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You are on page 1of 27

continuous time system: y

1) Transfer function approach

2) State space representation 2) State space representation

Transfer function approach make use of the Laplace

Transform.

Idea

the Laplace transform converts integral and dierential equations into

algebraic equations

this is like phasors, but

applies to general signals, not just sinusoids

handles non-steady-state conditions

allows us to analyze

LCCODEs

complicated circuits with sources, Ls, Rs, and Cs

complicated systems with integrators, dierentiators, gains

The Laplace transform 32

The Laplace transform

well be interested in signals dened for t 0

the Laplace transform of a signal (function) f is the function F = L(f)

dened by

F(s) =

_

0

f(t)e

st

dt

for those s C for which the integral makes sense

F is a complex-valued function of complex numbers

s is called the (complex) frequency variable, with units sec

1

; t is called

the time variable (in sec); st is unitless

for now, we assume f contains no impulses at t = 0

common notation convention: lower case letter denotes signal; capital

letter denotes its Laplace transform, e.g., U denotes L(u), V

in

denotes

L(v

in

), etc.

The Laplace transform 34

Example

lets nd Laplace transform of f(t) = e

t

:

F(s) =

_

0

e

t

e

st

dt =

_

0

e

(1s)t

dt =

1

1 s

e

(1s)t

0

=

1

s 1

provided we can say e

(1s)t

0 as t , which is true for s > 1:

e

(1s)t

e

j(s)t

. .

=1

e

(1s)t

= e

(1s)t

the integral dening F makes sense for all s C with s > 1 (the

region of convergence of F)

but the resulting formula for F makes sense for all s C except s = 1

well ignore these (sometimes important) details and just say that

L(e

t

) =

1

s 1

The Laplace transform 35

More examples

constant: (or unit step) f(t) = 1 (for t 0)

F(s) =

_

0

e

st

dt =

1

s

e

st

0

=

1

s

provided we can say e

st

0 as t , which is true for s > 0 since

e

st

e

j(s)t

. .

=1

e

(s)t

= e

(s)t

the integral dening F makes sense for all s with s > 0

but the resulting formula for F makes sense for all s except s = 0

The Laplace transform 36

sinusoid: rst express f(t) = cos t as

f(t) = (1/2)e

jt

+ (1/2)e

jt

now we can nd F as

F(s) =

_

0

e

st

_

(1/2)e

jt

+ (1/2)e

jt

_

dt

= (1/2)

_

0

e

(s+j)t

dt + (1/2)

_

0

e

(sj)t

dt

= (1/2)

1

s j

+ (1/2)

1

s + j

=

s

s

2

+

2

(valid for s > 0; nal formula OK for s = j)

The Laplace transform 37

powers of t: f(t) = t

n

(n 1)

well integrate by parts, i.e., use

_

b

a

u(t)v

(t) dt = u(t)v(t)

b

a

_

b

a

v(t)u

(t) dt

with u(t) = t

n

, v

(t) = e

st

, a = 0, b =

F(s) =

_

0

t

n

e

st

dt = t

n

_

e

st

s

_

0

+

n

s

_

0

t

n1

e

st

dt

=

n

s

L(t

n1

)

provided t

n

e

st

0 if t , which is true for s > 0

applying the formula recusively, we obtain

F(s) =

n!

s

n+1

valid for s > 0; nal formula OK for all s = 0

The Laplace transform 38

Impulses at t = 0

if f contains impulses at t = 0 we choose to include them in the integral

dening F:

F(s) =

_

0

f(t)e

st

dt

(you can also choose to not include them, but this changes some formulas

well see & use)

example: impulse function, f =

F(s) =

_

0

(t)e

st

dt = e

st

t=0

= 1

similarly for f =

(k)

we have

F(s) =

_

0

(k)

(t)e

st

dt = (1)

k

d

k

dt

k

e

st

t=0

= s

k

e

st

t=0

= s

k

The Laplace transform 39

Linearity

the Laplace transform is linear : if f and g are any signals, and a is any

scalar, we have

L(af) = aF, L(f + g) = F + G

i.e., homogeneity & superposition hold

example:

L

_

3(t) 2e

t

_

= 3L((t)) 2L(e

t

)

= 3

2

s 1

=

3s 5

s 1

The Laplace transform 310

One-to-one property

the Laplace transform is one-to-one: if L(f) = L(g) then f = g

(well, almost; see below)

F determines f

inverse Laplace transform L

1

is well dened

(not easy to show)

example (previous page):

L

1

_

3s 5

s 1

_

= 3(t) 2e

t

in other words, the only function f such that

F(s) =

3s 5

s 1

is f(t) = 3(t) 2e

t

The Laplace transform 311

what almost means: if f and g dier only at a nite number of points

(where there arent impulses) then F = G

examples:

f dened as

f(t) =

_

1 t = 2

0 t = 2

has F = 0

f dened as

f(t) =

_

1/2 t = 0

1 t > 0

has F = 1/s (same as unit step)

The Laplace transform 312

Inverse Laplace transform

in principle we can recover f from F via

f(t) =

1

2j

_

+j

j

F(s)e

st

ds

where is large enough that F(s) is dened for s

surprisingly, this formula isnt really useful!

The Laplace transform 313

Time scaling

dene signal g by g(t) = f(at), where a > 0; then

G(s) = (1/a)F(s/a)

makes sense: times are scaled by a, frequencies by 1/a

lets check:

G(s) =

_

0

f(at)e

st

dt = (1/a)

_

0

f()e

(s/a)

d = (1/a)F(s/a)

where = at

example: L(e

t

) = 1/(s 1) so

L(e

at

) = (1/a)

1

(s/a) 1

=

1

s a

The Laplace transform 314

Exponential scaling

let f be a signal and a a scalar, and dene g(t) = e

at

f(t); then

G(s) = F(s a)

lets check:

G(s) =

_

0

e

st

e

at

f(t) dt =

_

0

e

(sa)t

f(t) dt = F(s a)

example: L(cos t) = s/(s

2

+ 1), and hence

L(e

t

cos t) =

s + 1

(s + 1)

2

+ 1

=

s + 1

s

2

+ 2s + 2

The Laplace transform 315

Time delay

let f be a signal and T > 0; dene the signal g as

g(t) =

_

0 0 t < T

f(t T) t T

(g is f, delayed by T seconds & zero-padded up to T)

PSfrag replacements

t t

t = T

f(t) g(t)

The Laplace transform 316

then we have G(s) = e

sT

F(s)

derivation:

G(s) =

_

0

e

st

g(t) dt =

_

T

e

st

f(t T) dt

=

_

0

e

s(+T)

f() d

= e

sT

F(s)

The Laplace transform 317

example: lets nd the Laplace transform of a rectangular pulse signal

f(t) =

_

1 if a t b

0 otherwise

where 0 < a < b

we can write f as f = f

1

f

2

where

f

1

(t) =

_

1 t a

0 t < a

f

2

(t) =

_

1 t b

0 t < b

i.e., f is a unit step delayed a seconds, minus a unit step delayed b seconds

hence

F(s) = L(f

1

) L(f

2

)

=

e

as

e

bs

s

(can check by direct integration)

The Laplace transform 318

Derivative

if signal f is continuous at t = 0, then

L(f

) = sF(s) f(0)

time-domain dierentiation becomes multiplication by frequency

variable s (as with phasors)

plus a term that includes initial condition (i.e., f(0))

higher-order derivatives: applying derivative formula twice yields

L(f

) = sL(f

) f

(0)

= s(sF(s) f(0)) f

(0)

= s

2

F(s) sf(0) f

(0)

similar formulas hold for L(f

(k)

)

The Laplace transform 319

Integral

let g be the running integral of a signal f, i.e.,

g(t) =

_

t

0

f() d

then

G(s) =

1

s

F(s)

i.e., time-domain integral becomes division by frequency variable s

example: f = , so F(s) = 1; g is the unit step function

G(s) = 1/s

example: f is unit step function, so F(s) = 1/s; g is the unit ramp

function (g(t) = t for t 0),

G(s) = 1/s

2

The Laplace transform 325

derivation of integral formula:

G(s) =

_

t=0

_

_

t

=0

f() d

_

e

st

dt =

_

t=0

_

t

=0

f()e

st

d dt

here we integrate horizontally rst over the triangle 0 t

PSfrag replacements

t

G(s) =

_

=0

_

t=

f()e

st

dt d =

_

=0

f()

_

_

t=

e

st

dt

_

d

=

_

=0

f()(1/s)e

s

d

= F(s)/s

The Laplace transform 326

Multiplication by t

let f be a signal and dene

g(t) = tf(t)

then we have

G(s) = F

(s)

to verify formula, just dierentiate both sides of

F(s) =

_

0

e

st

f(t) dt

with respect to s to get

F

(s) =

_

0

(t)e

st

f(t) dt

The Laplace transform 327

examples

f(t) = e

t

, g(t) = te

t

L(te

t

) =

d

ds

1

s + 1

=

1

(s + 1)

2

f(t) = te

t

, g(t) = t

2

e

t

L(t

2

e

t

) =

d

ds

1

(s + 1)

2

=

2

(s + 1)

3

in general,

L(t

k

e

t

) =

(k 1)!

(s + 1)

k+1

The Laplace transform 328

Convolution

the convolution of signals f and g, denoted h = f g, is the signal

h(t) =

_

t

0

f()g(t ) d

same as h(t) =

_

t

0

f(t )g() d; in other words,

f g = g f

(very great) importance will soon become clear

in terms of Laplace transforms:

H(s) = F(s)G(s)

Laplace transform turns convolution into multiplication

The Laplace transform 329

lets show that L(f g) = F(s)G(s):

H(s) =

_

t=0

e

st

_

_

t

=0

f()g(t ) d

_

dt

=

_

t=0

_

t

=0

e

st

f()g(t ) d dt

where we integrate over the triangle 0 t

change order of integration: H(s) =

_

=0

_

t=

e

st

f()g(t ) dt d

change variable t to t = t ; dt = dt; region of integration becomes

0, t 0

H(s) =

_

=0

_

t=0

e

s(t+)

f()g(t) dt d

=

_

_

=0

e

s

f() d

__

_

t=0

e

st

g(t) dt

_

= F(s)G(s)

The Laplace transform 330

examples

f = , F(s) = 1, gives

H(s) = G(s),

which is consistent with

_

t

0

()g(t )d = g(t)

f(t) = 1, F(s) = e

sT

/s, gives

H(s) = G(s)/s

which is consistent with

h(t) =

_

t

0

g() d

more interesting examples later in the course . . .

The Laplace transform 331

Finding the Laplace transform

you should know the Laplace transforms of some basic signals, e.g.,

unit step (F(s) = 1/s), impulse function (F(s) = 1)

exponential: L(e

at

) = 1/(s a)

sinusoids L(cos t) = s/(s

2

+

2

), L(sint) = /(s

2

+

2

)

these, combined with a table of Laplace transforms and the properties

given above (linearity, scaling, . . . ) will get you pretty far

and of course you can always integrate, using the dening formula

F(s) =

_

0

f(t)e

st

dt . . .

The Laplace transform 332

Patterns

while the details dier, you can see some interesting symmetric patterns

between

the time domain (i.e., signals), and

the frequency domain (i.e., their Laplace transforms)

dierentiation in one domain corresponds to multiplication by the

variable in the other

multiplication by an exponential in one domain corresponds to a shift

(or delay) in the other

well see these patterns (and others) throughout the course

The Laplace transform 333

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