so )ade is the right siBe to acce't standard electrical conduit0 *t &ill be clear fro) the illustration that sufficient /noc/<outs are 'rovided to )a/e it 'ossible to bring conduit into a bo( fro) an.or for fi(ing to the surface of &alls0 Where a large nu)ber of conduits is to be connected to the sa)e bo(. the cover )ust be left flush &ith the surface of the &all so that it can be re)oved to give access to the cables inside the bo(0 2his is 'articularl. installed on a )etallic conduit installation.re4uiring earthing.Accessories
onl. circular bo(es are also )ade0 2hese are useful for general conduit &or/ and ter)inating &iring at 'oints &hich are to ta/e fittings0 When bo(es are used for connecting lengths of conduit rather than for housing other accessories.)ust have the o'en side covered &ith a blan/ 'late0 A t-'ical 'late is sho&n in +igure 1090 Circular 'lates are also )ade for circular bo(es0 *t should 'erha's not need sa-ing that &hen a bo( is recessed in a &all. the bo( is )ade longer in order to acco))odate the) side bside0 *t can be seen in +igure 101 that the bo(es have a nu)ber of circles on the)0 2hese are called /noc/<outs and their circu)ference is indented to about half the thic/ness of the 'arent )etal0 *t is therefore eas. if the bo( has ad3ustable tags such as on so)e /noc/out bo(es0
. the.&hich is housed in the bo( has to be earthed through the bo(0 2his is 'articularl.i)'ortant if the s-ste) is installed &ith the intention that it should be 'ossible to re&ire or add cables later0 Bo(es have a &iring ter)inal &hich enables a cable to be connected to the )etal of the bo(0 2his is used for connecting a circuit 'rotective conductor0 2he 'ur'ose and use of earthing is discussed in Cha'ter 90 2he i)'ortance of the earth ter)inal on the bo( arises &hen the accessor.
to run a television aerial cable fro) the aerial to an outlet in each d&elling.be fanned out to individual d&ellings through a )ains su''lied booster0 2errestrial channels )a.of 90:0 Electric $td8
&as co))on to 'rovide a co))unal aerial s-ste) &hich serves all d&ellings on an estate fro) a single aerial0 2he chief reason for doing this is that it avoids the ugliness of a large nu)ber of aerials.Design of electrical services for buildings 2= outlets
6ousing design toda. 'ut u' close to each other b. it is 4uite co))on to 'ut in &iring for tele'hones as 'art of the services built into the structure as the building is erected0 2his &iring )ust.re4uire connection to an outdoor aerial0 *t
+igure 101% 2= outlets 7Courtes. s'ecial t&o<'in outlets are available0 2hese can also be co)bined in a single unit containing the )ains soc/et outlet as &ell as the t&o<'in outlet0 2ele'hone outlets 2o avoid the need for a lot of surface cable fi(ed after a building is occu'ied. )aisonette or house &ill have a television &hich )a.has to acce't that ever. and this ta/es the for) of a soc/et ca'able of acce'ting the coa(ial 'lugs used on the end of aerial cable0 An outlet of this /ind is sho&n in +igure 101%0 Since a television set also needs a 'o&er su''l-. be brought to suitable ter)inals in the 'ositions at &hich the tele'hones are to
. it beco)es necessar.be accessed through satellite aerials0 *f a co))unal aerial s-ste) is installed.flat.chosen 'osition can give better rece'tion than the aerials &hich individual occu'iers install0 2his signal )a. all of different 'atterns.different 'eo'le0 *t has the further advantage that one 'o&erful aerial erected in a carefull. of course. or hotel bedroo)0 2here has to be a suitable ter)inal in the roo). it is usual to 'rovide a )ains soc/et outlet near the aerial outlet0 ?ne )anufacturer )a/es a co)bined unit having an aerial soc/et and 13A soc/et outlet &ithin one housing0 +or radios &hich re4uire both an aerial and an earth connection.
connected0 A t-'ical one is sho&n in +igure 1012 and can 'erha's be considered as a s'ecial<'ur'ose fusedconnection outlet0 *t contains a 2A fuse and ter)inals to &hich the cable fro) the cloc/ can be connected0 2he fuse is needed because a cloc/ outlet is usuall.essential re4uire)ent is an o'ening through &hich standard tele'hone cable can be brought out neatl-0 A 'late &ith a suitable outlet &hich fits into a standard bo(.different to the DS 'attern0 2he soc/et for)s 'art of a lid &hich scre&s onto a standard conduit bo( at the agreed outlet 'ositions0 An outlet of this /ind is sho&n in +igure 10110 Cloc/ connector S'ecial outlets are )ade to &hich electric cloc/s can be easil. and )a. is sho&n in +igure 10110 2he )ore )odern 'ractice is to connect each tele'hone set to the 'er)anent installation via a teleco) soc/et and 'lug1 in the D:.Accessories
+igure 1011 2ele'hone outlets 7Courtes. &hich is slightl.of 90:0 Electric $td8
.be as )uch as 1!A0 2he cloc/
+igure 1012 Cloc/ connector 7Courtes.connected to the nearest available lighting circuit0 2he fuse 'rotecting the &hole circuit &ill never be rated at less than !A.of 90:0 Electric $td8
be connected later0 2he onl. a B2 'attern in used.
&hich is illustrated in +igure 10140 *t consists of a circular 'lastic housing &ith a ter)inal bloc/ inside and a bushed o'ening on the underside &here the fle(ible cord to the la)'holder can co)e out of the rose0 *n installations &hich have the )ain &iring inside the ceiling. 3ust as i)'ortant as its current carr-ing ca'acit. the cloc/ connector is )ade flush &ith the &all and the cloc/ is subse4uentl. have its o&n 'rotection at the 'oint at &hich the su''l.have a ring or s/irt to &hich a nor)al la)'shade or si)ilar lu)inaire can be attached0 2he to' of the la)'holder scre&s do&n to gri' the fle(ible cable cord on &hich it is sus'ended fro) the ceiling0 2-'ical la)'holders are sho&n in +igure 10130 2he fle(ible cord on &hich the la)'holder is sus'ended 'erfor)s t&o functions0 *t carries the electric current to the la)'. and in this case the cloc/ &ould be fi(ed ne(t to the connector &ith a short length of cable run on the surface of the &all bet&een the cloc/ and connector0 With the develo')ent of 4uartB batter.left to the o&ner or tenant and is )ade once the d&elling is occu'ied0 Plain la)'holders are.fi(ed over it0 6o&ever. it enters the rose through a cut<out in the side of the rose0 Ceiling roses are )ade &ith three line ter)inals in addition to an earth ter)inal0 2he reason for the third line ter)inal is e('lained in Cha'ter ! and it &ill be seen there that &hen this third ter)inal is used.reco))ended0 Ceiling roses are available &hich incor'orate a 'lug and soc/et0 2he lu)inaire can then be 4uic/l. the choice of the la)'shade or lu)inaire is usuall.)eans of a ceiling rose. and &hich usuall.cloc/s. la)' and shade0 *ts 'h-sical strength is. it re)ains live even &hen the light attached to the ceiling rose is s&itched off0 *t )ust. cloc/ connectors are seldo) used0 $a)'holders and ceiling roses *n 'ublic buildings the lu)inaires are fi(ed as 'art of the electrical installation0 *n housing.to it branches fro) the )ain circuit0 2he necessar'rotection is 'rovided b. therefore. therefore.and it has to be selected &ith this in )ind0 At the ceiling itself. the &iring in 7or on8 the ceiling )ust be connected to the fle(ible cord0 2he connection is )ade b. therefore. and it su''orts the &eight of the holders.1%%W and 1!%W tungsten bulbs. 'rovided &hich &ill acce't ordinar.the fuse in the connector0 2he front of the connector has an o'ening through &hich the cloc/ cable can be ta/en out to the cloc/0 *n )ost cases.Design of electrical services for buildings
&iring is not suitable for such a large current and )ust. therefore. be shrouded so that it cannot be touched baccident if ever the fle(ible cord is being re'laced1 co)'lete circuit isolation for this tas/ is strongl. surface connectors are available.disconnected for )aintenance or testing. this &iring enters the rose through the bac/ or to' of the rose1 &hen the )ain &iring runs e('osed on the surface of the ceiling. &ithout disru'tion to other 'arts of the sa)e circuit0
+igure 1013 $a)'holders
to a standard circular bo( on the ceiling0 A batten la)'holder could also be used to fi( a light to a &all. the la)' is at a do&n&ard angle0 Such angled battenholders can be obtained either &ith the la)'holder at a fi(ed angle or &ith the angle ad3ustable0 $a)'holders fre4uentl.have 'rotective shields &hich are intended to 'revent accidental contact &ith either )etal 'arts or &ith the la)'holder 'ins the)selves0 $a)'holders &ith such shields are sho&n in +igures 1013 and 101!0 2hese shields are often referred to as 6o)e ?ffice S/irts0 Pattresses *t can ha''en that an outlet. &hen a &iring s-ste) is installed on the surface of &alls and ceilings and there is a ste' in the surface &hich the &iring cannot follo&. has to be 'laced a s)all distance in front of the structure available to su''ort it0 2his can ha''en. and it can be scre&ed directl. one )a/es use of a batten la)'holder. so that it has to be su''orted off the surface0 *t is then necessar. but the la)' &ould 'ro3ect 'er'endicularlfro) the &all0 2he angled batten<la)'holder sho&n in +igure 101 has the la)'holder at an angle to the rose so that &hen the &hole fiiting is 'ut on the &all. &hich is illustrated in +igure 101!0 *t co)bines the ter)inal bloc/ of the ceiling rose &ith the la)'holder in one fitting. for e(a)'le.for so)e sort of distance 'iece to ta/e u' the ga' bet&een the fitting and the
. it is undersirable to have the la)'holder hanging on the end of a fle(ible cable &hile there is no ob3ection to having the la)' at ceiling height0 *n such cases.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 1014 Ceiling roses
*n so)e situations. such as a soc/et outlet or ceiling rose.
standard 'ractice in co))ercial situations to install trun/ing &hich incor'orates the soc/et outlets0
. there &ould be an untid. &hich also gives a s/etch sho&ing the use of the bo( &ith surface conduit0 2he inclusion of the bo( )a/es it 'ossible for the cables to enter the soc/et outlet fro) the bac/.Accessories
+igure 101! Batten la)'holders
+igure 101 Angled batten la)'holder
surface behind it0 Standard co)'onents are available for this and are /no&n as 'attresses0 A bo( for use &ith a circular soc/et outlet is sho&n in +igure 101". &hereas &ithout it.3unction of the conduit &ith the botto) of the soc/et outlet0 *t is no& fairl.
'rovide the su''l-0 A
. cables have to rise a s)all vertical distance0 2he 'attress sho&n 'rovides a neat and convenient &a. as the onl.unit &hich is 'lugged into the bench )ains soc/et.of e(tending the &iring to an ad3acent 'osition.)eans of e(tending that conduit0 $aboratories $aboratories in schools. &here the alternative )ight be to de)olish large 'arts of a &all alread. an electrical outlet is &rongl.built in order to give access to conduit buried in it. or even a variable voltage transfor)er. therefore.run right in front of the bo( left to ta/e a soc/et outlet0 2he t-'e of 'attress sho&n in +igure 1019 is a neat &a.voltage or be of the ta'<changing t-'e to give a choice of voltages.of doing this0 *t has also been /no&n to ha''en that in the course of erecting a ne& building.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 101" 9ounting bo(
+igure 101# sho&s a 'attress for use &ith batten la)'holders0 +igure 1019 sho&s a different t-'e of 'attress0 2his is useful &ith so)e )odern building )ethods in &hich the &iring is installed in a s'ecial s/irting0 2he s/irting is at floor level. universities and industrial establish)ents often need s'ecial services &hich are not re4uired in other areas0 2he )ost co))on electrical service of this /ind is an e(tra lo& voltage su''l-0 2his is usuall. )a. a transfor)er fro) the )ains.obtained fro) a stabilised su''l. the soc/et being installed on angled bench trun/ing0 +or higher current a''lications. &hich can either 'rovide a fi(ed secondar. a little above the s/irting so that at each outlet.'laced0 +or e(a)'le. but this is too lo& for soc/et outlets and the latter are. a heating 'i'e to a radiator )a.
+igure 101# Pattress
+igure 1019 Pattress
reliable0 Also.connected to each other.to 3oin cables together0 *n the &iring of buildings this is rarel. are 'rovided &ith s'ecial ter)inals to connect e4ui')ent to the laborator.soldering0 >ood soldered 3oints can be )ade in factor. and the scre& is tightened on to it0 2he scre& gri's the conductor.e4ui')ent is being connected0 Connectors *t is often necessar.)eans of a s'ecial tool0 *t is also co))on 'ractice to 3oin cables b.su''lies &hich )ust be shrouded so that there are no live conductors e('osed to touch as the laborator.not be sufficientl.in 'lace and at the sa)e ti)e )a/ing a good electrical contact0 As the t&o ter)inals are solidl. and the 4ualit. holding it fir)l.)eans of connector bloc/s. )ounted in an insulated casing0 2he end of each cable is 'ushed into one of the ter)inals. the result is that there is a good electrical 'ath bet&een
. the ti)e ta/en to )a/e the) &ould 'ut u' the cost of the electrical service considerabl-0 Cri)'ing the cables is a )ore cost<effective )ethod of 3ointing cables1 this is achieved b. &hich re4uire onl.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 102% Bench trun/ing 7courtes.s4ueeBing s'ecial lugs onto the cable conductor b.is )ade available at the sa)e ti)e as an e(tra lo& voltage a0c0 su''l-0 $aborator.conditions. &ith no bare conductor visible.benches su''lied through angled bench trun/ing. but the conditions e(isting on a building site. as sho&n in +igure 102%. are such that 3oints )a. &ith the insulation ta/en u' to the connector.connected &ithin the insulated case.of &or/ that can be done under such conditions.of 90:0 Electric $td8
rectifier is often incor'orated so that an e(tra lo& voltage d0c0 su''l.)echanical ter)inations to the cables0 A connector bloc/ is illustrated in +igure 10210 *t consists of t&o scre&<do&n<t-'e ter)inals solidl.done b.
but &hen an occasion arises &hen this cannot be done. it is 'ossible to 3oin cables neatl.accessor.&ithin the bo(es &hich have alread.ade4uate siBing of the cables so that this is not a 'roble) as far as the installation is concerned0 2he surface te)'erature of )otors.b.of )an)anufacturers. an.the use of the accessories on actual sites0 6aBardous areas 2here are industrial 'rocesses &hich involve a ris/ of fire or e('losion0 >enerall-. or enca'sulating need not be available for ins'ection0 With such connector bloc/s.electrical e4ui')ent in the area sub3ect to ris/ )ust be s'eciall.British Standards &hich are har)oniBed &ith Euro'ean standards if the national standards do not e(actl. ho&ever.a stud. soldering. &ithout the use of a 'attress0 A 3oint or ter)ination )ade b.Accessories
+igure 1021 Connector bloc/
the t&o cables0 Eoints and ter)inals )ade in this &a. in coal )ines there is al&a-s the 'ossibilit. b.be used0 2he author has tried in this cha'ter to give a surve. the ris/ arises because fla))able va'ours or dusts are 'resent in the at)os'here0 +or e(a)'le. all 3oints and ter)inations )ust be enclosed &ithin a non<co)bustible )aterial0 2herefore.&ill not ignite a va'our unless the te)'erature beco)es too high0 2he te)'erature can be /e't lo& b. lu)inaires and other electrical e4ui')ent )ust.&ill be designated as a Euro<5or) E50
. connector bloc/s )a. cri)'ing. be considered0 =a'our can also be ignited b.designed to reduce that ris/0 2he )ere flo& of electricit.)ade1 a full /no&ledge can be obtained onl. catalogues and.of )ethane a''earing in sufficient concentration to ignite or burn0 *n such cases an. 'referabl-. such as a &ooden 'artition.)atch0 *f the national standards are identical.of the )ore i)'ortant accessories and to give an idea of the &ide range available0 *t is not 'ossible to describe everaccessor.&ithout an a''ro'riate bac/ 'late )ust not be fi(ed to a co)bustible surface.&elding.)ust be available for ins'ection0 *n addition to this. then the.been described0 *n general. 3oints should be avoided and single lengths of cable run fro) one 'iece of e4ui')ent to another.a s'ar/ at a ter)inal or s&itch or as a result of )echanical da)age causing a s'ar/ or local hot s'ot0 2here are various &a-s of designing e4ui')ent to reduce the ris/s in haBardous areas and these are no& covered b. braBing.
de'ending on the )ini)u) ignition energ. the ris/ of lea/age and the distance of the area fro) the source of the haBardous )aterial0 2hese factors are assessed b. and haBardous areas are classified into three Bones according to the li/elihood of such a concentrationG 1 Hone % 7A2EF categor.to occur in nor)al o'eration occasionall-0 3 Hone 22 7A2EF categor.of a fla)e e)erging fro) a narro& 3oint to ignite itG 1 >rou' *. it is necessar. va'our.e4uire)ents for *)'roving the Safet. for &hich the t-'ical or re'resentative gas is )ethane.is/ fro) E('losive At)os'heres.to consider both the t-'e and )agnitude of the ris/0 2he )agnitude of the ris/ is the 'robabilit.Design of electrical services for buildings
Dnder the Euro'ean A2EF directive 1999A92AEC.to occur in nor)al o'eration but.to )ining electrical engineers0 2 >rou' 11A is for gases &ith 'ro'erties si)ilar to 'ro'ane and re4uire )ore than 2%%K3oules of energ. on the C9ini)u) .at)os'heres the follo&ing definitions a''l-G 1 Hone 2% 7A2EF categor.of the gas and on the abilit.3D IDustJ8 A 'lace in &hich an e('losive at)os'here in the for) of a cloud of co)bustible dust in air not li/el.. is reserved for )ining a''lications onl. va'our or )ist is not li/el.and is therefore of interest onl.s'ecialist &ho designates the Bone classification of areas on a site and it is not usual for the electrical designer to have to do this hi)Aherself0 2he t-'e of ris/ de'ends on the 'ro'erties of the gas. dangerous substances are.to occur in nor)al o'eration occasionall-0 3 Hone 2 7A2EF categor.a safet.to occur in nor)al o'eration but.to ignite0 3 >rou' **B is for gases &ith 'ro'erties si)ilar to eth-lene 7L %K3oules to ignite80
. or dust concerned0 +or gases. if it does occur. va'our or )ist is 'resent continuousl. &ill 'ersist for a short 'eriod onl-0 +or dust.or for long 'eriods or fre4uentl-0 2 Hone 21 7A2EF categor. accordingl-.2D IDustJ8 A 'lace in &hich an e('losive at)os'here in the for) of a cloud of co)bustible dust in air li/el.or for long 'eriods or fre4uentl-0 2 Hone 1 7A2EF categor.2> I>asJ8 A 'lace in &hich an e('losive at)os'here consisting of a )i(ture &ith air of fla))able substances in the for) of a gas.of a dangerous concentration of fla))able va'our. if it does occur. the rate of 'roduction in relation to roo) siBe. va'our or )ist is li/el. classified into four grou's. &ill 'ersist for a short 'eriod onl-0 *f there is no li/elihood at all of a fla))able at)os'here the area is a safe one0 2he )agnitude of the ris/ &hich deter)ines &hich Bone an area is in de'ends on such things as the 'rocess 'roducing the fla))able gas or va'our or dust cloud.1> I>asJ8 A 'lace in &hich an e('losive at)os'here consisting of a )i(ture &ith air of fla))able substances in the for) of gas.3> I>asJ8 A 'lace in &hich an e('losive at)os'here consisting of a )i(ture &ith air of fla))able substances in the for) of a gas.1D IDustJ8 A 'lace in &hich an e('losive at)os'here in the for) of a cloud of co)bustible dust is 'resent continuousl.and 6ealth Protection of Wor/ers at .
internal 'ressure.to li)it surface te)'eratures0 2he safe te)'erature in an area does not necessaril. and an additional classification is usual0 2able 102 is based on BS 4 #3G Part 1ABS
. &hereas t-'e e e4ui')ent can be used in Bone 1.rated )achines0 2-'e 5 is si)ilar to t-'e e but has a reduced level of 'rotection0 Conse4uentl-.grou'0 E4ui')ent &ith t-'e d or i 'rotection is further subdivided according to the grou' for &hich it is safe0 2hese 'rovisions deal &ith the ris/s of ignition arising fro) o'eration of e4ui')ent under nor)al or fault conditions0 *t )a.in K3oules re4uired to cause ignition.flo& de'ends on the voltage but. Electrical a''aratus for e('losive gas at)os'heres0 Electrical installations in haBardous areas 7other than )ines8 sho& &hich t-'e of e4ui')ent )a. increased cree'age and clearance distances. in the case of lu)inaires.)eans of a barrier diode0 2his t-'e of 'rotection is designated t-'e i1 it )a.safe e4ui')ent li)its the energ. )ost intrinsicall.be used &ith gas of an.Accessories
4 >rou' **C7L2%K3oules to ignite8 is for the )ost haBardous gases.safe e4ui')ent is designed for o'eration on e(tra lo& voltages0 *t is 'er)issible to li)it the current b.fla)e starting inside &ill be e(tinguished before it has travelled to the outside0 2his is the )ethod used for t-'e d e4ui')ent0 2-'e e is a )ethod of 'rotection &hich a''lies onl. the enclosure of the e4ui')ent contains air or an inert gas at a 'ressure sufficient to 'revent the surrounding va'our entering the enclosure0 Since no enclosure is co)'letel.be designated t-'e ia or t-'e ib according to the nu)ber of faults it can sustain during testing0 2able 101 is based on BS E5 %%"9<14G199"G Part 1. t-'e 5 e4ui')ent can be used onl. in general.be used in &hich Bone0 Within a Bone in &hich it is 'er)itted.available for causing ignition0 2he )a(i)u) current &hich )a.to non<s'ar/ing e4ui')ent0 2he design of the e4ui')ent is such as to /ee' te)'eratures lo& and give increased 'rotection against )echanical da)age &hich could cause an electrical fault0 2his is achieved b. 'ossible to design it so that the air ga's bet&een inside and outside are so narro& and so long that an. 5. at the )ost volatile gas air )i(ture0 *t &ill be noted that the Bones are nu)bered %<2 in decreasing order of ris/ &hereas the grou's are nu)bered *<**C in increasing order of ris/0 2hese classifications deal &ith the )agnitude and t-'e of ris/0 E4ui')ent designed for use in haBardous areas is itself classified according to the )ethod used for achieving 'rotection0 Each t-'e of 'rotection is referred to b. and.de'end on the )agnitude or t-'e of ris/.in the event of loss of 'ressure0 *ntrinsicall. there )ust be so)e lea/age out of the enclosure0 E4ui')ent suitable for this )ethod of o'eration )ust be ca'able of &ithstanding the necessar. or ' e4ui')ent )a.in Bone 20 With t-'e ' 'rotection.also be necessar.a letter0 2-'e d refers to e4ui')ent &ith a fla)e'roof enclosure0 2he 'rinci'le ado'ted &ith this t-'e of 'rotection is that a s'ar/ inside e4ui')ent should not cause fire outside it0 *t is not 'racticable to design e4ui')ent so that no air or va'our can get inside it0 *t is. additional insulation.such features as non<s'ar/ing cable ter)inations. and )ust be connected to a net&or/ of co)'ressed air or gas &hich contains a lo&<'ressure s&itch to disconnect the electrical su''l. ho&ever. s'ecial la)'holders0 2he re4uire)ent of lo& internal te)'erature )a/es it ina''licable to heavil. of &hich the t-'ical one is h-drogen0 2hese categories relate to the )ini)u) ignition energ.va'our<tight. t-'e e.
and &here relevant.Design of electrical services for buildings
E5 !%%21 Electrical a''aratus for 'otentiall. are also available in a variet. d. %%%% the certif-ing test house registration nu)ber. '. ** e('losion 'roof..e.all the accessories described in this cha'ter.before s'ecif-ing e4ui')ent0 Electrical e4ui')ent suitable for use in haBardous areas has to be )ar/ed &ith the 'rotection it affords0 2he )ar/ co))ences &ith the letters E(. are available in versions &ith various classes of haBard 'rotection0 Distribution e4ui')ent and lu)inaires.e('losive at)os'heres0 2-'es of 'rotection Cn. although one &ould not e('ect intrinsicall.agreed to indicate e('losion 'rotection.of t-'es of 'rotection0
. &hich have been internationall. 2 categor-.d.ib. ia. e. sho& the classes &hich are used to designate the )a(i)u) 'er)itted surface te)'erature0 *t is 'ossible for e4ui')ent having an. &hich are discussed in Cha'ters and ".safe e4ui')ent to have a lo&er class than 2! or 24 &hile it is difficult for other t-'es of e4ui')ent to achieve classes 2! or 2 0 *t should be noted that there is no real relationshi' bet&een )ini)u) ignition te)'erature and )a(i)u) surface te)'erature 'er)itted0 6-drogen is a class **C gas but its
2able 101 E4ui')ent t-'es
% 1 2
2-'e of 'rotection
ia ia. and > suitable for gas0 5earl. the grou' for &hich the e4ui')ent has been certified. 5
2able 102 2e)'erature classification
21 22 23 24 2! 2
9a(i)u) surface te)'erature MC
4!% 3%% 2%% 13! 1%% #!
surface ignition te)'erature is 210 Each gas data )ust be chec/ed thoroughl. and concludes &ith the te)'erature classification0 An e(a)'le of )ar/ing &ould thus be E( d **B 2!0 E4ui')ent &ill also be )ar/ed &ith ate( )ar/ings CE %%%% ** 2 >1 CE suitable for use in the Euro'ean Co))unit-. ib.' i. continues &ith the t-'e.t-'e of 'rotection to have ante)'erature classification. including s&itches. soc/et outlets and bo(es.
dust. &hich )a. a hand.t&o digits0 2he letters stand for *nternational Protection and the digits indicate the degree of 'rotection0 2he first digit.have to be )ounted outdoors and be 'rotected against the &eather &here there is no ris/ of e('losion. the higher the nu)eral the greater the degree of 'rotection0 2he definitions of the levels of 'rotection are given in 2ables 103a and 103b &hich are based on BS E5 %!290 S'ecification for degrees of 'rotection 'rovided benclosures 7*P code80 2his )ethod of classification can be a''lied to all the e4ui')ent described in this cha'ter and the distribution e4ui')ent and lu)inaires discussed in Cha'ters and "0 2hus an enclosure &hich is rain'roof )ight be designated 1P23 &hereas one that is 3et'roof &ould be 1P!!0
2able 103a Protection of 'ersons against contact &ith live or )oving 'arts inside the enclosure and 'rotection of e4ui')ent against ingress of solid foreign bodies 7'rotection against contact &ith )oving 'arts inside the enclosure is li)ited to contact &ith )oving 'arts inside the enclosure &hich )ight cause danger to 'ersons8
+irst Characteristic nu)eral
Degree of 'rotection
5o 'rotection of 'ersons against contact &ith live or )oving 'arts inside the enclosure0 5o 'rotection of e4ui')ent against ingress of solid foreign bodies0 Protection against accidental or inadvertent contact &ith live or )oving 'arts inside the enclosure b. &hich )a.Accessories
Enclosures 2he enclosure of an. )oisture and 'r-ing fingers0 2his is a se'arate )atter fro) 'rotection against e('losion1 a 'iece of electrical e4ui')ent )a.be indoors in a 'articularl.a large surface of the hu)an bod-. dust.an enclosure0 *t consists of the letters *P follo&ed b. or it )a. for e(a)'le.be fro) % to #.agreed s-ste) has been develo'ed to designate the degree of 'rotection afforded b. describes 'rotection against ingress of li4uids0 *n both cases. but not 'rotection against deliberate access to such 'arts0 Protection against ingress of large solid foreign bodies0
Protection against contact &ith live or )oving 'arts inside the enclosure bfingers0 Protection against ingress of )ediu)<siBe solid foreign bodies0
.but nonfla))able at)os'here0 An internationall.be fro) % to .e4ui')ent serves to /ee' out dirt. describes the 'rotection against ingress of solids0 2he second digit.
direction under stated conditions shall have no har)ful effect0 Protection against conditions on shi's. dec/s 7dec/ &atertight e4ui')ent8G &ater fro) heav.seas shall not enter the enclosure under 'rescribed conditions0
Protection against i))ersion in &aterG it )ust not be 'ossible for &ater to enter the enclosure under stated conditions of 'ressure and ti)e0
. cables or such ob3ects of thic/ness greater than 20!))0 Protection against ingress of s)all solid foreign bodies0
Protection against contact &ith live or )oving 'arts inside the enclosure btools.a noBBle fro) an. but dust cannot enter in an a)ount sufficient to interfere &ith satisfactor.Design of electrical services for buildings
Protection against contact &ith live or )oving 'arts inside the enclosure btools.direction shall have no har)ful effect0 Protection against &ater<3etsG &ater 'ro3ected b.angle u' to 1!M fro) the vertical0 Protection against rainG &ater falling in rain at an angle u' to %M &ith res'ect to the vertical shall have no har)ful effect0 Protection against s'lashingG li4uid s'lashed fro) an.o'eration of the e4ui')ent enclosed0 Co)'lete 'rotection against contact &ith live or )oving 'arts inside the enclosure0 Protection against ingress of dust0
2able 103b Protection of e4ui')ent against ingress of li4uid
Second characteristic nu)eral
Degree of 'rotection
5o 'rotection0 Protection against dro's of condensed &aterG dro's of condensed &ater falling on the enclosure shall have no har)ful effect0 Protection against dro's of li4uidG dro's of falling li4uid shall have no har)ful effect &hen the enclosure is tilted at an. cables or such ob3ects of thic/ness greater than 1))0 Protection against ingress of s)all solid foreign bodies0
Co)'lete 'rotection against contact &ith live or )oving 'arts inside the enclosure0 Protection against har)ful de'osits of dust0 2he ingress of dust is not totall'revented.
b.other conductor used is alu)iniu)0 Co''er &as the earlier one to be used. but in 'ractice the ter)s Cconductor. are in fact used interchangeabl.is conve-ed in )etal conductors. it beco)es a cable0 2his no)enclature )a/es a convenient and logical distinction bet&een a bare conductor and insulated cable.and it is onl.t&isting together a nu)ber of s)all cables. lighter. and Ccable. 10!))2 and 20!))2 is available as solid or stranded core1 siBes above these are available as stranded core onl-0
. &hich have to be insulated and &hich also have to be 'rotected against )echanical da)age0 When the conductor is insulated to )a/e a usable 'iece of e4ui')ent for carr-ing electricit-.that the strands &ill o'en under the influence of bending forces &hen the cable is being installed0 1))2 has a solid core. to )a/e one larger cable0 A cable )ade in this &a.s greatest assets are that it is chea'er than co''er.been )ade e(ce't for the s)allest siBes.BS " "1 states that the )ini)u) 'er)issible cross<sectional area is 1 ))20 Alu)iniu).the conte(t &hich )a/es clarified &hat is being referred to0 We shall tr. called strands.Cha'ter 2 Cable
*ntroduction Electricit. although alu)iniu) has the disadvantage of being )uch &ea/er than co''er0 Conse4uentl. and that its 'rice is less liable to fluctuations0 Conductors have usuall.is )ore fle(ible than a single cable of the sa)e siBe and is conse4uentl.easier to handle0 Each la-er is s'iralled on the cable in the direction o''osite to that of the 'revious la-er1 this reduces the 'ossibilit.to avoid confusion and shall discuss conductors first and the insulation a''lied to the) after&ards0 Conductors 2he co))onest conductor used in cables is co''er0 2he onl.
conductor )ust be insulated to /ee' the) a'art. &hich is designated 6EP. for the control &iring of gas<fired &ar)<air heaters and &ithin airing cu'boards0 *t can safel.used onl.)an toda-0 *t is a )an)ade ther)o<'lastic &hich is tough.of P=C0 2he construction is then si)ilar to that of the P=C &ire ar)oured cable sho&n in +igure 203. and is therefore used on hos'ital e4ui')ent &hich has to be steriliBed0 Although it is destro-ed b.be used for a)bient te)'eratures u' to #!MC0 But-l rubber also has greater resistance to )oisture than natural rubber0 Silicone rubber 2his is co)'letel.
. &hich is a cross lin/ed 'ol-eth-lene co)'ound0 Another alternative is hard eth-lene 'ro'-lene rubber co)'ound.resistant to )oisture and is suitable for te)'eratures fro) N %MC to 1!%MC0 *t is unda)aged after re'eated sub3ection to boiling &ater and lo& 'ressure stea).fire. instead of P=C0 But-l rubber 2his insulation is used for cables &hich are to be sub3ected to high te)'eratures0 *t is. inco)bustible and che)icall.Design of electrical services for buildings
*nsulation Ever. the onl.difference being that the inner insulation is F$PE or 6EP.unreactive0 *ts chief dra&bac/ is that it softens at te)'eratures above about "%MC0 *t does not deteriorate &ith age and &iring carried out in P=C insulated cable should not need to be rene&ed in the &a. the ash is non<conductive and &ill continue to serve as insulation if it can be held in 'lace0 A braid or ta'e of glass<silicone rubber &ill hold it. /ee' the flo& of current &ithin the conductor and 'revent its leaving or lea/ing fro) the conductor at rando) along its length0 2he follo&ing t-'es of insulation are in use0 2her)o'lastic P=C Pol-vin-l chloride is one of the co))onest )aterials used b. for e(a)'le.0 2hese )aterials are nor)all.in cables &hich have cable ar)ouring over the insulation and an outer sheath over the ar)ouring0 2he outer sheath is generall. used for the final connections to i))ersion heaters.that &iring insulated &ith )ost of the older )aterials had to be0 P=C insulated cable consists of cables of the t-'es described above &ith a continuous la-er or sleeve of P=C around the)0 2he onlrestriction on this t-'e of cable is that it should not be used in a)bient te)'eratures higher than "%MC0 2her)osetting insulation 2here are 'lastics available as alternatives to P=C &hich have the advantage of being able to o'erate at higher te)'eratures0 2he )ost usual is F$PE.
and cable )ade &ith this construction is ver.given a''lication. it )ust be ca'able of &ithstanding the te)'erature it is sub3ected to0 ?ne t-'e of fle(ible cord is )ade fro) tinned co''er conductors insulated &ith t&o la-ers of glass fibre. and its chief use is for the ElectricitSu''l. &hich is i)'regnated &ith varnish0 A glass fibre braid.is in fact dissi'ated as heat0 9an.)ineral oil )i(ed &ith resin0 ?n its o&n i)'regnated 'a'er.a centur-0 *t is too bul/to be used for the s)all cables of final circuits &ithin buildings. also i)'regnated &ith varnish.not at first sight see) to re4uire heat< resisting cable lies in fle(ible cords for lu)inaires0 Although the ob3ect of an incandescent la)' is to convert electrical energ. for an.s catalogue0
. is a''lied over the 'ri)ar.an increase in the local a)bient te)'erature0 *f the fle(ible cord is to last anlength of ti)e.insulation0 2his t-'e of cord can be used at te)'eratures u' to 1!!MC0 *f it is )ade &ith nic/el<'lated conductors and a silicone<based varnish.good strong 'rotection is afforded b. and a lead sheath is therefore a''lied over the insulation0 +urther strengthening and 'rotection can be a''lied according to the intended use of the cable and the 'h-sical &ear to &hich it )a.referred to as a P=CASWAAP=C cable0 +igure 202 sho&s a three<core P=C<insulated steel &ire ar)oured cable &ith a P=C covering0 2he abbreviation for this is P=CASASWAAP=C cable0 A considerable nu)ber of variations on this basic design is 'ossible and. and has to be i)'regnated &ith an oil.direct conduction through the la)' soc/et to the conductors and b.be chosen &ith the hel' of a cable )anufacturer.useful for fire alar)s0 2her)osetting rubber of 1#%MC is used in hot<air saunas0 >lass >lass fibre has good heat<resisting 'ro'erties and is therefore used for cables &hich are e)'lo-ed in high<te)'erature surroundings0 ?ne e(a)'le is the internal &iring of electric ovens0 Another a''lication &hich )a. fibrous )aterial.lu)inaires restrict the 'aths available for the re)oval of heat and in conse4uence 'roduce high local te)'eratures0 2he high te)'erature is trans)itted to the fle(ible cord both b. the latter beco)ing increasingl.Co)'an-. insulation &ould be too fragile to be used un'rotected. a cable can onl.be e('osed0 A ver.steel cable or ta'e0 +igure 201 sho&s a single<core P=C<insulated steel &ire ar)oured P=C<covered cable0 2his is conventionall. it then beco)es suitable for te)'eratures u' to 2%%MC0 Pa'er Pa'er<insulated cable &as used for 'o&er distribution for nearl. or for )ost of the sub< )ains0 2he s)allest 'racticable rating is 1%%A. )ost of the energ.s underground lo&<voltage and )ediu)<voltage distribution0 2he conductor is either stranded co''er or stranded alu)iniu). it is heavilstranded to give good fle(ibilit-.)ade for the 'ur'ose is used as an insulator0 *t is essential that it should have good )echanical 'ro'erties to be suitable for this a''lication0 Pa'er itself is a h-grosco'ic.co)'ound to )a/e it fit for use in cables0 2he co)'ound used is a heav.'o'ular as its 'rice advantage increases0 Whichever is used.into light. &hich is i)'ortant in a cable of such co)'arativellarge siBe0 Pa'er s'eciall.
on rising )ains in high buildings0 2hese are the )ains distributing electric 'o&er fro) the )ain inta/e of a building to distribution boards at different levels0 2he sche)e of distribution is discussed in Cha'ter ! and here &e are
. &hich &ould be abbreviated PCDAP=CAstraight concentricAP=C cable0 2his t-'e of cable is used to su''l.Design of electrical services for buildings
P=C is no& used for the larger 'o&er and sub<)ain cables and has su'erseded 'a'er< insulated cables for these a''lications0 2he construction of such cables is si)ilar to that of 'a'er insulated cables.sense of &ra''ing insulation around. and another e(a)'le is sho&n in +igure 2030 2his 'articular cable &ould be described as three<'hase straight concentric.25<C<S s-ste)s. &here the ar)ouring for)s the CPC and the neutral conductor0
+igure 201 Single<core P=CASWAAP=C cable
+igure 202 2hree<core screened and ar)oured cable
+igure 203 2hree<'hase straight concentric cable
Air Air itself is a good insulator0 Whilst it cannot of course be &ra''ed around cables in the ordinar. it does for) the insulation &hen bare conductors are used0 Bare conductors are used 'rinci'all.
)ust be )ade inaccessible to unauthoriBed 'ersons and )ust have freedo) to e('and and contract0 2here are several 'ro'rietar.in factories
.encloses the conductors0 2he di)ensions are.s-ste)s of bare rising )ains. the cleats /ee' the) the correct distance a&a.Cable
concerned onl.&ith the construction of the rising<)ain bars0 Bare conductors used for rising )ains )ust be correctl. and a t-'ical one is illustrated in +igure 2040 *t is fre4uentl.floor level to for) a barrier to air and s)o/e )oving u' and do&n the casing0 *n )an.used for the vertical distribution in bloc/s of flats0 2he conductors are held in 'orcelain or so)eti)es 'lastic cleats0 A'art fro) su''orting the conductors.s'aced fro) each other to give the necessar.'laces this has to be done to satisf.s-ste)s consisting of horiBontal conductors su''orted on insulators inside )etal trun/ing0 2he.air ga' for ade4uate insulation.fro) each other for the air ga' to have sufficient insulation for the &or/ing voltage of the s-ste)0 2he cleats are fi(ed to the bac/ of a )etal trun/ing &hich co)'letel. and also BS " "10 Ban/s of fuses can be fi(ed &ithin the casing to for) a distribution board as 'art of the vertical distributor0 A si)ilar s-ste) can be used for horiBontal distribution0 6ere again there are several 'ro'rietar. be not sub3ect to fle(ing under fault conditions. such that the air ga' bet&een the conductors and the trun/ing gives enough insulation0 2he front of the casing is hinged and can be o'ened for )aintenance0 *t is 'ossible to 'ut a solid insulating 'late across the inside of the casing at ever.fire 'revention regulations.are used 'articularl. and should have a 'rotective casing0 2he. of course.
Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 204 . &hich is enclosed in a sea)less )etal sheath0 2he construction is illustrated in +igure 20!0
&here the.co)'ressed )agnesiu) o(ide. &hich is abbreviated to 9*CS and as )ineral insulated )etal sheathed.run horiBontall. as &ell as to co''er sheathing1 alu)iniu) &as used as a sheathing so)e ti)e ago0 *t )a.refer to alu)iniu) sheathing. abbreviated to 9*9S0 2his last descri'tion )a.belo& or above the trun/ing0 2he s&itch fuse can then be connected to serve a )achine near it on the floor of the &or/sho'0 9*CC 2hese letters stand for )ineral insulated co''er covered1 this t-'e of cable is also /no&n as )ineral insulated co''er sheathed.at high level along the &alls of &or/sho's0 Plain connectors can be fi(ed at short intervals and short cables run fro) each set of connectors to a s&itch fuse fi(ed on the &all i))ediatel.be encountered during refurbish)ents0 All versions of this t-'e of cable consist of single<strand cables e)bedded in tightl.
9*9S cable )ust be ter)inated in s'ecial seals and glands. &hich are su''lied for the 'ur'ose b.a higher current than other cables &ith the sa)e siBe conductor because the insulation can &ithstand a higher conductor o'erating te)'erature0 6o&ever.built into the structure of a building than other cables. e('osed to touch.useful 'ro'ert.all of &hich )ust have so)e for) of enclosure around the)0 Because it has an indefinite life. but &ill not &ithstand being struc/ b.the cable )anufacturers0 *f the cable is cut and the ends left unsealed for an. )ore easil.length of ti)e.de'ends on &hether it is bare.Cable
+igure 20! 9ineral insulated co''er sheathed cable
9*9S cable is e(tre)el. therefore. it can often be used &here no other cable &ould be entirel. there is no need for facilities to )a/e it 'ossible to re&ire the installation0 +or both these reasons. nearl. after &hich the re)ainder can be used in the nor)al &a-0 *f the cable is carr-ing full rated current.satisfactor-0 9*9S cable can carr. it &ill o'erate at about 9%MC1 care )ust be ta/en that the accessor.a short distance of not )ore than !%))0 *t is then sufficient to cut off the da)aged end of the cable. )oisture can 'enetrate the insulation and render the cable useless0 *n )ost cases. )oisture &ill 'enetrate unsealed ends for onl. this P=C covered cable should not be installed &here it &ill be e('osed to direct sunlight0 2his is not as drastic a restriction on its use as )a.or lu)inaire to &hich the cable is connected is designed to &ithstand 9%MC0
.vandalis) and fro) ani)als0 Because of its robustness.robust and. 9*9S re4uires no further 'rotection. &hen 'ro'erl. P=C<covered.su''lied &ith an overall covering of P=C0 *t is then /no&n as 9*9S P=C sheathed0 Since P=C is e)brittled &ith ultraviolet light.a''ear since it is 'robablun&ise to run an.cable &here it is so e('osed that direct sunlight can reach it0 *n ansuch situation.shar' ob3ects0 *t is. its current carr-ing ca'acit. has an indefinite life0 *t can be used outdoors and for such use is usuall. ho&ever.&hich )a/es it 'ossible to conceal 9*9S cable in corners &hich are not large enough to hide the larger cable that &ould have to be used &ith another s-ste)0 2he )agnesiu) o(ide insulation is h-grosco'ic and &ill lose its insulating 'ro'erties if left un'rotected against the ingress of )oisture fro) the at)os'here0 2o 'revent this ha''ening. as can ha''en in the course of &or/ on building sites. it &ould also be too vulnerable to da)age b. or in contact &ith a co)bustible )aterial0 *t follo&s that for a given current the cable can be s)aller if 9*9S is used than if another t-'e of cable is used0 2his is a ver.installed.
t&in. in 'ractice the t&o )ust be done together0 P=C insulated cable. is strong enough to be handled as it is during erection. gives )echanical 'rotection and is 'art of the structure of the cable0 Si)ilarl-. so that one can have single.to dra& a logical distinction bet&een the function of insulation and that of sheathing.fro) one 'lace to another. has to be 'rovided over the insulation. P=CAP=C0 9ore than one insulated conductor can be e)bedded in the sa)e sheath.se'arate )eans0 +or e(a)'le. u' to a cross<sectional area of )) 2.is to 'ut a sheath around the outside of the insulation0 2he first &a. &hich is enough to achieve electrical 'rotection. and it can either be )ade an integral 'art of the cable or 'rovided bentirel. on the other hand.in the sheath0 +igure 20 sho&s a cable /no&n as t&in and earth P=CAP=C0 *t has t&o P=C insulated conductors and one uninsulated conductor all e)bedded in the sa)e P=C sheath0
+igure 20 P=C insulated P=C sheathed cable 7Courtes.gives 'rotection b. &hich has been described above.not even be )ade &ithout it0 *n these cases. although it )ust be sleeved at ter)inals and connections.)a/ing the cable a sheathed cable0 9ethods of &iring are discussed in the ne(t cha'ter and the rest of this one is devoted to t-'es of sheathed cable0 P=C Cable insulated &ith P=C often has a thic/er P=C sheath over the insulation and is then described as P=C insulated P=C sheathed cable or.the use of a 'articular )ethod of &iring and the second &adoes it b. although one )a.is to install it in either conduit or trun/ing and the other &a.be enclosed directl. and the insulation. *f one of the conductors is intended as a circuit 'rotective conductor. therefore.Design of electrical services for buildings Sheathing
We have described ho& a cable is )ade fro) a conductor &ith insulation around it0 Electricall-. but is too liable to )echanical da)age to be left un'rotected for long0 2here are t&o 'racticable &a-s of giving it additional 'rotection0 ?ne &a. and 9*9S could certainl. the steel ar)our of a 2her)o'lastic P=C cable.of B0*0C0C08
. is seldo) strong enough to give ade4uate )echanical 'rotection0 So)ething further. this is all that is needed to )a/e a device to carr. si)'l-. it )ust also &ithstand )echanical da)age. but if the cable is to survive in use.electricit. and )a. the )etal sheathing of 9*9S cable gives the cable all the )echanical 'rotection that is needed0 5either of these cables could be used &ithout its built<in )echanical 'rotection.tr. it re4uires no insulation. three or four<core P=CAP=C cables.
usuall. are )ade &ith a variet. and consists of rubber<insulated cable inside an e(ternal cotton braiding0 Either t&o or three rubber< insulated cables )a.left e('osed in roo)s and.are. /ettles and so on. therefore.Cable
.ubber But-l rubber and silicone rubber cables are usuall.of coverings0 ?rdinar.sheathed &ith thic/ but-l and silicone rubber res'ectivel-0 +le(ible cord +le(ible cord is the na)e given to a 'articular t-'e of cable0 *t is one &hich is fle(ible and in &hich the cross<sectional area of each conductor does not e(ceed 4)) 20 +le(ible cords are used for sus'ending lu)inaires and for connections to 'ortable do)estic a''liances having lo& 'o&er consu)'tion0 2he. to be suitable for such use. cotton 'adding is &ound around the) inside the outer braiding0 2his is illustrated in +igure 20#0
+igure 20" $ighting fle(
+igure 20# Circular fle(
.be used and to obtain the circular cross<section.lighting fle( consists of a stranded co''er conductor &ith P=C insulation. covered &ith an outer la-er of P=C0 as sho&n in +igure 20"0 Circular fle( is )ade for the connections to household a''liances such as irons.
Design of electrical services for buildings
2here are also fle(ible cords )ade &ith silicone rubber insulation &ith a covering of braided varnished glass fibre0 +le(ibles &hich have glass<fibre insulation and an outer glass<fibre braid have alread.if the insulation is da)aged.been described0 9etal 2he )etal sheathing of 9*9S cable is an integral 'art of the cable and has alread. can ignite ad3acent )aterial such as loose 'a'er or ti)ber. a fault in the cable is unli/el.high for it not to be regarded as a fla))able )aterial. 'articularl.been )entioned0 $ead Cables insulated &ith 'a'er and sheathed &ith lead have alread.so)eti)es have a covering of thin P=C &hich is 'ut over the) for e(tra 'rotection for )aintenance 'ersonnel &ho )a.is P=C0 *ts ignition te)'erature is sufficientl. even if it does not ignite its o&n insulation0
+igure 209 $S+ cable 7Courtes.been described0 2he. it should be added that a cable fault.of B0*0C0C8
.been described0 Bare risers 2hese have alread. P=C &ill burn and give off dense s)o/e and acid fu)es &hich can create a haBard greater than the original fire0 2o avoid )isunderstanding here. that is to sa-.to ignite the insulation0 But if a fire fro) so)e other cause engulfs the cable.be &or/ing on a s-ste) &ith so)e of the conductors live0 2he covering does not 'erfor) the 'rotective function of the other /inds of sheathing discussed0 Enhanced fire 'erfor)ance 2he co))onest insulation used toda.
have a single insulated conductor0 A )etal cover is
.the a''lication and 'recise re4uire)ents0 *t has onl. the )ore e('ensive it is0 Conse4uentl-.cables0 2hese nor)all. the cable )ust have a lo& i)'edance at the fre4uenc. it is i)'ortant to consider carefull. alternative )aterials have been develo'ed0 ?ne t-'e of cable for enhanced fire 'erfor)ance has F$PE insulation &ith cable ar)ouring bedded in a co)'ound &hich has lo& s)o/e and fu)e 'ro'erties and is sheathed in the sa)e co)'ound0 +ro) its lo& s)o/e and fu)e 'ro'erties it is designated $S+1 it consists of inorganic fillers in 'ol-)ers such as eth-l vin-l acetate and eth-lene 'ro'-lene rubber0 2he construction is illustrated in +igure 2090 ?ther cables have EP. and is therefore designated 6?+. final selection cannot be )ade &ithout discussion &ith )anufacturers and su''liers0 Co<a(ial cables .Cable
*n order to give better 'erfor)ance in fires.ca'acitance or inductance bet&een itself and nearb)ains cables0 2o satisf. for e(a)'le. b.large currents and is not sub3ected to large voltages but it does carr.been 'ossible here to give an indication of s'ecial'ur'ose cables available0 *n 'ractice.signals.a &ea/ signal at high fre4uencies0 2he signal )ust not be lost and to avoid loss of the signal.cable to each outlet0 2he cable used for this does not carr.0 2hese cables are available &ith and &ithout a cable ar)ouring bet&een the insulation and the sheath0 *t &ill not co)e as a sur'rise that the better the 'erfor)ance of the cable. 7eth-lene 'ro'-lene rubber8 insulation &ith a sheath of elasto)er &hich is heat and oil resistant and fla)e retardant.adio and 2= s-ste)s are no& fre4uentl.being used0 *t )ust also be constructed so that it does not 'ic/ u' un&anted high
+igure 201% Coa(ial cable
fre4uenc. radio and 2= distribution s-ste)s are cabled &ith radio fre4uenc.at the highest 'oint of the building or grou' of buildings in the s-ste) and is connected b.built as 'art of the engineering services of ne& buildings0 ?ne aerial is )ade to serve a nu)ber of outlets at each of &hich a receiving set can be 'lugged in0 2he single aerial is usuall.these re4uire)ents.
cable. &hich in turn can be either single or double. P2+E and 'ol-'ro'-lene0 2he last 'art of the construction is the outer sheathing and this )a.a circular cover and a circular sheath &hich are concentric and have the conductor on their a(is0 6ence the cable co)es to be /no&n as coa(ial cable0 Such a cable is sho&n in +igure 201%1 it has its single inner conductor cased
+igure 2011 Audio<fre4uenc. &hile the screen can ta/e several for)s0 *t can be a one<'iece sheath in either alu)iniu) or co''er.cables are sho&n in +igure 20110
.do not need to )eet 4uite such stringent conditions as those for television trans)ission0 Audio<fre4uenc. the co))onest )aterials used are 'ol-thene. lead allo-. there is a large variet. P=C.Design of electrical services for buildings
'laced over the insulation to screen the conductor fro) un&anted signals. n-lon or 'ol-thene0 Evidentl-.of coa(ial cables and 'ro'erties differ so)e&hat0 2he choice of &hat to use in an'articular case is deter)ined b. or it can be of steel ta'e or of lead0 +or the insulation.an overall sheath of non<conducting )aterial0 2hus the single conductor is surrounded b.cables suitable for )icro'hone and louds'ea/er connections for 'ublic address s-ste)s and for broadcast rela.cables but are not )ade to such e(acting s'ecifications0 E(a)'les of audio<fre4uenc. )etal braid.the electrical characteristic re4uired for that 'articular a''lication and this de'ends on &hat e4ui')ent the cable is to be used for0 Sound broadcasting o'erates on lo&er fre4uencies than television and cables for sound onl.s-ste)s are si)ilar to high<fre4uenc.cables
in 'ol-thene insulation &ith a cable braid outer conductor and a final sheath of P=C0 2he inner conductor can be either solid or stranded.be of )etal ta'e. or it can be of cable braid. P2+E. and this cover is in its turn 'rotected b.
service is the outlets at &hich he received electricit-0 2o the engineer concerned &ith designing or installing the service.true to sa. rather than deal &ith 'rotection in a cha'ter of its o&n.fashion &hich &ill )a/e sense to a student &ith no 'revious /no&ledge of the sub3ect0 *n this cha'ter. one has to brea/ it do&n into 'arts in order to e('lain it in an orderl. &e shall consider different &a-s in &hich cables can be installed in a building0 2he calculation of the siBe of 'articular cables &e shall leave to Cha'ter 4 and the selection and grou'ing of outlets to be served b. be fairl.that one of the co))onest )ethods of installing cables is still to 'ush the) into conduit and &e shall devote )ost of our attention to this0
.sub3ect. therefore.Cha'ter 3 Wiring
*ntroduction 2o the average user the onl.0 A )ethod of installation consists of ta/ing a suitable t-'e of cable. )ethods of 'rotection and )ethods of installation0 2he t-'es of cable available and in general use have been described in Cha'ter 20 2he 'rotection against )echanical da)age given to cable is so)eti)es 'art of the cable itself. the s-ste) of cables &hich lin/s these outlets to each other and to the su''lco)ing into the building is 3ust as i)'ortant and 'erha's even )ore so0 *n 'ractice. the electrical service is a co)'lete interde'endent s-ste) and the 'ractical engineer thin/s of it as a &hole.i)'ortant 'art of the electricit. according to &hether it is associated &ith the cable or &ith the )ethod of &iring0 *t is 'robabl. &e are dealing &ith it 'artl.one cable &e shall leave to Cha'ter !0 +or this cha'ter. as &ith P=C insulated P=C sheathed cables. giving it ade4uate 'rotection and 'utting it into the building in so)e &a-0 2he sub3ect can.in the 'revious cha'ter and 'artl. but.ho& to get the) into the building0 2his as'ect of the electrical service can for convenience be called C)ethods of installation.considering t-'es of cable.in this.considered b. as &ith conduit s-ste)s0 *t can be )ore confusing than hel'ful to ta/e a logical sche)e of things too rigidl.and.logicall. &e assu)e that &e /no& &here cables are to run and discuss onl. as &ith the teaching of an. and so)eti)es 'art of the )ethod of installation.
along the threads until it engages )ore on one conduit than on the other0 2he reason for &anting an earth 'ath is discussed in Cha'ter 90 9ethods of 3oining conduit to bo(es of the /ind described in Cha'ter 1 are sho&n in +igure 3020 A bush of so)e sort )ust al&a-s be used to 'rovide a s)ooth entr.be readil.gauge conduit is nor)all.of the earth 'ath and the loc/ nut is essential to 'revent the soc/et &or/ing its &a.annealed so that it )a.their no)inal bore and in the case of electrical conduit the no)inal bore is al&a-s the sa)e as the outside dia)eter of the tube0 2hus 2%)) light and heav.gauge. of &hich heav. it can be )ade either be(trusion or b. and in certain cases to )aintain earth continuit-0
+igure 301 Conduit cou'ling
.gauge conduits both have the sa)e outside dia)eter and conse4uentl. &hich has been 'reviousl.Wiring
Conduit *n a conduit s-ste) the cables are dra&n into tubing called conduit0 2he conduit can be steel or 'lastic0 Steel conduit is )ade in both light gauge and heav.different inside dia)eters0 2his is the o''osite of the convention used for 'i'es for )echanical engineering in &hich the no)inal bore usuall. s'litting or /in/ing0 6eav.into the bo(.bent or set &ithout brea/ing.used0 *n both cases.to the inside than the outside dia)eter0 Electrical conduit is s'eciall.3oined together b.gauge is )uch )ore fre4uentl.threaded &ell u' out of the &a. to avoid shar' corners &hich could da)age the cable insulation.on one of the )ale threads.corres'onds )ore closel. is then &ound do&n and tightened against the cou'ler0 2he scre&ed connection is relied on for continuit.scre&ed fittings1 there is a standard electrical thread &hich is different fro) other threads of the sa)e no)inal dia)eter0 A scre&ed connection bet&een t&o lengths of conduit is sho&n in +igure 3010 A )ale electrical thread is cut on the ends of both lengths of conduit to be 3oined and a standard cou'ler &ith a fe)ale electrical thread is scre&ed over the)0 A loc/ nut.)ust have slightl.rolling sheet and &elding it along the longitudinal 3oint0 2he latter is s'ecified as &elded conduit and the for)er as sea)less0 Sea)less conduit is generallregarded as the better 4ualit-0 2he different siBes of conduit are identified b.
so)e of &hich are illustrated in +igure 3030 2he use of bends and ins'ection covers is not. should for) a continuous conducting 'ath of lo& i)'edance and the safet-
.loo/ unsightl. regarded as good 'ractice. ho&ever. and also bends and ins'ection covers.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 302 Conduit entries into bo(es
Connections to distribution boards and s&itchgear are )ade in a si)ilar )anner0 *n addition to the bo(es described in Cha'ter 1. therefore. because the'rovide inade4uate roo) for dra&ing in cable and because the. ins'ection sleeves are available0 Conduit is thic/ enough for the cross<sectional area of the )etal to 'rovide a good earth continuit. other fittings are )ade for use &ith conduit0 2hese include the soc/ets and bushes needed to )a/e connections. &ith all its fittings and scre&ed 3oints.'ath0 2he conduit can.&hen the installation is co)'leted0 +or long lengths of run. be used as the earth continuitconductor and no se'arate cable or &ire need be used for this 'ur'ose0 *t is essential that the conduit.
the conduit )ust be erected 'ro'erl&ith tight 3oints0 Since it is classed as an e('osed conductive 'art of the installation. and fro) this bo( a short length of fle(ible conduit is ta/en to the e4ui')ent0 =er.be 'laced to &ithin a foot or so of its e(act 'osition0 Solid conduit fro) this to the )achine could involve a large nu)ber of bends in a short distance &hich &ould be difficult to )a/e and i)'ossible to 'ull cable through0 +le(ible conduit can ta/e u' a gentle curve and also serves to isolate the fi(ed &iring fro) an.)echanical vibrations on the connected )achine. fans. and allo&s for belt tension ad3ust)ent of the )otor0 2here are several t-'es of fle(ible conduit0 9etallic fle(ible conduit is sho&n in +igure 3040 *t is )ade fro) a ste''ed stri' &hich is &ound in a
.be sub3ect to da)'0 2he final connection to )achines and )echanical e4ui')ent such as 'u)'s.Wiring
+igure 303 Conduit ins'ection fittings
of the installation de'ends on good electrical contact at all the 3oints0 Even though it )abe decided not to use the steel conduit as the circuit 'rotective conductor. in 'reference for a se'arate 'rotective conductor. and therefore could beco)e live in the event of a fault.)ade in fle(ible conduit0 2he fi(ed &iring ter)inates in a bo( either in the &all near the e4ui')ent to be connected or on the surface of the &all. fan heaters. the 'osition of the ter)inals on the )achine is not /no&n and so the outlet bo( can onl.co''er. usuall.often the )achine is delivered to the site after the electrician has done the bul/ of the &or/0 At the ti)e of installing the &iring. &or/sho' e4ui')ent and so on is usuall. it re4uires earthing 'ro'erl-0 Conduit is )ade in t&o standard finishesG blac/ ena)el and galvaniBed0 *t is al)ost universal 'ractice to use galvaniBed conduit &here it is e('osed or &here it )a. boilers.
are lin/ed together b. a se'arate circuit 'rotective conductor )ust be run &herever fle(ible conduit is used0 2he circuit 'rotective conductor is either 'ut inside the conduit &ith the other cables or it can be 'laced outside the conduit0 *n either 'osition. as in the case of )etallic fle(ible conduit. and in others b.here is conferred b.the fle(ible 'ro'erties of the )aterial itself0 +le(ible conduit cannot be used as a 'rotective conductor0 2his is obvious in the case of 'lastic fle(ible conduit &hich is )ade of non<conducting )aterial.is conferred b.a corrugated structure.short lengths of fle(ible conduit0 2he fle(ible conduit can ta/e u' a gentle CS. conduit is cast in the) and e('osed ends are left at the edges &here the slabs &ill be 3oined together on site0 2he slabs are lifted into 'osition on the building and 3oined to each other b. in ad3acent slabs. sha'e and thus )a/e u' for so)e lac/ of align)ent bet&een o''osite ends of the fi(ed conduit0 S)all errors
. the corrugations o'en out0 2he.re)ain sufficientloverla''ing to /ee' out dirt and )oisture but are not in hard enough contact &ith each other to be relied u'on to give an ade4uate electrical 'ath0 2o )a/e u' for this. it )ust be bonded to the rigid conduit at both ends of its run0 A cla)' for connecting an e(ternal circuit 'rotective conductor &ith solid conduit is sho&n in +igure 30! 2here are other a''lications for fle(ible conduit0 *t is re4uired &ith certain s-ste)s of industrialiBed building in &hich sections of floors and &alls are 'recast in factories a&afro) the building site0 *n order that electrical &iring can be 'ut into these slabs after thehave been erected. the e('osed conduit ends.in situ concrete. and as the conduit bends.the corrugated structure. but it is so even in the case of )etallic fle(ible conduit0 2he fle(ibilit.galvaniBed steel0 +le(ible conduit is also )ade in a nu)ber of 'lastic )aterials0 *n so)e of these the fle(ibilit.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 304 9etallic fle(ible conduit
continuous s'iral so as to 'roduce a long c-linder &ith s'iral corrugations0 2he )aterial used is nor)all. grout or so)e other suitable structural )ethod0 At the sa)e ti)e as this is done.
* cable deteriorates in about 2% -ears to the stage at &hich it should be re)oved0 P=C cable a''ears to last indefinitel. cause a 'roble) during asse)bl-. be /e't to as far as 'ossible.installed before an. therefore.and the original conduit has at best to be added to and at &orst abandoned altogether0 . and it is obviousl.* cable are re&ired the o''ortunit.cables are 'ulled into it0 *t is.is invariabl.in the last !% -ears.an advantage if it can be re'laced &ithout difficult. or in other &ords their covers )ust be flush &ith the finished surface0 2he covers can then be re)oved &ithout an. there is al&a-s the 'ossibilit.so that all )odern installations &hich use this cable should not need re&iring0 2he use of electrical a''liances has increased greatl.that a cable )a. dra&<in bo(es )ust be accessible fro) the surface.large )isalign)ent &ill 'ull the fle(ible into such a shar' S that the site electrician &ill not be able to 'ull cables through it0 +le(ible conduit is also used to bridge electrical services fro) one to the other side of the e('ansion ga' in structures0 A conduit s-ste) )ust be co)'letel.is then no hel' and in fact the need for a re&ireable s-ste) is not as great as is often su''osed0 ?n the other hand. therefore. re'airs &ill al&a-s be 'ossible0 2he re4uire)ents for re&ireabilit. the length of
.e&ireabilit. essential that it is set out so that an electrician can 'ull cables into it &ithout difficult-0 Conduit s-ste)s are intended to be re&irable1 that is to sa.beco)e da)aged during the construction of a building. then 4uite regardless of &hat ha''ens &hen the building is first constructed. therefore. but the engineer in charge should have discretion to rela( the) if e(ce'tionall.the intention is that 2% or 3% -ears after the building has been erected.cutting a&a.difficult circu)stances are encountered0 2o achieve re&ireabilit-. although a ver.should.after the building has been finished0 *f the conduit is installed so that the s-ste) is re&ireable.of 'laster or bric/&or/0 *n addition. the la-out of the conduit )ust be such that cables can be dra&n into it &hen it is co)'lete and finished0 2he original reason for &anting to have electrical s-ste)s &hich could be recabled during the life of the building &as that =. it should still be 'ossible to 'ull all the cables out of the conduit and 'ull ne& ones into it0 *f this is 'ossible. and &hen old buildings &hich had =.Wiring
+igure 30! Earth cla)'
in casting need not.ta/en of )oderniBing the installation badding e(tra outlets and circuits0 5e& cables then have to be run &here there &ere no cables 'reviousl.
is a better device0 2he botto) edge of each hole should be bevelled so that the conduit is not 'ulled against a shar' edge0 2he conduit to be bent is inserted in the hole and hand 'ressure is brought to bear to bend the conduit slightl-0 2he conduit is then )oved through the hole a short distance and the 'rocess re'eated0 Practice is necessar. as sho&n in +igure 30 .s/ill0
+igure 30 Bending bloc/
+or larger conduit.these tables it is useful to e)'lo.reliable &a. ho&ever.Design of electrical services for buildings
conduit bet&een successive dra&<in bo(es should not e(ceed about 1%) and there should not be )ore than t&o right<angle bends bet&een successive bo(es0 A further re4uire)ent is that the bends the)selves should be )ade &ith as large a radius as the 'osition of the conduit &ithin the building 'er)its0 2his is the reason that s'ecifications often insist that bends shall be for)ed in the conduit itself and 'rohibit the use of factor-<)ade bends0 2he latter are necessaril. a bending )achine is essential.trul.s /nee0 2his is not. to be reco))ended because it is unli/el. the nu)ber of cables in each conduit has to be li)ited0 *EE >uidance 5ote 1 Selection and Erection or the *EE ?n<Site >uide gives guidance and )ethods of calculating re4uired dia)eters of conduits for various nu)bers of cables0 +or cases not covered b.to )a/e a good bend &ithout /in/s and not all electricians 'ossess the necessar.of )a/ing a good bend &ithout reducing the internal cross sectional area0 A bending )achine is sho&n in +igure 30"0 2o allo& ease of &iring and avoid da)age as cables are dra&n in. and is to be reco))ended for all conduit0 *t is the onl.the conce't of s'ace factor0 2his is defined as
.that a neat bend &ithout /in/s or flattening the conduit &ill be 'roduced0 A bending bloc/.of s)all radius and could da)age insulation if cables have to be forced through the)0 *ns'ection bends do not 'rovide ade4uate roo) for feeding cables through in a neat and &or/)anli/e )anner and the conduit should be so laid out that theare not necessar-0 Care )ust be ta/en in the )a/ing of bends to avoid ri''ling or flattening of the conduit0 2he s)allest siBes of conduit 71 )) and 2%))8 can in fact be bent over one.
the cable and not the unoccu'ied s'ace0 *t is harder to 'ull several s)all cables together than one large cable. it is often better to use t&o siBe 2!)) conduits side b.bt-ing a suitable siBe of s&ab on the end of dra& cable and 'ulling it through the conduit fro) one dra&<in bo( to the ne(t0
. and &hen a nu)ber of cables have to go in the sa)e conduit. therefore.beco)e da)'0 *t is. and so that &ater &hich does enter &ill drain to one or )ore lo& 'oints at &hich it can be e)'tied0 *t is good 'ractice to s&ab through the conduit after it is erected and before cables are dra&n in to re)ove an. &hich &ill 'revent condensation. it is advisable to
+igure 30" Conduit bending )achine
/ee' the s'ace factor &ell belo& 4% 'er cent0 S'ace factors of less than 2% 'er cent need not be considered at all e(travagant0 +or the sa)e reason.side than a single 32)) or !%)) even &hen in theor.Wiring
5ote that the s'ace factor relates to the s'ace ta/en u' b.t-'es of insulation deteriorate if the. i)'ortant that )oisture should not collect in the conduit s-ste)0 9oisture can occur through &ater entering during building o'erations and also later on through condensation of )oisture in the at)os'here0 A conduit s-ste) )ust be laid out so that it is &ell ventilated.the latter is ade4uate0 9an.)oisture and dirt &hich have collected0 2his is done si)'l.
and &hen a building is constructed of fair<faced bric/ &alls.an.be concealed &ithin the 'laster0 2here )ust be at least )) of 'laster covering the conduit if the 'laster is not to crac/0 Since 'laster<de'th conduit bo(es are 1 )) dee'. surface conduit is usuall.be run on the surface of &alls and ceilings.'racticable &iring s-ste) &hich can be ado'ted0 *f &alls are 'lastered. it )a.not 'er)it the electrical engineer to have chases cut in the floor slabs0 *t is often necessar.Design of electrical services for buildings
2o avoid da)age to cables as the.)odern buildings.the electrical engineer and the architect 4uite earl-
.to chase the conduit into the &all so that so)e of the total distance of 22)) bet&een face of 'laster and bac/ of conduit is in the &all and so)e in the 'laster0 2his is sho&n in +igure 30#0
+igure 30# Conduit chased into &alls
*n )an.be 'ossible to cut chases in the floor itself so that the conduit is 'artl. the conduit can generall. &hich run in 'i'es laid in or over the floors0 *t is then al)ost inevitable that conduit has to cross one or other of these other services0 *t &ill be obvious that crossovers.of the structural load are )ade of breeBe<bloc/s about "!)) thic/ and in so)e cases as little as !%)) thic/0 *f these have to be chased to ta/e 2!)) conduit.the onl.dee'. the conduit is laid on to' of the floor and 3ust screeded over0 *f the screed is not dee' enough to )a/e this 'ossible. structural floors are no&ada-s designed to such close li)its that the structural engineer )a. it beco)es necessar. are the 'laces at &hich )a(i)u) de'th is needed0 *t is these critical 'oints &hich deter)ine &hether or not it is 'ossible to acco))odate the conduit &ithin the floor finish0 2his )ust be discussed b.are dra&n in. such as &ater and gas. the total thic/ness of 'laster )ust be at least 22))0 *f the architect or builder 'ro'oses to use a lesser thic/ness than this.for conduits to cross each other in a floor and there are also other services.used floor finish is still the fine concrete screed0 Provided the screed is sufficientl.in the screed0 6o&ever.little 'artition left0 Dsing conduit &ith such 'artitions is a ver. internal 'artitions &hich do not carr. &hether of conduit and conduit.real 'roble) and the electrical engineer often has to abandon a conduit s-ste) in favour of one &hich is less robust but ta/es u' less s'ace0 6oriBontal runs of conduit over floors can so)eti)es be arranged &ithin the floor finish0 Probabl.in the floor and 'artl. or of conduit and other services. there is ver.the )ost &idel. burrs on cut ends of conduit )ust be re)oved &ith a rea)er before the lengths of conduit are 3oined0 2here are a nu)ber of 'ositions in a building in &hich the conduit can be fi(ed0 *t can obviousl.
conduit &ithin the structural concrete0 2his needs considerable care0 2he e(act 'osition of the conduit &ithin the de'th of the slab )ust be agreed &ith the structural engineer and close su'ervision is re4uired of the &or/ on site to ensure that the conduit is correctl.different considerations.)odern buildings have floors and even &alls of concrete &ith ver.of a bloc/ed conduit0 2he conduit bo(es )ust also be filled &ith a )aterial &hich &ill 'revent ce)ent and stones entering but can itself be easil. &or/)en are liable to &al/ over it after it is laid and before the screed is 'oured0 $ight gauge conduit is not robust enough to stand u' to this0 2he use of light&eight conduit is.re)oved once the concrete has set and the shuttering has been struc/0 2he )ost co))onl. it )a.used )aterial for this 'ur'ose is e('anded 'ol-st-rene0 ?nce conduit has been cast inside a concrete slab. therefore. it )a.confined to s)all do)estic installations0 *n &ooden floors.and for there to be 'lent.of s'are ca'acit.for connection to the ne(t 'iece of conduit.e('erience can tell a horror stor.little or no finish on to' of it1 this is 'articularl. )ust be covered &ith )etal or 'lastic ca's to 'revent ce)ent or stones getting into the conduit0 Ever.of dra&<in bo(es0 When conduit is 'laced on to' of a floor read. the latter )ust be slotted for the conduit to get through underneath the floorboards0 2he agree)ent of the structural designer )ust be obtained before 3oists are cut0 2his )ethod is not.inaccessible for re'air or re'lace)ent0 2he rules for installing it in such a &a.eas. the onl.to set the conduit0 Such a bo( is sho&n in +igure 309b0 When the conduit is buried in the structure.for the nu)ber of cables to be dra&n into it. to 'revent da)age fro) the floor fi(ings0 *t does not need further 'rotection0 So)e thought has to be given to the relative 'osition of conduit and bo(es0 2he 'osition of the conduit is deter)ined b.'racticable alternative to 'utting &iring on the surface is to bur. it is totall.that the dra&ing in of cables is easare.the route it ta/es through the structure0 2he outside of the bo( has to be flush &ith the finished surface. usuall.electrician of an. ho&ever.of each other b. therefore. it )a. conduit can be run under the floorboards0 Where it has to run across 3oists.have to be left at the end of the section of concrete being cast.true of industrialiBed )ethods of building0 *n such buildings.be dislodged as the concrete is 'oured and vibrated0 ?'en ends of conduit &hich )a.after the steel reinforce)ent has been laid in the shuttering and before the concrete is 'oured0 *f it is not &ell tied either to the reinforce)ent or to the shuttering. and so)e )ethod has to be devised to overco)e this )is)atch0 +igure 309a sho&s surface conduit &ith a set in it to enter a surface bo(0 *t is difficult to )a/e this loo/ neat and it is better to use a distance saddle and a s'ecial bo( &hich )a/es it unnecessar. a bac/<entr.bo( can be used as in
in the design as the decision &ill affect the t-'e of &iring &hich the engineer has to design0 Conduit can also be buried &ithin concrete slabs0 9an. or in the case of a surface s-ste) the bac/ of the bo( )ust be on the surface0 2he 'ositions of the conduit and bo( being fi(ed inde'endentl.'laced0 *t has to be fi(ed in 'osition i))ediatel. for bends to be ver. of e(ce'tional i)'ortance0 *t is advisable for the conduit to have 'lent. read.ha''en that the conduit is not in line &ith an.of the outlet holes in the bo(.to be screeded over. )uch used no&1 in &ooden floors it is )ore usual to e)'loP=C sheathed cable run !%)) fro) the to' or the botto) of the 3oist.have to be set as sho&n in +igure 309c0 *f the conduit is far enough inside the surface.
the conduit )ust be brought into a flush recessed bo( so that the cables enter the surface board or s&itch through the bac/0 *f necessar.is to 'ut the bo( in line &ith the conduit and fit an e(tension ring to the bo( to bring the cover for&ard to the surface0 2his is sho&n in +igure 309e0 When buried conduit has to feed surface distribution boards or s&itches. although nearl.all the e4ui')ent in the) is single 'hase0 Although the regulations allo& one to run television and tele'hone cables in the sa)e conduit.shar' bend in the conduit &hich could )a/e it harder to 'ull in the cable0 Another 'ossibilit. but it )ust be re)e)bered that this introduces a fairl.
+igure 309 Conduit entries to e4ui')ent
.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 309d.an e(tension ring has to be 'laced bet&een the bo( and the surface0 +igure 309f sho&s an e(a)'le of buried conduit feeding a fuseboard on the surface0 9ost buildings larger than a single d&elling have a three<'hase su''l-.
is a satisfactor. it is better not to do so0 BS "%1G1994 reco))ends that there be a )ini)u) distance bet&een )ains 7Band **8 and teleco))unications circuits 7Band *80 2he ne(t )atter to receive our attention is ho& to fi( conduit0 +igure 301% sho&s various devices for fi(ing conduits0 2he 'i'ehoo/ or cra)'et.large 'ro'ortion of the installation ti)e0 A s'acer bar saddle has onl. it is usuall. &hich has the sa)e thic/ness as the soc/ets0 2he s'acer saddle has the further advantage that it 'revents the conduit fro) touching da)' 'laster and ce)ent &hich could corrode and discolour decoration0 When conduit is fi(ed to concrete. distance saddles are al)ost invariabl.si)'ler to )a/e s'ecial cli's to suit individual conditions on each 3ob0 +or )ulti'le run and runs &ith other services.and si)'le fi(ing.saddle is tightened.Wiring
'rovided that the lo&er voltage circuits are insulated for the highest voltage 'resent. +igure 301%a. the ti)e ta/en to drill and 'lug holes in the concrete is a ver. but is )ore li/el.to be dislodged than a scre&ed fi(ing1 &here the conduit is to be buried in 'laster after it has been fi(ed. it &ill tend to distort the conduit0 2his can be 'revented b.hos'ital boards and local authorities for surface conduit0 Conduit often runs across or along steel girders or 3oists.t&o scre&s0 2he onl.the use of a s'acer saddle.have a larger outside dia)eter than the conduit itself0 *f these co)'onents are tight to a &all.one scre& to be fi(ed to the &all and the saving in ti)e can be greater than the e(tra cost of the )aterial0 2he distance saddle sho&n in +igure 301%e holds the conduit about 1%)) fro) the &all0 2his s'acing eli)inates the ledge bet&een the conduit and the &all &here dust can collect and )a/es it 'ossible to decorate the &all behind the conduit0 *t also )a/es it i)'ossible for )inute dro's of )oisture to collect in the crac/ bet&een conduit and &all and thus reduces the 'ossibilities of corrosion0 +or these reasons. the conduit )ust be slightl. this does not )atter because the 'laster &ill hold the conduit in 'lace. bric/ or )asonr-. but is too unsightl. but &here the conduit is to re)ain e('osed a fir)er fi(ing is desirable0 2he saddle hoo/ sho&n in +igure 301%b is bfar the co))onest fi(ing0 *t 'asses round the conduit and is secured to the &all b.advantage of the cli' sho&n in +igure 301%c is that it saves one scre&0 *t is not as secure as the saddle and the cost saving is not sufficient for a good engineer to use it0 Soc/ets and other conduit fittings necessaril.to be used on surface &or/0 *t can be driven into ti)ber.'roud of the &all0 Because of this. either e('osed or &ithin a false ceiling0 *t is not desirable to drill and ta' structural steel&or/ and it is better to use girder cli's of the t-'e illustrated in +igure 301%f0 Whilst standard girder cli's can be bought fro) conduit )anufacturers. &hen an ordinar. uni<strut is often used0
. +igure 301%d.s'ecified b.
Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 301% Conduit fi(ings
Electrical conduit is not thic/ enough to su''ort its o&n &eight over long distances &ithout sagging0 2he su''orts )ust. and the )a(i)u) distances &hich should be allo&ed bet&een su''orts are as follo&sG 6oriBontal =ertical
2%)) conduit 2! and 32)) conduit 4%)) and over 10"!) 20%) 202!) 20% 20! 20!
2he *EE >uidance 5ote 1 and the *EE ?n<Site >uide both give guidance on the )a(i)u) s'acing of conduit fastenings0 2he cables are dra&n into the conduit &ith the hel' of a steel ta'e and a dra& cable0 2he steel ta'e has a he)is'herical brass ca' on the end &hich 'revents its stic/ing on irregularities at 3oints of the conduit and also hel's guide it round bends0 2he ta'e also has a loo' at its other end and a steel dra& cable is attached to this0 2he cables the)selves are then attached to the other end of the dra& cable0 2he electrician attaches
. be at 4uite close intervals. therefore.
can be forced in.threading the) through a series of loo's in the dra& cable0 2he.rubbing +rench chal/ on the cables0 *n other circu)stances. sudden enlarge)ent in the bunch of cables and this 'resents an edge &hich can catch in the bore of the conduit and &hich &ill be difficult to negotiate bends0 When each cable is loo'ed through the dra& cable. a third 'erson &ill have to be called in to stand half&a.be )ade easier b.and rela.)essages.and )ust guide the cables so that the.stic/ and even if the.be advantageous to a''l.do not cross or t&ist over each other as the. it )abe i)'ossible to &ithdra& so)e of the) later0 2he &hole 3ob re4uires great care and needs coo'eration bet&een the t&o 'eo'le at o''osite ends of the run0 *t is a hel' if theare &ithin sight of each other and essential that the. the &hole bunch )a. or use an interco)0 *n hot &eather.a thin coating of grease or tallo& &a( to the cables0
.fro) that end0 2he latter then 'ulls the dra& cable and finall.enter the conduit0 *f the-
+igure 3011 Connection of cable to dra& cable
are allo&ed to t&ist. the insulation of the cables is liable to beco)e soft and tac/-0 Dra&ing it through the conduit )a. &hen friction bet&een the cables and the conduit is high and )a/es 'ulling in difficult.should not all be attached to the sa)e 'oint other&ise there is a significant.should be &ithin earshot of each other0 ?n the rare occasions &hen the run of conduit through the building fro) one dra&< in bo( to the ne(t )a/es it i)'ossible for shouted directions to be heard fro) one end to the other. it is folded bac/ on itself and the end is ta'ed0 2his gives a s)ooth surface to be 'ulled through the conduit and 'revents shar' ends of s)all strands of cable fro) stic/ing out and catching the inside of the conduit0 2he )ethod of connection is sho&n in +igure 30110 Pulling cable through conduit is a 3ob for electrician and )ate0 ?ne 'ushes the steel ta'e &ith the dra& cable attached to it fro) one dra&<in bo( to the ne(tG as soon as the ta'e a''ears at the receiving bo(.the bunch of cables &hile the for)er feeds the) into the conduit0 2he 'erson feeding the cables in )ust do so carefull. the other ta/es it and 'ulls gentl. it )a.Wiring
the cables b.
higher te)'erature range than the high i)'act grade. there are situations in &hich fle(ible conduit has to be used0 *n a steel conduit s-ste).)eans of a s'ecial solvent0 2he solvent used is )ade 'articularl.allo&ance is )ade b.gauge steel conduit0 *ts advantages are that it is chea'er and )ore easil.be necessar.)eans of e('ansion cou'lers0 An e('ansion cou'ler is a cou'ling of e(tended length.blo&s and to crushing0 6eav. but it is not 4uite as resistant as steel conduit to heav.an unscre&ed cou'ler &hich is ce)ented to the t&o 'ieces of conduit to be connected b. the fle(ibles do not 'rovide earth continuit. it )abe as &ell to use P=C conduit &ith a se'arate circuit 'rotective conductor throughout0 $engths of P=C conduit are 3oined b.t-'es of industrial installation0 $ight<gauge conduit is chea'er but not so robust and )a. &hich is tough enough to &ithstand the ill<treat)ent &hich all )aterial receives on building sites0 *t &ill 'rotect cables inside it 3ust as &ell as steel conduit fro) nails accidentall. and is suitable for )an. therefore. P=C conduit fittings are su''lied &ith an earth ter)inal0 As e('lained in the descri'tion of steel conduit. be 'ulled into the conduit along &ith the other cables0 A P=C insulated cable of ade4uate cross section )abe used for this the circuit 'rotective conductor as &ell as for the 'hase conductors0 When a se'arate<circuit 'rotective conductor is used. it does not 'rovide a )eans of earth continuit-0 A se'arate circuit 'rotective conductor )ust.as for steel conduit0 P=C has a high coefficient of e('ansion and 'rovision )ust be )ade for ther)al e('ansion &herever there is liable to be a te)'erature change of 2!MC or )ore and also &herever a run of )ore than #) occurs0 2he necessar.it gives earth continuit-. one of the chief advantages of a steel conduit s-ste). na)el.all che)icals0 Although it is inco)bustible. and 'ush fit to threaded ada'tors are )ade &ith the aid of &hich connections to bo(es and e4ui')ent can be )ade in the sa)e &a. it )a. it does soften and )elt in fires and cannot be used at te)'eratures above !MC0 At lo& te)'eratures.for this a''lication and is su''lied b.gauge P=C conduit is not resistant to blo&s.the &a.and a se'arate circuit 'rotective conductor has to be run along each fle(ible length0 *f a large nu)ber of such connections occurs.driven into the conduit.Design of electrical services for buildings Plastic conduit
P=C conduit is being increasingl. but has a slightl.installed than steel conduit and that it is non<corrosive and unreactive &ith nearl.used in 'lace of heav.not al&a-s &ithstand the conditions e(isting on a building<site0 As the conduit is )ade of an insulating )aterial. but it is essential to use a bending s'ring inside the conduit to 'revent the cross section beco)ing reduced in the
. is lost0 *n that case. it beco)es brittle and should not be used &here it &ill be e('osed to te)'eratures belo& %MC0 9ost s'ecifications call for high<i)'act grade heav-<gauge P=C. one end of &hich is bored to a standard de'th and the other end of &hich has a sliding fit over a longer distance than the standard cou'ling de'th0 E('ansion is liable to )a/e P=C conduit sag )ore readil.to connect lengths of it at &iring 'oints0 2herefore.than steel conduit and it needs fi(ing at closer intervals0 Saddles should be fitted at a s'acing of about 9%%))0 Bends can be )ade in P=C conduit as in steel conduit.the )a/ers of the conduit0 P=C conduit bo(es for use &ith P=C conduit have short soc/ets &hich )a/e it 'ossible to connect the conduit to the bo( &ith a cou'ler of the sa)e t-'e as is used for connecting lengths of conduit0 2he P=C can also be threaded.
easto add ne& &iring in an old house0 2he electrician can cut a&a.the creation of a )ore difficult 'roble) for the ne(t stage of the erection 'rocess0 +le(ible conduit should.cases in &hich &iring can be installed in P=CAP=C &ithout further 'rotection0 +or e(a)'le. be used &ith caution0 P=C sheathed cable 2here are )an. and it could ha''en that it softens the P=C bo(0 2o overco)e this 'roble).voids in a building such as false ceilings and &ooden floors0 When the cable runs 'arallel to 3oists in a &ooden floor. fle(ibilit.be done in an.that it is i)'ossible to 'ull cables through it0 *f this ha''ens the 'roble) of installing the conduit has been solved onl.of P=C to high te)'eratures if one 'ro'oses to sus'end lu)inaires fro) P=C conduit bo(es0 2he heat fro) the la)' is conducted through the fle(ible cable and through the fi(ing scre&s. the P=C itself is a 'lasticiBed grade so that the fle(ibilit. ho&ever.b. it )a/es it ver.heated for a distance of about 3%%)) on either side of the intended bend0 ?ne has to re)e)ber the susce'tibilit. it can be cli''ed to the sides of the 3oists0 When it has to run across the) it is better to thread it through holes drilled in the neutral a(is of the 3oists than to notch the to' of the 3oists0 6oles drilled on the neutral a(is &ea/en the 3oist less than notches cut in the to'.a corrugated construction0 *n the other.useful for s&itch dro's and for s)all do)estic installations0 *n the latter case.that the conduit curves so shar'l.Wiring
bending 'rocess0 2he s)aller siBes can generall. the 3ustification for this use being that it saves de'th and that the side of the cable ne(t to the structural 'art of the &all does not need 'rotection0 +le(ible P=C conduit is available in t&o t-'es0 *n the one.of the )aterial itself0 +le(ible P=C conduit can be used to negotiate a&/&ard bends and in situations &here rigid conduit &ould be difficult to install.and re'air 'laster &hereas hel' )ight &ell be &anted fro) another trades)an if bric/&or/ needed cutting0 2he sa)e P=C )aterial is )ade as rectangular and se)icircular channelling0 2his is intended 'ri)aril.be bent cold. and because the cable is further fro) the floorboards on to' of the 3oists. this )a. but 32)) conduit and larger )ust be gentl. and it is so)eti)es resorted to for the solution of unforeseen 'roble)s &hich so often see) to arise in the course of building &or/0 2here is. it is safer fro) nails driven into the floor0 BS " "1 states that a cable 'assing through a ti)ber 3oist )ust be !%)) fro) the to' or botto) of the 3oist.is conferred b. it is 'ossible to 'rovide the bo(es &ith )etal inserts0 P=C conduit is )ade not onl. therefore.is a 'ro'ert. or be )echanicall.'rotected0
.as a 'rotection over P=C insulated P=C sheathed cable &here the latter is installed on the surface of &alls0 *t can also be used as a 'rotection to P=CAP=C cable &hen the latter is buried in 'laster.in the nor)al circular cross section but also &ith an oval section0 2he reduced de'th of an oval section enables it to be acco))odated &ithin the thic/ness of 'laster in 'laces &here the use of round conduit &ould )a/e it necessarto chase the bric/&or/ behind the 'laster0 2his )a/es the oval conduit ver. a danger to using it in this &a-0 *t is 'ossible to ta/e such advantage of the fle(ibilit.
'rovided that the cable is at least !%)) fro) the surface0 =oids of this sort. and this is also a situation in &hich P=C sheathed cable &ithout further 'rotection is the )ost suitable s-ste) of &iring.industrialiBed s-ste)s of building0 Such a 'artition has a void &ithin it &hich is used for engineering services.be accidentall. but if there is not sufficient de'th of 'laster to )a/e this 'ossible it can still be given 'rotection bshallo& rigid P=C or galvaniBed )etal channelling as sho&n in +igure 30130 9anauthorities feel that even this is not necessar-0 BS " "1 s'ecifies areas &ithin a &all in &hich cables are installed at a de'th of less than !%)).ha''en that the building structure is such that P=C sheathed cable on its o&n is the )ost suitable s-ste) to use. if not eas-.conduit.that nails )a. the cable should therefore be 'rotected b. &here the cables do not need additional 'rotection0 >uidance is also given in the *EE >uidance 5ote
.liner bo(es as illustrated in Cha'ter 1 7+igure 10180 *t )a.be buried in 'laster &ithout da)age0 2here is.for short lengths for local 'rotection. the 'ossibilit. or 'reconstructed 'artitioning0 2his is 'articularl. both light<gauge steel and P=C conduit are suitable0 P=C sheathed cable )a.running it inside conduit at these 'laces onl-0 2his has the additional advantage of )a/ing re&iring easier0 As the conduit is used onl.sufficientl.b. as illustrated in +igure 3012.accessible to )a/e re&iring.driven into the cables &hen 'ictures are being fi(ed to &alls0 *deall-. are usuall.'artition
5e& buildings have internal 'artitions constructed of ti)ber studding &ith light 'lasterboard facing. ho&ever. in &hich P=C sheathed cable is run.the use of dr.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 3012 Dr. but that there are a fe& 'laces &here cable has to dro' in 'lastered &alls or run across floors0 *t is then desirable to give the cable additional 'rotection at these 'laces b.the case &ith 'ro'rietar. at least 'ossible0 +i(ing of accessories is )ade eas.
then be run on e('osed surfaces &ithout further 'rotection0 Since it is visible it &ill not be da)aged accidentall.b. in straight lines bet&een accessories. co))on siBes being !%))@!%)). and is available in siBes ranging fro) !%))@!%)) to %%))@1!%)).'eo'le tr-ing to fi( things to the &alls0 P=C sheathed cable is fi(ed &ith )oulded 'lastic cli's0 An e(a)'le is illustrated in +igure 30140 2he cli's should be s'aced a''ro'riate to the siBe of cables0 *EE >uidance 5ote 1 Selection and Erection of E4ui')ent and the *EE ?n<Site >uide give guidance on the s'acing of cable cli's0 Cable trun/ing Where a large nu)ber of cables has to be run together. "!))@1%%)). also &ithin 1!%)) of a change of direction of the &all0 2here are situations &here the a''earance of an installation is of secondari)'ortance. 1!%))@"!)) and 1!%))@1!%)) although
. and &here at the sa)e ti)e a surface s-ste) &ill not receive rough usage0 Such a case )ight occur in an old building used for co))ercial 'ur'oses or in si)'le huts at a holida.ca)'0 P=C sheathed cable )a. it is often convenient to 'ut the) in trun/ing0 2run/ing for electrical 'ur'oses is )ade of 1#<gauge sheet steel.Wiring
+igure 3013 Cable buried in 'laster
+igure 3014 Cli'
1 and the *EE ?n<Site >uide0 2he basic rule is that cables can be run under 'laster at a de'th of less that !%)) &ithout 'rotection.
enable the trun/ing to be ta/en round corners. la-s the cables in and re'laces the lid.as in the case of conduit0 Being so )uch larger than conduit. there )ust be sufficient doors or access tra's to enable electricians to reach the trun/ing for re&iring0 Buildings such as asse)bl.used in false ceilings0 *n both these cases. as sho&n in +igure 301!0 2he re)ovable side.halls and g-)s often have e('osed steel lattice fra)e&or/ su''orting the roof0 *t is then 'ossible to run cable trun/ing neatl.of installing the &iring0 *t can be si)ilarl.ta/es the lid off.Design of electrical services for buildings
!%))@1%%)) and 1%%))@1%%)) are also available0 *t is usuall. the nu)ber of cables and siBe of trun/ing )ust be such that no da)age is caused during installation0 2he sa)e considerations a''l.su''lied in 2) lengths and one co)'lete side is re)ovable.circuits running together inside a builder.through the s'aces of
. trun/ing can 4uite clearl. to reduce in siBe as the nu)ber of cables is reduced and to allo& a )ain run to serve a nu)ber of branches0
+igure 301! Cable trun/ing
2o 'ut cables in such trun/ing one nor)all. either scre&s on or cli's on &ith a sna' action0 2he latter arrange)ent is chea'er but a little )ore a&/&ard to handle0 A variet. but it is 'ossible over short distances or straight length to 'ull the cables in as one does &ith conduit0 Whichever )ethod is ado'ted. tees and 3unctions is available fro) all )anufacturers of such trun/ing0 So)e of these are sho&n in +igure 301!0 2he. or lid.of bends.s &or/ vertical duct &hich also contains other services such as heating 'i'es or gas0 2his is one situation in &hich cable trun/ing is an ideal &a.not be buried in the &alls of a building0 *t has to be run on a surface0 2here are occasions &hen there are )an.
as is a't to ha''en in )odern building design.is avoided if the architect can be 'ersuaded to acce't a neat 'iece of surface trun/ing0 2here are no& several 'ro'rietar.be convenient &here one circuit leaves a line follo&ed b. but &ith added force. &hich could da)age insulation0 *f P=C sheathed cables run for 'art of
.conduits cast into the ceiling slab of the corridor0 *f the slab is thin and heavilloaded structurall-.seldo) that either the builder or the final occu'ier of the factor.of locating e(act 'ositions of )achines too earl.be necessar. of course. but there then has to be either rigid or fle(ible conduit at floor level. e('ensive0 A si)'le and neat )ethod of &iring these areas is to run trun/ing round the &alls and to install all the circuits inside the trun/ing0 *n roo)s of this class. and has the further advantage that during the life of the building.&ood&or/ roo)s in schools and colleges.neat finished a''earance0 2he sides of cable trun/ing can be drilled to )a/e holes at &hich conduit can enter the trun/ing0 Eoining conduit to trun/ing )a.a large nu)ber of )achines and other e4ui')ent &hich have to be served &ith electricit-0 A conduit s-ste) can then beco)e co)'le( and.in the construction 'rocess and )a/es future changes )ore eas-0 *n so)e cases. it beco)es 4uite a serious 'roble) to get the conduit into the slab &ithin the restricted &idth of a corridor0 2he difficult.to run )ancircuits the length of a corridor in such buildings and a conduit s-ste) &ould re4uire )an.s-ste)s of trun/ing s'ecificalldesigned for such an a''lication and giving a reasonabl. and the author /no&s of at least one case &here it has been done along the length of a 'ublic corridor in a bloc/ of flats0 Si)ilar situations could arise in offices and hos'itals0 *t )a.be no alternative to installing conduit &ithin the floor. but the custo)er. this is 4uite acce'table and no one ob3ects to the a''earance of trun/ing visible on &alls0 Again there is the advantage that &hen )achines are re'laced or &hen ne& )achines are installed. the &iring can be altered ver.in the corner bet&een a &all and ceiling0 2his is so)eti)es acce'table to an architect.easil-0 $ighting trun/ing has additional folds in the cross section &hich )a/es it )ore rigid than conventional trun/ing and is able to s'an greater distances0 *n &or/sho's and laboratories there is usuall. to factories0 When )achines are 'laced in the centre of a roo) a good )ethod of serving the) is to run trun/ing at high level under the ceiling and dro' to each )achine &ith a length of conduit0 *t is.to ha''en there )a.of this arrange)ent0 *t is also 'ossible to install cable trun/ing neatl. and it is ver. the conse4uent changes to the electrical service are easil.Wiring
the lattice0 So)eti)es the architect &ill 'er)it the cable trun/ing to be fi(ed under the bea)s and along the)0 Either )ethod is si)'ler and neater than fi(ing several conduits 'arallel to each other on the surface of the ceiling. 'articularl. 'ossible to install conduit &ithin the floor &ith an outlet near each )achine.several circuits0 All such holes )ust be fitted &ith s)ooth bore bushes to avoid shar' edges.in handling it0 *f this is li/el. and if )achines are )oved or additional ones brought in the floor has to be dug u' before the conduit can be e(tended to the ne& 'ositions0 +or the initial installation the electrician &ould have to /no& the e(act 'ositions of the ter)inals of each )achine before the floor is laid.can 'rovide this infor)ation so earl-0 2he overhead s-ste) avoids the difficult.s attention should be dra&n to the infle(ibilit. long 'ieces of )aterial such as ti)ber have to be carried fro) stores across the roo) to various )achines0 *t can then ha''en that vertical dro's of conduit fro) the ceiling to the )achines obstruct the )aterial and cause difficult.)ade0 2he sa)e consideration a''lies. therefore.
so)eti)es referred to as a Cstuffing gland. or a suitable 'ac/ing gland. as can be seen fro) +igure 301"0 Each of the other cables has its o&n 'assage&a. the edge of the hole in the trun/ing )ust be 'rotected b.s-ste)s A nu)ber of 'ro'rietar.the sa)e &a.for use &ith 'articular )ethods of industrialiBed building.a rubber gro))et.should be e4uall.&ithin the conduit0 2he conduit itself is )ade fro) a fle(ible
+igure 301 P=C trun/ing
. and the 'lastic trun/ing is used in e(actl.the trun/ing0
Pro'rietar. it )ust be erected so as to give good earth continuit-.of the building )ethod so that the. the lid cli's on.s-ste)s of &iring have been introduced in the last fe& -ears0 So)e of these are intended s'ecificall.as steel trun/ing0 Since the trun/ing is non<conductive. &hile others are intended to industrialiBe the &iring o'eration inde'endentl. since it is an e('osed conductive 'art0 Plastic trun/ing Cable trun/ing is also )ade out of rigid high<i)'act P=C0 *n this case. an additional circuit 'rotective conductor7s8 )ust be 'rovided for earth 'rotection to the circuit7s8 served b.continue free &ithout further 'rotection. as &ill be clear fro) the cross section in +igure 301 0 Bends and fittings si)ilar to those for steel trun/ing are )ade.useful for all )ethods of building0 ?ne of the latter is the Si)'le( P=C S-ste)0 2his consists of ordinar.P=C insulated cables dra&n into a P=C conduit of oval section0 2he circuit 'rotective conductor is )oulded in &ith the conduit.Design of electrical services for buildings
their length in trun/ing. that is to sa.0 Should the )etallic trun/ing not br re4uired to serve as a circuit 'rotective conductor.
fro) dra&ings0 A slight error in setting out of the building can result in the /its not fitting at site.to find so)e &a.and the site electrician )a.site &or/ re4uired for a conduit s-ste)0 Although it is su''lied &ith the cable alread.Wiring
+igure 301" Si)'le( s-ste)
grade of P=C and the entire asse)bl.of running s&itch dro's in the &all and of ta/ing cables fro) one roo) to another &ithout bloc/ing door o'enings0 2here are several other 'ro'rietar.&ithin the conduit. su''lier and installer0 Discre'ancies can occur even if di)ensions are ta/en on site1 usuall. but it is still necessar.of insulated cable &ithin conduit is fle(ible0 +ro) the installer.a t-'ical house or roo) is )easured and all of that t-'e are )ade the sa)e0 *f the building setting out varies fro) one to another.in the conduit. &hich generall. the s-ste) is re&irable because each cable is loose in its o&n 'assage0 Suitable conduit bo(es for 3unctions and accessories are su''lied as 'art of the s-ste)0 2here are 'roble)s &hich can arise &ith such a s-ste)0 2he conduit and cable are cut to siBe at the factor. &hich is 'laced around the botto) of &alls in 'lace of ordinar.s-ste)s.tend to be variations on these the)es.s/irting0 2he s-ste) includes suitable corner 'ieces and bo(es to hold soc/et outlets and other accessories0 2his 'articular s-ste) is ver. &ith )an.)easured.have so)e ad3ust)ents to do0 *f ever.eas. and &hich all have their individual advantages and disadvantages0 9*CC 9ineral insulated cable has been described in Cha'ter 20 *t &as there e('lained that its chief advantage is that it needs no 'rotection and can be 'ut into 'laces &here it &ould be difficult to install other cabling s-ste)s0 2he fact that it needs no 'rotection and is so robust )a/es it ver. cut and for)ed to the lengths needed on the building0 2he /it is delivered to site and si)'l.laid in 'osition. the )anufacturers )a/e a /it consisting of cable alread.to install0
.useful for buildings constructed fro) concrete slabs 'recast in )oulds. so)e of the /its )a.not fit e(actl.roo) has to be individuall. a 'rocess &hich eli)inates )ost of the ordinar.s dra&ings.un'leasant recri)inations bet&een designer. a great deal of the ti)e<saving of the s-ste) is lost0 Another s-ste) ta/es the for) of trun/ing in the sha'e of s/irting.
the gland should be sli''ed over the cable and 'ushed u' out of the &a. ho&ever.a 'ro'rietar.long tails0 When the sleeve is 'ushed through the hole in the ca'.to e('ose the conductors0 Alternativel.stri''ingAringing tool )a.&hile the seal is being finished0 2he gland &ill then be in 'lace to be brought for&ard over the seal after the latter is co)'leted0 2he insulating sleeves are no& asse)bled0 2he sleeves are cut to the length re4uired. it should be fi(ed do&n fir)l.be used0 At this stage.Design of electrical services for buildings
*t can be cli''ed to &alls and ceilings in a si)ilar &a.to P=C sheathed cable0 Shar' bends should.bet&een the cable sheath and the bo( or e4ui')ent case0 An asse)bled seal is sho&n in +igure 301# and the 'rocedure for )a/ing it is as follo&s0 2he end of the cable is cut to length and a notch is )ade round the sheath &ith a ringing tool0 2he sheath is then stri''ed off the cable. s&itch or other e4ui')ent and 'rovides earth continuit. fro) the cable end to the notch.before concrete or ce)ent is 'oured over it0 Accessories are contained in standard bo(es and the 9*CC cable is brought into the bo(es0 Where it enters a conduit bo( or the ter)inal bo( of a )achine.on the bo(. the &edge 'revents it fro) being 'ulled right through and /ee's it in 'lace after the seal is asse)bled0
+igure 301# 9*CC cable seal
. it ends in a seal and a gland0 2he seal for)s the end of the cable and 'revents )oisture getting into the )ineral insulation1 it seals the cable0 2he gland 3oins the cable to the cable entr.need e(tension sleeving for ver. be avoided. and a safe rule is to /ee' the radius of each bend to )ore than si( ti)es the cable outside dia)eter0 Cli's or saddles should be fi(ed at a s'acing e4ual to "! ti)es the cable outside dia)eter0 *f the cable is to be buried &ithin the structure. &hich )a. and the )ineral insulation is bro/en a&a.
in the ground and buried.should have reasonable 'rotection against da)age the. so that it has to be scre&ed on0 *t is scre&ed on until the cable sheath is level &ith the shoulder at the base of the 'ot0 2he 'ot is then 'ac/ed &ith a 'lastic co)'ound.soft and as the nut is tightened onto the bod.is no& 'ushed over the ends of the cables and forced into the end of the 'ot. &hich is 'ressed fir)l.tight fit. but in order that the.to run cables fro) one building to another0 2his can be done either &ith cables running under the ground or &ith overhead cables0 Cables that are to be run underground can be ar)oured 'a'er.Wiring
+igure 3019 9*CC gland
2he ne(t ste' is to 'ush the 'ot over the end of the cable0 *t is )ade to suit the cable and is a fairl.a ring bush and bac/ nut0 +or haBardous areas a s'ecial gland is re4uired E(ternal &iring *t is so)eti)es necessar.)ade for this 'articular 3ob0 *t is good 'ractice to test each end for insulation resistance after the end has been )ade off1 if the test is left until both ends are co)'lete. &hich is cri)'ed over the ca'0 2his final o'eration can convenientl.all have )etal ar)ouring or sheathing. a co)'ression ring and a gland nut0 2he co)'ression ring is co)'arativel.should one of the ends be )ade off incorrectl-0 2he gland is sho&n in +igure 30190 *t consists of a gland bod-.of /no&ing &hich end is fault.in to fill the &hole of the 'ot0 2he ca' and sleeve subasse)bl.be done &ith a co)bined co)'ression and cri)'ing tool s'eciall. there is no &a. ar)oured P=C or 9*CC cables0 All these are strong enough to be laid directl. the &ea/ened ridge on its inside dia)eter bites into the outside of the cable sheath and )a/es a fir) electrical and )echanical bond bet&een the sheath and the gland0 2he gland is thus fi(ed to the cable over the seal and has a 'ro3ecting )ale thread &hich can be inserted into a lu)inaire or conduit bo( and secured b.should be laid at least %%)) belo& the ground level0 Since the. no 'rotection in the
.the ring is co)'ressed bet&een the) and defor)s0 As it does so.
and in fact this is ver.conduit s-ste) can be used0 2his )ethod is not suitable for distances of )ore than about 3)0 +or larger distances s'ecial overhead cables )ust be used0 Cables )ade for this 'ur'ose consist of solid dra&n co''er or alu)iniu) conductors covered &ith a P=C sheath and are suitable for s'ans of u' to 3%)0 2he.cable of ade4uate strength can be strung
.of the cables &ould then also be reduced0 2he obvious e(a)'le of a service &hich &ould have this effect is a district heating )ain0 But in addition to this consideration so)e thought )ust be given to &hat ha''ens &hen )aintenance &or/ is done on underground services0 *t is undesirable that &or/)en &ho )a.are su''orted ever.be 4uestioned &hether it &ill be noticed before the digging tool has gone through it and the cable0 Another )ethod is to install over ground )ar/ers sho&ing the line of the run of the underground cable *t is also 'ossible to bur. but it is ver.&a-0 Because of the danger of corrosion in the soil this is not ho&ever a good 'ractice0 *t is better to use builder.usual to 'rovide a bed of sand.Design of electrical services for buildings ground is reall.'ulled into 2%)) conduit over considerable distances0 Buried cables rel. as for e(a)'le fro) a house to a shed.cable.s 'ol-thene 'i'e as ducts instead of conduit.short distances.often done0 *t is harder to 'rovide fre4uent access to underground ducts than to conduit in a building.then the rate of dissi'ation of heat could be reduced. and the current carr-ing ca'acit.are /no&n as electrical tiles0 A chea'er alternative is 'lastic ta'e &ith the sa)e lettering0 2his has al)ost universall.be cases &here cables have to cross fro) one building to another overhead0 2his situation &ill nor)all.can traverse greater distances 'rovided the.arise &here cost is the overriding factor and neither restrictions on headroo) nor a''earance are of great concern0 +or ver.of roo) in the ground for large<dia)eter 'i'es. and the lengths bet&een dra&<in 'oints can beco)e rather large0 At the sa)e ti)e there is 'lent.the current in the resistance of the cables0 *f there are other services &hich heat the soil locall.on conduction of heat through the soil to dissi'ate the heat generated b.necessar-. and cover the cable loosel.3%)0 *f su''orts cannot be found on &alls or roofs then &ooden or )etal 'oles )ust be erected to carr.su'erseded tiles although it )a. and it is a sound 'recaution never to use an-thing s)aller than a 1%%)) 'ol-thene or earthen&are duct0 *n certain cases it is co))on 'ractice to use 'ol-thene conduit underground0 2his ha''ens for e(a)'le &hen the cable fro) a co))unal 2= aerial has to cross fro) one building to another on the sa)e site0 *t is also the standard )ethod of bringing tele'hone cables into a building in urban areas &here the )ain tele'hone cables are in the road outside the ne& building0 2ele'hone cables are 4uite s)all and can be easil. &hich can be used in one of t&o &a-s0 A se'arate catenar.have to e('ose a length of buried gas or &ater )ain should have to dig near a live electric cable0 2here are thus t&o reasons &h.the use of a catenar.fro) other buried services0 A good 'ractical rule is to have a )ini)u) distance a'art of 2)0 2here )a.&ith tiles before the trench in &hich it has been laid is bac/filled0 *f so)eone later has occasion to dig the ground near the cable the.1 the.underground cables should be /e't &ell a&a.conduit in the ground and 'ull cables through it in the ordinar. a 'iece of conduit can su''ort its o&n &eight over the ga' to be s'anned and an ordinar.cleats on &hich the cable can be su''orted0 2he li)itation on s'an can be overco)e b.&ill hit the tiles first and be &arned that there is so)ething underneath the)0 2iles are available for this use &hich have lettering on the) sa-ing CDanger<Electric Cables.
co)'anies for their distribution s-ste)s outside to&ns0 2he. the )etal 'late is 'ushed over the cable to cover the end of the duct and is scre&ed bac/ to the &all.that there is no )echanical strain on the)0 Cable entries 2he entr.Wiring
bet&een the t&o end su''orts and a sheathed cable can be sus'ended fro) the catenar.te)'orarinstallation0
.installations )ust be 3ust as safe as 'er)anent ones0 2here is therefore no reason for de'arting fro) an.are used )uch )ore in 'ublic su''l.it is 'ossible to obtain cable &hich incor'orates a catenar.of the 'rinci'les of design and installation &hich are used for 'er)anent s-ste)s0 2he )ethods of cable siBing and sche)es of distribution &hich are described in the follo&ing cha'ters a''l. at the end of the overhead section the cables )ust be connected to the cables &ithin the building in a ter)inal bloc/ and in such a &a.this is inserted fro) the inside of the building0 2he essential re4uire)ent is to )a/e the seal &atertight1 it &ill be readil. overhead cables &hich are out of reach of 'eo'le or ani)als do not need further insulation0 2he cables &e have 3ust described are sheathed.be a hole in the &all &hich has to be tight round the cable and &hich has to be sealed to 'revent dirt.to te)'orar. and the edges of the 'late are then 'ointed &ith )astic0 2his construction gives an effective &ater seal0 2e)'orar. ver)in and )oisture entering0 Whether the cable is an ar)oured t-'e laid directl.in the ground or &hether it is dra&n into a duct. a duct bend can be built into the &all0 After the cable has been 'ulled through the 'ol-thene or earthen&are duct.of cables fro) the outside to the inside of a building so)eti)es causes difficult-0 2here )ust obviousl.and can be used on an.installations 2e)'orar.)ade for overhead use. the )ost 'racticable &a. and the )anufacturer. a seal is )ade round it &ithin the duct &ith a bitu)inous )astic co)'ound0 5or)all.cable &ithin the sheath0 Such cable is s'eciall.s reco))endations on s'acing should be noted and adhered to0 Since air is a good insulator.into the building is b.s-ste)s than in building services0 Whatever )ethod of running overhead cables is used.understood that a seal &hich 'revents &ater co)ing through &ill also sto' dirt and s)all ani)als0 *n difficult cases one can )a/e a )etal 'late to overla' the earthen&are duct &ith a hole in it of a dia)eter to be a 'ush fit on the cable0 2he duct is filled &ith )astic.at regular intervals of about 2 or 3)0 Alternativel.)eans of an earthen&are duct built through the &all belo& ground level0 When the cable has to bend u' to rise on the inside face of the e(ternal &all.installations as &ell as to 'er)anent ones0 2he )ethods of installing cables &hich &e have discussed in this cha'ter are all designed to give ade4uate safet. but overhead line cable is also )ade consisting of bare co''er or alu)iniu) conductors of a siBe to have enough )echanical strength to su''ort the)selves0 2hese cables can s'an long distances and are used b.of )a/ing the entr.electricit.
current that e(ceeds the rated value of current<carr-ing ca'acit.the te)'erature to &hich it is safe to raise the insulation0 5o& the te)'erature reached under continuous stead. short circuit. the e4uilibriu) te)'erature reached de'ends on ho& the cable is installed1 that is to sa. tables have been 're'ared and 'ublished 7a''endi( to BS " "18 &hich list the )a(i)u) allo&able current for each t-'e and siBe of cable0 2he tables give a current rating for each t-'e and siBe of cable for a 'articular )ethod of installation and at a 'articular a)bient te)'erature0 +or these basic conditions a cable )ust be chosen the rated current of &hich is at least e4ual to the &or/ing current0 +or other )ethods of installation and a)bient te)'eratures the tables give various correction factors0 2he fuse or circuit brea/er rating has to be divided b.electrical design is the deter)ination of the siBe of cables0 2he siBe of cable to be used in a given circuit is governed b.to beco)e a )ore fre4uentl.be sub3ect to overload.Cha'ter 4 Cable rating
An i)'ortant 'art of an.state conditions is that at &hich the heat generated in the conductor is e4ual to the heat lost fro) the outside of the insulation0 6eat loss fro) the surface is b.radiation and conduction and de'ends on the closeness of other cables and on ho& )uch covering or shielding there is bet&een the cable and the o'en at)os'here0 2hus the heat loss and. )ust be 'rotected against overload andAor short circuit0 A generic ter) is overcurrent.the current &hich the circuit has to carr-. ho& close to other cables. and so on0 2o avoid tedious calculations. and BS " "1 no& re4uire a cable to be de<rated &hen it is used in such a situation0 As is e('lained in Cha'ter 9.be caused b.is li)ited b.7a8 an overload.cable. so the design 'roble) is to decide the siBe of cable needed to carr.insulated s'ace0 With increasing attention to ther)al insulation of &alls this is li/el.of the cable0 2he overcurrent )a.occurring situation.a /no&n current0 2&o se'arate factors have to be ta/en into account in assessing this. ever. on an e('osed surface. therefore. or earth fault. &hich )a. and the siBe of cable chosen &ill de'end on &hich factor -ields the )ost suitable value in each 'articular case0 A conductor carr-ing a current is bound to have so)e losses due to its o&n resistance0 2hese losses a''ear as heat and &ill raise the te)'erature of the insulation0 2he current the cable can carr. &hich is an
.these to give a rated current and a cable then selected such that its tabulated current is at least e4ual to this no)inal current0 Particular care has to be ta/en &here cable is run in a ther)all. or conduit. &hich is an.&hether it is in trun/ing.
to li)it the a)ount b. the cable is carr-ing the fault current during the ti)e it ta/es the 'rotective device.)argin for 6. &hich is an overcurrent bet&een live conductors having a 'otential bet&een the) in nor)al circu)stances.C fuses and circuit brea/ers0 6o&ever.selected fro) the tables in order to satisf.short. A0 *f necessar. 2 and the i)'edance of the source0 BS " "1 re4uires that both the earth<fault loo' i)'edance.greater than the 'ros'ective short<circuit current. given in the . and this allo&s one to assu)e that the current &ill be disconnected sufficientl.4uic/l.C fuses and circuit brea/ers can ta/e u' to four hours to o'erate at a current 10! ti)es their rated current0 2he cable te)'erature &ill rise during this ti)e and the &or/ing current )ust allo& a safet)argin to ta/e account of this0 2he rating tables in BS " "1 include the necessar. or 7c8 an earth fault0 2he &or/ing current )ust be such that if it is e(ceeded. ))2 *Oshort circuit current.the cable siBe )ust be increased above that 'rovisionall. the resulting rise in te)'erature &ill not beco)e dangerous before the 'rotective device cuts off the current0 When a short circuit occurs.s)all )ulti'le of the &or/ing current.&hich the
.in the building.of the cable0 2he short circuit current de'ends u'on the i)'edance of the source and the cables in the short circuit0 2he earth fault current de'ends on the earth fault loo' i)'edance. due to a fault of negligible i)'edance bet&een the). it is necessar.and the te)'erature rise de'ends on the fault current and the s'ecific heat ca'acit. &hether a fuse or a circuit brea/er. an overload0 6.)eans of the for)ula
&here tOti)e in seconds in &hich 'rotective device o'ens at a current of *A /Oa constant.1 and the i)'edance of the 'rotective conductor .&hich cables )ust be de< rated if re&ireable fuses are going to be used to 'rotect the cables0 2he resistance of the conductor also results in a dro' of voltage along its length0 Because of this dro'. the voltage at the receiving end is less than that at the sending end0 Since all electrical e4ui')ent used in a building is designed to &or/ on the no)inal voltage of the su''l. &hich is e('lained in Cha'ter 90 2his i)'edance is the su) of the i)'edance of the 'hase conductor . then a chec/ )ust be )ade b.this condition0 Alternativel-. the cable is heated adiabaticall.Design of electrical services for buildings
overcurrent occurring in a circuit that is electricall.egulations for different cables SO)ini)u) cross<sectional area of conductor in the cable. to o'erate and disconnect the circuit0 Because this ti)e is ver. re&ireable fuses 7BS 3%3 8 ta/e longer to o'erate and a larger )argin is therefore necessar-0 2he rating tables therefore include a factor b. the short<circuit i)'edance. the cable siBe can be retained and a fuse or circuit brea/er &ith a faster o'erating ti)e used0 2he 'rotection )ust also o'erate if the overcurrent is not a short circuit but a co)'arativel.to 'revent overheating during a short circuit0 2he cable siBe selected fro) the rating tables for the &or/ing current is then ade4uate0 *f the 'rotective device is selected for short<circuit 'rotection onl-.sound1 7b8 a short circuit. and the ti)e for the device to o'erate are such that its 'rotective device &ill o'erate before a dangerous te)'erature is reached0 *n )ost cases the 'rotective device &ill have a brea/ing ca'acit.
the factor is %0"% 2his )eans that for three circuits. the voltage dro' in the &iring )ust be /e't reasonabl.for grou'ing Cg0 *f an enclosed circuit as in )ethod 3 or 4 is ta/en. 24A. but for convenience of use. and reference )ethod 4.eference )ethods var-1 reference )ethod 1 is sheathed cables cli''ed direct or l-ing on a non<)etallic surface1 reference )ethod 3 refers to cables installed in conduit or trun/ing1 )ethod 4 refers to single<core cables enclosed in conduit installed in a ther)all.t&in and earth8 is.si)'le and 4uic/ )atter to calculate the actual dro' over the actual length for the actual current0 *f this is )ore than the acce'table dro' the larger siBe of cable )ust be chosen and the calculation re'eated0 .lo&0 BS " "1 re4uire that the voltage dro' in the &iring should not e(ceed a value a''ro'riate to the safe functioning of the e4ui')ent0 BS " "1 li)its the volts dro' to 4 'er cent of the no)inal voltage0 2he dro' in volts is obtained b.&ould overheat0 2he nu)ber of grou'ed circuits )ust therefore be ta/en into account0 2able 4B1 gives correction factors to a''l. reference )ethod 3. or if )ulticore cables &ere bunched &ith other )ulticores.Cable rating
voltage dro's bet&een the 'oint of entr. onl.)entioned give this. &ith the tabulated rating of a 20!))2 single<'hase )ulticore ther)o'lastic non<ar)oured "%MC P=C cable 7t-'icall. the heat dissi'ation 'ro'erties of the circuits or cables &ould be reduced1 the )ore cables there are in the grou' the dissi'ation 'ro'erties of the cable are reduced0 2hen if the cables &ere loaded to their ungrou'ed level &hen the. onl. the conduit being in contact &ith the ther)al insulation on one side0 +ro) 2able 4D2A.into the building and the outlet serving an a''liance0 *n other &ords.are grou'ed the. 2able 4A1 sho&s various acce'ted )ethods of installing &iring s-ste)s1 these are ter)ed Creference )ethods.s la& as the 'roduct of the actual current flo&ing and the total resistance of the actual length of cable0 ?ne therefore &ants to /no& the resistance 'er unit length of cable0 2he cable<rating tables alread. the )ini)u) rating of fuse is !%A0 +or the fuse to 'rotect the cable against
."% 'er cent of the single circuit or )ulticore current is allo&ed0 6o& is the factor a''liedP +igure 401 re'resents one single<'hase ther)o'lastic "%MC circuit enclosed in conduit installed as reference )ethod 31 the )ini)u) fuse siBe is chosen fro) the range of fuses fro) BS##.allo&ed #% 'er cent of the single circuit current is allo&ed0 +or three circuits. or it is bunched and cli''ed direct to a non<)etallic surface )ulticore 7)ethod 18 for t&o circuits or t&o )ulticore cables. the.insulating &all or ceiling.4%MC0 2he tables assu)e that the circuits are run individuall-0 *t is nor)al 'ractice to run )ore than one circuit in an enclosure or to bunch )ulticore 7)ore than one core8 together0 *f the circuits &ere grou'ed &ith other circuits.4uote it as voltage dro' 'er a)' 'er )etre length of cable0 2his )a/es it a ver. instead of giving it as oh)s 'er )etre. the correction factor is %0#%0 2his )eans that for t&o circuits. reference )ethod 1 given 2"A.eferring to BS " "1.0 . 190!A0 2able 4D!A refers to installation )ethod 1! and reference )ethod 10 5ote the differences bet&een installation and reference )ethods0 5ote ho& the current rating of the cable increases as the installation )ethod allo&s )ore heat to be dissi'ated0 2he assu)ed a)bient te)'erature is 3%MC0 2he )a(i)u) conductor o'erating te)'erature is "%MC0 2herefore it can be assu)ed that the above currents &ill raise the te)'erature of the cable b. &hich is at slight variance fro) 2able 4D!A.?h).
and the running te)'erature &ill also be higher0 2herefore. the )ini)u) tabulated rating.due to grou'ing0 *f the cable is installed in an a)bient te)'erature of 3%MC and loaded &ith the )a(i)u) rated current. 2able 4C2 is a''licable0 *f the above circuit is run &ith three other circuits 7four in total8. the correction factor is %0 !0 2he correction factor is a''lied as a divisor to the 'rotective device rating0 2herefore the )ini)u) rating *B. in these conditions. if the cable is installed at a te)'erature above 3%MC. but the cable )ust be derated to a factor of %0 !G " 092@%0 !O!% 2herefore. or the )ini)u) tabulated rating *t of the cable &ill be *tO*nACgO!%A%0 !O" 092A
+igure 401 Device rating related to design current
+igure 401 Effect of grou'ing cables
*n other &ords a cable &hich &ill carr. *B. to 'revent the cable fro) overheating. the sub3ect of the for)ulae used0 *f the cable is grou'ed &ith three other circuits 7four in total8. the cable is rated at !%A0 We are selecting a larger siBe of cable because of the reduction in current carr-ing ca'acit. there are t&o correction factors to a''l-. the starting te)'erature of the cable &ill be higher. if it is installed in an a)bient te)'erature above 3%MC0 2able 4C1 relates to correction factors 7Cg8 for a)bient te)'erature0 +or general 'ur'ose P=C at 3!MC the correction factor is %0940 2his )eans that the cable )a.Design of electrical services for buildings
overload. is !%A0 Also.be loaded to 94 'er cent of its 3%MC ca'acit-0 2able 4C1 is for all 'rotective devices other than re&ireable fuses0 +or re&ireable fuses.of the cable." 092A is acce'table.onl. the )ini)u) cable rating. one for grou'ing and one for a)bient te)'erature above 3%MC0 2he )ini)u) rating of the cable &ill be *BO*nACg@CaO!%A7%094@%0 !8O#10#3A
. for the cable is also !%A0 2he )ethods of calculation in BS " "1 )a/e C*t. the final te)'erature &ill be "%MC0 2hen. &e )ust )a/e ad3ust)ents to the current carr-ing ca'acit. *t.
ignore the) or re'lace &ith a 10 E(a)'le 3 single<'hase 24%= 3 A loads are to be su''lied b. colu)n 4.of the factors are not a''licable.s a''ro'riate table.&hen a cable is enclosed in ther)al insulation0 2he correction factor Ci is a''lied to the length of the cable0 2he for)ula is no& a)ended to *B.is 1%))20 . *tO 4A0 2herefore.egulation grou' !2!<%1. or at the BS " "1 2able 4D!A. states that the voltage at the ter)inals of a 'iece of e4ui')ent should be a''ro'riate for the standard to &hich the e4ui')ent &as
. &hether its abilit. 2!) in length.to dissi'ate heat &ill be i)'aired0 2o ta/e this into consideration 2able !2A gives the correction factor to a''l. in an area having an a)bient te)'erature of 3!MC 7CaO %09480 2he cables are touching and single<la-er cli''ed to a non<)etallic surface 7for 3 circuits CgO%0"980 2he overcurrent device at the origin of the installation is a t-'e<B 9CB to BS E5 %#9#0 Calculate the )ini)u) 'er)issible cable siBe0 . or )ini)u) *tO*nACg@Ca@Ci When considering overload 'rotection earlier. &here COco)bined factor to a''lCO%0"9@%094O%0"42 )ini)u) tabulated rating *tO*nAC 4%A%0"42 O!30# A Consulting )anufacturer. CaO%094 Ca@CgOC.eference )ethodO1 Design current *bO3 A0 5o)inal rating of the device *nO4%A CgO%0"9.)eans of "%MC ther)o'lastic P=C t&in and earth cables having co''er conductors.Cable rating
?ne )ust also consider if the cable is run in heat<insulating )aterial. a factor of %0"2! is used0 2he for)ula is no& a)ended to
+igure 403 Cables enclosed in ther)al insulation
)ini)u) *tO*nACg@Ca@Ci@%0"2! *f an. it &as )entioned that &hen a re&ireable fuse &as used. the )ini)u) siBe &ith res'ect to current carr-ing ca'acit.
in &hich these 'ara)eters )ust be co)bined. CaO%09".be done b. colu)n 4. )ulti'l-
2herefore.different0 .avoided these da-s0 BS " "1 e('resses a 'reference for cartridge<t-'e fuses0 *n )ost cases. the )ini)u) siBe &ith res'ect to current carr-ing ca'acit.connected to the )ains. the voltage should be such that the e4ui')ent o'erates safel-0 2he safet. it is a better all<round solution to ta/e the final distribution board as
.and the ter)inals of the e4ui')ent. the design of the circuit &ould be slightl. and the design can onl. the )ini)u) 'er)issible siBe is 1%))20 *f the circuit &as 'rotected b. the )ini)u) 'er)issible siBe is 1 ))2 71%))2 &ith t-'e<B 9CB to BS E5 %#9#80 5ote that se)i<enclosed fuses should be rigorousl. or the soc/et outlet.a re&ireable fuse to BS 3%3 .s o&n e('erience and 3udge)ent0 2here is 'lent. if directl.as'ect is satisfied if the volt dro' bet&een the ter)inals of the inco)ing su''l.Design of electrical services for buildings
)anufactured0 *f no value is stated.the designer.is 1 ))20
2herefore. *tO#!0 2herefore. &here COco)bined factor to a''lCO%0"9@%09"@%0"2!O%0!!! )ini)u) tabulated rating *tO*nAC 4!A%0!!!O#1A 5o& loo/ at 2able 4D!A. does not e(ceed 4 'er cent of the no)inal voltage of the )ains0
We no& need to chec/ that the voltage dro' in the 1%))2 cable is &ithin these li)its0 2able 4D2B gives voltage dro' in )illivolts 'er a)'ere 'er )etre0 2o calculate the voltage dro'. and fro) each of these there &ill be a nu)ber of final circuits0 2he allo&able voltage dro' is the su) of the dro's in the sub<)ains and in the final circuits. Ca@Cg@%0"2!OC.of sco'e for a designer to e(ercise his 'ersonal initiative and intuition in 'ositioning distribution boards and selecting cable siBes to arrive at an econo)ical design0 *n general.a 'rocess of trial and error te)'ered b. there &ill be a nu)ber of sub<)ains fro) the electrical inta/e of the building to distribution fuse boards. and there is no restriction on ho& it is shared bet&een the t&o0 2he 'osition of each distribution board &ill affect the lengths both of sub<)ains and of final circuits and thus of the voltage dro' in each of the)0 2here is no single correct &a.eference )ethod 1 Design current *bO3 A0 5o)inal rating of the device *nO4!A CgO%0"9.
near to the current. onl.&hen an earth fault occurs and. the cable being 'rotected against short circuit0 Because of the cable resistance.for the short ti)e before the 'rotective device o'erates0 BS " "1 gives t&o alternative &a-s of deter)ining its siBe0 2he first is b. for 2!))2 and 3!))2 'hase conductors. the regulations give a table &hich relates the siBe of the 'rotective conductor to the siBe of the 'hase conductor0 2he effect is that for circuits u' to 1 ))2. the 'rotective conductor )ust be at least 1 ))2. flo&ing through a !%A fuse &ould disconnect in about 1020 2herefore. and for 'hase conductors over 3!))2 the cross section of the 'rotective conductor )ust be at least half the cross section of the 'hase conductor0
.)eans of 4)) 2 ther)o'lastic "%MC P=C co''er cables0 2he 'rotection device at the origin of the circuit is a !%A BS ##<201 fuse0 2he 'ros'ective short circuit current is 3%%A0 2he : value for ther)o'lastic "%MC P=C co''er cables is 11!0 2he ti)e for the cable to reach its li)it te)'erature is
2o ta/e a t-'ical BS ## fuse. using e4ui')ent as 'ossible. for chec/ing the short circuit rating of the live conductor0 Alternativel-. then the for)ula stated in BS " "1 section 434<%3 is e)'lo-edG
&here tOti)e ta/en to reach the li)it te)'erature :Ois a factor ta/en fro) table 43A BS " "1 SOcross sectional area in ))2 *Ofault current0 +or e(a)'leG a )otor circuit is su''lied b. then. increase to about 20!s0 2he cable is still 'rotected0 9ention should also be )ade of the circuit 'rotective conductor0 2he function of this is described in Cha'ter 90 Dnder nor)al conditions it carries no current and it conducts electricit. the fuse &ould o'erate before the cable reached its li)it te)'erature. thus reducing the length of the final circuits to a )ini)u)0 *f the overcurrent 'rotection device at the origin of the circuit is for short<circuit 'rotection onl-.onl.the use of the sa)e for)ula as above. as has been 4uoted above. 1%) along the run the short<circuit current &ill be attenuated to 2 3A. as &ould be the case for a )otor circuit. giving a ti)e to reach the li)it te)'erature of above 3s0 2he disconnection ti)e &ould. the 'rotective conductor )ini)u) siBe )ust be e4ual to the line or 'hase conductor. trans'osed to )a/e S the sub3ect of the for)ula. ho&ever. 3%%A.
can follo& the sa)e 'rinci'les as that in a do)estic or co))ercial building0 *ndeed. no cable for)ing 'art of the circuit )a. governed b. and the cables nor)all.each 'hase of a three<'hase 3h' )achine0 2herefore.larger cables0 *f he does choose the latter course there is a real danger that the site electrician &ill install the cables he is used to.coo/ers0 +or factories &ith heavier )achiner-.in a factor.used for final circuits are 10!))2. &ith corres'ondingl. distribution boards &ith %A or 1%%A fuses or CBs can be used.the nu)ber and t-'e of outlets on the circuit0 *t is unusual to have a fuse of )ore than 4!A in a final distribution board in do)estic 're)ises. &iring fro) one fuse or CB is /no&n as the final circuit. in a technical college.carried out in 10!))2 cable and 'o&er circuits to soc/et outlets in 20!))20 0%))2 and 1%))2 cable is used for circuits to coo/ers. a''l.
.are such that an overcurrent cannot occur0 2he siBe of both the fuse or CB and cable is.the largest steadcurrent ever ta/en at an.on a standard distribution board0 2he distribution in a &or/sho' or )ediu) siBed factor. 4uite large )achine tools i)'ose no bigger a load than a coo/er. and can be served fro) a fuse&a.less than that of the fuse.have a current carr-ing ca'acit. and other large current<using e4ui')ent.large loads.heavcurrents0 *t is &orth noting here that a single 'hase 1h' )otor ta/es a running current of about A and a starting current of so)ething under 3%A0 2hese currents &ould also be ta/en b.s s'ecification0 2hese considerations &ill not. therefore. unless the characteristics of the load or su''l. instantaneous &ater heaters.larger cables0 +or factories &ith ver. sho&ers.of these cables than to s'ecif. the electrical load in the )etal &or/sho's can &ell be lo&er and i)'ose fe&er 'roble)s than that in the do)estic science roo)s &ith their )an. instead of co)'l-ing &ith the designer.Cha'ter ! Circuits
2he final outlets of the electrical s-ste) in a building are lighting 'oints. such as )achine tools in &or/sho's0 2hese siBes are so usual that it is better for the designer to restrict the nu)ber of outlets on each final circuit to /ee' &ithin the ca'acit. soc/et outlets and fi(ed e4ui')ent0 2he &iring to each of these co)es fro) an e(cess current 'rotection device 7fuse or circuit brea/er8 in a distribution board. according to the nature of the circuit0 $ighting is al)ost invariabl.in &hich individual )achines can ta/e ver. of course. but one fuse or CB can serve several outlets0 *f the circuit su''lies current using e4ui')ent.one instant b.the &hole of the e4ui')ent on that final circuit0 Since the fuse or CB 'rotects the cables. 20!))2 and 0%))2. and all the outlets fed fro) the sa)e fuse or CB are on the sa)e final circuit0 2he fuse or CB )ust be large enough to carr.
such a s-ste) &ould give reasonable 'rotection. &hich one can get b. the use of electricit.are ado'ted0 We have said that the fuse or CB )ust be rated for the largest current ta/en at an.increased since its first introduction to do)estic and co))ercial 're)ises. the s-ste) ado'ted for house &iring in the D: &as that 2A soc/et outlets &ere 'rovided to serve radios and 'ortable la)'s &hich &ould have s)all fle(ible cable. )ore nu)erous.)ore fuses.on such a rigid guide to the total e(clusion of his o&n 3udge)ent0 A general /no&ledge of life and ho& different buildings are used )a. therefore.a diversit.a co)bination of factual /no&ledge and intuition0 *EE >uidance 5ote 1 and the *EE ?n< Site >uide include a sche)e for a''l-ing the diversit. &hich have been given their o&n 'rotection0 2here is no longer an. it &ould have been necessar.the su) of the )a(i)u) currents ta/en b. not onl. so that it has beco)e necessar.the 'er)anent &iring u' to the soc/et outlet0 2he 'er)anent &iring can.all the e4ui')ent on the circuit0 2his is not necessaril.factor. &hich totall.&ith the regulations1 nevertheless the author of this boo/ thin/s that a ca'able designer &ill not rel.rated to 'rotect the a''liance.control over the siBes of fle(ible cables attached to 'ortable a''liances &hich &ill be 'lugged in at soc/et outlets. neither the designer of the building &iring nor the installer has an. it &ould not 'rotect the cables against overloads falling bet&een the ca'acit.one instant b.to the 'er)anent &iring of the building.to have a large nu)ber of soc/et outlets in each d&elling and in ever.Design of electrical services for buildings
the nor)al t-'e of distribution board ceases to be 'racticable and other )eans of arranging the connections to the )achiner.to have )an. one needs an accurate /no&ledge of ho& the 're)ises are going to be used. be designed &ithout consideration for 'rotection of a''liances.all the e4ui')ent on the circuit.designed and 'ro'erl. although BS " "1 is directed to fi(ed installations onl-0 When electricit. the fuseboards &ould have beco)e larger. since it )a.need to have different outlets for
.used.da)age to the fle(ible cable &ill blo& the fuse in the 'lug1 'rovided this fuse is correctl. but also to the fle(ibles and the 'ortable a''liances 'lugged in at the soc/et outlets0 Dnfortunatel-. the )ulti'licit. or both.not have a rating greater than that of the cables in the circuit0 *f it did. &hich &ould be su''lied &ith substantial fle(ible cables0 *f carefull.office0 With the original s-ste) of &iring.of the cables and the nor)al current of the fuse0 6o&ever.be of )ore hel' than theoretical 'rinci'les0 *t &ill be easier to understand the ideas underl-ing the use of circuits intended for fused 'lugs if &e first consider the li)itations of other circuits0 2he fuse or CB in a final circuit )a.defeated the ob3ect of having different siBed outlets0 Also.factor to the total installed load to arrive at the )a(i)u) si)ultaneous load0 2o do this.of 'lugs and soc/ets )ade life difficult for the householder and te)'ted hi) to use )ulti<&aada'ters. !A outlets &ere 'rovided for larger e4ui')ent and 1!A soc/ets for the heaviest do)estic a''liances such as 3/W fires.fault in the a''liance or an.has greatl.not ha''en that all the e4ui')ent is on at the sa)e ti)e0 ?ne can a''l. and circuits designed in accordance &ith this should co)'l. it does not )atter if the fuse in the 'er)anent &iring has a higher rating0 2his latter fuse no& has to 'rotect onl.&as first introduced for do)estic use. and the cost of the installation &ould have increased ra'idl-0 *t &as to overco)e these difficulties that 13A soc/et outlets &ith fused 'lugs &ere introduced a fe& -ears after the Second World War0 2he soc/et outlets are )ade to BS 13 3 and the fuses that go in the 'lugs to BS 13 20 2he fuse in the 'lug 'rotects the fle(ible cable0 An.
one 'atient in a &ard &ill be treated at one ti)e0 *n such a situation it is clear that t&ent.C fuse or circuit brea/er0 *f it is cabled in 20!)) 2 cable and 'rotected ban.)a.nu)ber of outlets but the floor area covered )ust not be )ore than 1%%) 20 A radial circuit for this t-'e of outlet can serve a floor area of !%) 2 if it is cabled in 4))2 cable and 'rotected ba 3%A32A 6.feed one 1!A soc/et or three !A soc/ets0 2he fra)ers of these regulations had chiefl.fused b.the )anufacturer0 +used 'lugs bring a further advantage0 Whereas a 1!A soc/et had to be assu)ed to be feeding so)ething ta/ing 1!A. contain an.t-'e of fuse or circuit brea/er rated at 2%A. &hether served through a control s&itch or through a coo/er control unit. but onldedicated e4ui')ent )a.nu)ber of outlets &ithin this area0 An. onl. a 13A soc/et &ith a fused 'lug )a.be de'arted fro) in non<do)estic installations if the e(act usage is /no&n0 2o illustrate this &e can ta/e as an e(a)'le a hos'ital &ard in &hich a soc/et outlet ne(t to each bed is needed for 'ortable cardiogra'hs or F<ra.be done b. !A.be 'lugged in0 A coo/er.factor in deciding on the circuit loading0 2his is ta/en into account in the standard circuit arrange)ents given in the *EE >uidance 5ote 1 or the *EE ?n<Site >uide. and the arrange)ent )a.Circuits
different classes of a''liance.installing 1!A outlets and 'roviding 1!A 'lugs onl.nu)ber of fused s'urs )a.as )uch as 1!A. &here there are several 13A outlets. it is restricted to a floor area of 2%) 20 *n either case there can be an.in )ind do)estic installations.incor'orate a soc/et outlet.be /no&n that although there is to be one of these outlets ne(t to each bed. soc/ets &hich are si)ilar to the BS 13 3 'attern but &ith the earth 'in turned through 9%M0 2he fuse advantage of the 'lug is. and no diversit. it beco)es 'er)issible to )a/e use of a diversit. and co)'rehensive s'ace heating sche)es )ust be 'rovided &ith their o&n circuit0 2he cable siBes 4uoted are for co''er conductors &ith P=C insulation0 *EE >uidance 5ote 1 and the ?n<Site<>uide give different siBes for 9*CC cables0 Soc/et outlets of 1!A and !A )ust be assu)ed to su''l.a fuse or circuit brea/er rated at 3%A or 32A can serve an.certain e4ui')ent can be connected to these soc/ets0 2his )a.nu)ber of such outlets 'rovided the rating of the 'rotective device is e4ual to the su) of the ratings of the outlets on the circuit0 2hus a circuit &ith a 1!A fuse )a. but the nu)ber of unfused s'urs is li)ited to the nu)ber of soc/et outlets on the circuit0 Water heaters having a ca'acit.a''liances ta/ing 1!A and !A res'ectivel-. should be on a circuit of its o&n0 2he coo/er control unit )a. )aintained. and an e(ce'tion fro) the standard circuit could therefore be )ade or. and are 'ro'erl.be a''lied to circuits containing such outlets0 2he circuit )a-.soc/et outlets could be 'ut on one circuit and -et that circuit &ould never carr.&ell be feeding e4ui')ent ta/ing 2A or less0 2herefore.be on a single circuit 'rovided its rating does not e(ceed
.be ta/en fro) an.of over 1! l. ho&ever.e4ui')ent0 *t is also desirable to ensure that onl.su''lied &ith a )oulded 'lug. and it is 'ossible to standardiBe on one t-'e of soc/et and one t-'e of 'lug0 2his s-ste) de'ends on )atching the fuse in the 'lug to the a''liance0 +uses for these 'lugs are )ade to BS 13 2 in ratings of 3A. alternativel-.for the e4ui')ent &hich is to use these s'ecial outlets0 *t )a. 1%A and 13A0 9odern a''liances are usuall.of these three circuits. therefore. &hich should be used &herever 'ossible0 A ring circuit &ith soc/et outlets for 13A fused 'lugs cabled in 20!)) 2 P=C cable and 'rotected b. &hich &ill be on the sa)e circuit0 2he circuit rating should be that of the coo/er0 2&o coo/ers in the sa)e roo) )a.
Design of electrical services for buildings
!%A0 +or do)estic coo/er circuits. *EE >uidance 5ote 1 and the *EE ?n<Site >uide give the diversit- to be a''lied0 We have referred to a ring circuit and &e )ust no& consider &hat this is0 As its na)e i)'lies. a ring circuit is one &hich for)s a closed ring1 it starts at one of the &a-s of a distribution board. runs to a nu)ber of outlets one after another. and returns to the distribution board it started fro)0 2his is illustrated in +igure !010 2he advantage of this arrange)ent is that current can flo& fro) the fuse&a- to the outlets along both halves of the ring. so that at an- one 'oint the cable carries onl- 'art of the total current being ta/en b- the &hole circuit0 *t is this feature &hich )a/es it 'ossible for the fuse rating to be greater than the cable current rating0 2he fuse carries the su) of the currents in the t&o halves of the ring and &ill blo& &hen the current in one 'art of the ring is about half the fusing current of the fuse0 +or 20!)) 2 P=C ther)o'lastic cable to be used for a 3%A32A ring. its current carr-ing ca'acit- after a''l-ing rating factors )ust not be less than 2%A0 A circuit &hich runs onl- fro) the fuse&a- to the outlets it serves &ithout returning to the fuse. is called a radial circuit. to distinguish it fro) the ring
+igure !01 ;ing circuit
circuit &hich &e have 3ust described0 Ever- circuit is necessaril- either radial or ring0 *n e('laining the rules for the nu)ber of outlets on a ring circuit. &e have s'o/e of s'urs. and &e should 'ause to e('lain &hat is )eant b- this0 *deall- the outlets on a ring are 'laced so that the cable can run fro) the first to the second and fro) the second to the third &ithout doubling bac/ on itself0 *f one outlet is a long &a- fro) the others. this doubling bac/ )a- be e('ensive in cable and it )a- be chea'er to serve the odd outlet ba radial branch or s'ur fro) the ring0 2he reasoning &hich a''lies to the choice of cable and fuse siBe for the ring does not a''l- to the cable in the s'ur0 2his length of cable )ust be 'rotected against overload and short circuit0 2he )a(i)u) load &hich can be connected to a non<fused s'ur is a t&in 23A soc/et. the )a(i)u) load is therefore 2 A0 2he cable )ust be rated accordingl-0 Alternativel-. a fused connection unit is a convenient device for 'roviding fusing0 2he )a(i)u) fuse in this case is a 13A fuse0 *t &ill be seen fro) the rules given above that a considerable nu)ber of s'urs )a- be ta/en fro) one ring. but in 'ractice this is ver- seldo) done0 +used connection units are also used for connecting fi(ed a''liances to ring circuits even &hen the- are close to the line of the ring0 2he fuse in the connection unit 'erfor)s the sa)e function as the fuse in the 'lug of a 'ortable a''liance and 'rotects the short length of cable bet&een the outlet and the a''liance0 Although the ring circuit &as develo'ed for do)estic 're)ises. it is e4uall- useful for co))ercial 're)ises and is fre4uentl- used for the 'o&er &iring of offices and sho's0 *n housing. it is standard 'ractice to 'ut all the soc/et outlets on one floor of a house on one circuit0 Consideration should be given to a se'arate circuit for a do)estic /itchen0 A little )ore thought is clearl- needed in the la-out of the circuits in co))ercial 're)ises0 2he nu)ber of outlets on a ring is ulti)atel- li)ited b- the rating of the fuse0 +or 're)ises other than factories. it is al)ost universal to run ring circuits in 20!)) 2 P=C cable and to fuse the) at 3%A32A0 2he designer )ust assess the )a(i)u) current li/el- to be ta/en at an- one ti)e and 'lan such a nu)ber of se'arate circuits that none of the) &ill be re4uired to su''l- )ore than 3%A32A at a ti)e0 When doing this. it should be re)e)bered that the use of electricit- has increased enor)ousl- in the 'ast fe& decades and is li/el- to go on increasing0 *t is. therefore. 'ossible that &ithin the lifeti)e of an installation )ore a''liances &ill be 'lugged in si)ultaneousl- than is usual toda-. and also that individual a''liances )a- be heavier users of current than the a''liances in co))on use toda-0 So)e allo&ance )ust be )ade for a future increase of use. and in the absence of an- other &a- of doing it. the author feels that it is 'rudent to restrict the 'resent )a(i)u) current to sa- 1!<2%A 'er ring circuit0 *n a school or college &or/sho'. it is often desirable for an e)ergenc- sto' button to s&itch off all )achines0 2he usual arrange)ent is that 'ro)inent sto' buttons are fi(ed at t&o or three easil- accessible 'laces in the &or/sho' so that in the event of an- 'u'il having an accident. the )achine )a- be sto''ed 4uic/l- &herever the 'erson in charge ha''ens to be at the ti)e0 All )achines have to be controlled together so that if an e)ergenc- button is 'ushed. the- all sto'0 A further re4uire)ent for safet- is that the circuit )ust be such that the )achines &ill not start again until the e)ergenc- sto' has been reset0 2here are basicall- t&o &a-s in &hich an e)ergenc- sto' circuit to )eet these re4uire)ents can be carried out0 *f the )achine tools are large and each ta/es a large current. it &ill be better to feed each one on a se'arate radial circuit on its o&n final circuit0 2here &ill then have to be a
Design of electrical services for buildings
distribution board &ith a nu)ber of fuse&a-sACBs serving a nu)ber of )achines0 2he inco)ing su''l- to this board can convenientl- be ta/en through a contactor &hich is nor)all- o'en but is held shut &hen the o'erating coil is energiBed0 2he circuit of the o'erating coil is ta/en around the &or/sho' and goes through as )an- e)ergenc- sto' buttons as are needed0 2he result is that &hen an- one of these buttons is struc/. the o'erating coil is de<energiBed. the contactor o'ens. and the entire fuseboard is deenergiBed0 Ever-thing fed fro) that board then sto's0 A large &or/sho' )a- have so )an- )achines that it re4uires t&o or three distribution boards to su''l- the) all0 2he e)ergenc- circuit )ust then shut off the su''l- to all of these boards0 *t &ould be 'ossible to ta/e the sub<)ains to several distribution boards through a )ulti'ole contactor &ith one 'ole for each 'hase and each neutral. but such contactors are not readil- available. and it is better for each distribution board to be fed through its o&n contactor0 2he e)ergenc- sto' circuit can contain a rela&ith one 'ole for each contactor. and the o'erating coil circuit of each contactor is then bro/en b- the rela- &hen the rela- itself is de<energiBed on the interru'tion of the e)ergenc- circuit0 2his is a si)'le arrange)ent. but needs an e(tra circuit for the rela-. and this circuit cannot co)e fro) an- of the distribution boards &hich the rela- controls0 ?ne &a- of avoiding the e(tra circuit and the rela- &ould be to cable the o'erating coils of the contactors in 'arallel so that the- &ere all 'art of a single circuit0 2his &ould have the disadvantage that at least one of the contactors )ust have its coil and )ain contacts fed fro) t&o different sources. so that it &ould be 'ossible for the coil to be live &hen the )ain feed to the contactor had been disconnected0 Such an arrange)ent can cause da)age to un&ar- )aintenance electricians and is not reco))ended0 *t is safer to 'a- for the rela-0 Si)ilar circuits can be ado'ted &henever it is necessar- to control a large nu)ber of 'oints together or fro) a re)ote 'lace0 2he e(ternal lights of a hotel or 'ublic building )a-. for e(a)'le. be sufficientl- e(tensive to re4uire several &a-s of a si( or eight<&adistribution board0 *f the distribution board is controlled b- a contactor. all the lights can be s&itched together on one s&itch. &hich is in the o'erating coil circuit of the contactor0 2he second )ethod of 'roviding an e)ergenc- sto' circuit is a''ro'riate for s)aller &or/sho's in &hich it )a- be chea'er and 4uite satisfactor- to serve all )achines fro) a single<ring circuit0 2he outlets on the ring )ain ta/e the for) of fused isolators. and each )achine is connected locall- to its o&n fused isolator0 2he e)ergenc- circuit still &or/s a contactor. but in this case. the contactor is on the load side of the fuseboard0 2he su''lis ta/en fro) the fuse to the contactor. and the ring starts fro) and co)es bac/ to the contactor0 2he o'eration of the e)ergenc- sto' cuts out ever-thing fed fro) this one fuse&a- but leaves in o'eration circuits fro) all the other &a-s of the distribution board0 +or a s)all &or/sho'. this saves the e('ense of a se'arate distribution board for the )achines onl-0 We have so far discussed )ainl- 'o&er circuits and )ust no& sa- so)ething about lighting circuits0 *t is usuall- necessar- to have several lights on one circuit &ith each light controlled b- its o&n s&itch0 +igure !02 sho&s the &iring arrange)ent used to achieve this0 *t also sho&s circuits for t&o<&a- and for t&o<&a- and inter)ediate s&itching0
+igure !02 $ighting circuits
be8 to the second outlet0 *f the &iring is 'ro'erl.at the various outlets0 +urther)ore.to have )ore lighting circuits than this0 *n co))ercial and industrial 're)ises far too )an.be necessar.accessible0 2he loo'ing in s-ste) is the reason for having the third ter)inal on a ceiling rose.Design of electrical services for buildings
E(a)ination of these diagra)s &ill reveal that the fle(ible cord to the la)'holder is 'rotected b.be %0"!)) 2 rated at A and so do)estic lighting circuits should not be fused at )ore than A0 5o& a 1!%W tungsten bulb ta/es %0 !A and conse4uentl. the A li)it &ill not be e(ceeded if there is one lighting circuit for u'stairs and one for do&nstairs. cable 3oints are not )ade b. each connector adds a s)all 3oint resistance and it is advantageous to /ee' the nu)ber of these do&n to a )ini)u)0 9echanical connections cannot be avoided at the outlets.at outlets is /no&n as the Cloo'ing in. or cri)'ing0 *t is a hel' to )aintenance if loose connector bloc/s can be avoided and cables 3oined together onl. and can give an un'leasant sur'rise to the ho)e hand-)an re'lacing a lu)inaire0 All circuits should be effectivel. s-ste). but the designer and installer )ust )a/e sure that all 'endant cords to lights are of the sa)e rating as the rest of the circuit0 *t has been e('lained in Cha'ter 1 that in the &iring of buildings.t&o ter)inal roses be used0 2he loo'ing could be done at the s&itch. so)e s'ecifications insist that onl. but nevertheless. but the nu)ber of 3oints can be reduced if no connections are )ade e(ce't at the outlets0 2his )ethod of 3oining cables onl. strictls'ea/ing it does not need overload 'rotection since the )a(i)u) la)' siBe that can be connected to the ba-onet la)'holder is 2%%W0 2he fle(ible cord does need short circuit 'rotection0 *n do)estic 're)ises fle(ible cords &ill al)ost inevitabl.'lanned and carried out there need be no 3oint in this length0 A second run of cable runs fro) the second outlet to the third.soldering but b.circuits &ould be needed if the&ere all restricted to !A0 2here is no ob3ection to lighting circuits being rated at 1% or even 1!A. although. and so on0 Both these cables connect to the sa)e ter)inal at the second outlet and thus the circuit beco)es continuous0 5o 3oints are needed e(ce't at the outlets0 2his )eans that the 3oints are easil. but in a large house it )a. as
.)echanical connectors.the fuse in the &hole lighting circuit0 *t is usual that this fuse does not have higher rating than the s)allest fle(ible cord used on that circuit.isolated before &or/ is carried out0 All good ceiling roses have this ter)inal shrouded to 'revent accidental contact. &hich &e described in Cha'ter 10 *t can be seen fro) +igure !02 that the third ter)inal 7e(cluding the earth ter)inal8 is needed to 3oin the inco)ing and outgoing 'hase cables0 *t re)ains live &hen the light attached to the rose is s&itched off.a A circuit can have nine of these on si)ultaneousl-0 *n an average house. and the diagra)s in +igures !01 and !02 sho& ho& it is achieved0 ?ne 'iece of cable or three single cables for cables in conduit or trun/ing run fro) the distribution board to the first outlet 7soc/et outlet or ceiling rose as the case )a.
but it is difficult to visualiBe a building in &hich this sche)e &ould not re4uire ver.)uch )ore cable than that of +igure !020 We have described the &a.grou'ed and arranged in final circuits0 Each of these sub<circuits is fed fro) a fuse on a distribution or fuseboard and the ne(t ste' in describing a co)'lete electrical s-ste) is to sho& fro) &here the distribution board obtains its su''l-0 2his &e shall do in the ne(t cha'ter0
.in &hich outlets are conventionall.Circuits
+igure !03 $oo'ing at s&itch
sho&n in +igure !03.
but the sub)ain cable also needs 'rotection against short circuits and overloads.has to be distributed to all outlets &hich use it0 2he inco)ing cable )a.su''l. the siBe of the cable can be deter)ined b. and it &ould be i)'racticable to serve it &ith a large cable0 As &e have seen.Cha'ter Distribution
Electricit.co)'an. 4))2 and ))2 cables0 2he cable siBe in turn li)its the nu)ber of outlets on each circuit.be an electricit. and it )ust be rated to carr. each of &hich s'lits it further a)ong a nu)ber of final circuits0 A t-'ical sche)e is sho&n diagra))aticall. &e described the final circuits &hich serve the final outlets0 Each final outlet ta/es a co)'arativel.in +igure 010 2he cable fro) the )ain inta/e to a distribution board is /no&n as a sub<)ain.first over a fe& large cables and then into the final s)all cables in a second ste'0 2he nor)al )ethod is to distribute current fro) the )ain inta/e to a nu)ber of distribution or fuseboards.be a 12% or 1!%)) 2 P=C insulated cable and the current flo&ing along it )ust be divided bet&een a nu)ber of s)aller cables to be ta/en to the various final destinations throughout the building0 2his division is the function of the distributing s-ste)0 *n Cha'ter !.all the final circuits on that board0 ?nce this current is /no&n.current<carr-ing ca'acit.cabled in 10!))2. the final circuits are )ost co))onl.cable )ust be 'rotected for short
.has been ta/en into account8 ta/en b.siBe a large nu)ber of circuits is needed0 *t &ould be ver. voltage dro' in cables of this siBe over a long distance &ould be e(cessive0 *t is )ore econo)ic and )ore 'ractical to divide the su''l.the )a(i)u) si)ultaneous current 7after diversit.e('ensive to run all the final circuits fro) the )ain inta/e 'oint0 Also.authorit-1 in the D: this is an area electricit. and fro) this the electricit.a cable brought fro) outside into a suitable 'oint in the building &hich is referred to as the )ain inta/e. and in a building of an. 20!))2.is 'rovided b. as e('lained in Cha'ter 40 2he 'rotection devices in the distribution board 'rotect the final circuits.or 'ublic bod-0 2he su''l.co)'an-.a su''l.is su''lied to a building b.s)all current. and there )ust be a fuse or other 'rotective device at the )ain inta/e0 We can note the 'rinci'le that ever. &hile in other countries it )a.and voltage dro'.
+igure 01 Distribution
+igure 02 S&itch fuse 7Courtes.of an isolating s&itch and a fuse carrier housed together in a substantial casing0 2he one illustrated is a three<'hase s&itch fuse and.of Eaton Electric $td8
circuit at its feeding end. has three 'oles on the s&itch and three fuses0 2he fuse 'rotects the cable leaving the s&itch fuse and the s&itch is useful for isolating the sub<)ain fro) the rest of the electrical s-ste) &hen this is re4uired for )aintenance or alteration &or/0 2he s&itch is designed to )a/e and brea/ the rated
. and it can be seen that it consists si)'l. therefore. for overload 'rotection it is 'er)issible to 'rotect the cable along its run0 A convenient device for 'rotecting a sub<)ain cable is a s&itch fuse0 A s&itch fuse is illustrated in +igure 02.
illustrated in +igure 03. thus )a/ing it a 4<'ole device0 *n this case there is a solid lin/ instead of a fuse in the neutral line0 A fuse s&itch. and units are )ade in a series of standard ratings0 A t-'ical )odel.)eans of cable cla)'s &hich are usuall. and the si)'lest device for distributing current fro) one inco)ing cable to a nu)ber of outgoing ones is a busbar cha)ber0 2his consists of a nu)ber of co''er bars held on insulating s'acers inside a steel case0 *t is sho&n in +igure 040 Cables can be connected to the bars an-&here b.the safet.other 'art of the s-ste)0 2he total inco)ing current )ust be divided to go to several s&itch fuses. for e(a)'le.as the earth cables0 2he alternative is for it to have a s&itch blade in the neutral line as &ell as in the 'hase lines. is )anufactured in increasing siBes rated at 3%. %. 1%%. %% and #%%A0 A s&itch fuse also includes ter)inals &hich enable the earth cables on the inco)ing and outgoing sides to be connected together0 Dnder no circu)stances )ust there be a brea/ in this circuit as it &ould destro. but in this case the fuse carriers are )ounted on the )oving blades of the s&itch0 2he &hole of the current going into the sub<)ain 'asses through the s&itch fuse &hich carries no current for an.of Eaton Electric $td8
.Design of electrical services for buildings
current of the s&itch fuse. is si)ilar to a s&itch fuse.is for the s&itch to include ter)inals for connecting the inco)ing and outgoing neutrals in the sa)e &a. 2%%. 1 %.bolted to the bars0 2he inco)ing cable can be connected to the bars at one end or at so)e convenient 'oint along the)0 Connecting the inco)ing cable to the centre of the busbar enables 3%%A
+igure 03 +use s&itch 7Courtes.of the s-ste)0 2he neutral cable on the other hand can be ta/en through the s&itch fuse in one of t&o &a-s0 2he )ore usual &a. 4%%.
and * is the 'ros'ective short<circuit current0 Another )atter &hich re4uires attention in the inta/e roo) is )etering0 2he su''lauthorit. ho&ever.'ossible0 2hese tails are of the sa)e siBe as the cables leaving the s&itch fuse but are 'rotected onl.'er)issible to 'rotect a cable &ith a fuse rated at )ore than the )a(i)u) current carr-ing ca'acit.above and belo& the busbar cha)ber so that the connections. tO:2 S2A*2 &here t is the ti)e in seconds for the cable to reach its li)it te)'erature under fault conditions.b. and fro) there to the )eter.Distribution
+igure 04 Busbars
busbars to su''l. but the 'lace 'reviousl.a )eter is ta/en b.overcurrent that the )ain inta/e fuse &ill blo&0 +or the fuse 'rotecting the )ains cable to 'rotect the tails. the &hole of it can be ta/en through the )eter0 2he arrange)ent then is that the inco)ing cable goes first to a fuse &hich is su''lied. fro) the busbars to the fuses are /e't as short as is reasonabl.through a )eter and large su''lies are )etered &ith the hel' of current transfor)ers0 2he arrange)ent is si)ilar to that described in the last 'aragra'h.the fuse on the )ain inta/e0 *t is not nor)all.to occur. the cable is installed such that short circuits are unli/el. be done for short tails bet&een busbars and s&itch fuses0 Provided that its length is no greater than 3).co)'an-0 2he fuse is the electricitco)'an-.&ill &ant to )eter the su''l. a different arrange)ent is used0 *t is not 'racticable to ta/e a large current directl.coil of the transfor)er is ta/en to
.afforded and &ill &ant to install a )eter at the inta/e 'osition0 *f it is a s)all enough su''l-.co)'an. S is the cross<sectional area of the cable. and a short circuit on the tail &ill 'roduce such a heav.the electricit.coil of a current transfor)er0 2he out'ut fro) the secondar.the 'ri)ar.the electricit.of the cable0 *t )a-. &hich is also su''lied and fi(ed b. the cable is connected to the busbar cha)ber0 *t is nor)al for the installer to 'rovide the last 'iece of cable fro) the )eter to the busbars but to leave the )eter end of it loose for the electricit. : is the constant for the cable.)ounted i))ediatel.to connect to the )eter0 *f the building ta/es a ver. or tails.occu'ied b.the.large current.co)'an-. and installed to reduce the ris/ of fire or danger to 'ersons0 A short circuit or overload on the load side of the s&itch fuse &ill blo& the s&itch fuse and thus sto' current through the tail.s service cut out and it is sealed so that onl.fro) the connection0 Care )ust be ta/en that the loads are distributed 'ro'erl-0 2herefore outgoing cables are connected at suitable intervals along the)0 2he s&itch fuses are usuall. fi(ed and sealed b.have access to it0 +ro) the )eter. the for)ula as e('lained in Cha'ter 4 is e)'lo-ed.a total load of %%A &ith 3%%A flo&ing each &a.
ho&ever.of electricit. although it re4uires less s'ace than a site asse)bl.&ill be needed0 *t is vere)barrassing if.co)e to connect the su''l-.the voltage at &hich the. since building o&ners are a't to change their )inds and &ant e4ui')ent installed &hich the. but is )ade in the )anufacturer. it is li/el. it is not eas. &hich can be )ade to give a direct reading of the current in the 'ri)ar.to cost )ore0 Second.are to o'erate.be e(tended1 it is a si)'le )atter to )a/e an e(tra connection to the busbars and to ta/e another 'air of cables out through a short length of conduit to a ne& s&itch fuse fi(ed to an.is a )easure of the )echanical forces &hich the bars &ill &ithstand0 A heavcurrent gives rise to large electro<)echanical forces and the bar su''orts have to be ca'able of &ithstanding these0 Busbars are obtained fro) s'ecialist )anufacturers and the electrical services engineer does not usuall.te)'erature rise and has been tabulated in 'ublished data in the sa)e &a.design his o&n0 +urther details on the )ethods of calculation &ould. therefore.insulation 'rovided0 Busbars )ust also be ca'able of ta/ing short<circuit currents for the ti)e it ta/es for fuses or circuit brea/ers to o'erate0 *n a short ti)e.easil. be be-ond the sco'e of this boo/0 A busbar cha)ber &ith a large nu)ber of s&itch fuses ta/es u' a lot of &all s'ace0 *t can also loo/ untid-0 Both these disadvantages can be overco)e b.instead of being asse)bled on site.&hich is nor)allthe &hole current of the building if the busbar is su''lied fro) one end0 2he current carr-ing ca'acit.had not thought of &hen building o'erations started0 Dnless blan/ s'aces have been left in a cubicle s&itchboard it
.as the busbar cha)ber &ith se'arate s&itch fuses.free &all s'ace in the inta/e roo)0 2his is often necessar.and to fit all the e4ui')ent into a )uch s)aller s'ace0 2he )eters can also be included &ithin the co)'osite s&itchboard0 *t is usual to have an inco)ing isolator or s&itch fuse &hich both 'rotects the board against short circuits and )a/es it 'ossible to isolate the board for )aintenance0 Such a s&itchboard does.the sa)e &a.as the current carr-ing ca'acit. the.s factor. or the )ains cable cores if the busbar is not su''lied fro) one end.coil bsuitable calibration0 So)e current transfor)ers are )ade to sli' over the busbars. and all the interconnecting &iring is inside the casing of the s&itchboard0 2his )a/es it 'ossible to arrange the s&itch fuses in a )ore co)'act &a. or cable conductors as a 'ri)ar.find that there is not enough s'ace for their e4ui')ent and it is )uch better to agree ever-thing &ell in advance0 2he siBe of busbars is deter)ined b.co)'an. a t-'ical e(a)'le being sho&n in +igure 0!0 *t &or/s in e(actl.during the life of a building.of cables0 2he s'acing bet&een the bars is deter)ined b. and so)eti)es even before a ne& building is co)'leted.is governed b. &hen the electricit.the use of a cubicle s&itchboard0 Such a board contains the busbars and the s&itch fuses all housed together in one large 'anel. and use the bars. have disadvantages0 +irst.the current the.of individual 'ieces of e4ui')ent.are to carr. the bars &ill not overheat and the short<circuit ca'acit.Design of electrical services for buildings
the )eter. since the air ga' bet&een ad3acent bars and bet&een bars and case is the onl.before installation co))ences even if this is one or t&o -ears before the building is to be finished and a su''l.to add further s&itch fuses to it once it has been )ade0 A )ain inta/e consisting of se'arate 'ieces of e4ui')ent can ver.coil0 2he )ethod to be used should be agreed &ith the electricitco)'an.
and in fact it is ver. #. 12. 1# or 24 fuse&a-sACBs0 Both single and three<'hase boards are available. although the siBing of the cable su''l-ing the board )ust be ca'able of su''l-ing the additional load0 2run/ings and conduits &ill also need to be siBed &ith future e(tensions in )ind0 2hese are often re4uired before a building is even finished. is a busbar to &hich the inco)ing sub<)ain is connected0 +ro) the bar.difference bet&een a distribution board and a fuseboard is the na)e0 Standard distribution boards usuall.or circuit brea/er 'rovided0 Each final circuit is then connected b. or so)eti)es alongside it or above it. there is a connection to one side of each fuse&a.the installer to the outgoing ter)inal of one of the fusesACBs0 2he circuit is co)'leted &hen a fuse carrier &ith a fuse is 'ushed into the fuseholder.Distribution
cannot be e(tended to ta/e )ore s&itch fuses.distribution board stating &hich fuse serves &hich outlets0 2he 'osition of distribution boards &ithin a building )ust obviousl.have either 4. or the CB is closed0 A second busbar is 'rovided to &hich the inco)ing neutral and the neutrals of all outgoing circuits are connected0 A t-'ical distribution board is sho&n in +igure 0 0 2he onl.last 4%< % -ears0 A label )ust be 'rovided inside the cover of ever.de'end on the 'lan of the building0 A'art fro) architectural considerations. . the latter having three fuse&a-sACBs for each outgoing circuit0 *t is not necessar. and even if s'aces have been left theoften turn out to be not 4uite large enough for an unforeseen and une('ected e(tension0
+igure 0! Cubicle s&itchboard 7Courtes. 1 .to utiliBe all the available fuse&a-sACBs on a board.desirable to leave several s'are &a-s on each board for future e(tensions.of Eaton Electric $td8
*n general each sub<)ain goes fro) the )ain inta/e to a distribution board0 2his consists of a case inside &hich is a fra)e holding a nu)ber of fuse carriers0 Behind the fra)e. it is a )atter of balancing
. and are al)ost certain to be &anted during the life of an installation &hich )a.
useful &hen the 're)ises being served consist of several different buildings0 5or)all-.co)'an.actual enlarge)ent of an e(isting building or erection of a ne&
.control centre is also a good solution to the 'roble) of e(tending e(isting buildings0 A great deal of ne& building in fact consists of e(tensions to e(isting 're)ises.Design of electrical services for buildings
the lengths of sub<)ains and the lengths of final circuits to find the )ost econo)ic &a.s side of the )eters0 *t is ver.high nu)ber of final circuits on each board0 2o achieve this &ithout e(cessivel. one )ust have the board fairl.have several buildings on one site all for)ing 'art of the sa)e 're)ises0 2he subsidiar. it is convenient to have a subsidiar.long final circuits.control centre bet&een the )ain inta/e and the distribution boards0 When this is done a )ain cable runs fro) the )ain inta/e to the subsidiar. but is ver.centre0 2he arrange)ent is sho&n sche)aticall. &hich is itself si)ilar in construction to the )ain inta/e0 2he )ain cable is su''lied through a s&itch fuse. but it is also desirable to /ee' the nu)ber of distribution boards do&n b. or circuit
+igure 0 Distribution board 7Courtes. the distribution to the) )ust ta/e 'lace on the consu)er. so)eti)es b.convenient to run one )ain fro) the inta/e to a centre in each building and then distribute in each building fro) its o&n centre0 Colleges and hostels are e(a)'les of consu)ers &ho )a.central for all the circuits it is serving0 *n so)e cases.in +igure 0"0 Such a sche)e &ould be ado'ted onlin a large building. so)eti)es referred to as a load centre.of /ee'ing the total voltage dro' bet&een inta/e and final outlet to a )ini)u)0 *t is 'ossibl.control centre.fro) the )ain inta/e0 *t is )ore econo)ical to /ee' the voltage dro' do&n &ith one large )ain cable for the greater 'art of the distance to be covered than &ith several sub<)ains running ne(t to each other along the sa)e route0 *t also re4uires less s'ace for the cables0 *t is 'articularl.better to /ee' sub<)ains long and final circuits short. the electricit.having a reasonabl.one inco)ing service to one set of 're)ises and if there are several buildings.&ill 'rovide onl. fuse s&itch.of Eaton Electric $td8
brea/er at the )ain inta/e end and leads to busbars at the subsidiar.useful &hen several distribution boards have to be 'laced a long &a.
distribution boards as are necessar-0 *n this &a-. air conditioning 'lant roo)s. /itchen ventilation 'lants. lift )otor roo)s and si)ilar 'laces in buildings such as office bloc/s. the electricit.co)'an-.authorit.Distribution
building on s'are ground &ithin the site of the e(isting one0 *t is co)'arativel. the ne& load and the )argin b&hich the ca'acit.soc/et outlets for 'o&er 'ur'oses )ust be at 23%= single 'hase0 Whenever there is three<'hase e4ui')ent in a building the su''l.need a three<'hase su''l-.&ould be enough.of the service cable )ust be chec/ed &ith the su''lauthorit-.to the &or/ &hich has to be done in the e(isting 'art of the building0 *n the D:. but there is another consideration &hich has to be ta/en into account0 2he su''l. the a)ount of alterations in the e(isting building is /e't to a )ini)u) and the ne& building is treated as an entit.authorit. but re'lacing an inco)ing service &ith a larger one is not a difficult o'eration and does not add greatl.centres
to bring in a three<'hase su''l-0 Where there is no three<'hase e4ui')ent in a building single<'hase su''l.s'read over the three
.in itself0 When an e(tension is )ade it )a.s final distribution net&or/ to their custo)ers is at 4%%= three<'hase four<&ire.can be found in boiler<roo)s.co)'an.and does not need )uch roo) to add one s&itch fuse at the )ain inta/e0 +ro) this.distribution centre &ith as )an.&ants its load to be evenl.s&itch fuses and sub<)ains to as )an.eas.be as/ed
+igure 0" Distribution through subsidiar.si)'le )atter to run one ne& cable to the ne& building0 6ere it is 'ossible to 'lan a subsidiar.be necessar.)ust obviousl. but all do)estic and nearl.all co))ercial e4ui')ent re4uires a single<'hase 23%= su''l-0 9otors above 20!/W are no& ver. hos'itals and bloc/s of flats0 An.for the electricit. schools and colleges. it is again a co)'arativel. but distribution to lights and to ordinar.e4ui')ent of this nature &ill usuall.often three 'hase and the.to increase their service cable0 2his &ill de'end on the e(isting load.of the e(isting service cable e(ceeds the e(isting load0 Whenever e(tensions are 'lanned the ca'acit.
a single<'hase cable.as 'ossible balanced over the three 'hases0 2he designer )ust ta/e so)e care about ho& he achieves this balance and he has to fulfil other re4uire)ents at the sa)e ti)e0 9ost 'eo'le are used to an electric su''l.over all three 'hases0 2he Bones are not necessaril.control centres but sub<)ains and distribution boards are all single 'hase0 An e(ce'tion )ust.convenient &a. but it &ill arrange the su''lies to ad3acent or nearb. and it is largel.co)'an.of the engineer &ho 'lans the installation0 2he co)'an. the other half of the laboratories 'lus a further third of the first floor on the -ello& 7blac/8 'hase. and one therefore 'lans the distribution &ithin a building so that circuits on different 'hases are /e't )ore than 2) a&a. )aisonettes or houses.at 23%= in their ho)es and e('ect the sa)e in offices and 'ublic buildings0 2his is 4uite high enough to be dangerous.sub<)ains and distribution boards serving three<'hase )achiner-0 Single<'hase outlets near each other should be on the sa)e 'hase.co)es into the )ain inta/e and if necessarto subsidiar.d&ellings so that the total su''l.to installations in this countr-. and distribution boards close to each other should also be on the sa)e 'hase0 2he *EE . of course. there is lighting su''lied on other 'hases0 *t is hel'ful to label the three Bones on a 'lan of the building0 2his &ill avoid confusion and dra& attention to ano)alies0 *t has the added and ver.the sa)e load.&ill de)and the coo'eration of the consu)er.is balanced over the three 'hases0 2hus in a ne& develo')ent either each d&elling &ill be on a different 'hase fro) its i))ediate neighbour or s)all grou's of d&ellings &ill be on different 'hases fro) ad3acent grou's0 +or larger buildings.&ill bring in onl.school )a.)ade to a''l.not 'leasant to have a lot of notices in a building sa-ing CDangerQ4%% volts. &hether flats.i)'ortant advantage
. &hich are al)ost invariabl.the division )ust de'end on the building and no general rules can be laid do&n0 2he designer )ust have enough 'ersonal 3udge)ent to settle each case on its )erits0 An advantage of having )i(ed 'hases is that if one 'hase goes do&n.even if there is no three<'hase e4ui')ent to be connected.one 'hase0 2hese Bones )ust be of such siBes that each ta/es a''ro(i)atel.Design of electrical services for buildings
'hases of its net&or/ and this )a.fro) each other0 *n other &ords. a notice )ust be dis'la-ed giving &arning of the )a(i)u) voltage bet&een the live 'arts0 Within reach is usuall. be )ade for an. but obviousl. the three<'hase su''l.&ill insist that the consu)er acce'ts a three<'hase su''l.fro) each other0 A ver. and the re)aining third of the first floor 'lus the &hole of the ground floor on the blue 7gre-8 'hase.of the sa)e area1 for e(a)'le a three<store. the su''l. the electricit.of doing this is to divide the building into three Bones each of &hich is served b. in order that the total load is s'read as nearl.that the DSA and so)e other countries have standardiBed do)estic su''lies at 11%=0 *t &ould be )ost undesirable to e('ose 'eo'le to even accidental contact &ith 4%%= and it is 'referable to /ee' the three 'hases a&a.ta/en to )ean ft or 2)0 *t is clearl. or )ore 'ro'erl.authorit.need the coo'eration of the consu)ers0 +or individual d&ellings.egulations. and it &ill further insist that the de)and is as nearl.have classroo)s on t&o floors and laboratories on the third and the laboratories )a.for reasons of safet. sti'ulate that &here fi(ed live 'arts bet&een &hich there is )ore than 2!%= are inside enclosures &hich although se'arate fro) each other are &ithin reach of each other.as 'ossible e4uall. a convenient division could be half the laboratories 'lus a third of the first floor on the red 7bro&n8 'hase.account for )ore than a third of the total load0 *n such a case.
that ground and first floors are on different 'hases.and )ust be fed b.careful labelling of circuits and 'hases on the dra&ings during design0 Even &here three<'hase e4ui')ent has to be connected.&ill a''l. could beco)e live0 2he various )ethods of giving 'rotection against the conse4uences of such faults are described in Cha'ter 9.co)'an.need 'erha's t&o lighting circuits and t&o 'o&er circuits in each laborator-. therefore. and the. but internall.served fro) one 'lace0 A
. the do&nstairs s&itch )a.on a tariff &hich e)'lo-s different rates for current used for 'o&er and for light0 *f this is so.Distribution
of )a/ing the designer. on a different 'hase0 2his should be avoided and is best 'revented b. be the first 'art of a designer. it &ill be necessar.disconnect 4uic/l-0 +or this reason good 'ractice re4uires electrical &iring to be se'arated fro) other services0 2here should be at least 1!%)) bet&een the)0 2he earth )etal&or/ of the other services should be bonded to the )ain earthing ter)inal of the electrical su''l-0 2his ensures that &hatever ha''ens the other service is at the sa)e 'otential as the )ain earthing ter)inal0 2he tariff &hich the electricit.be achieved after negotiations &ith the electricitco)'an-1 these should.to co)'an-0 2he consu)er )a.can be convenientl. it is nor)all. and that the light on the stairs is cabled on one of the first<floor circuits0 *f it has t&o<&a. a considerable nu)ber of final circuits. therefore.t&o lengths of busbars se'arated b.light s&itches0 Su''ose.a short distance fro) each other.to have se'arate boards for light and 'o&er0 +or e(a)'le. su''lies t&o )eters0 Cubicle<t-'e )ain 'anels can be si)ilarl. but the dangers arising fro) cable faults should also be guarded against &hen the cable routes are selected0 *f a live conductor brea/s and touches the outer sheath or conduit the e('osed 'arts beco)e live0 *t )ust auto)aticall. and the designer )ust /ee' 'o&er and light circuits se'arate0 Clearl. and a grou' of four laboratories )a. the a''earance is the sa)e as that of a single )etered s-ste). the 'o&er and the light )ust be )etered se'aratel-. and this can onl.the connections to the light and 'o&er s-ste)s are /e't se'arate0 2he electricit. therefore.s 3ob0 *f se'arate )etering is decided on.s intentions clear to the &or/)en on site and so reducing the ris/ of )ista/es0 When a building is Boned it is &orth chec/ing all t&o<&a.co)'an-.or for light onl.differ fro) co)'an.to use s'lit busbars at the inta/e0 2hese are si)'l.find that electricit. but &ill not be e('ecting a high voltage to a''ear bet&een a 'air of single'hase outlets near it0 Another 'oint &hich has to be considered &hen the distribution through a building is being 'lanned is the 'osition of other services0 *f a fault develo's on an electric cable its sheath or 'rotective )etal casing. the rules for se'aration of 'hases should still be a''lied to all single<'hase outlets near the three<'hase e4ui')ent0 ?'erators and )aintenance &or/ers &ill be e('ecting a high voltage on the three<'hase e4ui')ent. for e(a)'le.arranged to /ee' the t&o services se'arate0 Each distribution board )ust be either for 'o&er onl.can be obtained )ore chea'l. an e('osed conductive 'art. a technical college )a.s&itching.be so arranged that the.a sub<)ain fro) the a''ro'riate set of busbars0 *n a large building &ith )an.4uite eas.outlets and.be ne(t to a corridor light s&itch &hich is on a ground<floor circuit and.should be discussed &ith the) &hen the installation is being 'lanned0 2here are )an.a decision on this )ust be )ade before the design is dra&n u'. but contained &ithin the sa)e casing0 E(ternall-.tariffs available. of course.
t&o soc/et outlets &hich can go on one 'o&er circuit0 A si( or eight<&a.the fact that each occu'ier is a se'arate custo)er of the su''l.distribution boards in this 'lace &ill 'rovide the additional circuits needed for corridors and leave reasonable s'are ca'acit-0 As t&o boards &ould be needed in an. a se'arate board &ill be needed for the single<'o&er circuit and it &ill 'robabl. it is 4uite convenient to have one board for 'o&er onl.e(ceed 1%%A the &hole can go through the )eter and there is no occasion for
.have four lighting circuits and onl. the su''l.board &ould convenientl.serve the) all.does not nor)all.for future e(tensions0 *f the 'o&er is )etered se'aratel-.available0 A second sub<)ain &ill also be re4uired and conse4uentl.Design of electrical services for buildings
'air of t&elve<&a.co)'an-0 As a do)estic su''l. on the other hand.and one board for lighting onl-0 *n s)all buildings. and the design engineer should /ee' this in )ind &hen assessing the relative )erits of different tariffs0 We have so far been tal/ing in ter)s of distribution &ithin a single large building0 2he sa)e 'rinci'les a''l.in +igure 0#0 2he inco)ing cable goes to a service cut out &hich is su''lied. fi(ed and sealed b.board because this is the s)allest siBe co))erciall.and )ust have a se'aratel)etered su''l-0 *n a suburban develo')ent of detached and se)i<detached houses.to use )ore distribution boards than &ould other&ise be re4uired0 2hus a s'orts hall )a. se'aration of light and 'o&er )a)a/e it necessar.authorit.an additional s&itch fuse at the inta/e0 2he result is a substantial increase in the cost of the installation.have to be a three< &a.the electricit.&ill bring a single<'hase service cable into each house0 2he nu)ber of circuits in a house is s)all enough to be acco))odated on a single distribution board
+igure 0# Do)estic service
so that there is no need for sub<)ain distribution0 2he sche)e thus beco)es as sho&n diagra))aticall.case and there are al)ost e4ual nu)bers of lighting and 'o&er circuits to be acco))odated.to distribution to d&ellings but are )odified b.authorit. leaving so)e s'are ca'acit.
to have an isolator on each board because the sub<)ain and board can be cut off together at the inta/e end0 CCDs are available &ith %A or 1%%A isolators and are )ade &ith u' to 12 fuse&a-sACBs0 A fairlt-'ical arrange)ent of circuits for a se)i<detached house is given in 2able 01a and for a flat in a bloc/ &ith central heating in 2able 01b0 *f a house re4uires a bigger su''l. one busbar su''lied through an isolator.and incor'orate a double<'ole isolating s&itch on the inco)ing side.to the distribution board0 2his )ust be su''lied and fi(ed b.for do)estic use.s distribution net&or/0 *t is obviousl.are ver. it is not so necessar.fro) fuses or circuit brea/ers before changing or &ithdra&ing the)0 ?n a larger building.fuseboards but are single<'hase onl.to )a/e the connection into the )eter0 *n the case of a serious fault the service cut out &ill disconnect the consu)er fro) the service cable and thus 'revent the fault affecting the rest of the board.ating a)'s
32 32 1% 1% 1%
. this )a/es it 'ossible to cut off the su''l. a residual current device )a. it cannot be cabled through a do)estic CCD and it )ust be Circuits
1 2 3 4 !
D'stairs lights Do&nstairs lights >arage and outside lights D'stairs ring )ain Do&nstairs ring )ain *))ersion heater
.convenient to have all these 'ieces of e4ui')ent close together0 2here are distribution boards )ade s'eciall.the installer.si)ilar to ordinar.also be used as the )ain isolator0 9anufacturers also su''lCCDs &ith s'lit busbars. and these are /no&n as consu)er control units 7CCD80 2he.ing )ain Coo/er Bathroo) ventilation fan Clothes dr-er 9otoriBed valve on heating
. the other busbar su''lied through a residual current device0 Whichever )ethod is e)'lo-ed.co)'an.than 1%%A. &ho also 'rovides the short tail to connect it to the )eter0 2he tail is left loose at the )eter for the electricit.Distribution
the use of transfor)ers0 +ro) the )eter the cable goes directl.ating a)'s
32 32 1! 4! 4! <
" # # 7a8
Sho&er unit Coo/er S'are
1 2 3 4 !
fro) a single distribution board0 Successive floors in a bloc/ of flats are either identical or ver.s cable through the bloc/ to each flat0 *n a s)all bloc/.a s)all nu)ber of flats on each floor and the. co)'letel. rises through the building0 2he architect has chosen to have the enclosing case se)i<recessed in the corridor &all.siBe this &ould be a cu)berso)e solution. and fro) each &a.si)ilar.Design of electrical services for buildings
" # 7b8
2able 01 Do)estic circuits
treated as a s)all co))ercial building &ith an inta/e 'ut together fro) standard co))ercial fuse and distribution gear0 *n a bloc/ of flats the arrange)ent &ithin each flat is the sa)e as that &ithin a house.)eans of bare rising )ains of the t-'e illustrated in +igure 204 7Cha'ter 280 A distribution sche)e of this t-'e is sho&n diagra))aticall. the bare rising )ains. enclosed in a sheet steel case.s &or/ duct or co)'letel. but it could e4uall.service cable enters the building through an earthen&are duct through the foundations. and a t-'ical floor 'lan is sho&n in +igure 01%0 *t &ill be seen fro) +igure 09 that the rising )ain carries all three 'hases.e('osed0 ?n each alternate floor a si(<&a.s side of the )eter in co))ercial buildings0 2he su''lauthorit. but that each distribution board is connected to onl. as 3ust described. and &ithin the slabs these conduits continue to a 'osition 3ust inside each flat0 2he. it ta/es a )ain cable feeding a series of distribution boards. and ter)inates in a service head in a cubical recessed in a &all at ground<floor level0 +ro) this. therefore a service cut<out is not needed in the flat itself0 Dsuall.co))on &a. but so)e )eans )ust be found to ta/e the su''l. and the distribution on the board.s side of the )eter is si)ilar to that &hich is used on the consu)er.hidden inside a builder.in +igure 09.above each other. the.balanced as 'ossible0 *t has to be assu)ed that all flats i)'ose the sa)e load0 *n this e(a)'le. and the )ain to the) rises verticall-0 A convenient and ver.cables as there are flats and run the) &ithin the bloc/ to the individual flats0 *n this case.there are onl.distribution board is attached to the rising )ain bars0 2he s-ste) used enables the board to for) 'art of the enclosing case0 +ro) each distribution board three 2!)) conduits rise to the floor slab above and three dro' to the slab belo&. the electricit.&ill 'robabl.authorit-.recessed. so that the various distribution boards are verticall.&ell be full. but in a bloc/ of an.P=CASWAAP=C cables )a.one 'hase0 *n this &a-.co)'an.brings in one service cable to a service head &hich contains a fuse0 +ro) this. the flats are allocated bet&een the 'hases so as to )a/e the total load as nearl.of carr-ing out the vertical distribution is b.cable and.can be served individuall.be P=CASWAAP=C cables.be 'racticable to bring into the bloc/ as )an.be used instead of cables in conduit0
.on a distribution board it ta/es a sub<)ain into one flat0 2he 'rotection device on the distribution board 'rotects the flat su''l. it )a.ter)inate &here the )eter &ill be fi(ed and the CCD is fi(ed ne(t to the )eter0 A three<core 2!)) 2 P=C insulated cable is 'ulled through this conduit fro) the distribution board to each )eter 'osition0 Alternativel.
*t &ill be noticed fro) the first<floor 'lan that there are actuall- t&o identical distribution s-ste)s &ithin the building. each serving half the flats on each floor0 2his &as done to avoid long and difficult horiBontal runs at each level and also to /ee' the load on each rising )ain to belo& 4%%A 'er 'hase0 2he &hole of this distribution s-ste) is the 'ro'ert- of the electricit- co)'an-. &ho re)ain res'onsible for its )aintenance0 *t )a- be installed during construction of the bloc/ b- the co)'an-,s o&n staff or bcontractors e)'lo-ed b- the develo'er. in &hich case the contractors )ust &or/ to the co)'an-,s s'ecification0 Which )ethod is to be e)'lo-ed )ust be agreed beforehand bthe develo'er and the co)'an-1 the 'lan of the installation )ust also be agreed bet&een the) &hen the building and its electrical s-ste) is being designed0 Peo'le do not sta- at ho)e all da- and it is often difficult for )eter readers to enter to read the )eter0 *t is an advantage if the )eter can be read fro) outside the d&elling. and on )an- ne& develo')ents the su''l- is arranged to )a/e this 'ossible0 ?ne )ethod is to have the )eter in a 'ur'ose<)ade cu'board in the outside &all of the d&elling0 2he CCD can be in an ad3acent cu'board on the inside of the d&elling0 Alternativel- the CCD can be in an- other convenient 'osition inside the d&elling and instead of a short tail fro) )eter to CCD there is a fairl- long 'iece of cable0 As this is li/el- to be at least a 2!))2 cable &hich cannot be bent too shar'l- the route it is to ta/e should be 'lanned beforehand to )a/e sure the cable can be dra&n in0 *n the case of a bloc/ of flats. instead of having the )eter outside each flat. all the )eters can be grou'ed together in so)e convenient central 'oint0 +igure 011 is a )odification of +igure 01% &ith e(ternal )eters0 2he si( )eters served b- each distribution board are housed in a )eter cu'board ne(t to the distribution board. each )eter being connected b- a short tail to the corres'onding fuse in the distribution board0 2he conduit to each flat runs fro) the )eter cu'board instead of fro) the distribution board. and goes straight to the CCD in the flat0 2he second &a- of reading )eters fro) outside is to use re'eaters or slave indicators0 A re'eater. so)eti)es /no&n as a slave indicator. is an indicating dial. identical to that in the )eter itself. driven re)otel- fro) the )eter0 *f this )ethod &ere ado'ted in the e(a)'le alread- discussed. the )eters &ould be &ithin the flats as sho&n in +igure 01%. 5e(t to the distribution board &ould be a cu'board containing si( re'eaters. &hich &ould ta/e the 'lace of the )eter cu'board sho&n in +igure 0110 2!)) 2 cable &ould be ta/en through the conduit fro) the distribution board to each )eter0 An additional
Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 09 Distribution to flats
+igure 01% Distribution to flats
and the re'eater &ould re'roduce the reading on the )eter0
.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 011 Plan &ith e(ternal )eter cu'boards
10!))2 cable &ould run in the sa)e conduit bac/ fro) the )eter into the distribution board and through the side of the board into the re'eater cu'board0 6ere it &ould be connected to the re'eater belonging to the flat in 4uestion.
the gas conducts heat fro) the fila)ent to
. the )ore efficient is the conversion of electrical energ. and are in fact the ordinar.Cha'ter " $ighting
*ntroduction *llu)ination and the design of lighting la-outs is a sub3ect on its o&n0 2here are boo/s dealing co)'rehensivel.&ith it and it is not 'ro'osed to condense the )atter into a single cha'ter here. and the earl. but as no )aterial is /no&n &hich can be o'erated at a higher te)'erature than tungsten.filling the bulb &ith an inert gas at a 'ressure such that &hen the bulb is hot the 'ressure rises to about at)os'heric 'ressure0 2he gas used is generall. although so)e s'ecial la)'s )a.used in ho)es0 2he.run at 322%MC0 2he colour of the light 'roduced de'ends on the te)'erature.bulbs still )ost co))onl. &hich )eans that the fila)ent glo&s or is incandescent and hence the la)' is called an incandescent one0 2he higher the te)'erature of the fila)ent.into light energ-.consist of a thin fila)ent of tungsten inside a glass bulb0 When a current is 'assed through the fila)ent. &iring and 'rotection for it1 this is an as'ect of lighting design &hich tends to be overloo/ed in boo/s on illu)ination and &hich &e 'ro'ose to discuss in this cha'ter0 2he electrical re4uire)ents of a lighting s-ste) de'end to a considerable e(tent on the /ind of la)'s used and &e shall describe the different available t-'es in turn0 *ncandescent la)'s 2hese are also /no&n as tungsten la)'s.to design the circuits.a )i(ture consisting of 93 'er cent argon and " 'er cent nitrogen0 Dnfortunatel-. it is necessar. beco)ing &hiter as the te)'erature rises0 At 2#%%MC.la)'s &ere of the vacuu) t-'e0 *t &as found that in a vacuu) tungsten eva'orated and blac/ened the inside of the bulb0 2his 'roble) has been solved b. la)'s of this t-'e cannot be )ade to give a da-light colour0 2o 'revent the fila)ent fro) o(idiBing. or >$S general lighting service.as &ell as heat. all the air )ust be evacuated fro) the bulb. and )ost )odern la)'s have fila)ents running at about 2#%%MC. but if the te)'erature beco)es too high the fila)ent )elts and brea/s0 2ungsten has a )elting 'oint of 33#2MC. but once a lighting la-out has been arrived at. it is rather -ello&. heat is 'roduced and the te)'erature of the fila)ent rises0 2he fila)ent is designed so that it reaches a te)'erature at &hich it generates light energ.
so that there are t&o reasons &hthere should not be an.greater ris/ of accidental contact &ith the ter)inal &hen one is 'utting a bulb into
+igure "01 $a)' ca's
a la)'holder0 2he scre& thread is the neutral &hich should never be at line voltage.&ith the bulb. and at the sa)e ti)e an ine('erienced 'erson is clu)s. but the onl.are the >oliath 7usuall. &hich is not an entirel.around and for a''lications &here the la)' )ust be fi(ed in one 'osition onl. the fila)ent )ust be &ound to ta/e u' as little s'ace as 'ossible0 *t is for this reason that gas filled la)'s have the fila)ent either single coiled or coiled coil0 2he connections of the fila)ent are brought out to the la)' ca'0 2his is the end of the la)' &hich fits into the la)'holder &hen the la)' is 'ut into a lu)inaires0 $a)' ca's are sho&n in +igure "010 2he co))onest is the t&o<'in ba-onet ca' 7+igure "01a8 &hich is standard in the D: for all siBes u' to and including 1!%W0 *t can be inserted into the la)'holder either &a. in &hich the scre&. thus lo&ering the te)'erature of the fila)ent and reducing the efficienc.and the light out'ut of the la)'0 2o overco)e this effect as )uch as 'ossible.Design of electrical services for buildings
the bulb. and it is 'ossible to hold the bulb &ithout touching the thread.a s'ecial la)'holder is needed for it0 +igure "01c sho&s the Edison scre& ca'. if the circuit &iring is of the &rong 'olarit-. la)'s inserted into E14 and E2! la)'holders to BS E5 %23# do not )a/e contact &ith the
.abbreviated to >ES8.co))on siBes used in this countr.un/no&n fault to occur. there is a ris/ of shoc/0 6o&ever. s)all 7SES8 and )iniature 79ES80 Bulbs of 2%%W and over use the >ES ca'0 *t &ill be noticed that the traditional Edison scre& affords slightl.a three<'in ba-onet ca' is available0 Clearl.danger0 5evertheless. thread for)s one of the ter)inals0 2he Edison scre& ca' is )ade in five siBes covering all t-'es of la)'s fro) street la)'s to flash bulb la)'s.
outer ter)inal until the last t&ist if the la)'0 2herefore in this case. although for confor)it. &hich is the largest bulb li/el.the larger siBes. BS " "1 *EE Wiring . although 2%%W la)'s are available0 So)e continental countries use the Edison scre& for all siBes0 2he characteristics of incandescent la)'s are sho&n in +igure "020 2he gra'h sho&s ho& ver.than the voltage.lo&0
.to connect the 'hase conductor to the centre contact.an incandescent la)' is 'urel. )ust be ta/en into account in both the design of lu)inaires for incandescent la)'s and in the selection of lu)inaires for a lighting sche)e0 2he lu)inaires )ust allo& enough natural ventilation to /ee' the nor)al &or/ing te)'erature of the lu)inaires and &iring reasonabl.sensitive the life is to change of voltage0 +or e(a)'le an increase of 2R 'er cent above nor)al voltage increases the efficienc.it is advisable that the centre contact is al&a-s connected to the 'hase conductor0 2he ba-onet ca' is used as the standard in the D: u' to 1!%W. there is no adverse effect on the circuit 'o&er factor and no s'ecial consideration has to be given to the s&itches used0 2he situation is different for )ost of the other t-'es of la)'0 2he heat given off b.incandescent la)'s.2% 'er cent0 2he gra'h also sho&s that for voltages belo& nor)al the light out'ut falls )ore ra'idl.egulations states that it is not necessar.b. es'eciall.to be used in do)estic 're)ises. &hich is so)ething to be borne in )ind &hen one considers the voltage dro' that can be acce'ted in the circuit &iring to the la)'s0
+igure "02 Characteristics of incandescent la)'s
2he current ta/en b.2R 'er cent and the light out'ut b" 'er cent but reduces the life b.resistive0 Because of this.
one electrode 7the cathode8 and collected b.tungsten la)'0 2he high te)'erature )a/es it of li)ited use in do)estic or co))ercial lighting but it finds a''lication in floodlighting and the lighting of fil) and television studios0 *t is 'robabl.co)'act to be incor'orated in a light s&itch0 Co)bined s&itch and di))er units of this t-'e are used &here variable light effects are re4uired in 'laces li/e hotels and housing0 2ungsten halogen la)'s *n a conventional incandescent la)' the fila)ent loses )aterial b.)ost &idel.the other 7the anode80 Electrons &ill be e)itted if the 'otential gradient fro) anode to cathode is great enough1 the 'otential difference re4uired to cause e)ission decreases as the te)'erature of the cathode increases. la)'s0 Even &hen the cathode is heated. the )a(i)u) siBe of bulb &hich )a.adding a halogen to the gas.can be di))ed b.tungsten la)' and for the bulb to be s)aller0 2he bulb has to be at a te)'erature of about 2!%MC.the 'h-sical di)ensions of the lu)inaire but b. and in order to &ithstand this it has to be )ade of fused silica or high )elting<'oint glass0 +or a given 'o&er a tungsten halogen la)' has a longer life and a higher light out'ut than an ordinar. &hich gives rise to a reversible che)ical reaction0 2ungsten eva'orates fro) the fila)ent and diffuses to&ards the bulb &all0 Provided the te)'erature is favourable the tungsten co)bines &ith halogen at the &alls and the resulting tungsten halide diffuses bac/ to the fila)ent0 At the te)'erature 'revailing at the fila)ent the tungsten halide dissociates into tungsten and halogen and the tungsten is de'osited bac/ on the fila)ent0 Successful o'eration of such a la)' de'ends on the achieve)ent of suitable te)'eratures at both the fila)ent and the bulb &all0 2his )a/es it necessar.be used in a lu)inaire is li)ited not b.for the fila)ent to be at a higher te)'erature than in an ordinar.are /no&n as Chot cathode. and therefore la)'s designed to o'erate at nor)al )ains voltage have cathodes &hich are heated to a dull red heat0 2he. a voltage has to be a''lied bet&een the electrodes to start the discharge. a current &ill flo& through the va'our 'rovided electrons are e)itted b.Design of electrical services for buildings
2his is 'articularl.the heat generated0 When incandescent la)'s are used for stage lighting or for s'ecial effects the./no&n for its use in auto)obile headla)'s.outside the sco'e of this boo/0 +luorescent la)'s 2he action of a fluorescent la)' de'ends on the discharge of a current through a gas or a va'our at a lo& 'ressure0 *f a tube containing a va'our has an electrode at each end.the insertion of a th-ristor control circuit0 2his affords an efficient &a.i)'ortant &here lu)inaires are )ade of 'lastics &ith softening te)'eratures in the region of %MC0 *n such cases. but that is an a''lication entirel.eva'oration0 2he inert gas inside the bulb reduces the rate of eva'oration but cannot 'revent it co)'letel-0 A further i)'rove)ent can be obtained b.of gradual and continuous di))ing0 =oltage control units &ith th-ristor circuits can be )ade sufficientl. and the )ini)u) voltage needed is /no&n as the stri/ing voltage0
&hereas a fluorescent la)' gives it out at certain discrete &avelengths onl-0 2he &avelength of the radiation e)itted )a.the current discharge through the )ercur.is in the for) of s)all globules on the tube surface.called 'hos'hors0 2hus in the fluorescent la)' the radiation e)itted b. and the argon is needed to start the discharge0 As soon as the discharge starts the te)'erature rises sufficientl.$ighting
After the discharge has started a voltage is still needed bet&een the electrodes to )aintain the discharge.va'our is absorbed b.be in the visible s'ectru) or above it or belo& it.the &hole current0 At either end of the tube.of absorbing radiation at one &avelength and e)itting radiation over a band of &avelengths in another region of the s'ectru)0 *t e)its radiation onl.the fluorescent coating &hich
+igure "03 +luorescent la)' circuit
. the )ercur. and one of the functions of the la)' is to convert all the 'ri)ar. but the )aintaining voltage is less than the stri/ing voltage0 A current flo&ing through a gas or va'our at lo& 'ressure causes the gas or va'our to e)it radiation at &avelengths &hich de'end both on the nature of the va'our and on its 'ressure0 An incandescent la)' gives out light energ.&hich then ta/es over the conduction of 'racticall.radiation into useful visible radiation0 A fluorescent la)' consists of a long glass tube containing a )i(ture of )ercurva'our and argon gas at a 'ressure of 2 to !)) )ercur-0 When the la)' is cold. there is an electrode )ade of a tungsten fila)ent coated &ith an al/aline earth )etal having suitable electron e)ission 'ro'erties0 Each electrode acts as cathode and anode on alternate half c-cles of the a0c0 su''l-0 Anode 'lates in the for) of )etal fins are 'rovided round each electrode to assist it in collecting electrons during the half c-cle in &hich it acts as anode0 2he inside of the tube is coated &ith a fluorescent 'o&der0 A fluorescent )aterial is one &hich has the 'ro'ert.to va'orise the )ercur.&hile receiving it1 a )aterial &hich continues to e)it after the incident radiation has ceased is called 'hos'horescent and it is an unfortunate confusion that the fluorescent )aterials used in co))ercial la)' )anufacture are co))onl.at all &avelengths in the s'ectral range.
and the voltage across the electrodes is reduced b.both electrodes of the )ain la)'. the entire voltage of the )ains is a''lied across the electrodes0 As soon as the discharge is established. current flo&s through the la)' and cho/e in series. the voltage re4uired to )aintain the discharge is less than that re4uired to start it. a 'otential difference is develo'ed across the cho/e. and it is the need to have the radiation fro) the )ercur.and reduces the voltage across the la)' belo& that re4uired to )aintain the discharge0 When the la)' has started the electrodes are /e't hot b.reason the )ain discharge fails to start. and therefore once the discharge has started the voltage across the la)' )ust be reduced0 *f it &ere not reduced the current through the la)' &ould go on increasing until the la)' &as destro-ed0 2he necessar.Design of electrical services for buildings
then e)its a different radiation0 2he fluorescent coating is )ost susce'tible to e(citation bultraviolet radiation.a series ballast &hich ta/es the for) of an inductance or cho/e0 *nitiall-. including an al)ost e(act re'roduction of da-light0 2he circuit needed to o'erate such a la)' is sho&n in +igure "030 As &e have e('lained. but if for an.the voltage across the cho/e0 2he circuit also includes a starter s&itch &hich consists of a s)all neon glo& la)' and a bi<)etal stri'0 When the la)' is cold.inductive. and carr.the coating is in the visible s'ectru) and its colour de'ends on the )aterial used for the coating0 So )an. the bi<)etal short circuits the neon. then )ains voltage again a''ears at the glo& la)' and the se4uence starts again0 2his ha''ens if the cho/e is fault.radiation e)itted b.in this region that deter)ines the o'erating 'ressure0 2he secondar.can be avoided &ith the instant start circuit sho&n in +igure "040 2he electrodes are su''lied fro) lo&<voltage secondaries of a transfor)er. the bi<)etal cools and after a ti)e it o'ens again0 2his interru'ts the circuit &hich. to heat the bi<)etal0 *n conse4uence. the bi<)etal s&itch is o'en so that the &hole of the )ains voltage a''ears across the neon glo& la)' &hich discharges0 2he heat of the discharge heats the bi<)etal until the contacts on the end of the bi<)etal close0 2here is no& a circuit for)ed b. &hich ceases to glo& and. and is connected to earth0 When the la)' is s&itched on a ca'acitive current flo&s fro) the electrodes to the earthed stri' and is 3ust sufficient to ioniBe the gas in the tube and thus enables an arc to stri/e
. &hen there is no discharge through the la)'.fluorescent )aterials are no& /no&n that it is 'ossible to obtain al)ost an. therefore. the bi<)etal and the cho/e0 A s)all current flo&s through this circuit and heats the electrodes0 6o&ever. being highl. res'onds &ith a shar' voltage rise across the s&itch0 Since the s&itch is in 'arallel &ith the la)' the voltage rise is also a''lied across the la)' and is sufficient to start the discharge0 2he cho/e no& ta/es the nor)al current and reduces the voltage across both la)' and s&itch0 2his reduced voltage is not enough to start another glo& at the s&itch.the current through the la)' &hich also flo&s through the electrodes0 2he starting se4uence described ta/es a fe& seconds0 2his dela.the full heating current continuousl-0 A )etallic stri' runs the &hole length of the tube and close to it.reduction is achieved b.colour.
and if this is serious enough and occurs often enough it &ill destro.the s&itch0 9ost )odern s&itches are ca'able of brea/ing an inductive current of the value at &hich the s&itch is rated. therefore.are intended to e)'lo-0 2he current ta/en b.housed &ithin the lu)inaire &hich holds the la)'0 *t is i)'ortant that the lu)inaires used are suitable for the la)'s the. it is not &ise to do so because the heaters carr. s&itch and cho/e are usuall. &hich &ould other&ise be unacce'tabl.tubes designed for 4uic/<start should be used in fittings having 4uic/ start circuits0 +igure "03 sho&s a s)all ca'acitor across the s&itch contacts0 2he ca'acitor is inserted to su''ress radio interference0 +igures "03 and "04 both sho& a larger ca'acitor across the entire circuit0 2his one is included to correct the 'o&er factor. onl.la)'s &ith 4uic/<start circuits.a lu)inaire &ith fluorescent la)'s is inductive &ith a 'o&er factor of about %0#0 2he s&itches controlling fluorescent lights.a higher current than &hen the.$ighting
+igure "04 Suic/<start circuit
fro) end to end0 As soon as the arc has struc/.are used &ith s&itch start circuits0 +or this reason.lo& because of the inductive cho/e0 2he ca'acitors.&ere used on circuits serving fluorescent lights0
. but the older s&itches designed onl. have to brea/ inductive circuits and )ust be ca'able of &ithstanding the voltage rise &hich occurs &hen an inductive circuit is bro/en0 2he voltage rise can cause arcing across the s&itch contacts.for incandescent lights had to be de<rated &hen the. the cho/e reduces the voltage across the la)' to its nor)al o'erating value and the current in the heaters also reduces as a result of this0 Although it is 'ossible to use ordinar.
given out 'er unit of electrical energconsu)ed0 +luorescent tubes can be )ade in the sha'e of a D or an annulus0 2he 'roduction 'rocess is )ore difficult and therefore these tubes are )ore e('ensive than the co))oner linear ones0 6o&ever. variation of the tube current does not cut off electron e)ission fro) the cathode0
. and the la)'s &ere si)'l. and this can be done b. s&itch and cho/e.fro) the lu)inaire0 ?ne case in the author.Design of electrical services for buildings
2here are so)e occasions &hen the s&itchgear for the lu)inaire.lu)inaires containing the gear.b. it does not heat the cathode enough to bring about e)ission of electrons0 Successful di))ing re4uires that the electrodes be 'er)anentl.su''l-ing the electrodes &ith a se'arate heating current fro) a lo&<voltage transfor)er0 A suitable circuit is sho&n in +igure "0! and the si)ilarit. it &as decided to /ee' the control gear out of the air<conditioned roo)0 2he )ethod used for doing this &as si)ilar to that in the 'revious e(a)'le0 +luorescent la)'s have a lo&er surface brightness than incandescent ones and have a higher efficienc.heated &hile the tube current is varied.in ter)s of light energ.the ca'acitors. advances in 'roduction techni4ues have )ade it 'ossible to 'roduce tubes so co)'act that a co)'lete la)' can be little bigger than a large incandescent la)'0 S)all dia)eter tubes for)ed into an annulus have found a''lication in do)estic and co))ercial lighting and can be used in bul/head lu)inaires not )uch larger than the corres'onding incandescent ones0 A further develo')ent is a D tube bent again and enclosed in an outer bulb &hich loo/s li/e an incandescent la)'0 *t has also 'roved 'ossible to )a/e the control gear so s)all that it can fit inside the outer bulb &hich can then have an end ca' suitable for 'lugging into a standard incandescent t-'e la)'holder0 2he Phili's S$ and 2horn 2D la)'s are of this t-'e and can be used to re'lace incandescent la)'s &ithout an.cli''ed to the 'el)et0 Each end of each la)' &as 'lugged into a t&o<'in soc/et fro) &hich cables ran to a re)ote cu'board0 *nside the cu'board there &as a series of tra-s each of &hich contained the control gear for one la)'0 Another case &as in an air<conditioned co)'uter roo)0 9uch of the heat lost fro) a fluorescent light is generated in the control gear rather than in the la)'. and in order to /ee' the heat load on the air<conditioning 'lant as lo& as 'ossible.the resistor0 *n this &a-.s e('erience &as in a s&i))ing 'ool &here the la)'s &ere )ounted behind a 'el)et around the 'eri)eter of the hall0 2he architectural design &as such that there &as no roo) for ordinar.the insertion of a resistance to reduce the current through the la)'0 *f a reduced current flo&s through the tube.&ith the 4uic/< start circuit of +igure "04 can be noted0 2he transfor)er 'rovides a 'er)anent heating current &hich is inde'endent of the current through the tube and the latter current is varied b.change to the fittings0 +luorescent la)'s cannot be di))ed si)'l. is )ounted re)otel. that is to sa.
la)'s 9ercur. the th-ristor controls the 'ro'ortion of each c-cle of the alternating su''l.la)'s are discharge la)'s &hich o'erate on the sa)e 'rinci'le as fluorescent la)'s0 At sufficientl.is in the visible s'ectru) so that such a la)' can be used &ithout a fluorescent coating0 2he original )ercur.la)' consists of an arc tube &ith an electrode at each end and a starting electrode near one of the )ain electrodes. but a th-ristor circuit ta/es the 'lace of the resistor0 While 'er)anent heating current is circulated to the electrodes.consu)'tion &hen co)'ared to conventional tubes0 2his saving is further increased to u' to 4% 'er cent if electronic ballasts are used0 9ercur. and hence the light out'ut0 2ri<'hos'hor tubes save 2% 'er cent energ.during &hich stri/ing voltage is a''lied to the tube0 2his deter)ines the length of ti)e in each c-cle during &hich current flo&s through the tube. the electrodes the)selves being si)ilar to those in the fluorescent la)'0 2he starting electrode is connected to the o''osite )ain
. but )odern la)'s are 'rovided &ith one in order to i)'rove the colour rendering0 *t also increases the la)' efficienc-0 2he basic )ercur.la)'s had no coating.the )ercur.$ighting
+igure "0! +luorescent di))ing circuit
2he tube current can also be varied b.high 'ressure the radiation e)itted b.a th-ristor0 2he arrange)ent is si)ilar to +igure "0!.
Design of electrical services for buildings
electrode through a high resistance0 2he arc tube is fitted inside an outer glass envelo'e0 *n the D: the )ain t-'es are designated 9B+0 2he construction of an ordinar.ta/es over the conduction of the )ain discharge0
+igure "0 9B+ la)'
After t&o or three )inutes.e)its its radiation0 2he current through the discharge is li)ited b.a cho/e0
.)ain electrode0 2he s)all discharge )a/es the argon in the tube conductive and this enables a discharge to start bet&een the )ain electrodes0 2his discharge b-'asses the starting electrode.and &arehouse a''lications0 *n order to 'revent o(idation and internal arcing the outer envelo'e is filled &ith an inert gas at a 'ressure bet&een %0%4 and %09 at)os'here0 When the la)' is s&itched on the voltage is sufficient onl.a fluorescent coating on the inside of the outer envelo'e and the co)bined light fro) the are tube and the coating has a colour &hich is considered acce'table for street lighting and for so)e factor.to start a s)all discharge bet&een the starting electrode and the nearb.9B+ la)' is sho&n in +igure "0 0 2he t&o )ain electrodes are sealed inside the arc tube &ith a starting electrode near the lo&er one connected to the u''er one through a high resistance outside the tube0 2he arc tube is )ade of fused silica and the o'erating 'ressure inside it is bet&een t&o and ten at)os'heres0 *t is held inside an outer envelo'e of heat< resisting glass. &ar)s the tube and eva'orates the )ercur-0 As it eva'orates the )ercur. stead.conditions are reached and the )ercur. and the resistance bet&een the starting and )ain electrode is also &ithin this envelo'e0 2he connections are brought out to an end ca' at the base of the outer envelo'e0 2he radiation fro) the arc tube is greenish<&hite in the visible s'ectru) &ith so)e ultraviolet0 2he latter is converted into a visible red b.
function of controlling the la)' current &hilst also having as long a life as the arc tube and being ca'able of &ithstanding the starting conditions1 at starting the voltage dro' across the are tube is lo& &ith the result that the voltage across the tungsten fila)ent is higher than during o'eration0 2he light fro) the fila)ent 'rovides additional colour
+igure "0" Characteristics of 9B+ la)'s
A ca'acitor is also included in the circuit for 'o&er factor correction. it &ill not restart until it has cooled and the 'ressure has dro''ed again0 2his ta/es t&o to three )inutes. because the fila)ent is not inductive.&ith an increase of su''l.there is no need for a cho/e and. no 'o&er factor correction ca'acitor is re4uired either0 2he fila)ent has to be s'eciall. and the ca'acitor and cho/e )ust be contained either in the lu)inaire or in a casing convenientl.designed to fulfil its 'ri)ar. if the la)' is s&itched off and s&itched on again i))ediatel-.s s'ecification )ust be chec/ed to )a/e sure that the colu)n is large enough to hold the gear0 When the la)' is s&itched off. the colu)n )anufacturer. but the la)' &ill not co)e to anhar) if it is left s&itched on &hile cooling do&n0 *n other &ords.near it0 When these la)'s are used for street lighting the control gear can be acco))odated inside the colu)n on &hich the lantern is su''orted0 *f it is intended to do this.voltage0 2he relationshi' is sho&n in +igure "0"0 A variation on this la)' is the 9B2+ &hich has an additional tungsten fila)ent inside the outer envelo'e0 2he tungsten fila)ent is connected in series &ith the discharge tube and acts as a ballast0 Conse4uentl. it &ill not re<light i))ediatel.but &ill not be da)aged0 Both the light out'ut and the 'o&er consu)ed increase linearl.
belo& the no<load voltage0
.should be fairl.the voltage &hen current flo&s dro's greatl.it can onl.be used in o'tical e4ui')ent &hich incor'orates a &ater 'u)'ing s-ste)1 even then it has a ver.therefore have to be ver. for &hich the.stri/ing voltage is obtained fro) an autotransfor)er &hich is s'eciall. but the front surface of the bulb is left clear0 2he 9E is a la)' &hich o'erates at a &or/ing 'ressure above 3% at)os'heres and a corres'ondingl. a0c0 o'eration leads to 'itting of the electrode surfaces and d0c0 o'eration is 'referable0 9E la)'s are used for o'tical 'ro3ection.0 2his has an outer envelo'e &ith a 'arabolic reflector sha'e0 *t has an internal coating of fine titaniu) dio(ide 'o&der &hich has a high reflectance in the visible region0 2he fluorescent coating is a''lied on to' of this. therefore. but the la)' has a lo&er efficienc. the rest being due to the neon0 2o start an arc through the neon &hen the la)' is cold re4uires a voltage higher than nor)al )ains voltage 7about 4!%=80 2he necessar.than the 9B+0 Another version is the 9B+. although the va'our 'ressure of the sodiu) alone is of the order of %0%%1)) )ercur-.la)'0 5eon is contained &ithin the inner tube &ith the sodiu) and starts the discharge0 When the la)' is cold the sodiu) condenses and e(ists as s)all globules along the length of the tube0 *t is i)'ortant that the.horiBontal0 At the sa)e ti)e. and. the la)' )ust be /e't nearl.evenl.this re4uire)ent lu)inaires for sodiu) la)'s are arranged to hold the la)' tilted slightlabove the horiBontal0 2he o'erating 'ressure is ver.Design of electrical services for buildings
correction0 2his and the absence of control gear are advantages.designed to have 'oor regulation.distributed along the tube.la)'s.long to give a good light out'ut1 in order to reduce the overall length the tube of an S?F la)' is bent into the sha'e of a D and the resulting construction is sho&n in +igure "0#0 2he S$* la)' has a straight tube and is therefore double ended0 2o &ithstand the sodiu) va'our the inner tube is )ade of ordinar.high te)'erature0 2his necessitates a s'ecial construction of the electrodes and the use of 4uartB instead of glass for the outer envelo'e0 At 'o&ers above 1%%%W. being in the region of 1)) )ercur-. the sodiu) )ust not be allo&ed to condense on the electrodes0 2o satisf.lo&.glass &ith a thin coating of s'ecial glass fused onto its inner surface0 2he inner tube is enclosed in a double<&alled vacuu) flas/0 Each electrode consists of a coated s'iral &hose ends are t&isted together1 there is no flo& of heating current through the electrode as there is in a )ercur.short life0 Sodiu) discharge la)'s Sodiu) discharge la)'s have a si)ilar action to )ercur. but the filling used is sodiu) instead of )ercur-0 $a)'s designated S?F and S$* &or/ at lo& 'ressure and their lu)inance is lo&0 2he. that is to sa.are suitable because of the s)all 'h-sical di)ensions in relation to the a)ount of light 'roduced0 2he 9D la)' o'erates at 'ressures of !% to 2%% at)os'heres0 2his )a/es it so hot that it has to be &ater cooled0 Conse4uentl.
acco))odated &ithin the colu)n &hich su''orts the lu)inaire0 Alternativel-. is usuall.&ere called solarcolour la)'s. ho&ever. consisting of autotransfor)er and 'o&er factor ca'acitor. it can be housed &ithin the lu)inaire and this is done in floodlights and other lu)inaires intended for )ounting at lo& level0 6igh<'ressure sodiu) la)'s give a rather sunn.electrodes.the designation S?50 2he.-ello& light0 +or this reason &hen first introduced the. but because of its 'eculiar colour the lo& 'ressure sodiu) la)' is li)ited to street lighting and si)ilar a''lications0 2he control gear. but starts cold &ith a high voltage 'ulse0 A t-'ical circuit is sho&n in +igure "090 2he circuit co)'rises a
.are no& )ore generallreferred to b.$ighting
+igure "0# Sodiu) discharge la)'
Conse4uentl-.are suitable for factories and &arehouses and are no& also &idel. the sodiu) is fullva'oriBed and gives its characteristic -ello& colour0 2he sodiu) discharge la)' is the )ost efficient )eans so far /no&n of converting electrical into light energ-. as soon as the discharge starts the voltage dro's to that re4uired to /ee' the discharge going0 2he transfor)er thus 'erfor)s the functions of the ballast and no se'arate cho/e is re4uired0 A ca'acitor for 'o&er factor correction is.va'oriBes the sodiu)0 After about t&ent.)inutes. needed0 2he discharge &hich starts in the neon is of a red colour0 2his &ar)s the tube and graduall. but the.used for street lighting and floodlighting0 2he 'ressure &ithin the arc tube &hen the la)' is full. the S?5 la)' does not have heated cathodes or au(iliar.&ar)ed u' is bet&een 3% and %/Pa0 2he la)' runs at a te)'erature of 13%%MC and to &ithstand the corrosive 'ro'erties of sodiu) at this te)'erature alu)ina cera)ic is used in the )anufacture of the tube0 As &ith the lo&<'ressure sodiu) la)'.
once the la)' stri/es the 'ulse generator is shut do&n and the current through the la)' is restricted b.the ballast0
.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure "09 2-'ical solarcolour la)' circuit
+igure "01% Perfor)ance of S?5 la)'
th-ristor starting circuit. &hich 'ulses a high voltage across the la)'.
therefore.&arehouse lighting and floodlighting.%%% hours0 Both light out'ut and the 'o&er consu)ed increase ver. cine)as and si)ilar areas0 *f a sufficientl.$ighting
6igh 'ressure sodiu) la)'s can &or/ either verticall.angle belo& 2%M above the horiBontal0 2he tube does not have to be as long as the lo&<'ressure sodiu) tube and the construction and sha'e are si)ilar to those of the )ercur.high efficienc. but it is in these a''lications that the higher efficienc. but &ith a cold cathode. and that it should not react &ith the )aterial of the arc tube0 2his can be achieved b.large 'otential difference is a''lied bet&een the electrodes of a discharge tube.ra'idl.thought to be )ore i)'ortant than the colour rendering0 Cold cathode la)'s 2hese include both neon advertising lights and la)'s for illu)ination used in large stores. the arc can be struc/ and )aintained &ithout an. it is higher0 A long tube hel's to /ee' a larger 'art of the total a''lied voltage dro' across the arc and a s)aller 'art across the electrode.discharge la)'0 6igh 'ressure sodiu) la)'s have a ver. &hich is initiall. su'er)ar/ets and large stores0 2he.the addition of another )etal0 *t is.&ith an increase in the su''l.can also be used for high ba.solid. ho&ever. and cold cathode la)'s are.
.of the high<'ressure sodiu) la)' is generall.la)'s0 When one of these la)'s is first ignited the out'ut is due to the )ercur-0 As the te)'erature rises the )etal halide. )elts and va'oriBes0 2he high te)'erature causes it to dissociate into )etal and halogen. and e)ission of light co))ences0 2he tube &alls are cooler than the interior of the tube and the )etal and halogen reco)bine on the surface of the &alls1 this has an i)'ortant effect in 'reventing che)ical attac/ on the silica &alls0 2he )etal halide la)' &ith a clear glass outer envelo'e is designated 9B*0 When the outer envelo'e has a fluorescent coating the designation beco)es 9B*+0 A linear version for use in floodlighting and in television studios is designated 9B*$0 2hese la)'s have a better colour rendering than 9B+ or incandescent la)'s0 2healso have better colour rendering than S?5 la)'s but are not so efficient and therefore S?5 la)'s are still 'referred &here colour rendering is not so i)'ortant0 9etal halide la)'s are finding use in offices.heating of the cathode0 With a hot cathode.be )ounted at an.voltage and the design of the ballast has to be such as to li)it variation in the a''lied voltage in order to 'reserve la)' life0 +igure "01% sho&s the variation of light out'ut &ith voltage0 9etal halide la)'s 2he colour rendering of a )ercur.la)' can be i)'roved b. the volt dro' across the electrode is s)all.)a.that the )etal used should have a sufficientl.and a long life0 9ost high< 'ressure sodiu) la)'s have rated lives of )ore than 24.or horiBontall-0 2he.lo& va'our 'ressure at the o'erating te)'erature of the la)'. necessar.using the )etal in the for) of its halide salt0 2he general design of )etal halide la)'s is si)ilar to that of )ercur.
long life.are used in stores and cine)as and under the 'ro3ecting cano'ies &hich are no& so 'o'ular at the entrances to co))ercial buildings. including hotels0 2he high voltage re4uired is 'rovided b.transfor)ers. &hich is in the region of 1!%%% hours as against about !%%% hours for an ordinar. the voltage dro's to that re4uired to )aintain the arc0 +or a t-'ical three<tube lu)inaire the stri/ing voltage is 3 %%= and the running voltage 2%%%=0 2he great advantage of the cold cathode tube is its ver. and starts instantl-0 *ts life is not reduced b.fre4uent s&itching0 When the tube is used for lighting it is filled &ith )ercur-
.are designed to
+igure "011 Cold cathode la)'s
have 'oor regulation so that once the arc has been struc/. and each has a 'o&er factor correcting ca'acitor0 2he high<voltage &indings each have one end connected to earth and are so arranged that the voltage bet&een their t&o other ends is double the )a(i)u) voltage to earth0 2he transfor)ers give a voltage high enough to stri/e the arc0 As in the case of the transfor)ers used &ith the hot cathode sodiu) la)'s.fluorescent tube0 *t also )aintains its out'ut better throughout its life. and in order to /ee' the a)ount of high voltage &iring to a )ini)u) the lights are su''lied &ith transfor)ers in self<contained units suitable for direct connection to the )ains0 A co))on arrange)ent has three 20"!)<long tubes 'h-sicall. the. increases the efficienc.connected in series0 2he circuit diagra) of such a lu)inaire is sho&n in +igure "0110 2he t&o transfor)ers and all the high voltage &iring are sealed &ithin the lu)inaire and are not accessible0 2he t&o 'ri)aries are in 'arallel across the )ains su''l-.Design of electrical services for buildings
)ade longer than the hot cathode la)'s described 'reviousl-0 2he greater length. in fact.and hence also the light out'ut0 *t is because of this that the.'arallel to each other. but electricall.
regulations for high<voltage advertising signs have been dra&n u' bthe *nstitution of Electrical Engineers. fro) &hich the designer can calculate the voltage &hich has to be 'rovided fro) the secondar. of course.be coloured or have fluorescent coatings0 2he earliest gas used &as neon.the use of different t-'es of glass. &hich )a. because of the ver. the sign )ust be s'lit into several lengths each having its o&n transfor)er0 2he transfor)ers are nor)all.high voltages involved0 Stringent safet. the t-'e of gas and its 'ressure and on the design of the electrodes0 2he )anufacturers nor)all.different colours can be obtained b.of colours is available0 2he length of cold cathode tubes )a/es the) suitable for bending into s'ecial sha'es0 2his )a/es the) useful &here s'ecial decorative effects are &anted and also.4uote the running voltage 'er )etre of tube and the voltage dro' at each 'air of electrodes. for advertising 'ur'oses0 +or advertising use )an. has stuc/ as the 'o'ular generic na)e for all advertising lights of this t-'e0 2he tubes can be bent into the sha'e of letters or other s-)bols and successive tubes can be connected in series.$ighting
va'our and has a suitable fluorescent coating on its inside surface0 As &ith ordinarfluorescent tubes a variet.have a voltage to earth greater than !%%%=0 and if the centre 'oint of the secondar. and Cneon light. an e(a)'le of such an arrange)ent being sho&n in +igure "0120 +or letters li/e 6 or 2 the tube )ust be bent bac/ on itself0
+igure "012 Decorative cold cathode la)'s
2he voltage re4uired to start the tubes de'ends on their length.side is earthed the voltage available bet&een the o''osite ends of the series of tubes is 1%%%%=0 2his li)its the length of tubes &hich can be served fro) one transfor)er0 *f greater lengths are re4uired. and reco))endations are also given in BS !!9G199#0 5o 'art of the installations )a.housed inside &eather'roof steel containers &hich are fitted on the outside of the building0 A transfor)er rated at )ore than 2!%=A )ust be su''lied on a se'arate final circuit not
.of the transfor)er0 A )agnetic shunt is 'rovided inside the transfor)er to enable the tube current to be ad3usted &hen the sign is co))issioned0 2his is not a tas/ to be underta/en lightl-.
Design of electrical services for buildings
serving an.turn the su''l.a''ear either to be stationar. but it could &ith older t-'es of fluorescent tube 'roduce a strobosco'ic effect on rotating )achiner-.s s&itch is )ounted outside the building in a 'ro)inent 'osition but out of reach of the 'ublic0 *t is for the use of the fire brigade.lighting
sources before s'ra-ing &ater an-&here near the)0 A cho/e is connected in each highvoltage circuit to su''ress radio interference0 +lic/er With the e(ce'tion of the incandescent ones.not e(ceed 1%%%=A0 Particular care )ust be ta/en &ith the high<voltage &iring &hich should be lead<covered ar)oured cable0 *t )ust be restrained fro) s&a-ing in the &ind because this &ould strain both the conductor and the insulation0 A t-'ical circuit is sho&n in +igure "0130 A loc/able s&itch is 'rovided so that an-one doing )aintenance on the installation can be sure that no other 'erson can inadvertentl.or to
. &ho &ant to turn off all high<voltage
+igure "013 Circuit for dis'la. but the total rating of one circuit )a.other e4ui')ent or an. all the la)'s &e have described go on and off 1%% ti)es a second &hen &or/ing on a !%6B su''l-0 2his is too ra'id a flic/er to be noticeable to the e-e.other transfor)er0 *f the transfor)ers are s)aller than this.on0 2he fire)an. &hich )a. u' to four of the) )a.be 'ut on a co))on sub<circuit.
one of the la)'s.is not )etered because one /no&s the total hours in a -ear during &hich a solar dial s&itch is on and also the rating of the la)'. but the agree)ent of the electricit. for al)ost anconceivable a''lication can be found fro) so)e )anufacturer.are 'articularl.in &hich lu)inaires are connected in circuits has been described in Cha'ter !0 We sho&ed in that cha'ter ho& a s&itch could control each light or each grou' of lights0 2he s&itch &ould be one of the t-'es described in Cha'ter 10 2here are.i)'ortant for street<lighting and other e(ternal lights for &hich so)e for) of auto)atic control is al)ost essential0 2he first )ethod and one still &idel.throughout the -ear.the local authorit-0 2he sa)e s-ste) of road<lighting can be ado'ted.co)'an.are out of ste' &ith each other. ho&ever.affect the tariff the.is0 Such an illusion can obviousl.)a.used is b. e(tinguish and re< light at different instants0 $u)inaires of this /ind are /no&n as leadAlag lu)inaires and are often s'ecified for &or/sho's and factories0 2ri<'hos'hor fluorescent &ith electronic ballast o'erates at 2%/6B0 Circuits and controls 2he &a.to su''l.for the lights0 A ti)e s&itch is fi(ed inside each colu)n. on the su''l.one ca'acitor0 2he ca'acitor is arranged in series &ith onl.of dials.co)'an. and can thus calculate the nu)ber of units of electricit.$ighting
be )oving at a )uch slo&er s'eed than it reall. the current through one la)' leads the voltage &hile the current through the other lags0 2he t&o la)' currents are neither in ste' nor 1#%M out of 'hase and. different dialsAdis'la-s are )ade for different Bones of latitude0 *n the D: street<lighting is the res'onsibilit. or if necessar.)ust be obtained in advance because the )ethod of su''l.be ta/en over b. but &hich &ill ulti)atel.if the. therefore.side of the ti)e s&itch0 A ne& housing develo')ent )a. the usual re4uire)ent is for the la)'s to be turned on at sunset and off either at )idnight or at sunrise0 2he ti)es of sunset and sunrise var.each colu)n directl. and s&itches the current to the lu)inaire at the to' of the colu)n0 2he su''l. and solar co)'ensating dials are )ade for ti)e s&itches to follo& the annual variation in sunset and sunrise0 As the variation de'ends on latitude.&ill &ant to a''l-0
. the effect is reduced. other )ethods of control 'ossible and the. but in e(ce'tional cases s'ecial dials or digital dis'la. and it is 'ossible to obtain this brea/ing of ste' &ith t&in la)' lu)inaires0 2he lu)inaire is )ade &ith one cho/e for each la)' but onl. but it is advisable to agree the details &ith the street<lighting de'art)ent of the local authorit.consu)ed in a -ear0 2he colu)n also contains a service head fuse.off a )ain laid s'eciall.be a source of danger and should be avoided0 *f ad3acent la)'s go on and off at different ti)es.often include estate roads &hich are constructed bthe develo'er.)eans of a ti)e s&itch0 2i)e s&itches are )ade &ith an enor)ous variet.s standard range of 'roducts.off its )ain running through the street.of the local authorit-0 2he usual arrange)ent is for the electricit.beforehand0 2he s-ste) can also be used &here the roads are to re)ain 'rivate. or digital dis'la-s. and the cho/es and ca'acitor are so siBed that although the co)bined current through both la)'s has the usual 'o&er factor of about %0#.can be )ade to order0 +or street or e(ternal lights. that is to sa.
Design of electrical services for buildings
2he design engineer should )a/e sure to select and s'ecif- colu)ns &hich have a s'ace inside the) large enough to contain the ti)e s&itch and fuse1 there are light dutcolu)ns &hich do not have a &ide enough base0 *f the e(ternal lights are not too far fro) buildings. final circuits can serve the) fro) distribution boards &ithin the buildings0 2he cable siBes should be chec/ed for voltage dro'. and )a- need to be greater than ordinar- lighting circuits0 +or running underground P=CSWAP=C or 9*CC. cable is 'robabl- the )ost suitable0 A circuit to several lights is ta/en through a ti)e s&itch and the ti)e s&itch can be convenientl- )ounted ne(t to the distribution board0 *t is also 'ossible to obtain a )odular<t-'e distribution board &hich has a ti)e s&itch to be )ounted on the D*5 rail inside the board0 *nternal lights )a- also be controlled b- a ti)e s&itch. and this )a- be a convenient &a- of s&itching. sa-. corridor lights in an office bloc/0 When lights. &hether internal or e(ternal. are su''lied through a ti)e s&itch served fro) a distribution board. the su''l- is of course 'art of the )etered su''l- to the building0 Whether this is )ore or less desirable than an un)etered but ti)ed su''lde'ends on the agree)ent bet&een the consu)er and the su''l- authorit-0 2he other )ethod of auto)atic control of lights is the use of 'hotoelectric cells0 *n this )ethod. a 'hotoelectric cell is arranged to )a/e a circuit &hen the illu)ination falls belo& a set value and to brea/ the circuit &hen the illu)ination rises0 2he advantage over a ti)e s&itch is that the control ta/es account of &eather conditions0 2here are su))er evenings &hich. because of stor) clouds. are al)ost as dar/ as &inter evenings. but a ti)e s&itch cannot distinguish bet&een a cloud- da- and a clear one0 +urther)ore. in the D: at least. a ti)e s&itch )ust usuall- be reset t&ice a -ear because of British Su))er 2i)e. &hereas a 'hotoelectric cell needs no alteration0 When 'hotoelectric cells are used. the lighting circuits can be arranged in the sa)e &a- as &hen ti)e s&itches are used0 2here can be one cell to each light. or there )a- be one cell for a circuit on &hich there are several lights0 *n the latter case. if the circuit is s&itched directl- b- the cell. the nu)ber of lights on the circuit is li)ited b- the current &hich the cell can s&itch0 2he )a(i)u) current &hich a given cell can s&itch )a- be lo&er if the current is inductive than if it is resistive. so that a cell )a- be able to s&itch fe&er fluorescent lights than incandescent ones0 5evertheless. a s)all cell can be used to control )an- lights. or even several different circuits. if it is used &ith a rela-0 2he cell is 'laced in the o'erating coil circuit of the rela- and the rela- )ain contacts s&itch the lights0 A )ulti'ole rela- )a/es it 'ossible for one 'hotoelectric cell to control several lighting circuits0 2he 'osition of the 'hotoelectric cell re4uires a little thought0 *t )ust be close to the area illu)inated b- the lights it controls. in order to react to the da-light in that area0 At the sa)e ti)e. it )ust not receive direct light fro) an- of the la)'s it controls1 if it did. as soon as the- ca)e on. it &ould s&itch the) off again. so that the- &ould flic/er on and off continuousl-0 5or )ust it receive direct light fro) an- other la)'s &hich )a- be turned on at night. other&ise s&itching on one set of lights &ill i))ediatel- s&itch off the other set0 *n general. the illu)ination on the 'hotocell during the hours of dar/ness &hen the lights are on )ust be less than the level at &hich the cell s&itches the lights0 9ost outdoor artificial lighting 'roduces illu)ination levels )uch lo&er than da-light and a 'hotocell set at the )ini)u) acce'table da-light level &ill not turn the lights off until da-light is again ade4uate. but there are areas. such as the forecourts of garages.
su'er)ar/ets and cine)as. &here the artificial lighting a''roaches full da-light level. and in these cases it is certainl- difficult. and )a- even be i)'ossible. to design a 'hotoelectric sche)e of control0 +or ordinar- street lighting. a cell 'laced in the to' of a colu)n above the lantern &ill res'ond ade4uatel- to natural light falling on the road and can be shielded fro) the light of the la)'0 2he nu)ber of hours in a -ear during &hich a 'hotoelectric cell &ill be in the Con, 'osition cannot be /no&n e(actl-0 2he su''l- authorit- )a-. therefore. be un&illing to agree to the use of an un)etered su''l-0 5evertheless. several local authorities are using 'hotoelectric cells to control street lighting and have negotiated a suitable )ethod of 'a-)ent &ith the area electricit- co)'an-0 E)ergenc- lights 9an- buildings )ust have so)e for) of e)ergenc- lighting to co)e on if the electric su''l- to the ordinar- lights fails0 BS !2 G E)ergenc- lighting. BS E5 1#3#. BS !2 < "G $ighting a''lications0 E)ergenc- lighting are the codes of 'ractice to &hich to refer0 ?ne of the 'ossible causes of failure is a brea/do&n in the su''l- authorit-,s service to the building and. therefore. the e)ergenc- su''l- )ust be inde'endent of the service into the building0 Electric lighting for e)ergenc- use can be 'rovided if the building has a standbgenerator0 A generator can be installed to ta/e over the entire su''l- to a building. so that the onl- s'ecial 'rovision for e)ergenc- lights need )ade is to cover the ti)e bet&een the )ains su''l- fails and the standb- generator is u' to s'eed. but for econo)- the standb- generator is often rated at less than the ordinar- )ains service to the building0 2he distribution then has to be arranged so that onl- a 'art of the service &ithin the building is fed b- the generator. and onl- a fe& of the lights should be included in this 'art0 2here is no need for full lighting under e)ergenc- conditions. and lighting in the )ain corridors and staircases is usuall- enough0 6igh ris/ tas/ areas need s'ecial consideration0 E)ergenc- su''lies are of 'articular i)'ortance in hos'itals and no ne& hos'ital should be built &ithout a standb- generator. but buildings li/e schools. offices. theatres and bloc/s of flats seldo) 3ustif- the e('ense0 +or these buildings e)ergenc- lighting is al)ost invariabl- 'rovided. b- self<contained batter- lu)inaires0 E)ergenc- lights are fitted throughout the building0 2he- co)e on onl- &hen the )ains fail 7a non<)aintained s-ste)8 and cannot be used &hile the )ains are health-0 2heare not intended to give full illu)ination. but onl-
Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure "014 Central e)ergenc- s-ste)
to 'rovide sufficient light for 'eo'le to )a/e their &a- out of the building safel-0 A )ini)u) of 1 lu( should be achieved. and ! lu( near fire<fighting e4ui')ent0 E)ergenc- lighting in high<ris/ tas/ areas such as near hot vats should have an illu)ination of 1% lu(0 9anufacturers, data &ill give lu)inaire s'acings at given heights to achieve these lighting levels0 ?ne light on each landing and 'erha's one in the centre of an- 'articular corridor should be 'erfectl- ade4uate0 A nu)ber of lo&<'o&er lu)inaires is generall- better than one large lu)inaire0 2hese lights &or/ on lo& voltage d0c0 and are fed fro) a batter-0 A tric/le charger 'er)anentl- connected to the )ains ensures that the batter- is al&a-s full- charged0 2he lights are cabled fro) the batterthrough a rela-. the contacts of &hich are closed &hen the coil is de<energiBed0 2he coil is fed fro) the )ains and as long as the )ains are on. the contacts are held o'en0 2hus as long as the )ain su''l- is health-. the batter- lighting circuit is /e't o'en. but i))ediatelthe )ains fail the rela- contacts close and the e)ergenc- lights co)e on0 2he circuit diagra) is given in +igure "0140 2here are batter- chargers and rela-s 'ur'ose<)ade for this /ind of a''lication0 2he charger )ust be left 'er)anentl- s&itched on. and contains the rela-s necessar- to sto' the charging current &hen the batter- is at full charge0 *t can be su''lied b- a final circuit fro) an- convenient distribution board. but there should be no other outlets on the sa)e final circuit0 Alternativel-. it can be fed directl- fro) a s&itch fuse at the )ain inta/e0 Because the e)ergenc- lights &or/ at a lo& voltage. the voltage dro' in the cable to the) can beco)e considerable and )a- 'resent so)ething of a 'roble)0 Whereas a %W bulb on a 23%= su''l- ta/es %02 A. a 24W bulb on a 24= su''l- ta/es 10%A and the voltage dro' in a cable of a given siBe is about four ti)es as great0 At the sa)e ti)e. a dro' in a cable of 204= in 23% )a- reduce the light out'ut b- 'erha's 2 'er cent but the
sa)e dro' of 204= in a 24= s-ste) is 'ro'ortionatel- ten ti)es as great and could reduce the light out'ut b- a fifth or a 4uarter0 $o&<voltage cables )ust. therefore. be ade4uatelsiBed0 *t is in an- case inadvisable to design an e)ergenc- s-ste) for less than 4#= d0c0. &hich is a convenient standard batter-<out'ut voltage0 Even &ith a 4#= s-ste) and a)'le cable siBes. there )ust obviousl- be a li)it to the nu)ber of lights &hich can be served fro) one batter- and to the distance the furthest light can be fro) the batter-0 A large building )a-. therefore. need several se'arate batter- s-ste)s0 $egislation has )ade it )ore essential to 'rovide lights to )ar/ fire<esca'e routes fro) buildings0 2he lights used for this are of ver- lo& &attage and. conse4uentl-. the voltage<dro' 'roble)s are so)e&hat eased0 2he e)ergenc- lights the)selves are ordinar- lu)inaires &hich ta/e a lo&<voltage d0c0 bulb0 2hese are ver- energ- e('ensive. and using a fluorescent through an inverter &ill reduce the current re4uired b- the circuit0 2here is a )ore co))on )ethod of e)ergenc- lighting &hich )a/es use of s'ecial lu)inaires. each of &hich contains its o&n batter-. charger and rela-0 2he lu)inaire effectivel- houses a co)'lete lo&<voltage s-ste) 3ust large enough to o'erate one light0 2he use of such lu)inaires )a/es it unnecessar- to run a lo&<voltage circuit throughout the building0 With this s-ste). the e)ergenc- lu)inaires are 'ut in the )ost suitable 'laces for e)ergenc- illu)ination and are fed fro) an- convenient lighting circuit0 *n so)e cases. it )a- be convenient to have t&o or three e)ergenc- lights on a circuit of their o&n and in other cases. it )a- be convenient to have an e)ergenc- light included in one of the nor)al lighting circuits0 Such self<contained e)ergenc- lu)inaires are )ade in a variet- of sha'es and &ith a variet- of light sources0 2he- )a- be incandescent. fluorescent light. or $EDs and can ta/e the for) of illu)inated signs0 An e)ergenc- light &ith the &ord CEF*2, su''le)ented &ith 'ictogra)s has an obvious a''lication. although 'ictogra)s &ithout the use of te(t are no& 'referred0 2he- are usuall- on at all ti)es that the building is occu'ied 7)aintained s-ste)80 *t has been /no&n that the )aintained lights are su''lied through a rela- &hich is controlled fro) the burglar alar) s-ste). so that the lights are off &hen the building is unoccu'ied0 E(a)'les of e)ergenc- lights are illustrated in +igure "01!0 An i)'ortant advantage of these self<contained lu)inaires is that there4uire little )aintenance although the batter- lifes'an is li)ited and the standard on e)ergenc- lighting BS !2 <1 gives re4uire)ents for testing the s-ste). and re4uires that the three -earl- test be carried out annuall- for batteries over three -ears old0 *t also sti'ulates )ini)u) lighting levels for the e)ergenc- lighting0 9odern lu)inaires of this t-'e )a- include a self<)onitoring facilit-0 Another advantage is that locall- su''lied
lights 7Courtes.lu)inaires &ill res'ond to a local outage of su''l-.of >ent T Co0 $td8
e)ergenc.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure "01! E)ergenc.failure0 6aBardous area lu)inaires 2he 'rinci'les on &hich haBardous area accessories are designed are e('lained in Cha'ter 10 9ost t-'es of lu)inaire are also available in haBardous area versions0 When these are
. &hereas a central s-ste) &ill onl.res'ond to a )ains su''l.
function can be an asset to )aintenance1 there should be no need to isolate all the soc/et outlets in 'art of a building &hen &or/ has to be done to a toilet e(tractor fan0 ?n the other hand.case have a circuit for ever. and the designer )ust decide each a''lication on its 'articular circu)stances0 E4ui')ent larger than 3 or 4/W )ust in an.13A BS 13 3 soc/et outlets should be used in order to ensure that the 'lug )ust be of the fused t-'e and that the a''liance and fle(ible cable to it do not rel. roof<)ounted e(tractor fans in /itchens.a fused connection unit fro) an ad3acent general<'ur'ose ring )ain 'rovided the 'er)anent load the.is it used in this &a-0 Conse4uentl.'ut on the ring is ta/en into account in assessing the nu)ber of soc/et outlets that can be 'er)itted. it is )ore econo)ical to serve the) fro) ring circuits than fro) radial ones0 ?n ring circuits.individual ite)0 2his a''lies to coo/ers.control )ore than one a''liance if the. a grill and an oven can ta/e 3!A &hen ever-thing in it is s&itched on. tubular heaters in tan/ roo)s and so on b.so)ething about connecting fi(ed a''liances and larger e4ui')ent0 +i(ed a''liances of s)all ratings.the *EE >uidance 5ote 1 and the *EE ?n<Site >uide suggest a diversit.see) an e(travagance0 5o general rule can be )ade.are in the sa)e roo)0 2his &ould a''l.a se'arate circuit for each ite) or grou' of ite)s0 2here is nothing &rong technicall&ith su''l-ing the) b.on the ring<circuit fuse for 'rotection0 2here is little )ore one can add about soc/et outlets and it re)ains in this cha'ter to sa. but these ite)s have a different function fro) the general<'ur'ose soc/et outlets and it is logical to serve the) se'aratel-0 Se'aration b.factor to a''l.to a hob and se'arate oven0 A coo/er &ith four hot<'lates.&hich &e )ean u' to 3/W.e4ui')ent such as )otoriBed valves on hot<&ater heating s-ste)s.of outlets to be used for 'o&er services are soc/et outlets of the t-'es described in Cha'ter 10 2he various &a-s in &hich 'o&er circuits can be arranged have been described in Cha'ter !0 *t is usuall.to do)estic coo/er circuits0 *n restaurant and school /itchens the
. b. each of &hich )ust be connected through a coo/er control unit0 ?ne coo/er control unit )a. onl.Cha'ter # Po&er
2he )a3orit. can be served through fused connection units fro) the ring )ains serving the soc/et outlets in the sa)e area as the fi(ed a''liance0 A 3/W electric fire is one e(a)'le of a fi(ed a''liance &hich )ight be su''lied in this &a-0 *f the soc/et outlets in the area are on radial rather than ring circuits then each fi(ed a''liance )ust have a se'arate radial circuit of its o&n0 *t is often convenient to su''l. a se'arate circuit to one s)all 'iece of e4ui')ent )a. but rarel.found that as soon as )ore than t&o or three soc/et outlets are to be su''lied.
the )achines used )a.to be in full use for the greater 'art of the ti)e0 Coo/er control units are generall.to consist of )otors driving 'u)'s and fans in 'lant roo)s and )achine tools in &or/sho's and factories0 *n the case of 'lant roo)s each )achine is al)ost invariabl. and it &ill be found that this ver.to connect a ne& s&itch fuse at an.the case &hen one )achine is intended as a standb.to alter the &iring &hen ne& )achines are installed or the factoris rearranged0 +or the sa)e reason. 'lus an earth connection.to three<'hase and single<'hase circuits0 Where three<'hase )achines are used three or four cables.that )aintenance is 'ossible0 ?ne of the things that has to be done before )aintenance &or/ is started is the turning off of the electricitsu''l-.Po&er
coo/ers are li/el. but the general circuit arrange)ents are the sa)e as for single<'hase circuits0 All )echanical e4ui')ent re4uires )aintenance.'oint of the busbars and the electrical installation is thus both convenient and fle(ible0 *n s)all &or/sho's.fro) that roo).
. either on the &alls or under the ceiling0 A s&itch fuse is connected to these conductors as close as 'ossible to each )achine.'rotected. according to the s-ste).cable and &ould in general be less econo)ic than using a larger a)ount of s)aller cable0 *t &ould also be e(tre)elinconvenient to have several )achines 'ut out of action if one of the) blo&s it fuse0 2his is 'articularl. and it )ust be 'ossible to isolate each )achine or grou' of )achines0 *t has been /no&n to ha''en that an electrician has turned off an isolator in a s&itch roo) and gone to &or/ on a )achine so)e &a. therefore.and the coo/ers are to be 'ro'erl.an ade4uate s&itch fuse at the inta/e0 *t is eas. but no sub<)ains other than the busbars are needed0 2he busbars )ust be 'rotected b. )etal&or/ and engineering roo)s in secondarschools. are installed. and distribution boards.for another0 Si)ilarlin factories it is usual to have each )achine on a circuit of its o&n0 *n s)all and )ediu)< siBed factories the )ost convenient &iring )ethod is 'robabl. that so)eone else has co)e along later.ob3ection to installing conduit and trun/ing on the surface of &alls. and the connection fro) the s&itch fuse is ta/en through conduit or trun/ing to the )achine0 Each )achine is thus on its o&n circuit.all the )achines.one using conduit and trun/ing0 *n such 'laces there is seldo) an.rated at 4!A and if the. the circuit fuse )ust not be greater than 4!A0 *t follo&s that the circuit cannot serve an-thing in addition to the coo/er control unit &ithout being overloaded0 ?ther large e4ui')ent is li/el. and this is chea'er than bur-ing it in the fabric of the building0 *t also )a/es it 4uite eas.to use ver.be s)all enough to )a/e it 'racticable to serve a nu)ber of the) fro) one ring circuit0 Each )achine is connected to the ring through a fused isolator or through a s&itch fuse0 2he fuse is necessar.soon restricts the siBe of &or/sho' that can be treated in this &a-0 *t should be a''reciated that ever-thing that has been said about 'o&er circuits a''lies e4uall. 'referabl. it is also better to run the &iring at high level under the ceiling and dro' to the )achines than to run it &ithin the floor0 *n large factories. for e(a)'le. &hich is necessaril. be installed in such a &a. a busbar s-ste) is often used0 Bare conductors enclosed in a casing are run round the factor-.heav. and to 'rotect the internal &iring of the )achine that &ill also be of s)aller cable than the ring )ain0 2he cables of the ring )ain should be ca'able of carr-ing at least "% 'er cent of the total current ta/en b. and all )achines and e4ui')ent )ust. isolators and circuit brea/ers are of the three 'hase<'attern.at high level.to 'rotect the final connection to the )achine.on a circuit of its o&n0 6aving )ore than one )otor on a circuit &ould )a/e it necessar.of a lo&er rating than the ring )ain.
egulations.Design of electrical services for buildings
not realiBed that an-one &as &or/ing on the )achine and has turned the isolator on again0 5ot onl. )ost safetregulations.has this ha''ened. a s&itch or isolator or disconnector as it is no& /no&n has to be installed0
.of 'roviding local isolation0 +or larger )achines.At Wor/ .case the isolation )ust be secure0 2he intention is that no one can atte)'t to turn the su''l. es'eciall. or is loc/able<in an. it has caused deaths0 Conse4uentl-. no& re4uire that there should be an isolator &ithin reach of the )achine. such as roof e(tractor fans.&a. connecting the )achine to the &iring through a soc/et and 'lug near the )achine is a convenient and satisfactor.2he Electricit.on &ithout the 'erson on the )achine beco)ing a&are of &hat is ha''ening0 +or s)all )achines.
s tas/0 *n the 'revious cha'ters. or that if the.ti)e.circuit should be cut off fro) the su''l. the li/elihood of faults on the electrical installation &ill be s)all0 5evertheless. &e have s'o/en about choice of accessories. but it is also necessar. if not treated &ith res'ect0 A large 'art of an.ha''en0
.one to the others0 2he devices available restrict the t-'e of 'rotection that can be given0 A logicall. selection of cables and their correct siBing. the )ethods.argued that these considerations are the )ost i)'ortant 'art of a design engineer.)anufactured at that ti)e.to start b.deserve.is dangerous and can cause accidents.one0 *t see)s )ore satisfactor. and in the 'rocess beco)e so obsessed &ith the ease of guarding against an i)'robable fault that theforget the i)'ortance of 'rotection against a )ore li/el.ideal s-ste) of 'rotection against all 'ossible faults cannot be )ade econo)icall-. their effects &ill be li)ited0 *t )ight be reasonabl.do.theoretical &a-s of doing this. and the 'rotection designed )ust )a/e use of the e4ui')ent co))erciall. but once a )ethod has been ado'ted it tends to re)ain in use and ne&er 'roducts do not co)'letelsu'ersede it0 Enthusiasts so)eti)es stress the advantages of a ne& idea &hile forgetting that the older )ethod had so)e favourable features &hich the ne& one does not )atch0 2he result of develo')ents is that at 'resent there are several 'rotective devices available and e(ce't for BS 3%3 +uses 7re&ireable8 there a''ear to be no overriding grounds for 'referring an.that the )ethod ado'ted should bear a reasonable 'ro'ortion to the cost of the &hole installation0 6istoricall-.s-ste) design is concerned &ith ensuring that accidents &ill not ha''en.considering the faults that )a.ha''en0 2he general 'rinci'le of 'rotection is that a fault.Cha'ter 9 Protection
*ntroduction *t is a truis) that electricit. de'ended on &hat devices could be econo)icall.to 'rovide 'rotection against such faults as )a. the arrange)ent of outlets on a nu)ber of se'arate circuits and the 'ro'er &a-s of installing cables and &e have 'ointed out the need for 'rotecting cables against )echanical da)age0 *f these )atters are given the care the.available0 2his can lead 'eo'le to argue fro) the available techni4ues to the faults to be guarded against.and isolated until the fault can be found and re'aired0 2he 'rotective device )ust detect that there is a fault and )ust then isolate the 'art of the installation in &hich it has detected the fault0 ?ne could 'erha's suggest )an. it is still necessar. &hich could be ado'ted at an.
Design of electrical services for buildings
2&o dangers to be 'revented are fire and shoc/ to 'eo'le and livestoc/0 *n turn these dangers can arise fro) three /inds of fault. but &hereas a short circuit &ill not raise e('osed )etal&or/. it is described as an overload0 An overload can be caused b. there is also a 'ossibilit. it can cause serious da)age0 When an overcurrent is flo&ing in a circuit.to be higher than the )a(i)u) current the circuit can safelcarr. &hich is electricall.loo/ing at +igure 901 &hich sho&s diagra))aticall.and if it 'ersists over a 'eriod of ti)e.a short circuit. the current that flo&s is li)ited onl. and is ver.being regarded as negligible0 *f the fault connecting the line and neutral has a negligible i)'edance the t&o conductors are effectivel.be the earth at the electricitdistribution co)'an-.high and if allo&ed to continue &ould burn the insulation0 2he high conductor te)'erature resulting fro) the e(cessive current could start a fire0 *f the e(cess current continues to flo& further after the insulation has been da)aged. although if it is serious enough it is li/el.short circuited0 2he current that flo&s through the conductors is a short<circuit current.an electric )otor stalling0 When an e(cessive )echanical load is i)'osed on an electric )otor it continues to run but dra&s a higher than nor)al current fro) the su''l-0 2he circuit su''l-ing the )otor.an electric fire &ith an earthed )etal case0 Su''ose the fire beco)es da)aged and the 'hase cable touches the case at 'oint A0 A current &ill flo& through the case and circuit 'rotective conductor to earth at 'oint B. above Bero 'otential.s transfor)er0
+igure 901 Earth fault
.b.the su) of the resistance of the cables of the 'er)anent &iring and the i)'edance of the accidental contact bet&een the t&o cables the latter generall.to a)ount to a short circuit0 A fault to earth occurs if through so)e defect the line conductor beco)es connected to earthed )etal&or/0 2he effect is si)ilar to a short circuit. na)el.that the conductor )ight touch e('osed )etal and give a shoc/ to an-one touching the )etal0 *f the fault that connects the line and neutral has so)e i)'edance the current flo&ing through the fault and conductors is less than the current in a short circuit of negligible i)'edance0 *t is still li/el. it can still be high enough to be dangerous0 A fault in the internal &iring of a )otor can also cause an electrical overload. therefore. an overload and a fault to earth0 *f through a fault in the &iring or in an a''liance the line or 'hase and neutral conductors beco)e connected.sound. and although it is not as high as a short circuit current. an earth fault &ill0 We can see this b. ter)ed e('osed conductive 'arts. carries a higher current than it has been designed for. &hich &ould nor)all.
transfor)er voltage *O+ault current flo&ing H$Ototal i)'edance fro) line connection of su''l.are referred to in British Standard 3%3 and in the *EE . overloads and earth faults &ithout referring to the various 'rotective devices &hich can be used0 2o )a/e our account intelligible &e 'ro'ose first of all to describe the devices available and then go on to discuss ho& the. and the voltage dro' bet&een A and B &ill be *HcODocHcAHs0 5o& HcAHs is li/el.to be of the order of %04 to %0!.transfor)er through line conductor.Protection
5o& let DocO?'en circuit su''l.are a''lied in 'ractice0 .this na)e that the. so that on a Doc of 24%= the )etal case at A &ill be raised to about 1%%=0 We cannot e('lain ho& electrical circuits in buildings are 'rotected against short circuits.e&irable fuse
.egulations BS " "10
+igure 902 . their correct na)e is se)i< enclosed fuses. and it is b.e&irable fuses 2he earliest 'rotective device consisted of a thin fuse cable held bet&een ter)inals in a 'orcelain or ba/elite holder0 *t is illustrated in +igure 9020 *t is inserted in the circuit being 'rotected and the siBe of fuse cable is )atched to the rating of the circuit0 2he fuse is designed so that if the current e(ceeds the rated current of the circuit the fuse cable )elts and interru'ts the circuit0 Although co))onl.called re&irable fuses. fault and the circuit 'rotective conductor to earth connection at su''ltransfor)er HcOi)'edance of earth 'ath fro) fault bac/ to earth connection HsO2otal i)'edance of the fault circuit0 2hen the current flo&ing &ill be DocAH s.
76.large current flo&s the fuse cable )elts ver. the silica filler absorbs the energ-0 +uses of this t-'e are /no&n variousl. and finall.the arc e(tinguishes and the circuit is co)'letel. after &hich there is an arc bet&een the ends of the bro/en ele)ent.short0
+igure 903 Cartridge fuse
. as cartridge fuses0
?'eration of fuses Both re&irable and cartridge fuses &or/ in a si)ilar &a-0 2he current heats the fuse ele)ent until the latter )elts.a 'ac/ing of inert fibrous or granular )aterial &ound &ith cable.interru'ted0 2he ti)e ta/en for the fuse to )elt de'ends on the )agnitude of the current.large overcurrents &hen the total o'erating ti)e is ver. the 'oint in the alternating c-cle of su''l.a closel.C fuses
2he re&irable fuse has li)ited brea/ing ca'acit-0 *f a ver. /no&n as the arcing ti)e0 2he arcing ti)e varies &ith the 'o&er factor and transient characteristics of the circuit.can be absorbed b.ra'idl. or 're<arcing. and this led to the develo')ent of the cartridge fuse.and a large a)ount of energ. the voltage. of significant length e(ce't for ver.as high ru'turing ca'acit.'ac/ed silica filler and the &hole is contained in a cera)ic casing0 When the fuse ele)ent )elts.76BC8 fuses or. ho&ever.C8 or high brea/ing ca'acit. and a fuse &ill have a characteristic curve of ti)e against current0 A set of such characteristic curves is sho&n in +igure 9040 2he total o'erating ti)e is the su) of the )elting. ti)e and the ti)e during &hich there is an arc. or blo&s.Design of electrical services for buildings 6. less technicall-. illustrated in +igure 9030 2he fuse ele)ent is )ounted bet&een t&o end ca's &hich for) the ter)inals of the co)'lete fuse lin/0 2he fuse ele)ent is surrounded b.is released0 *t can be large enough to cause serious da)age to the fuse carrier0 *t &as found that so)e of this energ.at &hich the arcing co))ences and on so)e other factors0 *t is not.
the )anufacturer as the current &hich the fuse &ill carr. that is to sa.C fuses
2he )ini)u) fusing current is the )ini)u) current at &hich a fuse &ill )elt.Protection
+igure 904 2i)e<current characteristics of 6.and other si)ilar ter)s0 2he fusing factor is the ratio
When a short circuit occurs.is given b-
&here WO)elting energiOinstantaneous current .Oinstantaneous resistance of that 'art of ele)ent &hich )elts on short circuit tOti)e
.the as-)'totic value of the current sho&n on the ti)e<current characteristics0 2he current rating is the nor)al current0 *t is the current stated b.&ithout deterioration0 *t is also referred to as current carr-ing ca'acit.continuousl. the )elting 'rocess is adiabatic and the )elting energ.
Design of electrical services for buildings
t)O)elting ti)e0 .'assing through the circuit before the circuit is bro/en and it is 'articularl.in the sa)e )anner &ith i and t for all short circuits and the 4uantit-
+igure 90! Short circuit l2t characteristics
is a''ro(i)atel. is assu)ed to var.i)'ortant in the 'rotection of se)iconductor circuits and the reduction of overheating in 'o&er circuits0 2-'ical *2t characteristics are sho&n in +igure 90!0 ?scillogra)s of the o'eration of a fuse are sho&n in +igure 90 0
.constant for the 're<arcing ti)e of a fuse0 *t is often called the 'rearcing *2t0 *t is this 4uantit.&hich deter)ines the a)ount of e(cess energ.
and instantaneous tri''ing above that level0 An alternative design has a bi<)etal ele)ent &hich is heated b.designing the bi<)etal to run at a relativel. the s'eed of travel de'ending on the )agnetic force and.Protection
CB An alternative to a fuse ele)ent &hich )elts &hen overheated is a circuit brea/er0 A circuit brea/er 7CB8 is one &hich has a rating si)ilar to that of a fuse and is about the sa)e 'h-sical siBe as a fuse carrier of the sa)e rating0 A t-'ical circuit brea/er is sho&n in +igure 90"0 *t has a )agnetic h-draulic ti)e dela-.s'ring /ee's the slug at one end of the tube 7a80 When an overload occurs.&hich it can be o'erated )anuall-0 2his s&itch is thro&n into the off 'osition &hen the overload device tri's the
. 7b80 As the slug a''roaches the other end of the tube the air ga's in the )agnetic circuit are reduced and the )agnetic force is increased until it is great enough to tri' the circuit brea/er.fitted iron slug0 Dnder nor)al o'erating conditions the ti)e dela.overload or a co)'lete short circuit occurs.have to be de<rated to 'revent their tri''ing before an overload occurs0 2he effect of a)bient te)'erature can. and the essential co)'onent is a sealed tube filled &ith silicone fluid &hich contains a closel.the circuit current and o'erates the tri' catch &hen it deflects0 A si)'le )agnetic coil is included to tri' the catch on short circuit. therefore.)a.high te)'erature0 2-'ical ti)e<current characteristics of CBs are given in +igure 90#0 2he CB has a toggle s&itch b. the heat fro) the currents 'assing through all the circuits in the board &ill raise the te)'erature inside the enclosure0 2her)all. be reduced and the need for de<rating obviated b.in s'ite of the large air ga's in the )agnetic circuit. the )agnetic force is sufficient to tri' the circuit brea/er instantaneousl. ho&ever.'ro'ortional to the )agnitude of the overload0 When a heav. 7c80 With this )echanis) the ti)e ta/en to tri' is inversel.o'erated CBs used in this &a.tri''ing is achieved u' to about seven ti)es rated current.the a)bient te)'erature0 *f several CBs are )ounted inside a closed distribution board. 7d80 *n this &a-. the )agnetic 'ull of the coil surrounding the tube increases. ti)e dela. on the siBe of the current. so that the resulting characteristic is si)ilar to that of the )agnetic< h-draulic t-'e0 2he ther)al<)agnetic t-'e is liable to be affected b. and the slug )oves through the tube.
Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 90 o'eration
?scillogra)s of fuse
+igure 90" Circuit brea/er
CD is sho&n in +igure 9090 2he load current through the circuit is fed through t&o e4ual and o''osing coils &ound on a co))on transfor)er core0 ?n a health. for e(a)'le. one )a.circuit. it is 'ossible to dis'ense &ith a se'arate ban/ of s&itches0 .&ant to control the lights for a large area fro) a ban/ of s&itches at a single 'oint0 *f a distribution board &ith CBs is 'laced at this 'oint.used is the residual current device 7. )ore current flo&s in
+igure 90# 2i)e<current curves for CBs
brea/er.CD Another device fre4uentl.CB?s0 2he 'rinci'le of the . and in so)e cases this is a ver.useful and econo)ic 'rocedure0 *n a factor. the line and neutral currents are the sa)e and 'roduce e4ual and o''osing flu(es in the transfor)er core0 6o&ever.the sa)e s&itch0 CBs can.esidual current devices &hich do incor'orate overcurrent 'rotection are referred to as . therefore. if there is an earth fault. and the CB is reset b. co)bine the functions of s&itch and fuse.CD80 2his is a circuit brea/er &hich detects a current lea/ing to earth and uses this lea/age current to o'erate the tri''ing )echanis)0 2he lea/age current is a residual current and gives the device its na)e0 *t should be noted here that this device &ill not 'rotect against short circuit and overload0 .
esidual current device
2he value ado'ted for the rated tri''ing current.)a. b.CDs are )anufactured &ith electronic circuitr.Design of electrical services for buildings
the line than returns in the neutral.in3ecting a test current b-'assing one of the 'rinci'al coils0 A resistor li)its the )agnitude of the test current so that the test also chec/s the sensitivit.'ossibilit.be in a seldo)<accessed 'lace0 *solating transfor)ers *n so)e a''lications a double<&ound transfor)er can achieve ade4uate 'rotection for the s-ste) on its secondar. and this in turn o'erates the rela.is not earthed and the construction of the transfor)er is carefull.&indings0 2he voltage bet&een the line and return connections of the secondar.&hich si)ulates the above o'eration0
+igure 909 .and 'ri)ar.CD itself0 2he origin of the su''l. is a )a(i)u) of 3%)A for 'rotection against electric shoc/0 2he unit al&a-s includes a test button &hich si)ulates an out<of<balance condition b.and tri's the brea/er0 So)e .conductor0 *t is a re4uire)ent of BS " "1 that if an installation incor'orates one of these devices a notice shall be fi(ed near the origin of the su''l.the o'eration of the test button0 2his is to ensure that the )echanical 'arts are /e't o'erational0 2he author reco))ends that a notice be also fi(ed near to the .of contact bet&een the secondar.designed to 'revent an.side0 2he secondar.is fi(ed.other fi(ed
. but does not chec/ the soundness of the earth continuit.stating that the device shall be tested 4uarterl-.of the brea/er0 *t should be noted that the test s&itch chec/s the o'eration of the residual current circuit brea/er. and the line coil 'roduces a bigger flu( than the neutral coil0 2here is thus a resultant or residual flu( &hich induces a current in the search coil. but because no 'art of it is earthed or connected to an. &hich is defined as the out<of<balance current at &hich the circuit brea/er &ill tri' in less than %01s.
or the one can be at 12%= above earth and the other at 12%= belo& earth. or 'rotect against faults0 We have no& revie&ed the e4ui')ent that is available to 'rotect electrical installations in buildings and can go on to consider the nature of the 'rotection that is needed0
+igure 9011 Wrong use of isolating transfor)er
Ca'acit. the voltage relative to earth is 4uite undeter)ined0 *n other &ords the line can be at 23%= above earth and the return at earth.it has to 'erfor) have been e('lained in Cha'ter 40 2here is no need to be &orried about the effects of a fault on the voltage dro'1 it is the high current that has to be guarded against0 2he 'rotection has to safeguard the circuit against overcurrent. or an. therefore the follo&ing e('ression )ust be satisfied
.&hich a cable is siBed for the dut. the line is brought i))ediatel. or the line can be at earth and the return at 23%= belo& earth.to earth 'otential and the return dro's to 24%= belo& earth0 2he sa)e thing ha''ens if through a fault in an a''liance a conductor touches earthed )etal0 2his 'revents danger of shoc/0 *t is i)'ortant to note that the s-ste) &ill not ensure safet.of circuit 2he )ethods b. if an-one in contact &ith earthed )etal touches the line conductor.current higher than the rating of the cable0 5o& the cable rating 7*B8 )ust be rated e4ual to or greater than the no)inal current rating of the 'rotective device 7*n80 Also the no)inal current rating of the 'rotective device )ust be rating e4ual to or greater than the nor)al current of the circuit concerned 7*b8.no 'ossibilit.Protection
'oint.if )ore than one a''liance is fed fro) the transfor)er0 +igure 9011 sho&s t&o a''liances near so)e earthed )etal&or/0 Su''ose a fault develo's at A0 2he line conductor &ill be held at earth 'otential and the return conductor &ill be at )ains voltage belo& earth0 2he circuit continues in o'eration and there is no& no 'rotection against a second fault occurring at another 'oint such as B0 2he chief use of isolating transfor)ers is in shaver units fi(ed in bathroo)s to su''lelectric raBors0 2here is 'racticall.other co)bination0 2hus. and an overcurrent is an.of t&o inde'endent faults occurring in such an a''lication0 +or other a''lications the s-ste) )ust be erected so as to 'revent faults.
but are of less conse4uence to the designer of the services &ithin a building0 +or the designer. the relative loading of the 'hases &ithin the net&or/ and &hether the su''l.the fault current0 *n +igure 9012. that a fused connection unit is installed &henever a single branch is ta/en off a ring )ain. &hile the
.distribution co)'an-.side &ill be 14%%%A.the usual situation in urban installations &here the consu)er.'oint at &hich a s)aller cable branches fro) a larger one there )ust be a 'rotective device to safeguard the s)aller cable0 *n conventional s-ste)s. then the 'ros'ective earth fault current is given b.reactive. it is found that the reactance of the transfor)er sets an u''er li)it to the fault current that can flo&0 2hus if a nor)al !%%/=A transfor)er is short circuited.cable in a 'er)anent installation in a building )ust be 'rotected if it is liable to be sub3ected to overload or short circuit0 2he 'rotective device )ust not have a current rating greater than that of the cable.s 'ur'oses the si)'le 'rocedure described here is ade4uate and )ore co)'licated considerations need not be ta/en into account in selecting the 'rotection devices to be used &ithin the building0 2he 'ros'ective current is defined as the . &hich &ould flo& in the circuit if the fuse &ere not there.co)es through a transfor)er or directl.the use of s&itchgear and distribution boards &here a )ain divides into t&o or )ore sub<)ains and &here a sub<)ain divides into a nu)ber of final circuits0 *t is also because ever. and is therefore al&a-s referred to as reactance0 *n 'ractice. &hereas the cut<off current is defined as the instantaneous current at cut<off0 2hese definitions 'roduce the 'arado( that the nu)erical value of the cut<off current )a. the 'ath at the re)ote end of the circuit.voltage is Doc and the i)'edance of this 'ath is Hs. and in )ost cases it &ill have a rating either e4ual to or onl.s cable. &hich is earthed at the transfor)er end as on a 25<S s-ste)0 *f the su''l.'lotted on the ti)e<current characteristics of fuses and circuit brea/ers is that /no&n as the 'ros'ective fault current0 2his is the current. is indicated b.net&or/. the current on the secondar.branch has to be 'rotected. the fuse &ill o'en the circuit before this 'ros'ective current is reached1 the fuse is said to cut off and the instantaneous current attained is called the cut off current0 2he &ave for) of the 'ros'ective fault current de'ends on the 'osition of the fault &ithin the &hole of the su''l. this is 'rovided b. and the fuse at the origin does not 'rotect the s'ur0
+ault currents 2he current nor)all.s earth 'oint is connected to the sheath of the electricit.be greater than the nu)erical value of the 'ros'ective current0 2he 'ros'ective earth fault current is deter)ined b. and a short circuit or earth fault current occurred0 *t is indicated as a dotted line in +igure 90 0 *n 'ractice.3ust less than that of the cable0 *t follo&s that at ever.a<b<c<d<f<g<a0 2he figure sho&s diagra))aticall.s-ste).voltage and the i)'edance of the 'ath ta/en b.fro) a local generator0 2hese 4uestions can be of i)'ortance to the engineer concerned &ith 'rotecting a 'ublic su''l.the su''l.Design of electrical services for buildings *BU*nU*b
2he guiding 'rinci'le to be follo&ed is that ever.*fODocAHs0 2he total i)'edance Hs is )ade u' of the i)'edance of the transfor)er and the i)'edance of all the cables in the 'ath0 2he i)'edance of a transfor)er is al)ost entirel.9S value of the alternating co)'onent.
the )anufacturers in their catalogues0 *nfor)ation is also given in the *EE >uidance 5ote 1.4uite lo&.Protection
corres'onding figure for a "!%/=A transfor)er is 21%%%A0 2hese are average figures for t-'ical transfor)ers and ignore the i)'edance of the su''l.factor0 2he resistance of the service cable and its sheath is usuall.side of standard transfor)ers0
. the leading )a/ers of fuses and CBs 'rovide in their catalogues tables and gra'hs sho&ing the 'ros'ective fault currents &ith different lengths of cable on the secondar. but even a short length of a final circuit cable )a/es a great reduction in the 'ros'ective fault current0 +or e(a)'le 2%) of 10!))2 cable in an installation su''lied fro) a "!%/=A transfor)er &ill li)it the fault current to 1%%%A0
+igure 9012a +ault currents
+igure 9012b +ault currents
Data on cable resistance are given b.therefore include a s)all hidden safet.s-ste) on the 'ri)ar. and the ?n<Site >uide.side of the transfor)er0 2he.
the discri)ination &ould 'robabl. so that the further a&a.be calculated b. the actual fault current &ill be less than the 'ros'ective one0 When a fault occurs on an a''liance the cables of the final circuit 'la.it )a.adding the actual i)'edance of the fault bet&een d and e to the i)'edance used for calculating the 'ros'ective earth fault current. sa-. of a lo& i)'edance fault i))ediatel.and the final outlet0 *deall-.an i)'ortant 'art in li)iting the fault current0 5evertheless. the lo&er &ill be the fault current0 *f the fault current at the distribution board is.has so)e i)'edance.Design of electrical services for buildings
2he fault itself usuall.be acce'table even for a fault level at the board of 3%%%A0 2he 'ossibilit.fro) the distribution board a fault occurs.soon after the board0 A fault on the board &ould blo& the board fuse but a fault on the final circuit an. and &hen the un&anted converse situation ha''ens it is said that discri)ination is lost0 +igure 9013 sho&s the ti)e<current characteristic for a CB serving a final circuit and for a %A 6BC fuse 'rotecting the sub<)ain leading to the distribution board on &hich the CB is )ounted0 *f the fault current is less than 12%%A. it &ill fall belo& this along the final circuit fro) the board and &ill dro' to 12%%A fairl. &e sa. and as the total actual i)'edance &ill thus be higher than that of the co)'lete short circuit assu)ed in calculating the 'ros'ective current.load side of the fuse or circuit brea/er0 *t is this fault &hich.be acce'ted0
.the device nearest the fault o'erates0 2he others should not react and should re)ain in circuit to go on su''l-ing other health. the CB &ill o'en first0 *f the fault current is greater than this. there is no discri)ination0 *f there is discri)ination at the load end of the final circuit but not for a fault a short &a. the 6BC fuse &ill blo& before the CB can o'erate0 2he resistance of the cables of the final circuit reduces the fault current.of a fault at the board is s)all and the actual fault currents to be cleared &ill al)ost certainl. even if a s)all one. ho&ever unli/el. there is al&a-s the 'ossibilit-. the 'rotective devices should be graded so that &hen a fault occurs.be that it &ill ha''en. onl.be due to faults at a''liances0 Provided discri)ination is )aintained for these faults. 2%%%A.circuits0 Discri)ination is said to ta/e 'lace &hen the s)aller fuse o'ens before the larger fuse0 2his is the desired state of affairs. so that the actual fault current is less than the 'ros'ective fault current0 2he 'ros'ective earth fault current is calculated on the assu)'tion that the i)'edance of the fault in +igure 9012 is Bero0 2he actual fault current could theoreticall.distance fro) the board &ould leave the board intact and o'en the CB0 2he discri)ination is said to be acce'table0 *f the fault current at the su''l.end of the final circuit is so high that the 6BC fuse al&a-s o'ens before the CB. there is a series of fuses and circuit brea/ers bet&een the inco)ing su''l.the discri)ination is not acce'table0 With the characteristic curves of +igure 9013. &ill 'roduce the highest 'ossible fault current and it is this fault &ith &hich the 'rotection )ust be ca'able of dealing0 Discri)ination *n an installation having the t-'e of distribution described in Cha'ter . its loss on the rare occasions &hen a fault occurs on the 'er)anent &iring close to the board can 'robabl.along of the final circuit.
a fault on a 32A fused final circuit &ould cause the 32A fuse to o'erate first.Protection
+igure 9013 Discri)ination
*n general. or Cbulrush. there is a ti)e re4uired for a cartridge fuse ele)ent to heat u' and start to )elt0 2his is ter)ed the 'rearcing ti)e0 When the fuse ele)ent begins to )elt. or an a''ro'riate )i(ture of CBs and fuses0 *t can be seen fro) +igures 904 and 90! that a fuse &ill al&a-s discri)inate against another fuse of a larger rating0 A 2G1 rule of thu)b for fuses is so)eti)es used0 2hat is. if it &as bac/ed u' on the distribution circuit b.a fuse of at least %A0 9anufacturers 'roduce Clolli'o'. discri)ination is a 'roble) onl. gra'hs to co)'are the relative energies let through b.certain devices0 As &as 'reviousl. being interru'ted.described.be interru'ted0 2he total o'erating *2t of the
. the overcurrent. &ill cause an arc across the )elting ele)ent0 2he overcurrent &ill eventuall.&hen a s-ste) uses all the sa)e devices.
is released &hen a circuit is bro/en. to o'erate. it is usual to refer to brea/ing ca'acit.a fuseboard.Ca. or Cb. &as fitted. in &hich either fuse Ca.to s'ecif.0 *f fuse Cc.in a)'eres0 6o&ever.)ust be absorbed b.a circuit brea/er0 2his energ.in 9=A. in +igure 9014 &as used to su''l. but the total energ. it is co))on to refer to brea/ing ca'acit.brea/0 2he brea/ing ca'acit.is defined as the )a(i)u) current that can be bro/en at a rated voltage0 *n s&itchgear 'ractice.and bac/<u' 'rotection A certain a)ount of energ.'o&er factor0 +uses and circuit brea/ers are rated at the voltage of the su''l. a fault on either circuit &ould cause the lesser fuse to o'erate &ithout being in the arcing sector *2t of fuse Cc. to be in its arcing sector. &hether 9=A or a)'eres are used.to do so li)its the current &hich the device can safel.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 9014 $olli'o' gra'h
fuse is the su) of the 're<arcing *2t and the arcing *2t0 +or 'ro'er discri)ination to occur the total o'erating *2t of the fuse re4uired to o'erate )ust not be greater than the 're< arcing *2t of the u'strea) fuse0 *f fuse Cb.so close to unit. &hether b. a fault on the circuit su''lied b.a fuse or b. &ould cause fuse Ca. but for the fuses and circuit brea/ers used in building services.a fuseboard in &hich fuse Ca. &as used to su''l.'o&er factor that it is hardl.&hich in the D: is either 23%= or 4%%=. &as fitted.necessar.let through &ould cause fuse Cb. and therefore the
.the device brea/ing the circuit. the state)ent of brea/ing ca'acit. thus &ea/ening the fuse Cb. and the ca'acit.is inco)'lete unless it contains the voltage and 'o&er factor at &hich it a''lies0 *n building services. in 'ractice faults are invariabl.0 2hese lolli'o' gra'hs )ust be consulted on high fault currents &here the fuse &ill o'erate in %01s or less0 Brea/ing ca'acit.
and is 'rovided b.C fuses to BS 13 1G19"1 have a brea/ing ca'acit. the final circuit fuse )ust still discri)inate against the sub<)ain fuse0 *n other &ords.bac/<u' 'rotection.of the final circuit fuse is such that no bac/<u' 'rotection is needed.bro/en0 *n such a case bac/<u' 'rotection is re4uired. and a CB &ith a brea/ing ca'acit.of 1 !%%A at %03 'o&er factor &hen rated at 24%= and of 33%%%A at %03 'o&er factor &hen rated at 41!=0 6. 1!%%A.the fuse or circuit brea/er )ust have a brea/ing ca'acit.of the CB the bac/<u' fuse does not act0 Bac/<u' 'rotection and discri)ination are closel.less than the )a(i)u) 'ros'ective fault current0 As an e(a)'le.ti)es as is stated in the s'ecification for the device0 *t )a. before the
state)ent of voltage can be ta/en for granted0 2hus in s'ite of &hat has been said in the last 'aragra'h brea/ing ca'acit.of 3%%%A 7*cs 30%8.at least e4ual to the )a(i)u) 'ros'ective fault current0 2he brea/ing ca'acit. but the. &hilst the fault current for a short circuit on the &iring &ithin a short distance of the board is 4%%%A0 2he for)er is the onl. discri)ination is still needed even &hen bac/<u' 'rotection is not0 Since discri)ination is al&a-s needed it )ust also acco)'an. it could be that the fault current for a dead short circuit on an a''liance at the end of a final circuit is.give discri)ination0 *t is 4uite 'ossible to choose the bac/<u' fuse so that it blo&s. &ith the arrange)ent of +igure 9013.fault &hich is 'robable.interru't that current once.is greater than the CB can handle the bac/<u' fuse blo&s0 *f on the other hand the fault current is &ithin the ca'acit.connected. the CB &ould suffer da)age and the &iring )ight also be da)aged before the circuit &as full.of a re&ireable fuse.is often 4uoted in a)'eres onl-. and &ill no longer be serviceable0 At the lo&er value *cs the device &ill brea/ that current as )an.&ith the age of the fuse cable0 As an a''ro(i)ation it can be ta/en to be of the order of 3%%% to 4%%%A for the largest t-'es of re&ireable fuse0 6.end of the sub<)ain distribution circuit0 2he fuse li)its the )a(i)u) fault energ-G if the fault current and.often be convenient to use a brea/ing device &hich has brea/ing ca'acit. for safet. sa-.to give an e(act figure for the brea/ing ca'acit.of cases the )a(i)u) 'ros'ective fault current &ill not in fact be reached.on the characteristics of the fuse but also on the nature of the fault current and the 'oint in the alternating su''l.the 6BC fuse at the su''l.c-cle at &hich the fault occurs and the fuse starts to act0 Although in the )a3orit. because it de'ends on the t-'e of fuse carrier or fuse holder used and the e(act co)'osition of the fuse cable and also because it is liable to var.*cn )eans that the device &ill onl.of the various devices used in 'rotection is of so)e i)'ortance and )ust be ta/en into account &hen a selection has to be )ade bet&een different devices and sche)es of 'rotection0 *t is not eas. the fault energ. &ithout further state)ent0 2he cut<off current de'ends not onl.C fuses to BS E5 ## have a )a(i)u) brea/ing ca'acit.of #%:A0 CBs to BS E5 %#9# used on distribution boards to 'rotect final circuits generallhave a t&o brea/ing ca'acities0 2he higher ca'acit. )ight &ell be considered a suitable for) of 'rotection0 *f this &ere installed and the 'ossible fault of 4%%%A occurred and the CB &ere left to clear it.are not the sa)e thing0 Even if the brea/ing ca'acit. but it does not follo& that the 'rovision of bac/<u' 'rotection &ill auto)aticall.brea/ing ca'acit. therefore.
a 3%A 6BC fuse &ill carr. &e can sa.do not 'rovide real 'rotection against sustained lo&<level overloads0 +or e(a)'le.'rotection against the faults that )a.arise0 ?verload 'rotection +uses and CBs react to short circuits and thus 'rovide 'rotection against their conse4uences0 6o&ever.an overload rela. ho&ever s)all the fault current.of the s)allest conductor in the circuit0 *f 'rotection against s)aller overloads than this is needed it has to be su''lied &ith the e4ui')ent &hich needs the 'rotection0 2he )ost usual case is that of an electric )otor &hich is 'rotected against overload b.Design of electrical services for buildings
distribution sub<circuit fuse.4%A for a long 'eriod0 2his )a.to the 'rotective device rating0 An electric )otor overloaded to this e(tent &ould ho&ever burn out0 2he *EE . their ti)e<current characteristics are such that the.egulations re4uire overload 'rotection &hich &ill o'erate before the current e(ceeds 104! ti)es the current<carr-ing ca'acit.have been siBed closel. the a)ount of deflection de'ending on the )agnitude of the current and the ti)e for &hich it flo&s0 When the deflection reaches a 'redeter)ined a)ount the bi<)etal o'erates the tri''ing )echanis). &hich o'ens the coil circuit.har) the cables of the 'er)anent &iring if the. and this in turn causes the )ain contacts to o'en0 Such an overload 'rotection has a ti)e<current characteristic of the for) sho&n in +igure 901!0 *t &ill be seen that the starter &ith this overload device
.in the )otor starter0 2he usual t-'e of overload rela.contains a heater ele)ent and a bi<)etal stri' in each )otor line conductor0 An e(cessive current causes the bi<)etal stri' to deflect.that fuses and CBs )ust be so chosen that bac/<u' 'rotection is 'rovided if it is needed and that discri)ination is al&a-s 'rovided0 We have described the e4ui')ent that is in 'ractice available to give 'rotection to electrical installations and &e have considered the nature and )agnitude of fault currents and the interaction of fuses and circuit brea/ers in series &ith each other0 :no&ing the 'robable faults and the e4ui')ent available &e can no& turn to consider ho& this e4ui')ent can be used to give satisfactor. and this &ould be bac/<u' 'rotection &ithout discri)ination0 *t is of course to be avoided0 Su))ing u'.
have a rating higher than the nor)al full load running current of the )otor0 9otor )anufacturers and starter )anufacturers 'rovide infor)ation &hich enables the fuse to be correctl.chosen0 2able 901 is a selection fro) such data0 *t is also no& co))on 'ractice for )anufacturers to 4uote a )otor rating for fuses1 this is the running current for &hich the fuse should be used0 2he arrange)ent of fuse.brea/ a short circuit0 +or this reason.the starting current for long enough for the )otor to run u' to s'eed0 2he fuse bac/ing u' the starter )ust.Protection
+igure 901! 9otor starter characteristics
&ill carr. the starter &hich 'rotects the )otor against overloads )ust itself be 'rotected b.a fuse to deal &ith short circuits0 2he fuse &ill at the sa)e ti)e 'rotect the 'er)anent &iring against short circuits0 5o& a fuse of the sa)e rating as the )otor &ill not carr. cables ab and cd are 'rotected against
. therefore. starter and )otor is sho&n in single line diagra))atic for) in +igure 901 0 $ogicall-.a starting current eight ti)es the full load current for s0 A fuse of the sa)e rating &ould not do this0 A )otor starter )ust be ca'able of o'erating several thousand ti)es in its &or/ing life0 A design &hich enables it to do so 'laces a li)it on the )agnitude of the current it can brea/0 2hus &hile it can deal &ith overloads it cannot safel.
&here there is a )otor starter incor'orating
. if a ver.)a. and da)age )ight result0 *n 'ractice.the overload device in the circuit0 +or e(a)'le. and to deter)ine if the starting current and starting ti)e &ill raise the te)'erature of the cable above the li)it value0 ?ne can.high resistance fault develo'ed on the cable bet&een a and b neither the fuse nor the starter &ould o'en the circuit. the chances of this ha''ening are so s)all that the.the fuse0 2he ti)e to raise the te)'erature of the cable to its li)it is given b.Design of electrical services for buildings
2able 901 +use ratings for )otor circuits
2-'e of starter
?verload release rating<a)'s
%0 to 102 10% to 20% 10! to 30% 20% to 40% 30% to 0% !0 to 1%0% 90% to 1!0% 130% to 1"0%
+using rating a)'s
! 1% 1% 1! 2% 3% 4% !% 1! 2% 3% 4% !%
40% to "0% 0% to 1%0% 90% to 1"0% 1 0% to 2 0% 220% to 2#0%
+igure 901 9otor 'rotection
overload b. and it )a.tO: 2S2A*20 2herefore &e can use the for)ula to deter)ine if the cable is 'rotected against short circuit. ta/e advantage of the fact that the starter 'rotects the cable as &ell as the )otor0 *n theor-. ho&ever.be done onl. &e can see fro) 2able 901 that a )otor &ith a running current of 3A and a starter overload set at 3A &ill need a bac/<u' fuse of 1!A0 2he cable is 'rotected against short circuit b.be neglected0 2he usual 'ractice is to )a/e cables ab and cd such that their current rating is e4ual to the )a(i)u) setting of the overload 'rotection device fitted in the starter0 2his is 'robablone of the fe& cases in &hich it is in order for the cable to have a rating less than that of the fuse 'rotecting it.
fuses and CBs react to short circuits0 *f the.a 'erson &ith a live conductor &hich is intended to carr.are to 'rovide 'rotection against faults to e('osed conductive 'arts.to touch casuall-0 2here is a circu)stance &here the ti)e to disconnect a soc/et circuit )a.a large e(cess current in the line conductor0 2his &ill ha''en onl.to have a fir)er gri' on a 'ortable a''liance 'lugged into a soc/et outlet than on a fi(ed a''liance &hich he is onl.egulations0 2his causes all e(traneous conductive 'arts connected to the )ain earthing ter)inal to raise in 'otential.&hich this is done are /no&n as )ain e4ui'otential bonding conductors and )ethods for deter)ining its siBe are given in the *EE .the fact that the case is earthed and that a 'rotective device &ill disconnect the circuit as soon as a fault current flo&s to earth0 *t is 'ossible that a fault of this t-'e &ill occur &hile a 'erson is holding an a''liance0 *n that case he &ill be sub3ected to a dangerous 'otential during the ti)e it ta/es for the 'rotective device to o'erate and disconnect the su''l-0 +or this reason BS " "1 sti'ulates the ti)e in &hich the device )ust o'erate. &hen a fault occurs on a circuit.li/el.fi(ed e4ui')ent0 2he reason for the difference is that a 'erson is li/el. &here the heater is &or/ing or it is not0 2he circuit )ust ho&ever be 'rotected against short circuit0 Protection of 'ersons Peo'le using the building have to be 'rotected against electric shoc/0 2he. ter)ed e(traneous conductive 'arts.current but have beco)e live as a result of a fault0 Such a fault is indicated in +igure 9012a0 When it occurs. na)el.current in nor)al o'eration0 2he nor)al 'rotection against this is the 'rovision of insulation on all current<carr-ing cables.the fault current is lo&
.ca)e into contact &ith live 'arts. and in considering 'rotection a distinction is )ade bet&een direct and indirect contact0 Direct contact is contact b. or a central heating radiator0 2o avoid danger arising in this &a.Protection
an overload rela-0 ?ne other case is &here an overload cannot occur.&ould get a shoc/ if the. the &iring )ust be such that the fault 'roduces the sa)e conditions as a short circuit. &hich is %04s for 23%= circuits serving soc/et outlets and !s for circuits serving onl.if the i)'edance of the 'ath ta/en b. creating an e4ui'otential Bone0 Earth 'rotection As &e have seen.to handle is raised to&ards line 'otential and &ill cause a shoc/ if it is touched b. such as on an i))ersion heater circuit.all e(traneous conductive 'arts )ust be lin/ed 7bonded8 to the )ain earthing ter)inal of the installation0 2he conductors b.be increased to !s0 A current &ould also flo& through a 'erson if he ca)e into contact &ith t&o se'arate 'ieces of )etal at different 'otentials0 *n the event of a fault such a 'otential difference could e(ist bet&een the e('osed )etal case of an electrical a''liance and earthed )etal&or/ &hich is not 'art of the electrical s-ste). the )etal case of an a''liance &hich a 'erson is li/el. such as structural steel&or/. and enclosing ter)inals and connections *ndirect contact is contact &ith e('osed conductive 'arts &hich are not intended to carr.so)eone using the a''liance0 Protection is 'rovided b.
egulations give details of the )a(i)u) earth fault loo' i)'edance &hich can be allo&ed to ensure o'eration &ithin the re4uired ti)es for fuses. at the 'resent ti)e in urban areas &here the electricit.to 'revent danger is to bond the t&o sets of )etal&or/ together0 We have alread.in achieving an earth loo' i)'edance of less than 10%oh)0 *t )a. and is ter)ed an e(traneous<conductive<'art. and nearb.necessar-.)entioned this in Cha'ter 0 *n an. but it can certainl.reason the earth loo' i)'edance cannot be )ade lo& enough it beco)es necessar.of 'rotecting against earth faults b.the use of a se'arate circuit 'rotective conductor0 Because of the need for lo& earth i)'edances se'arate 'rotective conductors should no&ada-s al&a-s be used on ne& installations0 Although not strictl.'roduce a short circuit and.connecting the )ain earthing ter)inal to the su''l.CB?s0 Since an earth fault raises e('osed conductive 'arts above earth 'otential it creates the 'ossibilit. is earthed and the earth 'ath is designed to have lo& i)'edance0 When a fault occurs.'roduce a current large enough to o'erate the fuse or brea/er 4uic/l-0 2o achieve this. CBs and . therefore. and is not 'art of the electrical installation.be long enough to cause danger of electric shoc/0 ?ne &a. o'erate the fuse or circuit brea/er has been described as Cchasing the a)'ere. could conceivablbeco)e live. in the event of so)e fault.'erha's not be 'ossible to do this as long as steel conduit is relied on as the earth return 'ath.egulations re4uire the )ain earth ter)inal at the inco)ing su''l.the regulations0 *f for an.inta/e to be bonded to the )etal&or/ as sho&n in +igure 9012b.'rovides an effective earth to the sheath of the service cable 725<S8. and because of the lo& i)'edance in the earth fault loo' 'ath.)a/ing sure that the. of an. current flo&s through circuit 'rotective conductors to earth.gas or &ater services as near as 'ossible to the 'oint at &hich those services enter the building0 2he 'olic.event the *EE . since the cross<sectional area of conduit is )ore than ade4uate to satisf. the current is large enough to o'erate the 'rotective device0 *t )ust also be large enough to o'erate the device &ithin the ti)e sti'ulated above0 2he .be done b.)etal&or/ such as structural )etal&or/. the o'erating ti)e of the fuse or CB )a.co)'an. circuit ratings and their fuse ratings are beco)ing ever higher and the short circuit current needed to o'erate the fuse or circuit brea/er beco)es higher0 2hus ever<lo&er values are re4uired for earth loo' i)'edances and the fault currents &hich the fuses have to brea/ beco)e higher0 2he o'inion has been e('ressed that this )ethod of 'rotection &ill not be able to /ee' 'ace &ith the conse4uences of increasing electrical loading0 6o&ever. all e('osed )etal&or/ &hich.of a voltage e(isting bet&een such )etal.neutral 725<C<S8 there is no difficult.Design of electrical services for buildings
enough0 2he 'ath is indicated b. and not affected b.the fault and therefore still at earth 'otential0 Although the fuse or CB &ill clear the fault. and so raises the )etal to a dangerous 'otential0 *f a fuse or CB is to be used to clear a fault of this nature.CD &hich &ill o'erate on an earth fault current of 3%)A &ill react on a 23%= circuit even if the earth loo' i)'edance
.a<b<c<d<f<g<a in +igure 9012aAb and is /no&n as the earth fault loo' 'ath1 its i)'edance is /no&n as the earth fault loo' i)'edance0 An earth fault occurs &hen a 'hase conductor touches e('osed )etal&or/ of an installation ter)ed an e('osed conductive 'art. that is to sare)ove it. &hich introduces earth 'otential.to use a residual current circuit brea/er0 An .0 With ever<increasing de)and for electricit-. or b. then the fault )ust i))ediatel.
the volts dro' d<f &ould be DdNfO*f@HdNf DdNfO4%%@%02O#%= 2he 'otential of the )ain earthing ter)inal &ill be DocN7DaNcVDdNf8 24%N7#%V#%8O#%= above earth 'otential 5o& &ith the )ain e4ui'otential bonding in 'lace. the 'erson &ould receive a 1 %= shoc/0 5o& consider +igure 9012b.Protection
is 4#%oh)s and it is inconceivable that values an-thing li/e as high as this &ould ever be found on a 'ractical installation0 2e)'orar. that is #%=0 2herefore an-one in contact &ith the faulted 'iece of e4ui')ent and the central heating radiator &ould receive a shoc/ voltage e4ual to the 'otential difference bet&een the faulted 'iece of the
.CD is used0 2his can be sho&n b. is %01V%01V%02V%02O%0 W0 *fODocAHs &here Doc is the o'en circuit voltage of the transfor)er.reference to +igure 9012aAb0 Su''ose the earth return 'ath f<g did not e(ist.a 'erson si)ultaneousl. and it is ver. this could be an-thing u' to al)ost full line voltage0 We refer -et again to +igure 9012a0 *f &e assu)e that the i)'edance of the transfor)er &inding is negligible. connected through the fault to the conductor at d. the voltage of the central heating radiator &ill be the sa)e as the )ain earthing ter)inal.to have higher earth loo' i)'edance 'aths than 'er)anent ones. &ould be at a 'otential given b-
and de'ending on the relative i)'edances of the various 'arts of the earth fault loo' i)'edance 'ath.co))on to use earth lea/age 'rotection for the te)'orar&iring on building sites.&hen an . the value of the earth fault loo' 'ath Hs. &ith the )ain e4ui'otential bonding in 'lace0 Assu)ing the earth fault current re)ained the sa)e as &ithout bonding. the fault current &ould be *fO24%A%0 O4%%A and the 'otential dro' DaNcO*f@HaNc DaNcO4%%@7%01V%018O#%= fro) a to c is
2he voltage of the e('osed conductive 'art &ill be 24%<#%O1 %= above earth *f the faulted 'iece of e4ui')ent is touched b. 'articularl. then nor)al current &ould flo& through a<b<c<e<g<a and there &ould be no i)balance bet&een line and neutral for a current o'erated CB to detect0 5evertheless the e('osed )etal&or/.&ith the central heating radiator.installations are li/el.in rural areas0 *t should be noticed that earthing of e('osed )etal&or/ is still necessar.
conductor and brea/ the )ain circuit if the earth continuit. a section of the )etallic housing of the a''liance. &hich is 1 %=N#%=O#%=0 Bonding has reduced this fro) a value &ithout bonding of 1 %=0 2he reason for e4ui'otential bonding is to create an e4ui'otential Bone0 E('osed conductive 'arts are earthed to cause ra'id disconnection0 *t is i)'ortant to differentiate bet&een earthing and e4ui'otential bonding0 *t &ould be counter<'roductive to bond 'lastic 'i'e&or/ and ite)s of )etal&or/ such as alu)iniu) &indo& fra)es that do not introduce a 'otential in the &orst case0 2he values of i)'edance of the earth fault loo' 'ath are for e('lanation onl.and are not )eant to be t-'ical0 *f the conditions 'revent the use of fuses and circuits brea/ers.CD to be used to 'rotect a soc/et outlet &hich is intended for 'ortable e4ui')ent to be used outside the building0 2his is for additional direct contact 'rotection 2he.CD on the )ain su''l.coil0 2his current holds in the rela. or indeed an-&here in the 'ilot circuit.conductor.side of the board0 Although BS " "1 re4uires that due account be ta/en of the o'eration of a single 'rotective device. transfor)er0 *t is left to the designer.Design of electrical services for buildings
e4ui')ent and the radiator.an . &hether each circuit is 'rotected b.and thus /ee's the coil of the circuit brea/er energiBed0 *f there is a brea/ in the earth continuit.conductor0 *t is 'ossible to add an e(tra cable &hich &ill )onitor the earth continuit. and a 'rotective circuit brea/er0 An additional 'ilot lead is re4uired to the a''liance or 'ortable tool0 2he lo& voltage is used to drive a current round the loo' for)ed b.is de<energiBed. such as high earth loo' i)'edances.CDs since these devices do not re4uire a high current to o'erate 4uic/l-0 BS " "1 re4uire an ..the earth conductor. is 'ossible to use . the )ain contactor coil beco)es de<energiBed and the circuit brea/er o'ens
.authorities. a rela-.s discretion &hether a se'arate .also re4uire all soc/et outlets to be 'rotected b.connection to an earth 'rovided at the su''l.fails0 2he basic sche)e of such a circuit is sho&n in +igure 901"0 2he )onitoring circuit incor'orates a lo&<voltage transfor)er. the lo&<voltage current fails. for shoc/ 'rotection.CD or &hether all circuits on a distribution board are 'rotected b. an .the user.CDs &hen earthing is 'rovided b.of a distribution board &ould tri' the &hole board should a fault occur on one circuit0 *t is the designer.CD is 'rovided for each soc/et outlet.s o&n electrode 7a 22 s-ste)8 and not b.s res'onsibilit.an .to use e('erience and 'rofessional 3udge)ent in selecting the sche)e of 'rotection0 Earth )onitoring Protection through earthing of e('osed )etal&or/ &ill fail if there is a brea/ in the earth continuit.CD on the su''l. the rela. the 'ilot conductor and the rela.
incorrodible0 Also it is easto get access to the connection at the to' of the electrode0 A t-'ical arrange)ent is illustrated in +igure 901#0
. and in rural areas &here the su''l. the consu)ers )ust 'rovide their o&n earth electrodes and the design of these beco)e 'art of the design of the building installation0 An earth electrode is a )etal rod.conductor is sound1 it does not add to the basic earth lea/age 'rotection0 Earth electrodes *n nor)al earthing. &hich )a/es effective contact &ith the general )ass of earth0 A co))on t-'e consists of a s)all dia)eter co''er rod &hich can be easil.affected b. dee' driving gives a good earth0 . the earth and the neutral are 4uite se'arate0 2he load current flo&ing through the neutral )ust cause a 'otential difference bet&een the t&o ends of the neutral0 Since the end at the su''l.used for this 'ur'ose.is lo&er in the dee'er strata of earth and not ver. therefore.to 'rovide an earth.s service ter)inal )ust inevitabl. the end at the consu)er.undisturbed and in ver.be at so)e 'otential above earth0 *t cannot.conductors of the 'er)anent installation in a building0 *n urban areas the sheath of the electricitco)'an-.close contact &ith the electrode surface0 Since resistivit.transfor)er is earthed.driven to a de'th of ) or )ore into ground reasonabl.ods of this t-'e are 'racticall.)a.overhead cable. be used as an earth 'oint0 5evertheless.Protection
+igure 901" 9onitored earth lea/age 'rotection
the )ain circuit and cuts off the su''l. but there is no obligation on the co)'an. an effective earth has to be found for the earth continuit. it )a.s service cable is nor)all.be b.to the a''liance0 *t &ill be noticed that this )onitoring circuit )erel.not be 'ossible for the) to do so0 *n such cases.free of stones or roc/0 2he soil re)ains 'racticall.chec/s that the earth continuit.seasonal conditions.
a drift<'in. not as accessible as the connection of the rod t-'e electrode0 $ong co''er stri' can also be used as an earth electrode. either of co''er or. a cast iron 'late can be used &ith a co/e surround0 2his )ethod is illustrated in +igure 90190 Standard cast iron 'lates are )ade for use as earth electrodes0 2he. the t&o being 3oined b.Design of electrical services for buildings
Where the ground is shallo& but has lo& resistivit.available for use as earth electrodes0
+igure 901# Co''er rod electrode
+igure 9019 Cast iron 'late electrode
. therefore. of cast iron.near the surface.a tinned co''er strand to &hich the earth conductor is bound and soldered0 2he co)'leted connection is sealed and covered in bitu)en before the electrode is buried0 *t is. and the )ethod of doing this is sho&n in +igure 902%0 *t &ill be seen fro) this that the stri' is a useful t-'e of electrode for shallo& soil overl-ing roc/0 Stri' )a. 'arallel lengths or in radial grou's0 Standard stri' is co))erciall. can be used0 When the soil resistivit. a 'late electrode.is high.be arranged in single lengths.conductor0 2hese ter)inals consist of t&o co''er soc/ets each secured b.are co)'lete &ith ter)inals for the earth continuit.
the surface of the ground near the electrode beco)es live &hen current flo&s fro) the electrode to earth and +igure 9021 sho&s a t-'ical surface distribution near a rod electrode0 *t can be seen that an ani)al standing near such an electrode could have a substantial voltage a''lied bet&een its fore and hind legs. be 'ositioned &ell out of har).testing0 After installation.ad3acent to the electrode0 2he 'ath of the current is sho&n in +igure 902%0 2he effect is e4uivalent to a resistance bet&een the electrode and the general )ass of earth.'redicted in advance and )ust be chec/ed b.Protection
When current flo&s fro) the electrode into the soil. the
.s &a-0 *t should
+igure 902% Co''er stri' electrode
+igure 9021 Current fro) electrode into earth
'erha's be noted that the dee'er the electrode is belo& the ground. the s)aller &ill be the voltage gradient at the surface0 2he effectiveness of earth 'rotection de'ends on the lo& resistance of the electrode &hen current flo&s through the electrode into the soil0 2his resistance cannot be accuratel. it has to overco)e the resistance of the soil i))ediatel. therefore. and in fact fatal accidents to livestoc/ fro) this cause have been /no&n0 2he earth electrode should. and this resistance is the resistance of the electrode0 +urther)ore.
e(a)ined and tested to ensure that its initial lo& resistance is being )aintained0 2he sche)e for testing an electrode is sho&n in +igure 90230 2he electrode under test is indicated b. and H is 'laced a''ro(i)atel.half&a.electrodes.conductor and connected to the test instru)ent as sho&n in +igure 90230 A lo&<voltage alternating current is 'assed bet&een F and X0 2he current is )easured and so is the 'otential bet&een F and H0 2he resistance of the earth electrode is given b.the dividend of voltage and current0 Chec/ readings are ta/en &ith the electrode H nearer to and further fro) electrode F. X and H are driven in for the test0 X )ust be 'laced sufficientl. and the results are
+igure 9022 =oltage at surface of ground due to rod electrode
.far fro) F for the resistance areas not to overla'.Design of electrical services for buildings
electrode should be 'eriodicall.bet&een F and X0 2he test electrode F is disconnected fro) its nor)al continuit.F1 t&o au(iliar.
used )ethods and it has i)'ortant advantages0 *n rural areas it )a/es it unnecessar. the.&ides'read in the D:0 E('erience has sho&n that it is in 'ractice as safe in certain conditions as 'reviousl./e't at earth 'otential and that it is 'rotected against brea/s in continuit-0 2he 'er)ission of British 2eleco) is also re4uired0 2his is because the currents into and through the ground at the 'oints of )ulti'le earthing could cause interference to ad3acent tele'hone and telegra'h cables in the ground0 After earl.other s-ste). cut<outs. instead of the neutral and earth of the inco)ing su''l.the sa)e &a. ho&ever.as for an.Protection
+igure 9023 Earth electrode resistance test
acce'ted onl. and stringent re4uire)ents are )ade to ensure that the neutral conductor is ade4uate to carr.not ado't P9E &ithout the 'er)ission of the Secretar.authorit.neutral at various )ulti'le 'oints.of State for the Environ)ent.earth fault currents. there )ust be no fuses.for consu)ers to have their o&n earth electrodes and therefore re)oves the ris/s of earth
. connected to a se'arate earth return.being se'arate.authorit.conductors are used0 2he )ain earthing ter)inal at the inta/e is not. 'rotective )ulti'le earthing 7P9E80 2he installation &ithin the building is carried out in e(actl.co)'an. that it is trul. but connected to the neutral of the inco)ing service cable0 Because &ith this s-ste) the neutral is relied on as the earth.if all three readings are substantiall. circuit brea/ers or s&itches an-&here in the neutral0 *n the D: an area electricit.)a. the test )ust be re'eated &ith a greater distance bet&een F and X0 Protective )ulti'le earthing 2his is an alternative )ethod of earthing in &hich the neutral of the inco)ing su''l.the sa)e0 *f the. and se'arate earth continuit.is re4uired to )aintain the resistance bet&een the neutral conductor and earth to a )a(i)u) of 1%W 2o do this the su''l.earth the su''l.are not.hesitations.are co)bined to for) a 25<C<S s-ste) 7definitions in BS " "1 e('lains the s-ste)s in use80 2he su''l. P9E is beco)ing increasingl.also for)s the earth return 'ath0 *n other &ords.
&hich is the ordinar. it is a double<insulated a''liance in &hich the su''le)entar. on ensuring that if the functional insulation fails. then there is no danger of shoc/ even if the functional insulation fails0 Such an a''liance is an all<insulated one.insulation is additional to and inde'endent of the functional insulation0 *t is an entirel. e('osed )etal&or/ &ill be 'revented fro) rising significantl. but so)e a''liances )ust have e('osed )etal1 for e(a)'le. hedge cli''ers and 'ortable drills0 ?ther a''liances are so large that it is i)'racticable to )a/e an insulating case strong enough to &ithstand ordinar. in the &a-s alread. and has 'roceeded on the basis that the )etal casing of an a''liance is effectivel. the sa)e 'rinci'le can be used for the a''liance0 2he 'revious discussion has assu)ed this. and this for) of construction gives ade4uate safet-.usage &ithout )a/ing the &hole a''liance too heavand cu)berso)e1 for e(a)'le. an alternative )ethod of achieving safet.described.connected through the earth 'in of the 'lug to the earth connection in the soc/et0 2here is.insulation for)s the enclosure0 Both earthing and double insulation 'rovide 'rotection against the brea/do&n of the 'ri)ar. distribution net&or/ chea'er0 2his s-ste) ho&ever )ust not be offered to boat or caravan su''lies.functional insulation0 Earthing de'ends.)eans of 'er)anent connections. ho&ever. a vacuu) cleaner0 *n these cases.se'arate insulation &hich 'rovides 'rotection against shoc/ in the event of the functional insulation. )ust the)selves be 'rotected against faults0 2here is need for 'rotection against a fault develo'ing on the a''liance itself0 When 'rotection of the 'er)anent &iring de'ends on earthing. and this is /no&n as double insulation0 +or 'ur'oses of e('osition a''liances of the class /no&n as all insulated )a.s brea/ing do&n0 Another ter) &hich &e have to e('lain is reinforced insulation0 2his is an i)'roved functional insulation &ith such )echanical and electrical 'ro'erties that it gives the sa)e degree of 'rotection against shoc/ as does double insulation0 An all<insulated a''liance is one &hich has the entire enclosure )ade of substantial and durable insulating )aterial0 *n effect.insulation of the conductors needed to confine the current to the conductors and to 'revent electrical contact bet&een the conductors and 'arts not for)ing 'art of the circuit0 2he su''le)entar.be considered as s'ecial cases of double insulation0 Double insulation consists of t&o se'arate sets of insulation0 2he first is the functional insulation.Design of electrical services for buildings
electrodes in the care of un4ualified 'ersons0 *n urban areas it )a/es the electricitco)'anies. since there is a s)all ris/ of the neutral beco)ing disconnected0 2his &ould cause the shell of the caravan to beco)e live under earth fault conditions0 *t is also not to be used on 'etrol station su''lies0 Double insulation Electrical a''liances connected to the 'er)anent &iring of a building.of a''liances &hich does not de'end on earthing the a''liances.above earth 'otential0 *f the case of the a''liance can be )ade of insulating )aterial &hich is robust enough to &ithstand all conditions in &hich it is to be used. &hether through 'lugs into soc/et outlets or b. double insulation can be used0 *t 'rovides a second barrier of insulating )aterial bet&een conductors and e('osed
the. to be )echanicall.functional insulation0 2he casing is itself of insulating )aterial and for)s the su''le)entar.insulation0 *f a fault develo's on the functional insulation. so that there is a surface of discontinuit.develo' bet&een the live and neutral conductors but the su''le)entarinsulation &ill 'revent the )etal handle on the outside fro) beco)ing live0 An a''liance &hich is double insulated b.Protection
)etal 'arts0 2he 'resence of this additional barrier is a 'rotection against the failure of the functional insulation and )a/es it unnecessar.local overheating at the a''liance0 Double insulation is a )eans of )a/ing an a''liance safe0 *t cannot give 'rotection against faults on the 'er)anent &iring in the fabric of a building0 2hus. the designer and erector of the services in a building cannot control &hat a''liances )a.'racticable to carr. s&itches.bet&een the)0 2he 'rinci'le of double insulation is illustrated in +igure 9024.or reinforced insulation should not be earthed and is not 'rovided &ith an earth ter)inal0 When it is connected to a standard three<'in 'lug the earth 'in of the 'lug is left unconnected0 Double insulation gives the sa)e degree of 'rotection against shoc/s as earthing.e('osed )etal can beco)e live0 2he functional and 'rotective insulation )ust be so arranged that a failure of either is unli/el.the use of either su''le)entar.to s'read to the other0 2he. therefore. and thus guards against fires caused b. a
+igure 9024 Double insulation
short circuit )a. in &hich the 'hase and neutral conductors each consist of a cable &ith ordinar.be connected to the service during the life of the building0 Even if all the a''liances in a building &hen it is first 'ut into use are of the double<insulated 'attern.out an installation of an. so long as
. distribution boards.)ust still be earthed0 Such 'arts &ould be conduit. control 'anels and so on0 *t is hardl.distinct.siBe &ithout the use of so)e )etal co)'onents so that the 'rinci'le of double insulation cannot be a''lied to the 'er)anent &iring0 9oreover.ought. if there are an)etal 'arts used in the &iring installation.to earth the e('osed )etal0 Doubleinsulated e4ui')ent is designed so that in general t&o inde'endent sections of insulation )ust both fail before an. and )a/es that 'rotection inde'endent of the earth loo' i)'edance0 *t also gives 'rotection against high i)'edance faults to earth on the a''liance itself.
are sub3ect to certain difficulties of their o&n0 When a tool stalls.have a lo& i)'edance to earth0 2hus an earth fault is )ore 'robable on a 'ortable tool and its effects are )ore li/el.to be either standing on. of course. therefore.overloaded.the design of the a''liance and this safet.are li/el. one of the) could at so)e ti)e be connected to the s-ste)0 2herefore.i)'ortant class of a''liances. the s-ste) )ust have an effective earth for the a''liances to be lin/ed to0 ?ne of the strongest argu)ents for the use of double<insulated and all<insulated a''liances is that it )a/es the safet. and the designer )ust consider the interaction of other 'eo'le.is given &ithout reliance on the earthing s-ste) of the building in &hich the a''liance is to be used.rough usage and are therefore 'articularl. a larger fuse &ill be substituted. it is li/el.to serve the)0 2-'ical voltages used are 11%= and !!= to earth0 ?f course.in so)e factories &hich use the) in large nu)bers. or else touching or close to. it is also ca'able of carr-ing a substantial earth fault current. and after this has ha''ened a fe& ti)es the o'erator or )aintenance engineer decides that to avoid re'lacing the fuse ever. es'eciall. this is not the case. over &hich the a''liance )anufacturer has.s a''liances and the s-ste)0 *n 'articular. ca'able of carr-ing the overload0 Dnfortunatel-.of connecting an a''liance to a defective s-ste).ti)e the tool is )o)entaril. designers should 'erha's reflect on &hat /ind of fle(ible cords and e(tension fle(es are li/el.and it is a disadvantage that the )otors are bul/ier and heavier0
. no control0 2he )anufacturer has thus gone a long &ato&ards 'rotecting the user against the latter. so that the. to receive e(tra care in 'rotection but in fact )a. &hich could ha''en either through ignorance or through inadvertence0 At the sa)e ti)e.liable to develo' faults0 At the sa)e ti)e 'eo'le using a 'ortable tool in a factor.receive less than average attention0 2o overco)e these difficulties.other /ind of a''liance0 *t ought.to blo& a fuse. for an increased length of ti)e.to be i))ediate and serious than on al)ost an. and the.egulations do not allo& the designer to assu)e that e4ui')ent connected to soc/et outlets &ill be double insulated and the.)ust therefore be 'rovided &ith earth continuit. the designer of the electrical services could concentrate on 'rotective devices for the s-ste) being designed &ithout having to consider &hat 'rotection to leave for a''liances &hich the occu'ants &ill bring along later0 Dnfortunatel-.considering the s'ecial 'roble)s of 'ortable tools0 2hese are a ver.of the 'ortable a''liance inde'endent of the installation to &hich it is connected0 2he )anufacturer /no&s that the user is 'rotected b. the tools have to be &ound for this su''l.to bridge the ga' bet&een their s-ste) and a &ell<)ade and safe a''liance0 2he *EE .Design of electrical services for buildings
a''liances de'ending on earth 'rotection 7and all electric /ettles do8 re)ain in e(istence.conductors0 Portable tools We shall conclude this cha'ter b. substantial )etal 'arts. and the o'erator can be electrocuted before the oversiBe fuse clears the fault0 2he fle(ible cables of 'ortable tools co)e in for e(ce'tionall. factories &hich use 'ortable tools in large nu)bers often install a s'ecial lo&<voltage su''l. if all a''liances &ere /no&n to be double insulated.s o&n ignorance of the safe &a.
are no&ada-s )ade &ith double insulation0
.for bac/<u' 'rotection.suitable for the ho)e hand-)an.to a''reciate the need for the)0 *t is 'robablbetter for 'ortable tools to be 'rotected b.)odern a''liances.Protection
Another solution is to 'rovide 'rotection against sustained overload b. and se'arate 'rotection against earth faults b.not have enough understanding of electrical theor. and can be large enough not to blo& &hen the tool te)'oraril.characteristics such that the.double insulation rather than b.)eans of circuit brea/ers &ith ti)e<dela. &ho )a.reliance on effective earthing0 A si)ilar case can be argued for )a/ing do)estic a''liances double insulated0 9an.residual current circuit brea/ers0 A fuse is then needed onl.&ill not o'erate on te)'orar. if at all.for the fle(ible cables to have an e(tra conductor and for the tools the)selves to have an e(tra connection0 5one of these 'recautions is ver.overloads. of &hich &e )a.4uote vacuu) cleaners and hairdr-ers as e(a)'les.stalls0 *t is also advisable to use earth )onitoring on the earth conductors to 'ortable tools0 2his )a/es it necessar.
left &ith a greater 'otential gradient i))ediatel.great to ioniBe the air in the i))ediate neighbourhood.a 'revious stro/e of the first /ind1 thus if a stro/e of this /ind ta/es 'lace bet&een clouds 1 and 2 7+igure 14018.Cha'ter 1% $ightning 'rotection
$ightning stro/es can be of t&o /inds0 *n the first.tall ob3ects. others consist of a series of stro/es follo&ing each other along the sa)e 'ath in ra'id succession0 2he current in a single stro/e can var.directed to tall shar' ob3ects li/e the first /ind of stro/e0 *t )a.fro) about 2%%%A to a )a(i)u) of about 2%%%%%A. a charged cloud induces a charge of o''osite sign in nearb. A is a stro/e of the first /ind and B is the second t-'e of stro/e induced b. and a stro/e to earth suddenl. &ith a statistical average of 2%%%%A0 *t rises to a 'ea/ value in a fe& )icroseconds0 When a discharge consists of several successive stro/es.)iss tall ob3ects and stri/e the ground nearb-0 +igure 1402 sho&s other &a-s in &hich this0 /ind of stro/e )a. &hich lo&ers the resistance of the 'ath bet&een the cloud and the ob3ect0 Dlti)atel-.and is not necessaril.A0 *n each case the first stro/e fro) cloud 1 changes the 'otential gradient at cloud 2 and thus 'roduces the second stro/e0 2he current in a discharge is uni<directional and consists of i)'ulses &ith ver. cloud 3 )a.the ti)e ta/en to 'roduce it. the resistance is lo&ered sufficientl.of these i)'ulses varies fro) 1%/6B to 1%%/6B0 While so)e lightning discharges consist of a single stro/e.ad3acent to it than the air can &ithstand.the fact that it usuall. each stro/e rises and falls in a ti)e and to an a)'litude of this order so that the &hole discharge can last u' to a second0
.be suddenl.be induced0 *n each case.for a disru'tive discharge to occur bet&een the)0 2his t-'e of discharge is characteriBed b.&hen a 'otential difference bet&een a cloud and the earth is established al)ost instantl-0 *t is generallinduced b.stee' &ave fronts0 2he e4uivalent fre4uenc. and b.stri/es against the highest and )ost 'ointed ob3ect in the area0 2he second /ind of stro/e is a discharge &hich occurs suddenl. chi)ne-s and trees0 2he electrostatic stress at the u''er ends of these ob3ects is sufficientl.occurs0 2his t-'e of stro/e occurs suddenl. such as to&ers.
and it is necessar.to the resistive dro'0 Part of the lightning conductor is thus inevitabl.lo& resistance 'ath to earth0 *t is reco))ended in the British Standard Code of Practice 7BS !1G19998 that the resistance to earth of the 'rotective s-ste) should not e(ceed 1%oh)s0 2he shar' &ave front of the discharge is e4uivalent to a high<fre4uenccurrent and.'roviding a ver.raises the 'otential of 'art of the structure to a high value above earth0 ?ne function of a lightning conductor is to /ee' this 'otential as lo& as 'ossible b.raised to a high 'otential0 2his brings &ith it a ris/ of flashover fro) the conductor to other )etal in the structure. therefore. such as &ater and gas 'i'es and electrical cables0 2hese in turn &ould then be raised to high 'otential &hich could bring danger to occu'ants of the building.to guard against such flashovers0 Bonding the lightning
+igure 1402 *nduced lightning stro/es
. there is also an inductive voltage dro' &hich has to be added 'hasoriall. ther)al and )echanical0 As the current 'asses through the structure to earth it 'roduces a voltage dro' &hich )o)entaril.$ightning 'rotection
+igure 1401 *nduced lightning stro/e
2he effects of a discharge on a structure are electrical.
securel. having its centre at the conductor and a radius e4ual to t&ice the height of the conductor0 +or &ea/er than average discharges the 'rotected area beco)es s)aller0 +or 'ractical design it is therefore assu)ed that statisticall.attracting the stro/e to itself0 *t has been found that a single vertical conductor attracts to itself stro/es of average or above average intensit. large )echanical forces are 'roduced0 A lightning conductor )ust.&hich the 'art to be 'rotected is belo& the nearest conductor0
+igure 1403 Protected Bone
. be ver.&hich in the absence of the conductor &ould have struc/ the ground &ithin a circle. of ) dia)eter )ethod is used0 A horiBontal conductor can be regarded as a series of a'e(es coalesced into a line.fi(ed0 A lightning conductor &or/s b. therefore.satisfactor. and the Bone of 'rotection thus beco)es a tent<li/e s'ace 7+igure 140480 When there are several 'arallel horiBontal conductors the area bet&een the) has been found be('erience to be better 'rotected than one &ould e('ect fro) the above considerations onl-0 ?n the basis of e('erience the reco))ended design criterion is that no 'art of the roof should be )ore than !) fro) the nearest horiBontal conductor e(ce't that an additional 10%) )a.diverting to itself a stro/e &hich )ight other&ise stri/e 'art of the building being 'rotected0 2he Bone of 'rotection is the s'ace &ithin &hich a lightning conductor 'rovides 'rotection b. &hich can be lethal to 'eo'le and to ani)als0 2he resistance to earth of each earthing electrode should be /e't as lo& as is 'racticable0 2he duration of a lightning discharge is so short that its ther)al effect can in 'ractice be ignored0 When a large current of high fre4uenc.flo&s through a conductor &hich is close to another conductor.Design of electrical services for buildings
'rotection s-ste) to the )ain earthing ter)inal of the installation does this0 2he discharge of the lightning stro/e to earth can also 'roduce a high 'otential gradient in the ground around the earthing electrode.be added for each 10%) b.'rotection can be given to a Bone consisting of a cone &ith its a'e( at the to' of the vertical conductor and a base of radius e4ual to the height of the conductor0 2his is illustrated in +igure 14030 +or structure of a co)'licated nature a Crolling s'here.
the degree of isolation and the t-'e of countr-0 2he 'robable nu)ber of stri/es is given bPOAc@5g@1%N1 &here PO'robable nu)ber of stri/es 'er -ear AcOarea 'rotected b.$ightning 'rotection
+igure 1404 Protected BoneQ horiBontal conductor
Whether or not a building needs 'rotection against lightning is a )atter of 3udge)ent0 *t obviousl. a''l. the conse4uential effects of a stri/e.a &eighting factor to this.de'ends on the ris/ of a lightning stro/e and also on the conse4uence of a stro/e0 2hus a higher ris/ of a stri/e can 'robabl. and see if the result is )ore or less than an acce'table level of ris/0 2he &eighting factor is the 'roduct of individual factors &hich ta/e into account the use of the structure.'er)ission of the British Standards *nstitution 7BS*80 Co)'lete co'ies can be obtained fro) BS* at $inford Wood. 9:14 $E0 *t should be noted that the area 'rotected de'ends on the height of the conductor.conductor. i0e0 the nu)ber of flashes to ground 'er /)2 'er -ear0 A )a' sho&ing values of 5 g for different 'arts of the D: is sho&n in +igure 140!0 2his and other e(tracts fro) BS !1 are re'roduced here b.be acce'ted for an isolated s)all bungalo& than for. 9ilton :e-nes.s 3udge)ent entirel-. sa-. so)e ste's can be ta/en to ob3ectif.the assess)ent of ris/ and of the )agnitude of the conse4uences0 2he )ethod reco))ended in BS !1G1999 is to deter)ine the 'robable nu)ber of stri/es 'er -ear.s hos'ital0 While no e(act rules can be laid do&n that &ould eli)inate the designer. a children.
. )2 5gOlightning flash densit-. the t-'e of construction.
e0g0 to&n or forest Structure in area &ith fe& other structures or trees of si)ilar height Structure co)'letel.'lants. ancient )onu)ents.do)estic or office building. 'lain concrete.einforced concrete &ith non<)etal roof Steel fra)ed encased or reinforced concrete &ith )etal roof Bric/. ti)ber fra)ed. air'orts. )useu)s. 'lain concrete )asonr-.s and other ho)es. or )asonr. factories and &or/sho's not containing valuable )aterials *ndustrial and agricultural buildings &ith s'eciall.isolated or t&ice the height of surrounding structures of trees E 2-'e of countr+lat countr. 'laces of asse)blD Degree of isolation Structure in a large area of structures or trees of sa)e height or greater height. 'ost offices. laboratories ?ffices. hotels. )useu)s. churches. theatres.s and other ho)es B 2-'e of construction Steel fra)ed encased &ith non<)etal roof .Design of electrical services for buildings $ightning 'rotection 21"
2able 1401 5eed for lightning 'rotection
A Dse of structure 6ouses and si)ilar buildings 6ouses and si)ilar buildings &ith outside aerial +actories. radio stations *ndustrial /e. de'art)ent stores.susce'tible contents Po&er stations.&ith non<)etal roof 2i)ber fra)ed or clad &ith roof other than )etal or thatch Bric/. historic buildings. halls. art galleries Schools. tele'hone e(changes.level %03 %04 10% 20% %03 %0# 10% 103 10" %02 %04 %0# 10% 104 10" 20% %03 %0" 10% 102 103 10"
. bloc/s of flats Places of asse)bl-. hos'itals. children. hos'itals. stations.building &ith a thatched roof C Contents or effects Contents or t-'e of building ?rdinar. children.at an. gas installations. stadiu)s Schools. &or/sho's. &ith )etal roof An.
do not )atter.reason not 'racticable a do&n conductor can be contained inside a non<)etallic and non< co)bustible duct0 *t can.above 9%%)
10% 103 10"
all the individual factors to give an overall ris/ factor.should have t&o do&n conductors e4ualls'aced.2%) of 'eri)eter0 +or buildings higher than 2%) there should be one do&n conductor for ever. but re<entrant loo's can be dangerous0 A re<entrant loo' 'roduces a high inductive voltage dro' &hich can cause the lightning discharge to 3u)' across the loo'0 2he discharge can.arise &hen the 'eri)eter of the loo' is )ore than eight ti)es the length of the o'en side0 2his is illustrated in +igure 140"0 *f a 'ara'et is ver. this is not a consideration for lightning electrodes0 2he 'ractice so)eti)es ado'ted of 'utting the electrode so)e distance a&afro) the building is both unnecessar.and unecono)ical. as for e(a)'le at the edge of a roof. there &ould be a real ris/ of flashover
. run inside a service duct 'rovided the service duct does not contain an.Design of electrical services for buildings
6ill countr9ountain countr.increase the danger of voltage gradients in the ground0 2he do&n conductor is the conductor &hich runs fro) the air ter)ination to the earth ter)ination0 2here should be one do&n conductor for ever. it is one or )ore earth electrodes0 2hese have alread. &ith )etal conductors 3oining the t&o do&n conductors round the to' and botto) of the chi)ne. and should be either beneath or as near as 'ossible to. go through the )asonr.safer to ensure that the resistance of each electrode is less than 1%oh)s0 *t is also reco))ended that the sa)e earth ter)ination s-ste) should be used for lightning 'rotection as for all other services0 2he electrodes should be the rod or stri' t-'e. for e(a)'le.narro& the 'roble) can be solved bta/ing the conductor through a hole in the 'ara'et as sho&n in +igure 140#0 So)eti)es a building is cantilevered out at a level above the ground0 *f the do&n conductor follo&ed the contour of the building. for e(a)'le. and )a.non<)etal<sheathed cables0 Shar' bends. should not e(ceed 1%oh)s0 *t is clearl.of a 'ara'et rather than around it0 ?n the basis of e('erience it can be said that this danger )a.&hen large current<carr-ing ca'acit.bet&een 3%%) and 9%%) 9ountain countr. P o0 2he standard reco))ends that 'rotection is needed if Po is greater than 1@1%N! 'er -ear0 A co)'lete lightning 'rotective s-ste) consists of an air ter)ination net&or/.is i)'ortant0 Because of the short duration of a lightning stro/e. the building being 'rotected0 Plate electrodes are e('ensive and co)e into their o&n onl.been discussed in Cha'ter 91 earth electrodes for lightning 'rotection are no different fro) earth electrodes for short<circuit 'rotection s-ste)s0 2he total resistance of an earthing s-ste).1%) of 'eri)eter0 A tall non<conducting chi)ne.and at intervals along its height0 2he do&n conductors should 'referablbe distributed round the outside &alls of the building0 *f this is for an. &ith all electrodes in 'arallel. a do&n conductor and an earth ter)ination0 2he air ter)ination net&or/ is that 'art &hich is intended to interce't lightning discharges0 *t consists of vertical and horiBontal conductors arranged to 'rotect the re4uired area in accordance &ith the e)'irical rules &hich &e have given above0 2-'ical arrange)ents are sho&n in +igure 140 0 2he earth ter)ination is that 'art &hich discharges the current into the general )ass of the earth0 *n other &ords.
&hich could be lethal to an-one standing there0 *n such a building the do&n conductor )ust be ta/en straight
+igure 140 conductors
under the overhang.
alu)iniu) or co''er0 2he criterion for design is to /ee' the resistance fro) air ter)ination to earth to a )ini)u)0 Since the bul/ of resistance is li/el.to occur at the
.Design of electrical services for buildings
do&n inside the ducts &ithin the building0 2his 'roble) and its solution are illustrated in +igure 14090 2he )aterial used for lightning conductors is nor)all.
a ris/ that the discharge &ill flash over to nearb. and therefore the siBe. of the do&n conductor &ould not a''ear to be critical0 .$ightning 'rotection
+igure 140" .e<entrant loo's
+igure 140# Para'et
earth electrode the resistance. therefore.bonding the) to ensure that there can be no 'otential difference bet&een
.)etal and cause da)age to the intervening structure or occu'ants0 2his can be 'revented either b.raised to a considerable 'otential above earth0 2here is.to receive regular ins'ection and )aintenance0 E(ternal )etal on a building should be bonded to the lightning conductor &ith bonds at least as large as the conductor0 When a lightning conductor carries a stro/e to earth. it is te)'oraril.eco))ended di)ensions are given in 2able 14020 $arger conductors should be used if the s-ste) is unli/el.'roviding sufficient clearance bet&een conductor and other )etal or b.
and co''er rods Earth ter)inations 6ard dra&n co''er rods for driving into soft ground 6ard dra&n or annealed co''er rods for indirect driving or la-ing in ground Phos'hor bronBe for hard ground Co''er clad steel for hard ground 12 dia)0 1% dia)0 12 dia)0 1% dia)0 2%@3 1% dia)0
)) 2%@3 1% dia)0 19A20!% 19A10#%
a resistive co)'onent and an inductive one1 in the &orst case. alu)iniu) allo.Design of electrical services for buildings
the)0 2he clearance re4uired de'ends on the voltage to &hich the lightning s-ste) rises. &hich is the one &hich should be designed for. &hich in turn de'ends on the current and the i)'edance0 2he i)'edance has
+igure 1409 Cantilevered building 2able 1402 $ightning conductors
Air ter)inations Alu)iniu) and co''er stri' Alu)iniu). alu)iniu) allo-. co''er and 'hos'hor bronBe rods Stranded alu)iniu) conductors Stranded co''er conductors Do&n conductors Alu)iniu) and co''er stri' Alu)iniu). the t&o co)'onents add linearl-0 2he induced voltage arises in a
) tOthic/ness.the do&n conductor and other )etal&or/ so that the cou'ling is generated b. divided b.$ightning 'rotection
loo' for)ed b. &hich is allo&ed to be 1%oh)s. but it can be corrected for b. and a corres'onding deduction of 3% 'er cent fro) the calculated voltage for a do&n conductor in the central area of such a building0 2he resistive voltage is the total )a(i)u) current.the e('ression
&here 92Otransfer inductance. /= lOlength of inductive loo'. and for design 'ur'oses this )ust be ta/en as the )a(i)u) li/el. )0 +or a circular do&n conductor r e is the actual radius0 +or the )ore usual case of a rectangular stri' do&n conductor. &hich is 2%%/A s N10 2he voltage is therefore calculated fro) the for)ula
&here =$Oinductive voltage. K6 )N1 SOdistance bet&een centre of do&n conductor and centre of nearest vertical )etal co)'onent. ) reOe4uivalent radius of do&n conductor. and if the 'ea/ current reached in one do&n conductor is 1An ti)es the total 'ea/ current. )0 2he inductive voltage is 'ro'ortional to the rate of change of current.the 'er)itted resistance to earth of the do&n conductor0 2he latter is the co)bined resistance of all do&n conductors.the nu)ber of do&n conductors and )ulti'lied b.
&here &O&idth. ) 92Otransfer inductance K6 )N1 nOnu)ber of do&n conductors0 2he length of the loo' is the distance over &hich the do&n conductor and other )etal run in 'arallel0 2he nu)ber of do&n conductors is brought into the for)ula because the total current is assu)ed to be shared bet&een all of the). so that the nu)ber of do&n conductors in fact cancels out the e4uation0
.the addition of 3% 'er cent to the calculated voltage for the do&n conductor at a corner of a rectangular or s4uare building &hich has )ore than four do&n conductors. assu)ed to be 2%%/A.is ter)ed the transfer inductance and is given b. ti)es the nu)ber of do&n conductors.valid.the self inductance )inus the )utual inductance to this )etal &or/0 2his 4uantit. then the rate of change of current in one conductor is also 1An ti)es the )a(i)u) rate of change assu)ed0 2his assu)'tion is not entirel.to occur.
)etal reinforce)ent in a structure &hich cannot easil. the )etal&or/ should be bonded to the do&n conductor0 *t &ill be found that the critical factors deter)ining &hether or not bonding is re4uired are usuall.the nu)ber of do&n conductors and the resistance to earth0 9etal services entering the building should be bonded as directl.as 'ossible to the earth ter)ination0 $arge )asses of )etal.be ignored and do not have to be bonded0 Si)ilarl-.in order for )etal cladding or curtain &alling &hich has a continuous conducting 'ath in all directions to be used as 'art of a lightning 'rotection s-ste)0 *n the
.as 'ossible0 Short isolated 'ieces of )etal li/e &indo& fra)es )a.se'arate fro) the lightning 'rotection s-ste)0 *t is 'erfectl./ee'ing it entirel.Design of electrical services for buildings
2he su) of the inductive and resistive voltages is the voltage &hich could occur bet&een the do&n conductor and the ad3acent )etal&or/0 +igure 1401% sho&s the s'acing re4uired to avoid flashover for a given voltage0 *f the distance bet&een the do&n conductor and the ad3acent )etal&or/ is less than this. should be bonded to the nearest do&n conductor as directl.be bonded and &hich cannot itself for)
+igure 1401% +lashover voltage in air as a function of s'acing
'art of a do&n conductor can also be ignored0 2he danger fro) such )etal is best )ini)iBed b. such as a bell fra)e in a church to&er.
and the do&n conductors and earth ter)inations should be &ell a&a.$ightning 'rotection
e(tre)e case.lo&.fro) the building0 All the earth ter)inations should be interconnected b.high. crossar)s and 'arasitic ele)ents should be bonded to the lightning conductor0 As an e(a)'le of the calculations described in this cha'ter consider a large factor. such as a steel chi)ne-.the resistance fro) air ter)ination to earth )ust be chec/ed after the structure is co)'lete and if it is too high a se'arate do&n conductor )ust after all be installed0 A building containing e('losive or highl.be difficult to 'ut a radio or television aerial on a roof so that it is &ithin the s'ace 'rotected b.a ring conductor buried in the ground0 All )a3or )etal inside or on the surface of the building should be effectivel.bonded to the lightning 'rotection s-ste)0 *t )a. and e('erience has sho&n that it is 4uite safe to use the reinforce)ent as a do&n conductor0 5aturall.Cage.rust-. in &hich an.internal )etal assu)es the sa)e 'otential as the cage itself0 2he ris/ of side flashing is thereb.reduced and the reco))endations for bonding need not be so strictladhered to0 2he )etal bars of concrete reinforce)ent are tied together b.the air ter)ination net&or/.need )ore thorough 'rotection0 An air ter)ination net&or/ should be sus'ended above the building or area to be 'rotected.a cone having an a'e( angle of 3%M. and this )a.'resent so)ething of a 'roble)0 *f the do&n lead is concentric or t&in screened. i0e0 a s)aller Bone than is ado'ted for less haBardous buildings0 2he height of the net&or/ should be such that there is no ris/ of flashover fro) the net&or/ to the building. a structure &hich is itself a co)'lete )etal fra)e. so the air ter)ination
.to insert a discharge device bet&een the conductors and an earth lead0 *n either case )etal )asts. 'rotection can be obtained bconnecting the )etallic sheath of the cable to the lightning conductor0 With a single or t&in do&n lead it is necessar.1!) &ide and to be ) high0 =ertical rods on the roof to give 'rotection over such an area &ould be i)'racticabl. because there are so )an.in a built<u' area &ithin >reater $ondon0 *t is assu)ed to be #%) long b. and the conductors should be s'aced so that each 'rotects a s'ace for)ed b. so that one does not e('ect a good electrical contact0 5evertheless.binding cable0 Both the bars and the binding cable are usuall.fla))able )aterials )a. needs no lightning conductor other than itself0 *t is enough to earth it effectivel-0 A structure having reinforce)ent or cladding for)ing a close )etal )esh in the for) of internal reinforce)ent or screen a''roaches the conditions of a +arada.of these 3oints in 'arallel the total resistance to earth is ver.
no s'ecial contents structure in large area of structures of sa)e height flat countr10% %02 %03 %04 %03
PoO1! %@1%N @10%@%02@%03@%04@%03O11@1%N O101@1%N! 2his is greater than 10%@1%N! and therefore 'rotection is needed0 2he building 'eri)eter is 72@#%8V72@1!8O19%) and the nu)ber of do&n conductors re4uired &ill therefore be 19%A2%O1%0 Each &ill ter)inate in a rod t-'e earth electrode0 2here are )etal rain&ater 'i'es running do&n the building. &hich is needed to deter)ine &hether or not 'rotection is necessar-0 2he 'rotected area Ac is 7#%V V 8@71!V V 8Vπ62O2 %%)20 +ro) +igure 140! it is seen that for >reater $ondon 5sO%0 0 PO2 %%@%0 @1%N O1! %@1%N 2he &eighting factors are as follo&sG
AG BG CG DG EG factorsteel fra)e encased &ith non<)etal roof nor)al factor-.to consider &hether the.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 14011 Hone of 'rotection and s'acing of air ter)ination
)ust be a net&or/ of conductors on the roof0 ?ne stri' &ill run round the 'eri)eter.design had to be done to establish the area 'rotected.should be bonded to the do&n conductors0 2he do&n conductors )abe 2%))@3))
.a distance e4ual to the height0 2his a)ount of 'reli)inar. and it is necessar. and an additional length&ise stri' do&n the centre of the roof &ill ensure co)'liance &ith the re4uire)ent that no 'art of the roof is )ore than !) fro) the nearest horiBontal conductor0 2his is sho&n in +igure 14011 &hich also sho&s the area 'rotected1 the latter e(tends outside the building b.
lO and the nu)ber of do&n conductors is 1%0 2hen
2he do&n conductor is not at a corner.$ightning 'rotection
Su''ose there is a rain&ater 'i'e 10!) fro) a do&n conductor0 2hen
Since both rain&ater 'i'e and do&n conductor run the full height of the building. the flashover voltage arises al)ost co)'letel.fro) the resistive co)'onent and in order to eli)inate this along the &hole length of the 'i'e bonding is re4uired at both to' and botto)0
. so this figure can be reduced b.3% 'er cent0 =$O13%@%0"O9%0"/= 2he resistive voltage =.O9%0"V2%%%O21%%/=0 +ro) +igure 1401% the safe s'acing for 21%%/= is !)0 2he rain&ater 'i'e is less than this distance fro) the do&n conductor and therefore bonding is re4uired0 Without bonding. is 2%%@1%O2%%%/=0 2he flashover voltage =$V=.
s office so)e -ears ago0 *t does e)bod.a che)ical )anufacturing co)'an. in this cha'ter. &hich also sho& the )ain 'art of the lighting la-out0 As the design of lighting has been e(cluded fro) the sub3ect )atter of this boo/ it is not 'ro'osed to re'roduce the lighting calculations here. although the design 'ac/age &ould -ield closer li)its0 *t is a''reciated that a building services engineer &ill no& use soft&are design 'ac/ages0 *t is useful to see ho& the design values &ere arrived at0 2he buildings of a disused factor.consists of an east building of t&o store-s &ith a base)ent and a threestore&est building &ith a covered -ard bet&een the) e(tending the full height of the east building0 2here is a &alled car 'ar/ ad3acent to the buildings and a ne& boiler<house &as to be built in this area0 Since the e(isting buildings 'rovided )ore s'ace than &as needed for the ne& &or/s.as &ell as to the need to )aintain reasonable unifor) levels of illu)ination0 2he factor. but it should be noted that after the nu)ber of lights needed in each area had been calculated the. 'art of the &est building &as to left unoccu'iedG no services &ere to be installed in this 'art but the installation as a &hole &as to be ca'able of e(tension into this area0 2he bul/ of the lighting consisted of t&in<tube 1!%%)) fluorescent lu)inaires &ith so)e single<tube lu)inaires in 'assages and areas re4uiring lo&er illu)ination0 A fe& incandescent lu)inaires &ere 'rovided in toilets and on stairs 7not all of &hich are sho&n in +igures 1#01<1#0280 2he covered &a.bet&een the occu'ied and unoccu'ied sections of the &est building in &hich )aterials &ould be hoisted to the u''er levels &as lit bthree &all<)ounted )ercur.&hich 'ro'osed to ada't the) as a ne& &or/s0 Electric services &ere needed for lighting and 'o&er to )achiner-0 2he general 'lan of the buildings is sho&n in +igures 1#01<1#03. describe a t-'ical industrial design0 2he e(a)'le chosen is ta/en fro) a sche)e handled in the 'revious author.Cha'ter 11 Design e(a)'le
*n order to illustrate the 'ractical a''lication of the 'rinci'les discussed in 'revious cha'ters &e shall.the criteria in use toda-.&ere 'ositioned &ith regard to the la-out of the )achiner.la)'s at ground<floor level and three at second<floor level0
.&ere ta/en over b.
three of the) being )ounted on colu)ns on the road&a.&all< )ounted high<'ressure sodiu) floodlights at the level of the first<floor ceilings0 +our street<lighting lanterns &ere 'rovided for the car 'ar/.ground<floor lighting la-out
?ne end of the &est building contained tall )achiner.on the ground floor and the first< floor slab &as not carried across this0 An area of double the nor)al height &as thus left and this &as lit b.&all<)ounted )ercur.la)'s at the lo&er level and high<ba.industrial )ercur.fro) the building and one on a brac/et on the &all of the building0 2he first stage in the design &as to arrange the lights in circuits and to arrange the circuits in convenient grou's to be served fro) several distribution boards0 2he lighting &ould have to be divided in a suitable )anner bet&een the three 'hases to give as nearlas 'ossible the sa)e loading on all three 'hases and this had to be borne in )ind &hen the lights &ere
.Design of electrical services for buildings
+igure 1#01 +actor.lu)inaires under the first<floor ceiling0 2he covered -ard &as lit b.
second<floor lighting la-out
.first<floor lighting la-out
+igure 1#03 +actor.Design e(a)'le
+igure 1#02 +actor.
and it see)ed reasonable to allo& half of this in the sub<)ains and half in the final circuits.ef0 2-'e
A B C D E + > 6 1!%%)) t&in fluorescent 1!%%)) single fluorescent Wall<)ounted 12!W 9B+ 2ungsten bul/head 6igh<ba.la)'s to be ca'able of ta/ing 2!%W la)'s0 Si)ilarl-. the different t-'es of lu)inaire used &ere listed.3=0 2he single 'hase volt dro' of 20!))2 cable is 1#)= 'er a)'ere 'er )etre0
. a )a(i)u) nu)ber of lu)inaires on a circuit &ould beG
*t &as clearl. &here a''ro'riate.street<lighting lantern &ith 3!W S?F la)'
%092 %04 101! %042 201! 30% %0 %0
arranged into circuits0 +or convenience. be designed to ta/e t&in<tube lu)inaires so that the lu)inaires could at an. it &as decided to build in a factor of safet.industrial )ercur.of the &iring and it &as therefore decided to design all the circuits serving lu)inaires &ith )ercur. as sho&n in 2able 1#010 *t &as decided that in this t-'e of factor.Design of electrical services for buildings
2able 1#01 2-'es of lighting
.that at so)e ti)e in the future a &or/s )anager )ight change the lu)inaires &ithout chec/ing the ca'acit.going to be desirable to control )ore than this nu)ber of lights fro) one s&itch and it &as decided to do so b.not )ore than 12A each0 Although it &as intended to use three different siBes of )ercur.and s)all alterations the circuits &ould be designed to carr.s&itching the lights through contactors0 ?ne s&itch &ould o'erate a )ulti<'ole contactor controlling several lighting circuits0 At this stage a chec/ &as )ade on the voltage dro' in the lighting circuits0 Probable 'ositions of distribution boards &ere guessed and fro) the dra&ings the average length of a lighting circuit &as esti)ated as 3!)0 At the ti)e &hen this design &as 'roduced.and allo& a )a(i)u) of =. circuits serving single< tube fluorescent lu)inaires &ould.&ith 2!%W 9B+ la)' Wall<)ounted area floodlight &ith 2!%W S?5 la)' Bul/head lu)inaire &ith !%W 9B+AD la)' Side<entr.ti)e be re'laced &ithout alterations to the &iring0 6ence.the lighting could be run in 20!)) 2 cable fused at 1!A0 2o allo& a )argin for safet.la)' it &as felt that there &as a 'ossibilit. that is to sa. the )a(i)u) volt dro' allo&ed on 23%= &as 9=.
guide0 2he nu)ber of circuits in each area &as decided breferring to the )a(i)u) nu)ber of lu)inaires 'er circuit as deter)ined above and also &ith an e-e to convenient s&itching arrange)ents0 At the sa)e ti)e. at each lu)inaire.ef0 5o0 off
>ate<house A B D 1 2 3
%092 %04 %042
%092 %092 102 301% 1
5o0 of circuits needed
.in )ind0 2he total load fro) 2able 1#02 &as 4 %094A0 *t should therefore be distributed to give about 1!%A 'er 'hase0 An ideall.decide to average0 6o&ever &e too/ this value as true0 Clearl. and the design current *b &ill not flo& in the &hole length of the circuit0 2he designer )a.Design e(a)'le
2his is a 'essi)istic value since the current in the circuit &ill reduce as current is Cdro''ed off.to achieve an.&ere then arranged in three grou's for the three 'hases0 After t&o atte)'ts the results sho&n in 2able 1#04 &ere obtained0 2his &as not as good as had been ho'ed for0 6o&ever.over the design value8 or t&o )ercur.further i)'rove)ent at this stage0 *t &ould be 'ossible to )a/e so)e ad3ust)ent after the distribution boards &ere scheduled and this &as done ne(t0
2able 1#02 $oading esti)ates for each area
Area $u)inaire . as sho&n in 2able 1#030 2he.lu)inaires 'er circuit0 2he loadings &ere no& esti)ated for each area in a convenient tabulated for) as sho&n in 2able 1#020 2his for)ed a 'reli)inar.bet&een 14% and 1 %A and at the sa)e ti)e each 'hase should be contained &ithin a reasonabl.the need to reduce voltage dro' &as )ore critical than the current rating of the cable and the nu)ber of lu)inaires 'er circuit &ould have to be reduced0 Acce'table figures &ould be si( fluorescent lu)inaires or t&o sodiu) 7slightl.be )ade had therefore to be /e't constantl. the 'rocess of )ani'ulating the figures had given the designer a feel for the) and he realiBed that he &as not li/el. so)e )argins &ere allo&ed to )a/e it 'ossible to ad3ust the circuit arrange)ents later &ithout )a3or )odifications to the distribution sche)e0 *t &ill be noted for e(a)'le that the car<'ar/ lights are not included in the table0 2his &as because the design had to 'roceed before the client had ta/en final decisions on all his re4uire)ents0 2he fact that last<)inute alterations &ould certainl.e4ual distribution could not be ho'ed for but each 'hase should carr.clear Bone of the building0 As a first ste' to&ards achieving this the loads for each area &ere su))ariBed fro) 2able 1#02.
1 contactor 3G1 s&itched directl-.Design of electrical services for buildings
Pu)' house Boiler house Covered &aW bldg >rd flr
A A C A >
%092 %092 201!
"03 044 1209 210%% 403% 4402 3%03 %092 103# %042 20"2
2 2 3 controlled b.4 contactors controlled b.4 contactors
24 ! 4# 33 1 3 1
%092 201! %092 %092 %092 %04 %042
E bldg Stores ?vens 2oilet area
A A A B D
1 2 2 1 1 controlled b. 2 controlled b1 contactor 2 # controlled b.4 contactors 1 controlled b.2 contactors # controlled b.2 contactors controlled b.2 contactors 1
9aintenance $oc/ers Stairs 1st +loor Covered -ard Side -ard $oc/ers W bldg 1st flr
A A D + + B A E
# # 1 34 2% 12 2% 12 4# " "
%092 %092 %042 30% 30% %04 %092 201! %092 %092 %092 %092 %092 %04
"03 "03 %042 1%20% %0% !0!2 220%# 2!0#% 4402 044 044 110%4 2"0 203%
E bldg 1st flr
1st flr 9aintenance A 1st flr Pu)' house A E bldg Cellar W bldg 2nd flr W bldg 3rd flr A A B
12 3% !
2able 1#03 $oad su))aries
W bldg grd flr Pu)' house >ate<house
$oad in a)'s
2!03% "03 301%
.4 contactors 2 2 2 controlled b.# contactors 1% controlled b.
Boiler house W bldg 1st flr Covered -ard 7)ain area8 Covered -ard 7side area8 W bldg 2nd flr W bldg 3rd flr E bldg grd flr E bldg grd flr E bldg 2oilet area 9aintenance $oc/ers Stairs
044 4"0## 1%20%% %0%% 2"0 203 4402% 3%03 20"2 "03 "03 %042 92042
E bldg 1st flr E bldg 9aintenance E bldg Pu)' house $oc/ers
4402% 044 044 !0!2 20 %
E bldg cellar
2able 1#04 Distribution of load across 'hases 7'rovisional8
Bro&n 7.ed8 'hase W bldg 2nd flr W bldg 3rd flr Covered -ard )ain area Boiler house 2"0 203 1%20% 04 13#03 Blac/ 7Xello&8 'hase W bldg grd flr 4#0
deter)ined0 Clearl. that the ground and first floors of the east building &ould each need t&o distribution boards and that the cellar of the east building &ould be )ost convenientl.)ore than one s&itch. the converse is not trueG one s&itch cannot control lu)inaires on several circuits unless a )ulti<'ole contactor is used0 2he )ost 'racticable &a. rubbed out and )oved fro) colu)n to colu)n until b. that the gate<house &ould need its o&n board. that three distribution boards &ould convenientl.large scale0 Standard distribution boards are available &ith 12 and 1 &a-s0 Suitable 'ositions &ere chosen on the dra&ings for distribution boards to serve grou's of " to 12 circuits to allo& a reasonable nu)ber of s'are &a-s on each board0 2he 'ositions &ere chosen to /ee' the final circuits reasonabl.one circuit )ust be in a reasonablco)'act grou'0 Also.handle both 'arts of the covered -ard.a 'rocess of trial and error 4uite a good balance over the 'hases &as obtained0 2he first atte)'t
2able 1#0! $ighting distribution boards
Board no0 1 E bldg )aintenance area 1st flr Phase Blac/ 7Xello&8 sub<)ain 3!))2 Circuit no0 5o0 and location of lights +use 7A8 Cable 7))28
1 2 3 4 Pu)' house and changing roo)s grd flr 4 Changing roo)s grd flr ! 1st flr )aintenance area 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20!
. of the area it &as serving0 *t beca)e evident in0 this 'rocess that the second and third floors of the &est building should be served fro) a single board.7Blue8 'hase E bldg grd flr E bldg lst flr 92042 20 % 1!!0%2
2he lights and s&itching &ere sho&n on dra&ings0 *n each area.served fro) the gate<house0 2he infor)ation fro) the dra&ings &as then su))ariBed in distribution<board schedules &hich are re'roduced in 2able 1#0!0 A further table &as then )ade in order to decide on &hich 'hase each of these boards should be and this is given in 2able 1#0 0 2he figures in the three right<hand colu)ns &ere entered in 'encil.of settling these )atters is to )ar/ the circuits and s&itching grou's on dra&ings of an ade4uatel.the lu)inaires on an. the lu)inaires &ere grou'ed into circuits in accordance &ith the )a(i)u) nu)ber of lu)inaires 'er circuit 'reviousl. although the lu)inaires on one circuit can be controlled b.short and so that as far as 'ossible each board &ould be in the Cload centre.Design of electrical services for buildings
W bldg 1st flr East cellar Covered -ard site area
4"0## 110%4 %0%% 1 "0!#
! 1st flr )aintenance and sub<station Pu)' house Changing roo)s 1st flr
1! 1! 1! 1! 1!
20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
" # 9 1% 11 12
! Changing roo)s 1st flr and stairs 4 Car 'ar/ lights
Board no0 2 Circuit no0
1 2 3 4 !
W bldg grd flr Phase Blac/ 7Xello&8 sub<)ain 3!))2 5o0 and location of lights +use 7A8Cable 7))28
! Bul/heads on &all 3 Production area 3 Production area 4 Production area 3 Production area 4 Production area 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
" # 9 1% 11 12 13 14 1! 1
4 Production area 3 6oist -ard.over vats 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20!
.over vats 2 9ercur. high level ! . lo& level 3 6oist -ard.over vats 2 9ercur.ear entrance 4 Stairs
Board no0 3 Circuit no0
1 2 3
W bldg 1st flr Phase Blac/ 7Xello&8 sub<)ain 3!))2 5o0 and location of lights+use 7A8 Cable 7))28
Design of electrical services for buildings
2 9ercur- over vats 2 9ercur- over vats 2 9ercur- over vats
1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1!
20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
" # 9 1% 11 12 13 14 1! 1
3 +luorescent 'roduction area 4 +luorescent 'roduction area 4 +luorescent 'roduction area 3 +luorescent 'roduction area 4 +luorescent 'roduction area 4 +luorescent 'roduction area
Board no0 4 Circuit no0
1 2 3 4 !
Phase Bro&n 7;ed8 sub<)ain 3!))2 5o0 and location of lights +use 7A8Cable 7))28
4 Production area ! Production area ! Production area 4 Production area ! Production area ! Production area 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
" # 9 1% 11 12
3 $aborator- and landing ! 2hird floor
Board no0 ! Circuit no0
1 2 3
E bldg grd flr stores Phase >re- 7Blue8 sub<)ain 3!))2 5o0 and location of lights +use 7A8 Cable 7))28
4 Stores 4 Stores 4 Stores 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20!
Design e(a)'le 2"!
4 Stores 4 Stores 4 Stores
1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1!
20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
" # 9 1% 11 12 13 14 1! 1
4 Stores 4 Stores 4 Stores 4 Stores 4 Stores 4 Stores
1 2 3 4 !
E bldg grd flr oven area Phase >re- 7Blue8 sub<)ain 3! ))2
! 4 4 4 4 Circulation area ?vens ?vens ?vens ?vens ?vens 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
Circuit no0 5o0 and location of lights+use 7A8 Cable 7))28
" # 9 1% 11 12 13 14 1! 1 ! 4 !
?vens 9aintenance area 9aintenance area 2oilets and stairs
Board no0 " E bldg 1st flr stores Phase >re- 7Blue8 sub<)ain 3!))2
Design of electrical services for buildings
1 2 3 4 !
5o0 and location of lights
4 4 4 4 4 4 Stores Stores Stores Stores Stores Stores Stores Stores Stores Stores Stores Stores
1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1!
20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
" # 9 1% 11 12 13 14 1! 1
4 4 4 4 4 4
Board no0 #
1 2 3 4
>ate<house Phase Blac/ 7Xello&8 sub<)ain 1 ))2
$odge and toilets E bldg cellar E bldg cellar 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20!
Circuit no0 5o0 and location of lights+use 7A8 Cable 7))28
Board no09 Circuit no0
1 2 3 4 !
Covered -ard Phase Bro&n 7;ed8 sub<)ain 3!))2 5o0 and location of lights +use 7A8 Cable 7))28
2 2 1 2 2 1 Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
# 9 1% 11 12
Covered -ard Covered -ard
Board no0 1% Circuit no0
1 2 3 4 !
Covered -ard Phase Bro&n 7;ed8 sub<)ain 3!))2 5o0 and location of lights +use 7A8 Cable 7))28
2 2 2 2 2 2 Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
" # 9 1% 11 12
2 2 3 3
Board no0 11 Circuit no0
1 2 3 4 !
Covered -ard Phase Blac/ 7Xello&8 sub<)ain 3! ))2 5o0 and location of lights +use 7A8 Cable 7))28
2 2 2 2 2 2 Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 1! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20! 20!
" # 9 1% 11
Design of electrical services for buildings
2able 1#0 Distribution of load across 'hases 7final8
Phase Board no0
1 2 3 4 !
E and W bldgs grd flr W grd flr W 1st flr W 2nd and 3rd flr E grd flr E grd flr
A)'s Bro&n 7;ed8 Blac/ 7Xello&8 >re- 7Blue8
24 32 3% 31 4# 4! 4# 1! 4# 1! 4# 31 4# 4! 4! 24 32 3%
" # 9 1% 11
E 1st flr >ate<house Covered -ard Covered -ard Covered -ard
4# 2otal 14!
4# 149 13#
&as )ade on the basis of the 'rovisional 'hasing decided on before the distribution boards had been scheduled0 2he siBe of sub<)ain necessar- to serve these boards &as ne(t calculated0 2he necessar- current rating &as evident fro) 2able 1#0 but it &as also necessar- to calculate the siBe of cable needed to give an acce'table voltage dro'0 2he distance fro) the inta/e to the furthest board &as )easured on the dra&ings and found to be 9#)0 2his &as rounded off to 1%%) for the 'ur'ose of calculation0 2he current ta/en b- the )ost distant board &as 31A and for the calculation this &as rounded off to 3%A0 *t had 'reviousl- been assu)ed that 3= &ould be lost in the final circuits and it &as no& decided to allo& a 2= dro' in the sub<)ain0 2his &ould )a/e the total &ell less than the 'er)issible )a(i)u) but there is no restriction on ho& lo& the voltage dro' is and it see)ed 'rudent to allo& a )argin for future e(tensions and also for 'ossible alterations in the final 'ositions of distribution boards and routes of cables0 2=O2%%%)= Per)issible dro' is given b-
it &as decided that a 1 ))2 cable rated at #!A cli''ed direct or 94A cli''ed to cable tra-.for the longest sub<)ain0 2he ne(t siBe of cable is !%)) 2 &hich is considerablharder to handle and therefore )ore e('ensive to install0 *t &ould be rather unusual to use such large cable for lighting distribution and it &as therefore decided that 3!)) 2 cable &ould be acce'table0 Each of these cables &ould be served fro) a %A s&itch fuse0 An e(ce'tion &as )ade for board no0 # &hich &ould carr. run singl-.Design e(a)'le
3!))2 cable has a voltage dro' of 102!)=AAA) and is rated at 14!A.ins'ection and &ithout an.onl.ground<floor e4ui')ent la-out
.single<la-er cli''ed touching each other. &ith a volt dro' of 20#)=AAA) &ould be ade4uate for this0 *t &ould be served fro) a 3%A s&itch fuse0 Attention &as no& turned to the design of the 'o&er distribution0 A list of the )achiner.1!A0 B.to be installed &as obtained fro) the client and &ritten out as sho&n in 2able 1#0"0 2he locations of the e4ui')ent &ere also obtained and are sho&n in +igures 1#04< 1#0!0 *t should be noted that all 'o&er e4ui')ent &as to be three<'hase e(ce't for +6P )otors on rotar.calculation. &hen run singl-0 +or a 3%A current &e could suffer a correction factor of 3%A14!O%020 We could run 12 or )ore )ulticore P=C steel &ire ar)oured cable on cable tra. and the correction factor &ould be %0"0 A larger sub<)ain &ould see) unreasonable for the loads involved0 Although the volt dro' of 3!)) 2 cable is higher than the calculated figure.valves0
+igure 1#04 +actor. the calculation &as on the safe side and &as carried out onl.
Pu)'s CB. 9i(ers C>.Design of electrical services for buildings
2able 1#0" 9achiner-. Pu)'s ?vens 6oist CA. Agitator 2-'e 1 )ill 2-'e 2 )ill CA. Pu)'s CC. Pu)'s 1 1 3 1 3 3 1# 1 3 1 ! 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 !0 % 30"3 209# 30"3 !0 % !0 % 30"3 30"3 !0 % "04 !0 % 11019 %0"! 1049 2024 2203# "04 11019 # 11 11 # # 11 1! 11 22 2 3 ! 4% 1! 22 2 3 ! 4% 1! 22 11 # 11 # 1# # 33 33 144 # 33 1! !! < # 9 # 11 11 9 < 22 1! 33 44 < 3 < < 1! 22
4 1 1 2 3 13 2 1% 1% 2%
30"3 3"03 1#0 ! 30"3 2024 30"3 11019 14092 "0#3 %019
# "% 3 # ! # 22 3% 1 3
32 "% 3 1 1! 1%4 44 3%% 1 % %
Allo& for diversit1 3! < # 1% !2 22 2%%
. assu)ed current de)and
. +ans Conve-ors Dissolver Cou'ling tan/s $ift CB. Agitators C>. 9i(ers Sha/ers E(tractor CB. 9i(ers C>.valves Single<'hase )otors CA. Pu)'s C+. Pu)'s CE. +ans Boiler burner C6. Pu)' CB.otar. 9ills .unning current 7a)'s 'er 'hase8 *te)
CA. Pu)'s CD.
11 1 1
!0 % 2024 30"3
11 ! !
11 ! ! 13 9 9#2
11 ! ! " 4#
2otal a)'s 'er 'hase :vA over 3 'hases
9ost of it &as accounted for b.the-
.#%%A busbars at the )ain inta/e0 A difficult.)otors driving 'u)'s. giving an after<diversit.s 'revious industrial e('erience and his assess)ent of &hat e4ui')ent )ight nor)all.be catered for b. +ans Burner au(iliar.to the e(isting board ca)e fro) a 31!/=A transfor)er0 *f the electricit.factor of %0 to this.)otor CE.&as based on the designer. agitators and other )echanical e4ui')entG the running currents 'er 'hase &ere ta/en fro) standard )otor 'erfor)ance tables0 2he allo&ance for diversit.loaded 'hase &as 149A and in vie& of the nature of the building it see)ed reasonable to a''l-
+igure 1#0! +actor.arose over this figure0 2he su''l.first<floor e4ui')ent la-out
a diversit.Design e(a)'le
CC.load of " A 'er 'hase &hich is !"%/=A over all three 'hases0 2his could convenientl.lighting load of 9%A0 Addition of this to the 'o&er load gave a total after<diversit.co)'an.&ere to be as/ed for a bigger su''l.be in use si)ultaneousl-0 2he lighting load on the )ost heavil.
&aste of s'ace to re'roduce the earlier tables &hich differed onl.)uch0 *t therefore satisfied both 'oints of vie&0 A descri'tion such as this inevitabl.second<floor e4ui')ent la-out
busbars &ould be installed at the )ain inta/e but &ould be served through a 4%%A s&itch fuse fro) the e(isting 31!/=A 7e4uivalent to 44%A 'er 'hase8 su''l-0 2his &ould )a/e it 'ossible to cater for a larger load if the need arose &ithout e('ensive alterations but &ould not increase the initial cost ver.s )easure)ents the designer felt that a diversit.settled0 2able 1#0" is in fact based on the third atte)'t to dra& u' such a list1 it &ould be an unnecessar.difficult and e('ensive subse4uentl.in detail0 6o&ever.of the installation0 6e &as reluctant to &or/ on this basis0 After discussion it &as agreed that #%%A
+igure 1#0 +actor.of the e(isting su''l-0 2he client therefore &anted this figure to be used0 Whilst unable to challenge the client.'recise &hereas in 'ractice at each stage there are )an.the )a(i)u) de)and &ould be %02"@79#2/=A 'o&er loadV12%/=A lighting load8O29#/=A &hich &ould be &ithin the ca'acit.to increase the ca'acit.)a/es the design 'rocess see) ver.o&ner &ished to avoid0 2he client also thought the calculated load &as high but could not dis'ute the total installed load0 6e told the designer that at an older but si)ilar &or/s belonging to the sa)e co)'an)easure)ents sho&ed that the actual )a(i)u) de)and &as 2" 'er cent of the total installed load0 *f the sa)e figure &ere a''lied to the ne& factor. the ele)ent of uncertaint.Design of electrical services for buildings
&ould )a/e a substantial charge &hich the factor.lo&0 6e 'ointed out that if the distribution &as designed on this figure and it turned out to be lo& it &ould be ver.factor of 2" 'er cent &as sur'risingl.un/no&n facts for &hich the designer has to )a/e a guessed allo&ance0 *n the 'resent case the 'lant design &as 'roceeding at the sa)e ti)e as the electrical design and neither the ratings nor the 'ositions of all the e4ui')ent &ere finall.led to t&o i)'ortant decisions about the general sche)e0
it &as decided to use busbars &ith se'aratel.that this &ould be necessar. Pu)'s CC.valve E(tractor 1 1 2 1 ! # % 3% 1
. 9ill . 2his list is
2able 1#0# Distribution of load across 'hases
.before the installation &as co)'leted0 *t see)ed 4uite li/el. 9i(er 2-'e 2 )ill CA. Agitator CB. it &as decided that the design of the 'o&er installation &ould go onl.)ounted s&itch fuses rather than a cubicle<t-'e s&itchboard0 2his &ould give e(cellent fle(ibilit.because of the uncertaint.for future e(tensions and also for changes and additions &hich )ight beco)e necessar.as far as the final distribution boards0 2he final circuits fro) these to the various )otors &ould be settled on site after the )achines &ere installed0 *n areas &here there &as to be a lot of e4ui')ent horiBontal busbars could be run along the building &alls &ith ta'<off bo(es s'aced as re4uired0 With these considerations in )ind the load &as listed again but this ti)e area b. )i(er CC. 9i(er CC.of the final 'lant la-out0 Second. Agitators 2-'e 1 )ills CB. Pu)' Sha/er E(tractor
2 2 1 2 2 2 1 12
# 22 3 2
1 44 3 1 12 1% # 142
3 E bldg >rinding cubicles
Per cubicle CC.Design e(a)'le
+irst. Pu)'s Sha/er
5o0 of Each
2 1 1 1 1 ! # "% #
1 "% #
! 11! 1%% 1 44
2 E bldg 5 end
CA.area0 2he load &as su))ed for each area and a decision )ade on the siBe and rating of the distribution board to serve that area.unning current 7a)'s 'er 'hase8 Area
1 E bldg 5 end
catalogues sho&ed that it &ould not be 'ossible to get a standard board &ith outgoing fuse<&a-s in the &ide range of siBes needed.)otor Pu)'
1 1 1 1 1 1
4% 1! 22 11 ! ! 9#
sho&n in 2able 1#0#. one &ith fuse<&a-s fro) 2 to 3%A and one &ith fuse<&a-s fro) 2% to
. *t &ill be noticed that so)e additional ite)s not listed in the 'revious table &ere added at this stage0 2he load in areas 1 and 2 could be catered for b. Pu)' $ift CB.to use t&o se'arate boards. Pu)' C>.Design of electrical services for buildings
4 E bldg ?vens
144 1 1 %
! W bldg 3rd flr
6oist CA.a 24<&a. +an Au(iliar. Pu)' CC. Pu)' Cou'ling tan/s
3 3 1 1 1 1 1%
11 11 2 3 11 !
33 33 2 3 11 ! #" 4%
9 Boiler roo)
CB. +an Burner C9. Agitator CA. Pu)'
1 3 1 1
# 11 1! #
# 33 1! # 4 4! 33
Dissolver W bldg 2nd flr " W bldg 1st flr # W bldg >rd flr CE. that is to safro) !A to the 1%%A needed for the )ills0 *t &ould therefore be necessar.3%%A 2P5 distribution board served fro) a 2%%A s&itch fuse0 A chec/ &ith )anufacturers. +ans Conve-ors CD. Pu)' C+.
of either 2 of 3 <&a.1%%A 2P5 board &ould )eet these re4uire)ents0 *n area 3.%A 2P5 board and a <&a.still being over<esti)ated but &hereas s&itch fuses and if necessar.Design e(a)'le
1%%A0 2he for)er &ould have fourteen ite)s &ith an installed load of 9"A giving about !#A after diversit.contains t&o cubicles &ith ten 'ieces of e4ui')ent0 2herefore a busbar is not the )ost 'racticable )ethod and distribution boards should be used0 2he distribution boards &ill be )ounted on a &all0 As there is a central gang<&a)id&a. therefore the )a(i)u) si)ultaneous de)and can be assessed as 3%V3V# O 41A0 2here are ten such cubicles )a/ing the installed load 1%@ %O %%A0 After diversit.centre0 *t had alreadbeen decided.3%%A 2P5 boards fro) 2%%A s&itch fuses or 4 of 1#<&a.is a''ro(i)atel.4%%A0 *n this area there is a total of 1%@!O!% 'ieces of e4ui')ent0 2o allo& s'are ca'acit.this &ill be sa. the e4ui')ent in one cubicle onl.served b.! &a-s on a distribution board are needed0 Each ba.loads calculated for this &as "41A but allo&ing for diversit.a 2%%A isolator at the busbars &hich can in turn be served fro) a 1!%A s&itch fuse on the )ain 'anel0 At this stage it had been decided that the east building &ould re4uire si( distribution boards and one set of busbars0 All this could convenientl.si( )etres long0 A busbar &ould have not )ore than si( ta'<off 'oints along this length but each ba.eference &as )ade in the last 'aragra'h to short<circuit strength0 *n fact no se'arate calculation &as )ade for this design but the results of calculations on other 'ro3ects &ere )ade use of0 2he busbars are rectangular co''er bars su''orted at regular intervals0 2he di)ensions of the bars and the s'acing of su''orts are given in the )anufacturer.s catalogue0 *f the length bet&een t&o successive su''orts is treated as a si)'l-<su''orted bea) the
.is listed0 2he )i(er and the )ill do not run at the sa)e ti)e0 2he rotar.the fuse should have a higher rating. the outgoing s&itch fuse could not be larger than 3%%A0 2he after<diversit. that the )ain inta/e &ould have #%%A busbars &ith a 4%%A inco)ing s&itch fuse0 2o give discri)ination.and the latter &ould serve four ite)s &ith an installed load of 1!%A giving about 9%A after diversit-0 A 2%<&a.bet&een the boards the )a(i)u) load on the busbars &ould be less0 2o allo& for ade4uate short<circuit strength and also for future e(tensions it &as decided to use #%%A busbars for the subsidiar.bet&een the t&o facing &alls the arrange)ent &ill have to be s-))etrical so that either t&o or four distribution boards &ill have to be used0 2his gives the 'ossibilit.valves run inter)ittentl-. sa4%%A0 . as e('lained above.2%%A 2P5 busbars fed b.co)e fro) a subsidiardistribution centre in the building0 2he su) of the after<diversit.cables can be changed later it &ould be vere('ensive to re'lace the busbars0 2herefore the local busbars can still be #%%A but should have an inco)ing isolator of a lo&er rating0 2here is a fuse at the outgoing end of the cable fro) the )ain inta/e and there is no need for another fuse at its other end0 As the fuse is 3%%A the isolator &hich is 'rotected b.2%%A 2P5 boards fro) 1!% s&itch fuses0 At first sight the first alternative a''eared chea'er but on chec/ing &ith the )anufacturers it &as revealed that standard boards are not )ade as large as this so the second alternative had to be ado'ted0 Area 4 can be convenientl.load &as 'robabl.
ho&ever.s catalogue.and so)e&hat circuitous 'iece of reasoning0 *t is. and 9 is the )o)ent to be calculated0 2he bending )o)ent for a si)'l-<su''orted bea) &ith unifor) loading is
&here 9Obending )o)ent 75)8 &Oload 'er unit length 75)N18 $Odistance bet&een su''orts 7)80 As 9 has been established and $ is /no&n.are easil.calculated for a rectangular section. this for)ula allo&s the )a(i)u) allo&able value of the current to be calculated0 2his value is then the )a(i)u) current &hich the bars &ill be 3ust strong enough to &ithstand and the. and the s'acing bet&een the bars is /no&n fro) the )anufacturer.should not be e('osed to a 'ossible short<circuit current higher than this0 Perha's this see)s a length.&hich the sche)e &as arrived at0 2he subse4uent distribution centre in the east building could also serve a distribution board in the )aintenance area and the unit heaters for the s'ace heating0 5o infor)ation &as available at this stage of the e4ui')ent &hich &ould be installed in the )aintenance
. this enables & to be calculated to give the )a(i)u) 'er)issible unifor) load on each bar0 When a current flo&s in t&o 'arallel rectangular bars the resulting )echanical force bet&een the) is given b-
&here &Oforce 'er unit length 75)N18 iOcurrent 7A8 sOs'acing bet&een bars 7)80 *f the force 'er unit length is ta/en as the )a(i)u) 'er)issible unifor) load &hich has 3ust been calculated. a t-'ical e(a)'le of the &a. ' is the )a(i)u) allo&able &or/ing stress of 'ure co''er.in &hich the various re4uire)ents for a distribution s-ste) have to be fitted together0 *t has not been &ritten as a descri'tion of the final sche)e but rather to sho& the 'rocess b.Design of electrical services for buildings
)a(i)u) 'er)issible bending )o)ent can be calculated fro) the bending stress for)ulaG
&here 9Obending )o)ent 75)8 *Osecond )o)ent of area 7)48 N2 'Ostress 75) 8 -Odistance fro) neutral a(is to outer)ost fibre 7)80 * and .
for W building
.four unit heaters on the second floor and four on the first floor &hich all re4uired a su''l.reasonable thing to do0 +ro) 2able 1#0# the total a)'s 'er 'hase on the ground and first floors &ere 1!3 installed and 2 after diversit-0 So)e 2%%A busbars served b.a
2able 1#09 Su))ar.height to 'art of the ground floor0 2his )ade it 'ossible to serve the ground floor fro) a busbar at high level on the first floor0 *ndeed in vie& of the lac/ of infor)ation available to the electrical designer about the height of the )otors on the )achiner.%A 2P5 distribution board served fro) a %A s&itch fuse0 2he third floor needed an #<&a.to be installed this see)ed the onl.for the final connections.%A 2P5 board &ould certainl.for this reason and 'artl.be ade4uate0 2he area &ould have ten heaters &hich could be served fro) a 12<&a.SP5 board0 At this stage there &as still so)e uncertaint.distribution centre0
.to give the greatest 'ossible fle(ibilit.Design e(a)'le
&or/sho' but a 12<&a.%A 2P5 distribution board served fro) a %a)' s&itch fuse0 2he loading for the various areas of the &est building &as then su))ariBed as sho&n in 2able 1#090 *t beca)e evident that the &hole of this could convenientl.unning current 7a)'s 'er 'hase8 +loor
>rd 1st 2nd 3rd !! 4 2"2
After diversit4% 22 33 4! 14%
2%%A s&itch fuse &ould be a)'le for this load 7this is the lo&est standard rating for busbars80 2he second floor needed an #<&a. it &as decided after discussion &ith the client to 'rovide a busbar under the first floor ceiling of the &est building to serve the first and ground floors0 *t &ill be re)e)bered that 'art of the first<floor slab &as o)itted to give a t&o<store.and ho& )uch left for the future0 Partl.for fans and ther)ostats0 9uch of this e4ui')ent could be convenientl.about the e(act 'ositions of the e4ui')ent in the lo&er 'art of the &est building and indeed about ho& )uch of the e4ui')ent 'lanned &ould be installed initiall.served fro) a si(<&a.distribution centre &ithin the &est building0 Ade4uate )argins and 'rovision for future additions suggested that a suitable siBe &ould be 4%%A busbars served fro) a 2%%A s&itch fuse0 2he s'ace heating of the &est building &as to be 'rovided b.co)e fro) a subsidiar.SP5 distribution board on its o&n floor and these t&o boards could also be served fro) the subsidiar.
as sho&n in +igure 1#0"0 2his is the )ost convenient )ethod of su))ariBing the decisions ta/en so far and chec/ing for aninconsistencies or o)issions0 *n its final for) it is also the
+igure 1#0" +actor.necessar.re)aining area to be dealt &ith &as the boiler roo)0 2his is *te) 9 in 2able 1#0#0 2here &ould be little diversit.of sub<)ains cables.to )a/e sure that the voltage dro' is not e(cessive and one of a li)ited nu)ber of standard<siBe cables )ust be chosen0 2he calculation &as therefore si)'lified b.here and it &as therefore decided to 'rovide a 1!%A 2P5 distribution board served fro) a 1!%A s&itch fuse0 2o save a )ulti'licit. had not been &ritten into the sche)e of +igure 1#0"0 2he necessar.Design of electrical services for buildings
2he onl.of e('laining the sche)e to be installed to contractors and su''liers0 *t no& re)ained to decide the siBes of the various sub<)ain distribution cables &hich. it &as decided that in the &est building the lighting distribution boards &ould be served fro) the subsidiar.current ratings &ere clear fro) the s&itch fuse ratings needed on the sche)e but the cables also had to be calculated for voltage dro'0 *t is onl.distribution centre0 2he east building &as nearer the )ain inta/e so that it &ould not be so cu)berso)e and e('ensive to run several cables bet&een the)0 Also the nu)ber of s&itch fuses re4uired on the east building distribution centre for the 'o&er boards alone &as alread.ta/ing 1%%) as the longest run of a sub<)ain cable and using the sa)e length in calculating all of the)0 *t had earlier been assu)ed
.4uite high0 *t &as therefore decided that the east building lighting boards &ould be served directlfro) the )ain inta/e0 2he distribution sche)e &as no& s/etched. at this stage.distribution diagra)
half &ould be in the final circuit and half in the sub<)ains0 2o /ee' to this assu)'tion the sub<)ains had to be calculated for a dro' of 40 = 74 'er cent of the 5o)inal =oltageA28. to ta/e into account future e(tensions the volts dro' &ould be restricted to 3=0 *n vie& of the nu)ber of sub<)ains involved the calculation &as again set out in a tabular for) as sho&n in 2able 1#01%0 Colu)n 2 gives the current rating for reference )ethod 11 single la-er cli''ed to cable tra-0 *n colu)n 3 the dro' in )illivolts 'er a)' )etre to give a dro' of 1= over the assu)ed total length of 1%%) has been calculated0 2his figure &as then )ulti'lied b-
2able 1#01% SiBing of sub<)ain distribution cables
1 2 3 )=AAA) for 1 volt dro' O71%%%8 Board no0 A)'s
21 22 23 24 2! 2 2" 2# 29 3% 31 32 33 W0 busbars ?ven busbars E0 sub< centre W0 sub< centre % 1%% 1!% 1!% 1!% 1!% % 3% 4! 2! 12 12 1%% 1%% 1!% 3%% 12%
%01" %01% %0%" %0%" %0%" %0%" %01" %033 %022 %04% %0#3 %0#3 %01% %01% %0%" %0%3 %0%#
)=AAA) for 3 volt ))2 dro'
%0!% %03% %02% %02% %02% %02% %0!% 10%% %0 " 102% 20!% 20!% %03% %03% %02% %01% %02! !% "% 9! 9! 9! 9! !% 3! 3! 3! 2! 2! "% "% 9! 3%% 1!%
12! 1!! 19% 19% 19% 19% 12! "2 "2 "2 2 2 1!! 1!! 19% 39% 2!% %0#1 %0!" %043 %043 %043 %043 %0#1 101 101 101 10! 10! %0!" %0!" %043 %01#! %03!
that. of the total 'er)issible voltage dro'.
and the electrical installation )a.stage and should in theor. it is better to have a fe& e(tra clauses in the s'ecification than to ris/ contractual difficulties later on0
.not be needed for the sche)e as designed0 =ariations are fre4uentl.deter)ine &hether or not cables can be buried &ithin it0 *f &alls are built of a single thic/ness of bric/ it &ill not be 'racticable to chase the) for cables or conduits. the designer of the electrical services can be called in earl.the services0 2hus the engineering designer.re4uired and there is no clause in the s'ecification covering isolators.the li)itations of an e(isting building0 *n 'rinci'le.s influence on the overall design of the building tends to e(ist )ore in theor. the variation instruction )ust include a co)'lete descri'tion or there is the 'ossibilit.less ti)e available for drafting variations than for the original s'ecification.Design of electrical services for buildings
three and rounded off in colu)n 4 to give the )illivolts 'er a)' )etre for a 3= dro'0 Colu)ns 2 and 4 thus sho&ed the )ini)u) re4uire)ents of the cableG the cable chosen to )atch this &as then entered in colu)ns !.)ade during construction. &here a ne& building is being designed. 'urelarchitectural considerations al&a-s override the engineering ones0 9an.s ideas are ver. and the.isolators as o''osed to fuse s&itches and s&itch fuses0 *f an isolator is subse4uentl.stages of design the architect.influence the building design0 *n 'ractice it see)s that since it is al&a-s 'ossible to ada't the electrical installation to an.that an unsuitable t-'e &ill be su''lied0 Since there is invariabl.than in 'ractice0 When the &or/ is to be 'ut out to co)'etitive tender it is necessar.building.s freedo) &as restricted b.the ti)e he receives dra&ings on &hich he can start design &or/ of his o&n the sha'e and st-le of the building have been settled and can no longer be altered to acco))odate or si)'lif.not re4uire an.earl.ne& building.enough to suggest arrange)ents &hich &ould result in a )ore econo)ical services installation0 2he effect of voltage dro' or cable siBes )a/es it desirable to have the s'aces allocated for inta/e 'anels and distribution boards as near as 'ossible to the centre of the area being served. and if this is acce'ted the t-'e of construction no longer )atters0 *n the earl.needed0 *f it has not been described in the s'ecification a short variation instruction can give rise to different inter'retations &hich could result in a contractual dis'ute0 +or e(a)'le.to dra& u' a s'ecification describing the 4ualit.and standard of the e4ui')ent to be used and the standard of &or/)anshi' e('ected0 2he s'ecification &hich &as used for the sche)e described in this cha'ter is re'roduced in the follo&ing 'ages0 *t is often 'rudent to include in a s'ecification descri'tions of e4ui')ent &hich )a.have to be run on the surface0 All these )atters can be discussed b.fluid and it is difficult for the electrical designer to )a/e suggestions &hich are )ore than vague generalities0 B. and horiBontal and vertical ducts influences the t-'e of &iring s-ste) to be e)'lo-ed0 2he thic/ness of 'laster )a. load centres0 2he 'rovision of false ceilings.could introduce a 'iece of e4ui')ent not originall. the original sche)e )a.the electrical services designer and the architect at a ver. and "0 2he cable siBes &ere then entered on the sche)e &hich is re'roduced in +igure 1#0" and this co)'leted the design0 *n this e(a)'le the designer.architects have no ob3ection to conduit on the surface of &alls even in a co)'letel.
stoved ena)el0 S&itchboards shall be suitable for controlling reduced voltage su''lies and shall be co)'rehensivel. all cable ter)inations and interconnections0 All ite)s0 of s&itch and fusegear are to be flush<)ounted on the front of the cubicle &hich is to be finished gre.co''er )ounted on robust vitreous 'orcelain insulators co)'lete &ith all necessar.interconnections bet&een s&itch fuses and busbars shall be )ade and all the e4ui')ent shall be fi(ed on a co))on angle<iron fra)e &hich is to be su''lied as 'art of the electrical contract0 2he fra)e is to be 'ainted one coat 'ri)er and t&o coats grefinish0 Where necessar-. rust<'rotected and finished grestoved ena)el0 +ront access doors shall be fitted &ith dust<e(cluding gas/ets and shall be interloc/ed so that the.holes and bushes for inco)ing and outgoing cables0 *nco)ing and outgoing s&itch fuses of the t-'es and ratings sho&n on the dra&ings and schedules shall be 'rovided and installed ad3acent to the busbar cha)ber0 All necessar.cla)'s0 2he busbars are to be enclosed in a stove<ena)elled sheet<steel casing &ith cast<iron fra)e )e)bers and detachable to'. trun/ing shall be su''lied and installed fro) busbars to )eter 'ositions0 +use s&itches +use s&itches shall be heav-<dut.)eans of )echanical interloc/s &ith the covers and o'erating levers.shall have heav-<gauge steel enclosures &ith cast<iron fra)e )e)bers. botto) and side 'lates0 2he covers are to be of the scre&<on t-'e0 2he 'anels are to be 'rovided &ith all necessar. containing distribution busbars.o'eration of all co)'onent 'arts0 2he tests shall include continuit.cannot be o'ened &hen the s&itch is Con.'attern fitted &ith 6.Design e(a)'le
S'ecification of electrical &or/s Cubicle 'anels 9ain and distribution s&itchboards as listed in the schedules shall be 'ur'ose<)ade and shall consist of a sheet<steel cubicle designed for access fro) front onl.or fro) front and rear according to site 'osition.s &or/s to ensure satisfactor.0 ?'erating handles shall be loc/able in both the on and off 'ositions0 2he to' and botto) end'lates shall be re)ovable0 Each fuse s&itch shall be su''lied co)'lete &ith the correct 6.tested before dis'atch fro) the )anufacturer.C fuse lin/s0 2he. 2he s&itchboard shall have an earthing ter)inal and earthing bar0 E(ternal connections shall be 'rovided to allo& all outgoing cables to ter)inate at either to' or botto) of the s&itchboard0 Busbars Busbar 'anels as sho&n on the dra&ings and listed in the schedules are to be of the ratings indicated and are to be of high<conductivit.C fuse lin/s0 Each fuse s&itch shall have flag on<off indication0
.and 2/= flash tests0 Busbar s-ste)s in s&itchboard shall be tested at !%/A for 1s0 +ull 'rotection shall be 'rovided b.
rust<'rotected and finished gre.shall have front<o'erated handles &ith visible on<off indication0 2he interiors shall have vitreous 'orcelain bases fitted &ith 'lated non<ferrous conducting co)'onents0 S&itches shall be of the 4uic/ )a/e<and<brea/ t-'e and have re)ovable shields over the fi(ed contacts and re)ovable )oving contact bars0 Each s&itch fuse shall be su''lied co)'lete &ith the correct 6.)eans of a )odified door<fi(ing scre&. the distribution boards shall be )ounted over flush ada'table iron bo(es into &hich the conduits and &iring of the s-ste) &ill ter)inate0 2he bo(es shall be of a siBe to be agreed on site &ith the consulting engineer0 Doors of all distribution boards shall be loc/able either b.)ar/ed &ith their current rating.C fuse lin/s0 S&itch fuses shall be !%%= rating and shall be clearl.serve0 S&itch fuses S&itch fuses shall be industrial 'attern dust<'roof t-'e &ith 6.or b.)ar/ed &ith their current rating0 2he )oving contact asse)blies are to be re)ovable for ins'ection and )aintenance0 Distribution boards All distribution boards shall be single<'ole or tri'le<'ole &ith neutral bar.C fuse lin/s0 2he.cannot be o'ened &hen the s&itch is Con. 'arts and the sheet<steel 'rotection to allo& cables to be brought to their res'ective ter)inals in a neat and &or/)anli/e )anner0 2o se'arate o''osite 'oles a fillet of hard inco)bustible insulating )aterial shall be 'rovided of sufficient de'th to reach the inside of the door0
.0 ?'erating handles shall be loc/able in both the on and off 'ositions and shall have visible on<off indication0 *solators shall be !%%= rating and shall be clearl. brac/et and 'adloc/0 A)'le clearance shall be 'rovided bet&een Clive.)ar/ed &ith their current rating. and the ite)s of e4ui')ent that the.serve0 *solators *solators shall be heav-<dut. and the ite)s of e4ui')ent that the.Design of electrical services for buildings
+use s&itches shall be !%%= rating and shall be clearl.'attern &ith steel enclosures having cast<iron fra)e )e)bers.stoved ena)el &ith re)ovable to' and botto) end'lates and shall have doors fitted &ith dust<'roof gas/ets0 2he.sheet<steel cases of the !%%= range &ith 6.C fuse carriers0 ?n all tri'le<'ole and neutral distribution boards the nu)ber of neutral ter)inals to be 'rovided shall be the sa)e as the total nu)ber of fuse<&a-sACBs in the board0 2his infor)ation )ust be given to the )anufacturers &hen ordering.of fuse ratings as s'ecified0 *n the case of flush installations. and &ith fuse&a-sACBs 2% or 3%A or above as s'ecified0 All distribution boards shall be of the surface 'attern in heav.)eans of a barrel<t-'e loc/ &ith detachable /e.stoved ena)el0 +ront access doors shall be fitted &ith dust<e(cluding gas/ets and shall be interloc/ed so that the. together &ith infor)ation &ith regard to co)'osite boards having a )ulti'licit.shall have enclosures fabricated fro) sheet steel finished gre.
flush conduit run at the 'oint &here it leaves a ceiling.a suitable cli' so that the carrier cannot be inadvertentl.device shall be of the 'neu)atic 'attern &ith an instantaneous reset allo&ing restarting i))ediatel. or Ctee. or in an.are to have continuousl.Design e(a)'le
*n each distribution board s'are fuse carriers shall be 'rovided and held in 'lace b.interloc/ed0 2he overload rela-s are to be correctl. other than fle(ibles.dislodged0 Distribution boards shall be fi(ed at a height to give eas.s&itches and shall incor'orate single<'hase 'rotection0 Star<delta starters shall have a ti)e<dela.in all res'ects &ith British Standard S'ecification BS 31G194%0 All P=C insulated cables. angle and outlet bo(es0 5o t-'e of Celbo&.a )ethod a''roved b.set to ensure ade4uate 'rotection &ithout nuisance tri''ing0 Steel conduit All steel Class CB.after a star<delta s&itching o'eration0 2he star and delta contactors are to be )echanicall. e(ce't &here other&ise s'ecified. &all or floor for ease of dis)antling if re4uired0 E(ce't &here other&ise stated conduit is to be finished blac/ ena)el0 5o conduit shall be installed &ith )ore than t&o right<angle bends &ithout dra&<in bo(es and dra&<in bo(es shall not be )ore than #) a'art0 All conduits. &ill be allo&ed on &or/s under this S'ecification0 Where ada'table bo(es are used the.other &a.shall be of cast iron or heav-<gauge sheet steel of not less than 12<gauge0 5o conduit of less than 2%)) dia)eter shall be used0 A solid cou'ling shall be inserted in ever. conduits and conduit fittings throughout the &hole of this installation shall co)'l.device co)'lete &ith all )ain and control &iring and ter)inal bloc/ for inco)ing and outgoing cables0 2he ti)e<dela. and be 'rovided &ith a schedule co)'l-ing &ith !14<%9<%1 of BS " "10 Starters A starter shall be 'rovided for each )otor as indicated on the dra&ings and schedules0 2he starters shall be surface<)ounted &ith a sheet<steel case containing a tri'le<'ole contactor &ith vertical double brea/ 'er 'ole having silver<faced contacts0 2he.rated o'erating coils &ith inherent undervoltage release0 ?'erating coils are to be su''lied fro) 'hase to neutral0 2he starters shall have )agnetic<t-'e overload rela-s &ith ad3ustable oil dash'ot ti)e lags and sto'Areset 'ush<buttons in the front cover0 2he cover is also to contain the start 'ush<button0 Starters are to have single<'ole au(iliar. shall be 'rotected throughout their length &ith heav-<gauge scre&ed &elded conduit 7ena)elled or galvaniBed as re4uired8 &ith the necessar)alleable iron loo'<in.and electricall. shall dro' not rise to the res'ective 'oints0 *n no circu)stances shall the conduit be erected in such a )anner as to for) a D &ithout outlet.the consulting engineer0
. dra&<in.access.that &ould 'rovide a tra' for condensed )oisture0 Provision shall be )ade for draining all conduits or fi(tures b.
other t-'es of circuit shall be run in se'arate conduits and no circuit of an. etc0. tees or bends shall be installed0 >enerall-.to their res'ective 'oints0 Connections bet&een conduits and trun/ing and conduit and steel bo(es.other circuit than that for &hich such 'oint bo( is intended0 Ceiling 'oint bo(es are to be of )ediu) 'attern )alleable iron.)eans of a flanged cou'ling and brass s)ooth<bore entr. and no solid or ins'ection elbo&s. but &here galvaniBed conduit is installed. as far as 'ossible. &ith fi(ing holes at !%)) centres and confor)ing to BS S'ecification0 +lush ceiling 'oint bo(es &hich do not finish flush &ith the finished surface of the ceiling. shall be fitted &ith )alleable iron e(tension rings0 6oriBontal or diagonal runs of flush conduit on structural or 'artition &alls &ill not be 'er)itted0 All flush conduits shall dro' or rise verticall. all conduit fittings shall be stove<ena)elled blac/ or other a''roved finish inside and out.are rendered &atertight0 During the 'rogress of the &or/ all e('osed ends of conduits shall be fitted &ith suitable 'lastic or )etal 'lugs0 Plugs of &ood.&i'ed off before 3oining u'0 Conduit runs. etc0. and the bore )ust be full and free throughout0 All scre&<cutting oil )ust be carefull. etc0.s'aced0 2he electrical contractor )ust ta/e all 'recautions in situations li/el.the hot 'rocess both inside and out0 Such fittings shall be of Class B 'attern0 All conduit fittings not carr-ing lighting or other fittings shall be su''lied &ith suitable cast<iron covers &ith round<head brass scre&s0 Where flush bo(es are installed the covers shall be of the overla''ing rust'roof 'attern0
.to be da)' to see that all conduits and bo(es in the vicinit.conduit or bo( of another s-ste)0 2he 'ro'osed runs shall be sub)itted to the consulting engineer for a''roval before &or/ is co))enced0 Conduit fittings All conduit fittings shall be of )alleable iron &hich shall confor) to the British Standards S'ecification BS 31G194%0 All fittings shall be of the scre&ed 'attern.Design of electrical services for buildings
5o ceiling loo'ing<in 'oint bo( shall be used as a dra&<in bo( for an. are to be s-))etrical and e4uall. &hether of the BS or ada'table t-'e. all fittings shall be galvaniBed b. shall be )ade b. heating. shall be of heavcast<iron or 12<gauge sheet steel. 'o&er and an.bush0 2he lead &asher shall be fitted on the inside of the trun/ing or bo(. are to be threaded ho)e and butted0 Sets and bends are to be )ade &ithout indentation. or bet&een conduit and fittings. or bet&een conduit and steel cases of distribution gear or e4ui')ent. and shall be fi(ed 7overla''ing for flush &or/8 b)eans of t&o or four 9 round<headed brass scre&s as re4uired0 Conduits set through &alls &ill not be 'er)itted0 When change of direction is re4uired after 'assing through a &all an a''ro'riate bac/ outlet bo( is to be fitted0 All 3oints bet&een lengths of conduit. etc0 All lids for dra&<in bo(es. 'a'er and the li/e &ill not be acce'table as sufficient 'rotection0 $ighting.one s-ste) shall be installed in an.
s'aced. so that the scre& heads do not 'ro3ect into the bo(0 +le(ible conduit Connections to individual )otors and heating e4ui')ent run in conduit shall be )ade using a )ini)u) of 3%%)) of &atertight fle(ible conduit0 2he conduit shall be :o'e( $SA20 +le(ible conduit connecting to heating e4ui')ent shall e)'lo.)ade for the 'ur'ose0 Cable trun/ing Cable trun/ing shall be su''lied and installed co)'lete &ith fittings and accessories and shall be of an a''roved )anufacture0 *t shall be )anufactured fro) Binc or lead<coated sheet steel finished stove ena)elled gre. to obviate the setting of conduit &hen it enters or leaves the bo(es0 All conduit bo(es.s s'ecial tools0 Where holes or a'ertures are for)ed in the trun/ing for cable entr-.the )anufacturers0 Where it is necessar. it is to be fabricated b.shall be bushed &ith brass s)ooth<bore entr.of all fle(ible conduits shall be )aintained b.bushes. shall finish flush &ith the underside of the ceiling.4))2 )ini)u) co''er conductors for)ing one of the cores of the cable0 +le(ible conduits shall be ter)inated &ith the :o'e( cou'lings and connectors s'eciall. cou'lings.for a s'ecial fit)ent to be used. s&itches and soc/et outlets are )ounted.Design e(a)'le
All ceiling 'oint bo(es. tees. e(ce't in the case of surface conduits. and the fi(ing holes shall be countersun/.'ass through floors0 Where )ore than one service is involved )ulti<co)'art)ent trun/ing shall be e)'lo-ed to se'arate the services0 Cable tra-
. etc0. or P=C gro))et stri's0 Cable su''orts are to be inserted in vertical runs of trun/ing and cables are to be laced thereto in their res'ective grou's0 +ire barriers of hard insulating )aterial shall be 'rovided in vertical runs of trun/ing &here the. shall be securel.but-l rubber insulated CSP sheathed cables and suitable ter)inal bloc/s shall be used in all bo(es &here a change in cable t-'e is involved0 Earth continuit. shall be of standard 'atternG &here it is necessar.the )anufacturer and shall be a''lied &ith the )anufacturer. s'ecial bo(es shall be used. reducers.flush ceiling 'oint bo( to &hich a lu)inaire is to be attached shall be fitted &ith a brea/<3oint ring of a''roved t-'e0 Where surface conduit is used in con3unction &ith distance saddles. the. including bo(es on and in &hich fittings. these shall be su''lied b.to 'rovide additional trun/ing over fi(ings.or galvaniBed and shall be of 1#s&g for siBes u' to and including "!))@"!)) section and 1 s&g for siBes above0 All bends.fi(ed to the &alls and ceilings b. correctl.)eans of not less than t&o countersun/ scre&s. e(tension rings being used &here necessar-0 Ever.
rubber gro))ets0 9*CC cable 9ineral<insulated )etal<sheathed cables shall be high<conducting co''er conductors e)bedded in )agnesiu) o(ide and sheathed &ith co''er &ith an overall covering of P=C0 All cable ter)inations shall be 'rotected and sealed &ith ring<t-'e glands &ith scre&on 'ot<t-'e seals utiliBing cold 'lastic co)'ound and neo'rene sleeving all of an a''roved 'attern. &ith seals and labels intact and shall be of one )anufacturer throughout the installation0 2he cable shall be installed direct fro) the reels and an.installed and shall be cli''ed b. reco))endations and using the s'ecialiBed tools reco))ended b. ceiling roses.)eans of cou'ling. i0e0 &iring shall ter)inate at definite 'oints 7s&itch 'ositions.the. )ale bush. and P=C<insulated P=C<sheathed cable shall be %%A1%%%= grade to BS %%4G19 90 2he cable shall be delivered to site on reels.the )anufacturer0 2he. &here the hot<t-'e seal shall be used0 +our<core 9*CC cables shall not be used for ring circuits0 =ibration<absorbing loo's shall be for)ed in 9*CC cables connected to )otors and other vibrating e4ui')ent0 Connections and 3oints in 9*CC cables shall onl. offsets and fi(ing brac/ets.cable &hich has beco)e /in/ed.t&o brass scre&s0 Where t&o. and co)'ression &asher0 9*CC cables shall be neatl.is to be )ade of 1 <gauge 'erforated )ild<steel sheet and is to be co)'lete &ith all cou'ling 'ieces and bends. etc08 and no inter)ediate connections or 3oints &ill be 'er)itted0 Cables shall not 'ass through or ter)inate in lighting fittings0
.shall be tested &hen installed before being sealed and again at the end of the contract0 2he. the cable shall be )ade off b. to enable the tra.)eans of co''er saddles secured b. seals and identification labels intact and shall be installed in accordance &ith the )anufacturers. and a''lied &ith the s'ecial tools reco))ended b.Design of electrical services for buildings
Cable tra. or at connector bloc/s housed in outlet bo(es0 Connector bloc/s shall have a )ini)u) of t&o scre&s 'er conductor0 Where entr.the cable )anufacturers0 Cold scre&<on 'ot<t-'e seals shall be used e(ce't &here the a)bient te)'erature in &hich the cable &ill o'erate &ill e(ceed 1"%M+.&a.shall be re3ected0 2he installation shall be cabled on the loo'<in s-ste).shall be sealed against the ingress of )oisture at all ti)es during the contract0 P=C cable Cable P=C<insulated onl-. t&isted or da)aged in an.to fit the structure accuratel-0 Where cables are ta/en over the edge of the tra.is )ade into e4ui')ent &hich does not have a s'outed entr-. lighting 'oints.shall be 'rotected b. three or four cables are run together )ulti'le saddles shall be used0 9*CC cables shall be delivered to the site &ith the )anufacturers.be )ade at the ter)inals of s&itches.
t&isted together before the connection is )ade0 *n no circu)stances shall cables be tra''ed under 'lain &ashers as a ter)ination0 Cables shall be coloured in accordance &ith *EE .of the engineer given on site0 +le(ible cords All fle(ible cords shall co)'l.egulations BS " "10 ?nl. of e4ual cross<sectional area.be bunched together at one ter)inal0 *n e(ce'tional cases three cables )a. or e-elet or cri)'ed t-'e cable ter)inations. co)'osed of high<conductivit. re4uiring fle(ible cable connection Circular fle(ible cable P=C<insulated P=C<sheathed having the nu)ber of cores &ith cross<sectional areas s'ecified0 2he cores of all fle(ible cords shall be coloured throughout their length and colourcoded to co)'l.'lain annealed co''er cable insulated &ith P=C.)eans of 'orcelain<shielded connectors &ith t&in scre&s0 5o lu)inaire shall be connected directl.tinned co''er conductors of the re4uired crosssectional area insulated and sheathed as detailed hereunderG $ighting 'endants 2&o<core %0"!))2 heat<resisting circular fle(ible cord EP rubber<insulated CSP< sheathed0 Colour of sheath. the. the cables shall be fitted &ith thi)bles0 +or all single connections. other than heating. and shall consist of high<conductivit.Design e(a)'le
Where it is necessar. coloured for identification0 2he cores to be laid u' circular and sheathed &ith P=C0 2he cable shall be served &ith one la-er of steel<cable ar)our and sheathed overall &ith P=C0
.&ith the British Standard S'ecification0 P=C SWA cable P=C<insulated single<cable ar)oured cables shall be !%%A1%%%= grade and shall co)'l.&ith British Standard S'ecification BS !%%G19 9.be bunched together at one ter)inal &ith the authorit. all of re'utable )anufacture0 Sha/e'roof &ashers shall be used &here electric )otors are connected0 Where cable cores are larger than ter)inal holes.to the hard &iring0 2he ter)inations shall be suitable for the t-'e of ter)inal 'rovided and shall be either s&eated lugs of a''ro'riate siBe.to )a/e direct connection bet&een the hard &iring and fle(ible cord.&ith BS 34 G19 90 2he cable shall co)'rise round or sha'ed conductors.shall be doubled or t&isted bac/ on the)selves and 'inching scre&s shall not be 'er)itted to cut the conductors0 Cables shall be fir)l. this shall be done b. &hite0 6eating a''aratus and e4ui')ent re4uiring fle(ible cable connection 6eat<resisting circular fle(ible cable0 EP rubber<insulated CSP<sheathed having the nu)ber of cores &ith cross<sectional areas as s'ecified0 A''aratus and e4ui')ent.t&o cables shall generall.
the cable shall be gri''ed fir)l.su'ervising all &or/ in connection &ith the cable<la-ing re4uire)ents0 Cable 3oints All cable runs bet&een one definite ter)inal 'oint and another throughout the &hole of the installation shall be installed &ithout inter)ediate 3oints0 $u)inaires All lu)inaires sho&n and listed on the dra&ings and schedules shall be 'rovided and installed0 $u)inaires &ith non<standard sus'ension lengths shall be ordered to the correct lengths to suit )ounting height as indicated on the dra&ings and schedules0 2he installation of lu)inaires shall include all necessar.egulations0 Where the. covered b. or of 'lastic &ith 'orcelain interiors and shall be fitted &ith 'lastic bac/'lates or 'lastic )ounting bloc/s se)i<recessed &here necessar.into buildings.cable ducts and earthen&are 'i'es for cable entr.are of the three<'late t-'e the 'hase ter)inal shall be shrouded so as to 'revent accidental contact if the cover is re)oved0
. &iring and erection0 2er)inations to non<'endant lu)inaires shall be in heat<resisting fle(ible cord &ith 'orcelain<insulated ter)inal bloc/ connectors for connection to P=C<insulated cable or P=C<insulated P=C<sheathed cable0 +luorescent lu)inaires shall be )ounted either directl.a further "!)) of sand and 'rotected b.shall be of 'orcelain.shall be carried on &rought<iron brac/ets or 'ur'ose<)ade cli's of a''roved design.shall be laid on not less than "!)) of sand.b.or on sus'ensions fro) t&o BS conduit bo(es installed at the s'acing re4uired to suit the fitting0 Ceiling roses Ceiling roses shall be &hite of re'utable )anufacture in accordance &ith BS "0 2he.&ith the *EE . and generall.cla)'s of an a''roved 'attern0 Where cables are grou'ed and run on the surface the. su''l-ing and installing å tiles and )ar/er 'osts.Design of electrical services for buildings
2he cable shall be )anufactured and su''lied in one length on a suitable dru)0 5o through 3oints &ill be allo&ed0 All cables shall be of one )anufacture0 Where individual cables are run on the surface suitable su''orts shall be fitted to give a )ini)u) clearance of 1!)) bet&een cables and face of structure0 Where cables are installed verticall-.)eans of continuous interloc/ing &arning tiles of a''roved 'attern0 All cable trenches shall be e(cavated to a de'th of %0!) in un)ade ground and %0") &here crossing road&a-s and bac/filled b. but the electrical contractor shall be res'onsible for correctl.)ar/ing out all cable routes.to co)'l.the builder &ho &ill also 'rovide and install all necessar. fi(ed at not )ore than %%)) centres0 All P=C SWA cables run on the surface shall be ade4uatel.'rotected to a height of 2) fro) the ground0 Where P=C<insulated SWA cables are laid in the ground the.asse)bling.
shall be brass &ith 'orcelain interiors0 +or use &ith fle(ible 'endants.'attern bi<'in t-'e of &hite 'lastic construction0 All la)'holders shall be lubricated &ith )ol-bdenu) disul'hide to ensure easre)oval of threaded rings and la)'s0 $a)'s $a)'s shall be su''lied and fitted to all 'oints and lu)inaires sho&n and listed on the dra&ings and schedules0 2ungsten fila)ent la)'s of 4%<1%%W 7inclusive8 shall be of the coiled coil t-'e0 >enerall. the.the.are integral &ith lighting lu)inaires.shall have steel front 'lates of the single<s&itch or grid<s&itch t-'e0 S&itches outdoors or other&ise e('osed to da)' conditions shall be of industrial 'attern &atertight t-'e &ith galvaniBed steel. 3!%%:0 $ighting circuits $ighting circuits shall be installed on the loo'<in s-ste) &ith three ter)inal<t-'e ceiling roses &ith shrouded live ter)inal. earth ter)inal and brea/<3oint ring0 $oo'ing shall not be carried out at s&itch 'ositions0 5o lu)inaire shall be connected directl.shall be of &hite 'lastic &ith co)'ression glands0 Where batten la)' holders are installed the la)' holders shall be of &hite 'lastic0 *n da)' situations the.to the hard &iring or have circuit &iring 'assing through it0 Cables on one circuit are not to run through the BS bo(es behind ceiling roses or lu)inaires on other circuits0 $ight s&itches +lush s&itches shall be roc/er<o'erated &ith &hite flush 'lastic 'lates of the singles&itch or grid<s&itch t-'e0 Surface s&itches shall be heav-<gauge steel &ith conduit entries and shall have roc/er<o'erated )echanis)s0 2he. integral bac/'late.shall be energ.saving t-'es0 $a)'s shall be 'earl<finished &hen fitted in o'en shades or in globes &hich are unobscured and shall be of the clear t-'e &hen fitted in closed units of o'alescent glass&are or an. the.Design e(a)'le $a)' holders
$a)' holders shall be of the ba-onet<ca' t-'e for tungsten la)'s u' to and including 1!%W.other t-'e of lu)inaire elected &here the fila)ent is not under direct vision0 2he colour of all fluorescent la)'s shall be the ne& &hite.shall be fitted &ith 6o)e ?ffice s/irts0 $a)' holders for fluorescent tubes shall be of the heav. and of the Edison scre& t-'e for larger la)'s0 Where the. or ther)o'lastic bo(es and &ater'roof gas/ets0 Soc/et outlets
fittings.egulations 2%%2 and an. boards.at Wor/ . gas. stea) or che)ical 'i'es0 Bonding and earthing All conduit connections. etc0.&ith Electricit. fan convector and other si)iliar 'iece of heating e4ui')ent shall ter)inate in a double<'ole isolator fro) &hich the final connection shall be )ade in heat<resisting rubber insulated cable in fle(ible conduit0 2he casing of the heater shall be bonded to the earth continuit. conduits.conductor0 .Design of electrical services for buildings
All soc/et outlets shall be of the s&itched t-'e &ith roc/er<o'erated s&itch )echanis)s0 +lush soc/et outlets shall be of the insulated 'attern &ith &hite or ivor. Electricit.assu)e that he can earth to the su''l. trun/ing.conductor0 Connections to )otors and )achiner2he circuit to each )achine shall ter)inate in an isolator as near the )achine as 'ossible0 Where a )otor starter is re4uired it shall be 'laced ad3acent to and i))ediatel.&ater. etc0.i)'ortant &here &or/ is built into the fabric of the building0 +or the 'ur'ose of esti)ating the electrical contractor )a.egulations for the Electrical E4ui')ent of Buildings BS " "10 2he installation and all )aterial used shall co)'l.of all )etal&or/.conductors0 2his is 'articularl.other a''licable statutor. .after the isolator0 2he final connection fro) the isolator or starter to the )achine shall be in P=C< insulated cable in conduit0 2he rigid conduit shall ter)inate in a bo( a''ro(i)atel3%%)) fro) the )achine ter)inals and the final section fro) this 'oint to the )achine shall be in fle(ible conduit0 2he )etal&or/ of the )achine shall be bonded to the earth continuit. and earth continuit.regulations0 *t shall confor) &ith the *nstitution of Electrical Engineers.egulations. and in 'articular of an.&ith all relevant British Standards and Codes of Practice0 Clearance fro) other services All electric conduit and e4ui')ent shall be installed at least 1!%)) clear of an.SafetSualit-.egulations 2he installation shall co)'l.authorit-.finish0 Surface soc/et outlets shall be )etal clad t-'e &ith steel front 'late0 Connections to s'ace heaters 2he circuit to each unit heater.scre&ed together so as to ensure 'ro'er )echanical and electrical continuit.. and Continuit.throughout0 >reat care is to be ta/en in bonding and earthing the installation and tests are to be carried out as the &or/ 'rogresses to chec/ the electrical continuit. shall be 'ro'erl.s earthing ter)inal0
earth electrode0 Connection to and bet&een electrodes shall be carried out in insulated stranded cable0 2esting Continuit.at the site to give an earth resistance not e(ceeding %0!oh)s0 Concrete ins'ection covers shall be 'rovided over ever. secured b. brass scre& and s'ring &asher0 Pi'elines.authorit. to the earthing ter)ination at the inta/e 'osition.and insulation tests shall be carried out during installation0 At co)'letion 'olarit-.bonded together and to the res'ective s&itchboard. vessels and all other e4ui')ent associated &ith the 'i'ing or storage of highl.egulations BS " "10 5o earth continuit. sealing cha)ber and conduits at &hich the. structural or other&ise.infla))able )aterials shall be staticall. and schedule of test results as 'rescribed b. distribution board.at an earl.egulations BS " "10 A co)'letion certificate schedule of ins'ection.)eans of a cri)'ed soc/et.earthed0 Where fle(ible )etallic conduit is used.stage in the &or/s to ensure that a suitable earthing ter)inal &ill be 'rovided0 2he electrical contractor shall be res'onsible for the bonding and earthing of all e('osed )etal&or/.earth electrode and a )eans shall be 'rovided for disconnecting the bonding cable fro) ever.)eans of the flange bolts0 2he earth continuit.gas or &ater service. etc0.conductor shall be less than 10!)) 2 co''er cable insulated and coloured green and -ello&0 2he steel cable ar)ouring of the sub<)ain cables shall be efficientl. are to be efficientl.are driven shall be deter)ined according to the soil resistivit. tan/s.and insulation tests shall be carried out on the entire installation and in each 'art of it0 2he tests shall be &itnessed b. a stranded insulated and coloured green and -ello& co''er cable of not less than ))2 is to be run fro) the ter)inal bo( through the fle(ible )etallic conduit to ter)inate in the first cast )etal bo( in the conduit run0 2he circuit 'rotective conductor shall be attached at each end b. bonding.Design e(a)'le
2he electrical contractor shall contact the su''l. continuit.)eans of 3%))@1%)) hard dra&n tinned co''er ta'e.conductor shall be ta/en to an earth electrode and bonded to it0 Earth electrode Where an earth electrode is re4uired it shall ta/e the for) of e(tensible co''er earth rods driven into the ground at suitable s'acing0 2he nu)ber of rods and the de'th to &hich the. and of the )etal&or/ of an. earth loo' i)'edance. in accordance &ith *EE .bonded to an effective earth continuitconductor b.the consulting engineer and shall be carried out in accordance &ith the re4uire)ents of the *nstitution of Electrical Engineers. .ter)inate and to all ad3acent )etal&or/0 2he fra)es of all electric )otors and starting 'anels.BS " "1 shall be 'rovided0 Circuit lists and labels
cable ter)ination0 2he individual cores of cables shall be nu)bered to indicate &hich ter)inal the. shall be fi(ed to all 2P5 distribution boards0 All labels shall be fi(ed b. nu)ber and &attage of la)'s. fuse s&itch.the 'osition.Design of electrical services for buildings
At each distribution board a circuit schedule co)'l-ing &ith BS " "1 *EE Wiring .)eans of four )) round<headed brass scre&s0 *dentification of cables All 'o&er. control and indication cables shall be 'rovided &ith indestructable cable )ar/ing collars &hich shall bear the cable nu)ber0 2he )ar/ing collars shall be fitted at ever.are connected to0 +uses 6C. giving details of the service 'osition and 'hase. etc0. soc/et outlets. fuse lin/s of the current rating shall be su''lied and installed in all fuse carriers0
. isolating s&itch and starter a 4!))@2%)) traffol-te label 7&hite<blac/<&hite8 shall be fi(ed and engraved in !)) characters. traffol-te 7&hite<red<&hite8 labels engraved in #)) characters C4%%=.egulations shall be su''lied and fi(ed on the inside of the distribution board door0 2he schedule shall state clearl. &hich the fuse&a-sACBs control0 A sa)'le circuit schedule shall be sub)itted for a''roval before installation0 ?n the cover of each distribution board. s&itch fuse. etc0 *n addition. instru)ent.