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Organizational Conflict

Organizational Conflict Organizational conflict is a clash of opposing actions or ideas and notions among team members and colleagues who work together in an organization. This is caused by the divergence of interests, ethics and value orientations. Conflict arises due to mismatch of formal organizational principles and the actual behavior of team members (Schulz, !!"#.

Conflict Origins One of the basic functions of management is leading. $ strong leader knows how to handle diverse members working in the organization. %n fact, an e&emplary leader would always prefer diversity rather than homogeneity and take the utmost advantage of the diverse work force. %t can be said that diversity in an organization can be a reason for the conflicts. 'owever, conflicts also arise when people belonging to different backgrounds, values, e&periences, beliefs and perceptions come together at a work place. Conflicts occur on a daily basis when people work in the team on specific pro(ects. )hatever the situation is, the conflict * team management can be considered as a factor that almost always prevalent in every organization (+eter, !!,#.

Identification and analysis of a current area of organization Conflict management has also become a specialized field, and various methods have been devised to deal with the issues. Similarly, the conflict management team of my organization has identified that the use of the diverse team members has increased considerably which in turn

e&posed the organization and team working on the certain pro(ect dangers of conflicts and issues ('erbert, !!-#.

Tracing the origins of the conflict back to its inception .ifferent warning signs showed the management of the organization that the company is heading for trouble. /usiness started to under0perform, more often than not demonstrated by missing trading targets. This resulted because of internal conflicts and differences. 1irst minor differences appeared among team member, but differences became conflicts when they linger on in a negative way and when they were not managed (Calvin, "223#.

The main parties involved in the conflict $ll teams are groups but not all groups are teams. $ group is the mere assembly of people brought together while team members come together for a common cause and mission. The key difference between a team and a group is performance. )hen employees work as a team or work group they are also responsible for the numbers they are contributing and the targets they are achieving. They become responsible for numbers because they monitor and follow output and try to find out ways to improve it. %f they fail to achieve targets, work group members can work together to resolve the issues. On the other hand, conflicts and differences emerge if team members are not aware of the mission they are achieving and personal goals or egos take over the organizational goals and mission. This reveals that the main parties that were involved in the conflict were the team and group members (4iller, "22,#.

Identification of the primary source of the argument

$ poor team betrays hidden agendas with team goals subordinated to them thus breaching the trust which should serve as the glue. The climate in such a poor team is overly critical, tense, political, cynical, inhibiting and encouraging conflict and disagreements. $ll these factors were the primary source that initiated arguments among team members (+eter, !!,#.

Ways to mediate and resolve conflict The style of the team leader becomes important in creating the favourable climate. $n effective team leader focuses on the goals, ensures a collaborative climate, builds confidence, demonstrates sufficient technical knowhow, sets priorities, and manages performance as well as conflicts. $n outstanding leader should not play politics, should make communication safe, and should help the team members see their relevance to the goal thus keeping the goals alive and the mission stable in order to avoid any conflicts and manage performance. $ leader should be fair, impartial, and open and should be willing to match his5her resources with those of others, should the others have the resources the leader may not have. %n order to mange a team as well as conflicts within a team an important 6uality that a leader must possess is that he must be able to manage his5her ego (Calvin, "223#.

Similar instances of conflict There have been similar instances of conflicts in which different teams and groups indulged in the conflict. These instances of the group and team conflict occurred many years back.

Conflicts negotiation )hen problems are repeated due to the group and team conflicts, then the management planned the usual coordination. Coordination was done through preset programs, which specified what activities are going running and when and who is supposed to report whom. %n contrast, in situations those were changing rapidly and in which there were always new and unfamiliar problems, in this case management decided to go for coordination by feedback. This coordination system was designed in such a way that it had the capability to perceive deviations and report to managers (4iller, "22,#.

Analysis of the sources of conflict 7ine units and staff were designed to be highly interdependent, and the conflict between them can be seen as a special case of conflict between interdependent units. The creation of a unit of staff tends to diminish the authority of the line manager. %n addition, the unit staff was usually in the goalkeeper position relative to the line manager.

The distribution of power %n order to manage the conflicts, the idea of self0leadership has also surfaced according to which leader is not a designation on a certain level of organizational hierarchy rather all

members are allowed to take up leadership role. 8/y encouraging self leadership, organization can begin to tap the skills and capabilities of the entire workforce rather than (ust those of the managerial elite. $pproaching leadership the tasks of freeing individuals to direct themselves turn many of our strongest notions of leadership to end. The definition of leadership changes to become one of leading others to lead themselves. The measure of a leader9s strength becomes the ability to ma&imize the contributions of others through recognitions of their abilities to guide their own destiny rather than the leader9s ability to bend the will of others to fit his or her own: (4iller, "22,#.

valuation of the decision!making that occurs under such conditions Organization made sure that training is imparted at all levels in the organization to inculcate the true concept of a team as well as the difference between the team and the group. The training did not blatantly about conflict resolution rather leadership seminars, and team management skills made eventually room for conflict management. 4odern management practices now encourage teams, empowerment and leadership at all levels and these concepts naturally negate conflicts of personal or other interests. 'ence, success lies in adopting such modern concepts of management (+eter, !!,#.

"o the decisions further fuel the fire of conflict or do they assuage the situation# $s a result, of the training that was provided at all levels of the organization was very helpful to deal with the issue of conflict management. This training lent a hand to the employees in understanding the real concept of working in teams. $s a result of this training, the occurrence of the events of conflict issue decreased significantly.

;eferences

Calvin, 4. ("223#, 8The Executive Way: Conflict Management in Corporations:, <niversity of Chicago +ress 'erbert, S. ( !!-#, 8Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace:, Thomson5Course Technology 4iller, $. ("22,#, 8Strategic Management %rwin54c=raw 'ill +rentice 'all +eter, C. ( !!,#, 8Conflict Management: ! "ractical #ui$e:, 7e&is>e&is /utter worth Schulz, ?. ( !!"#, 8Tapping the %est That &s Within: Why Corporate Culture Matters:, 4anagement @uarterly

Conflict resolution and peacemaking Introduction Conflict resolution e&plores the causes of conflict. %t involves a negotiating process where each side pursues its interests and where the parties are able to reach a mutual agreement. %t refers to an agreement by both parties where they demonstrate a high level of commitment. The basic needs and insecurities have a great capacity to be sustained. )orking trust is build between parties. >ew relationship is building between parties such as partnership. %t transforms the relationship among parties. %t contributes towards peacemaking by developing improved relationships with different attitudes. $nother aspect of peacemaking is reconciliation. Settlement, resolution and reconciliation are three approaches of peacemaking ($ugsburger, "22 #.

Conflict resolution Conflicts are a sign of a healthy e&change of ideas and creativity. 'owever, conflicts can be harmful and cause discontent among employees, reduced productivity, poor customer service, absenteeism and higher turnover of staff, more stress or work0related. Conflicts are a certain part of human relationships. Conflicts can arise when different views and concerns that seems incompatible. %f we accept the conflict as a natural part of our emotional landscape 0 instead of waiting they disappear and do arise0more, we can resolve them more easily. The present study of international relations begins in the !th century with the e&perience of global conflict and the desire to shun successive wars. This normative impulsion still activates very small literature is associated to the study of peace rather than the study of war, and even less is dedicated to the study of peacemaking. )hereas the analysis of bargaining is currently the

citadel of the rationalist school, mediation and peacemaking are still strongholds of practitioners who rely mainly on psychological and sociological approaches. Third0party dispute resolution is one of the most conventional behaviors in international politics. 4ost violent or potentially violent conflicts in the twentieth century e&perienced mediation attempts, often multiple ones. %nternational organizations and private individuals are involved in numerous attempts to resolve international disputes without violence, or at least to minimize the level of violence resulting. 1or practitioners, such a framework can offer new insights and more rigid prescriptionsA for theorists it can help fill theoretical lacuna and offer pathways toward future research ($ugsburger, "22 #. Conflict resolution is a concept associated with human relationships, primarily related to management and methods and tools to aid decision making. %t consists in choosing a solution to a confrontation and its implementation. )hen it comes to practices against the (udicial system or a state decision, it is called alternative dispute resolution. The conflict is a situation where social actors in interdependence, or different goals, advocate conflicting values, have different interests or opposed, or competitively and simultaneously pursue a common goal. The concept of social status refers to that link and threshold beyond which a relationship is established (one cannot be in conflict with a stranger than when it is related to us#. The conflict arises in a system akin to a set of elements inter dynamics with a single purpose, which all the elements involved in achieving it. The conflict is a divergence in the purpose. The competition at the root of conflict, intended or not, but she cannot be substantiated as a group does not motivate (=ilady, !""#. Conflict can also be a negative and detrimental to the success of the group. %t is then for the group to approach conflict constructively before it is finally settled, not only escalates and corrodes the foundation until the structure collapses.

$eacemaking +eacemaking, especially in the literature on third0party contributions to dispute resolution, is concerned especially with the conditions whereby mutually acceptable settlement of disputes can be achieved. Bet there are circumstances under which coercive settlement can be useful. .ominance by one party may actually help propel movement toward a settlement, as can the power of a third0party intervener that is not neutral. This understanding informs recent developments in the role of <nited >ations peacekeeping, shifting away from traditional peacekeeping (impartial, largely nonviolent, with the consent of the parties, only after a ceasefire has been achieved# to more active and vigorous efforts to enforce peace. 4any theorists of international relations neglect peacemaking, leaving it to practitioners and, to proponents of psychological and sociological approaches. The result is literature with a relatively prescriptive and ad hoc case study approach that leaves a wide gap between it and normal concerns in international relations theory. That gap hampers dialogue and pushes the topic to the periphery, far from its real importance in the day0today practice of international relations. The reasons for these deficiencies are many. 1or some analysts the need for peacemaking already suggests a failure of the theoretical endeavor because the war was not averted. They therefore, direct their efforts toward means to release us from the need for peacemaking by preventing conflicts altogether.

Conclusion +eacemaking techni6ues are commonly employed to avert warC preventive diplomacy, mediation, arbitration and ad(udication can take place before a single bullet is fired. Thus, the

notion of peacemaking need not imply the e&istence of a vital war, but rather a conflict of interest that might deteriorate into war. 4ediation in such circumstances is often 6uiet and unobtrusive, with little e&ternal manifestation of any sense of crisis, thus making it virtually impossible to bind the universe of cases and especially to identify successes. >evertheless, third0 party intervention is also widely employed long after violence has become intense, as a means to bring about a ceasefire and, ultimately, a peaceful settlement.

;eferences

$ugsburger, .. ("22 #. Conflict mediation across cultures. 7ouisville, DentuckyC )estminster 5 ?ohn Dno& +ress. =ilady, 7ilach, and /ruce ;ussett. ( !""#E+eacemaking and Conflict ;esolution.E 'andbook of %nternational ;elations. S$=F +ublications. )ilmot,). * ?ouyce 'ocker. ( !!G#. %nterpersonal conflict. >ew Bork, >BC 4c=raw0'ill Companies ()ilmot, !!G#.

Conflict Resolution in Project Management Introduction Project management refers to all actions required to meet a definite need within the deadlines. Thus, as the project is a temporary action that has a beginning and end, using identified resources (human and material during its e!ecution, and that

costs should be budgeted resources and a balance sheet separately from the company ("rame, #$$$ . %&nd products% refers to the e!pected outcomes of the project. The difficulty of managing a project is largely on the number of people in'ol'ed. (n fact, in contrast with personal or internal projects in small scale for which the need and the response to this need can be pro'ided by the same person or a limited group of people, in a project in the professional sense, the term of need and satisfaction of this need is generally the responsibility of different people ("rame, #$$$ . This increases the probability of conflict while managing the project) hence, it is said that *conflict during project management is ine'itable+. Thus, it is necessary to ensure (for the duration of the project that the product is being clearly meets the

e!pectations of the %client.% (n contrast to the traditional commercial model (%,eller% - %purchaser% in which a customer

buys a product and manufactured to meet your needs, the project

see.s to create an original product that meets a specific need that must be clearly e!pressed. This e!pression of needs is e'en more difficult because usually the project is unprecedented in the company, since it is a no'elty. (n the opposite way, it is generally difficult to summari/e e!isting solutions focus solely on the needs in functional terms. &ffecti'e project management requires efficient crisis management techniques) because while managing a project there is a strong probability of crisis or conflicts. Project management requires interaction of a lot of people) each ha'ing a different frame of mine, beha'ior, personality and range of ideas that he wants to contribute ("rame, #$$$ . 0ence, when all these people interact with each other the situation of conflict often arises. Therefore conflict management is critically important while managing a project because the project will ultimately fail if proper techniques are not adapted for resol'ing the conflict.

Discussion and Analysis Project Management Overview Project management in'ol'es four different stages1 Project (nitiation Project Planning Project &!ecution

Project Closedown

Project Initiation The initiation phase project management in'ol'es three different stages1 #. (dentification of 'aluable projects 2. ,coping the project goals 3. 4nderstanding ris.s and constraints

Identification of Valuable Projects To identify worthwhile projects is important to consider certain criteria for its successful completion, among which stood out in this section were1 The selection and prioriti/ation of projects is the first step in the startup phase of the project management process. 5ist all projects must be completed, including those who ha'e started and those who want to do. 6ot e'ery project is worthwhile will be reali/ed as to differentiate between good and bad in accordance with the following steps are suggested for this purpose1 o 5ist all current projects. o 7etermine the need or opportunity for e'eryone. o &stablishing deadlines and tentati'e budgets. o Rate the o'erall feasibility of each project.

o &stablish ris.s associated with each project. o Condense the 'iability of each project with the team. o Remo'e from list projects that turned out to be inappropriate or impractical. o ,elect the most important projects and act on them. The success of any project depends on the proper balance of time and resources to meet specific objecti'es. The project management process helps us get things done on time and within budget (7insmore, Cabanis89rewin, 2::; .

Scoping the Project Goals The goals are to specify what is e!pected to reach the end of a project are also considered the heart, the mission and purpose of starting a project (7insmore, Cabanis89rewin, 2::; . 9ecause of its importance must meet the following criteria1 Must be specific as to what is intended by the project. ,hould be realistic, i.e. achie'able. Must ha'e a time component. (nclude a target date of completion. Must be measurable and deli'erable in their results. 9e agreed by the client and the team. <ou must identify the people who assume responsibility for compliance.

=nother important point is to consider the scope of the project.

Understanding risks and Constraints >ne ris. in'ol'es something that can be e!pected to malfunction, so the planning must anticipate those that may interfere with proper de'elopment. (n this regard, a critical analysis of the project is crucial to start in an acceptable and feasible (Reiss, #$$? . =lso, if the goals of a project seem too large or ris.y, you should thin. about split to ma.e smaller projects, each with greater feasibility (Reiss, #$$? . "urthermore, the restrictions are an important factor in establishing the project plan and when it is aimed. There are three types of constraints1 Those that can be predicted. Those that arise in the medium project. Projects that are based on ill thought out or lac.ing support. ,ome of the restrictions in the projects are1 The budget Calendar The people responsible for the project "acilities and equipment

Project Planning There are fi'e steps in'ol'ed while planning the project) assigning the tas.s, structuring the project, ris. management, monitoring the progress and e'aluation.

Assigning the Tasks &ach project is composed of tas.s or acti'ities. "or the project to succeed, first of all it is necessary to carefully plan the tas.s and then organi/e them in order of priority. The

following form can be used to present some useful ideas to your group or project staff (Richman, 2::2 . 7i'ide people into small groups and as. them to plan a simple tas.. Tal. about ways that were used to plan the same tas.. =s. the same groups that are newly formed and gi'e a more difficult tas. of planning preferably something related to their wor. (Richman, 2::2 . Together, compile a single list of tas.s in order of priority. 6ow introduce the idea of the "i'e "inger @uestions. Ahat is the tas. you are planningB 0ow do you carry out the tas.B Aho will carry out the wor.B Ahere will be the job doneB Ahen will do the jobB

Project Structure The purpose of the structure of the project is ensuring detailed planning of acti'ities throughout the project. 4nli.e the pre'ious method, this includes monitoring (record .eeping constant modification of wor. success of the wor. and e'aluation (to measure the

("rame, 2::2 . The structure is set at the

beginning of the project and is modified as necessary. (t is ad'isable to e!pose the structure of the walls of the project office.

Risk Manage ent Ris.s are e'ents that can negati'ely affect your project. ( ha'e wor.ed on projects in which the ris.s included1 a staff job that he had the technical s.ills required to perform the wor., lac. of timely deli'ery of hardware or other equipment, a control room at ris. of flooding and many others. The ris.s

'ary with each project but should be early identification of project ris.s in particular ("rame, 2::2 . ,hould be planned to

a'oid the ris.s or, if ris.s cannot be a'oided, to mitigate its impact on the project if it actually happens. This is .nown as

ris. management. <ou do not control all the ris.s because they can be many and not all ha'e the same impact.

Monitoring and Reporting Project Status >nce the project is running you must closely monitor and compare actual progress with the project. Progress reports need to be producing project team members. <ou must register

'ariations between actual and projected, both in terms of costs, such as a timeline and scope. Must report changes to its top

and .ey sta.eholders to ta.e correcti'e action before these offsets are too large. <ou can adjust the plan in many ways to reset the path planning in the way but always end up balancing cost, schedule and scope of tas.s (0owes, 2::# . (f the project

manager changes one of these, then one or two remaining elements will ine'itably be adjusted accordingly. (t is precisely the

balance of these three elements, .nown as the triangle of the project8which typically causes major headaches for the project manager (0owes, 2::# .

!"aluation =dapt proper chec. and balance in order to ensure whether the plan initiated by the organi/ation is wor.ing on the standards set in the planning.

Project Execution This is the de'elopmental stage of the wor. itself. This stage is the responsibility of the organi/ation, with o'ersight

from the client (0owes, 2::# . 7uring project e!ecution, emphasis should be placed in communication to ma.e decisions as quic.ly as possible if problems arise. (t is possible to accelerate the project by establishing a communication plan through1 The use of a board that graphically displays the results of the project, allowing the project manager to arbitrate in case of 'ariations. = progress report that allows e'eryone in'ol'ed in the project to be informed about actions in progress and those completed. Cenerally, %report% includes the complete preparation and reporting on acti'ities. (n addition, should be organi/ed regularly (once a wee., preferably meetings to manage the project team, i.e. regularly

discuss project progress and identify priorities for the ne!t few wee.s (0owes, 2::# .

Project Closedown Projects must be completed as accurately they were started. 9efore tac.ling new tas.s, those that were started should be completed correctly. 0owe'er, the fence project is often neglected, and the projects are completed %properly%. 9efore tac.ling new tas.s, those that were started should be completed correctly1

Control objecti'es 4nload the project manager Clarify the legal ambiguities and trade &nsure and maintain the gains &nsure integration of project wor.ers in serial tas.s or new projects.

(t is recommended to close a project using a chec.list1 7ates for the final presentation and the dismantling of the project team and project infrastructure set with the payer. &'aluation of the negati'e and positi'e results. (n'itation sent to the final presentation. "inal presentation conducted. >utcome of the project formally appro'ed and documented performance of the contract. Post8project calculations made. Closure report for the proposed project. (mportant documents of the archi'e project in a structured way. Project Closeout celebrated with all participants.

Understanding the Conflict Conflict is normal in a dynamic company, where ideas flow. The absence of tension would e'en rather bad sign. The notion of conflict is .ey and core of the thought of Psychology ,ocial. Conflict is inherent in the interaction of man (Rahim, #$$: . Conflict pertains to different interests and opinions between two or more parties on a particular situation or issue. (t in'ol'es thin.ing and action of those in'ol'ed. There are different types of conflicts that arise while managing a project some of them are constructi'e and some destructi'e (Rahim, #$$: .

Interest-based Conflicts These conflicts are about the actual or percei'ed competition by different people or groups ha'e conflicting interests o'er the content or procedures wor., how they e'aluate the wor. and people (Rahim, #$$: . Possible management inter'entions recommended in such conflicts are to define objecti'e criteria for ordering and assessing tas.s, focus on interests and not positions of people and de'elop solutions that integrate the interests of different parties.

Structural Conflicts The perception of authority and unequal distribution (fair share of resources , en'ironmental factors that hinder cooperation. (n these cases, possible management inter'entions are recommended1 clear definitions of tas.s, authority and responsibility, role changes, reallocation of resources and control, establishing decision8ma.ing processes that are acceptable to the parties to modify styles influence, much less %coercion% and more persuasi'e (Pammer, Dillian, 2::3 .

Conflict of Values These conflicts require using different criteria to e'aluate ideas and decisions, different perceptions about the same things different specific goals and 'alues. Possible management inter'entions may be directed to allow the parties to a di'ersity of approaches and in some cases, encourage this, to identify %super objecti'e% that can be shared between the parties or to encourage the elimination of their differences, to eliminate the problem definition in terms of %'alues%. (Pammer, Dillian, 2::3

Conflicts of Relations These conflicts arise due to the poor communication, repetiti'e negati'e beha'iors between the parties, strong

emotions, stereotypes and misunderstandings. =mong the recommendations made to management to act in these cases are1 to clarify perceptions, establish procedures, general rules and e!changes between the parties, promote the e!pression of emotions, feelings legitimate, promote effecti'e communications, changing the structure and roles (Pammer, Dillian, 2::3 .

Conflicts of Information These conflicts arise due to the absence or limited information, different 'iews on what are most important, differences in 'aluation procedures, decisions and situations. (n these cases, the possible inter'ention of the heads may be directed to decide what the most important data, clarify the process of collecting and distributing information, using e!perts %outside opinions% (Pammer, Dillian, 2::3 .

Approaches and Styles in Conflict

esolution

=ll people do not react the same way to situations of conflict. The beha'ior %personal response% is what is called style in conflict management%. 4nder this approach, the %conflict management styles% mo'e on two dimensions1 interest (priority for oneEs goals and concern for people (Rahim, 2::# . The research suggested

(relationships

%Managerial Crid% as a leadership that should be %focused on the tas.s (results % and %people8centered% (Rahim, 2::# . The combination of these two dimensions identifies fi'e styles of conflict management, force, assign, a'oid (escape , compromise or collaborate. (n style %"orce% beha'ior focuses on fighting to defend (get the interests or goals of their own,

regardless of the in'ol'ement of the other party, or the relations between them. =t the other e!treme, the style of %Ci'ing% is used by people who 'alue the relationships that %pressure% to get the results themsel'es (Rahim, 2::# . People in which, as a trend, the pre'ailing style of %='oiding (bypass try to a'oid, postpone, or e'en unaware of

the conflict. (n general, they fear the possible consequences of dealing with conflict, do not feel prepared to address it, or feel should be decided by others more li.ely. (n style %Commit%, it comes to finding a solution %compromise% on each side gi'e in something, it is common to %split the difference% (Dahn, 9oulding, #$;F . People in the pre'ailing style of %Collaborate% tend to wor. with the other party, to find solutions that meet the interests of both, which requires e!ploring the issues in dispute to find solutions to %win8win.% =lthough this might be the preferred style for dealing with conflict is only possible when both parties are willing to share.

&ach of these styles has its ad'antages and disad'antages. People are li.ely to %mo'e% in the fi'e styles. 0owe'er, research shows that e'eryone has their preferences, which ultimately are what determine their beha'ior. "or these reasons, it is useful to .now the situations in which it is most effecti'e a particular style, and with this information, namely the %strategy% (style that organi/ation must apply (Dahn,

9oulding, #$;F . =ccording to e!perts, the situations which are more effecti'e each of these styles can be summari/ed as follows1 (t is recommend to use the strategy (style %"orce% when1

need a quic. decision, there are important issues on which decisions are unpopular or against indi'idual beha'iors that can ta.e ad'antage of more %fle!ible%, and considered a wea.ness (Dahn, 9oulding, #$;F . The strategy of %=ssign%, it is recommended that1 organi/ations should understand that they are wrong or made a mista.e (this gi'es us more authority in the future , the matter is more important to the other party for us and the %cost% that pay is not significant, and to gain acceptance in subsequent issues most important to us. (Thompson, 5e'ine, Messic., #$$$ The strategy of %compromise% may be appropriate when the two %opponents% ha'e equal power and see.ing mutually e!clusi'e goals, to ma.e temporary fi!es on comple! issues, or when competition and collaboration are not successful.

The strategy of %Aor.ing% is recommended to1 integrate interests and opinions of people with different points of 'iew whose satisfaction is only possible with the cooperation of both, to achie'e accession to incorporate interest in consensus, sol'e problems of feelings that ha'e hampered a relationship, or when the objecti'e is to secure an agreement that lasts. This strategy is only possible when both parties share (Thompson, 5e'ine, Messic., #$$$ .

Conclusion =fter the in8depth analysis of the data it can be concluded that conflict resolution is surely ine'itable in project management because of the in'ol'ement of different people in order to complete the project. (t is ob'ious that each and e'ery indi'idual that is the part of the organi/ation is a part of the project that is initiated from it (5ewis, 2::G . (n addition, nowadays the due to the adaptation of lean beha'ior and continuous learning organi/ations ha'e started welcoming ideas from its employees. 7ue to the increased competition organi/ations need to de'elop an effecti'e project management plan in order to ensure the success and growth of the organi/ation and to gain a substantial mar.et share (5ewis, 2::G .

=n effecti'e project plan cannot be constructed from the ideas that are e!tracted from the one a few mind. The probability of the success of an effecti'e project plan is increased if there is range of ideas) from which the best ideas could be chosen (,tuc.enbruc., #$H# . This in'ol'es interaction of people and different frame of minds which gi'es rise to conflict while managing a project. These conflicts can be constructi'e as well as destructi'e depending upon the cause of the conflict (Reiss, #$$; . 0ence, organi/ations should carefully obser'e the nature of the conflict and adapt suitable conflict management style to resol'e it.

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Reiss, C. (#$$; , Program Management 7emystified1 Managing Multiple Projects ,uccessfully) 4nited ,tates1 & J "6 ,pon, Richman, 5. (2::2 , Project Management ,tep8by8,tep) 4nited ,tates1 =M=C>M ,tuc.enbruc., 5. (#$H# , The (mplementation of Project Management1 The ProfessionalEs 0andboo.) 4nited ,tates1 =ddison8Aesley Thompson, 5. 5e'ine, I. Messic., 7. (#$$$ , ,hared Cognition in >rgani/ations1 The Management of Dnowledge) 4nited ,tates1 5awrence &rlbaum =ssociates

Conflict in the )orkplace

Introduction The purpose of this paper is to enlighten and e&plore the conflict in workplace. The main focus of the paper is on the hospitality industry and the characteristics of the conflicts in the workplace. This paper also discusses the role of human resource management in offering the remedies for the workplace conflicts in the hospitality industry. %n the modern, professional literature is widely used the term Etourism and hospitality industry, and although the hospitality is included in this term as an element, it should be noted that hospitality 0 it is more capacious and the general concept, since its ob(ective is to meet the needs of not only tourists in the narrow sense, but consumers in general. Tourism and hospitality industry cannot be regarded as a different industry, as tourists 0 are primarily consumers with diverse needs, including specific, depending on the goals and motives of travel, as well as on a number of points. 'owever, the tourists are first and foremost consumers in generalA therefore, tourism and hospitality industry should be viewed as a whole because of the inseparable unity. 'ospitality is one of the fundamental concepts of human civilization, is currently under the influence of technological process has become a powerful industry that employs millions of professionals, creating warmth and comfort for people. 'ospitality %ndustry unites the various professional fields of human activityC tourism, hotel and restaurant business, catering, leisure and entertainment, conferences, seminars and e&hibitions, sports, museum, e&hibition, sightseeing activities, and vocational education in the field of hospitality. The hospitality industry 0 a comple&, comprehensive scope of professional people, whose efforts are aimed at meeting the diverse needs of customers (guests#, both tourists and locals.

Characteristics of Conflicts in %ospitality Industry Conflict is normal in a dynamic company, where ideas flow. The absence of tension would even rather bad sign. The notion of conflict is key and core of the thought of +sychology Social. Conflict is inherent in the interaction of man. Conflict pertains to different interests and opinions between two or more parties on a particular situation or issue. %t involves thinking and action of those involved. There are different types of conflicts that arise while managing a pro(ect some of them are constructive and some destructive ($le&akis, !!2#. There are some characteristics of conflicts that usually take place in the workplace. These conflicts are not bound to any particular industry or business field. >evertheless, these categories are the core types of conflicts that take place in the workplace. %n the hospitality industry these characteristics are commonly observed (/aum, !!3#.

&nterest'(ase$ Conflicts These conflicts are about the actual or perceived competition by different people or groups have conflicting interests over the content or procedures work, how they evaluate the work and people of the hospitality industry. +ossible management interventions recommended in such conflicts are to define ob(ective criteria for ordering and assessing tasks, focus on interests and not positions of people and develop solutions that integrate the interests of different parties ($le&akis, !!2#.

Structural Conflicts %n the hospitality industry, the perception of authority and une6ual distribution (fair share of resources#, environmental factors that hinder cooperation. %n these cases, possible

management interventions are recommendedC clear definitions of tasks, authority and responsibility, role changes, reallocation of resources and control, establishing decision0making processes that are acceptable to the parties to modify styles influence, much less EcoercionE and more persuasive (Choi, .ickson, !"!#.

Conflict of )alues These conflicts re6uire using different criteria to evaluate ideas and decisions, different perceptions about the same things different specific goals and values governing hospitality and tourism. +ossible management interventions may be directed to allow the parties to a diversity of approaches and in some cases, encourage this, to identify Esuper ob(ectiveE that can be shared between the parties or to encourage the elimination of their differences, to eliminate the problem definition in terms of EvaluesE (/ruc, !!G#.

Conflicts of Relations These conflicts arise due to the poor communication, repetitive negative behaviors between the parties, strong emotions, stereotypes and misunderstandings among the workforce of the hospitality industry. $mong the recommendations made to management to act in these cases areC to clarify perceptions, establish procedures, general rules and e&changes between the parties, promote the e&pression of emotions, feelings legitimate, promote effective communications, changing the structure and roles (/ruc, !!G#.

Conflicts of &nformation These conflicts arise due to the absence or limited information, different views on what are most important, differences in valuation procedures, decisions and situations. %n these cases, the possible intervention of the heads may be directed to decide what the most important data, clarify the process of collecting and distributing information, using e&perts Eoutside opinionsE.

Approaches and Styles in Conflict &esolution There are several approaches and styles through which the conflicts can be resolved. The process of resolving workplace conflicts is sophisticated and re6uire short0term and long0term decision making. The leaders of the hospitality industry adapt different approaches and tactics according to the nature of the conflict in order to resolve it effectively (1ulford, Doutroumanis, ;othman, !!G#. $ll people do not react the same way to situations of conflict. The behavior Epersonal responseE is what is called style in conflict managementE. <nder this approach, the Econflict management stylesE move on two dimensionsC interest (priority# for oneHs goals and concern for people (relationships#. The research suggested E4anagerial =ridE as a leadership that should be Efocused on the tasks (results#E and Epeople0centeredE (Choi, .ickson, !"!#. The combination of these two dimensions identifies five styles of conflict management, force, assign, avoid (escape#, compromise or collaborate. %n style E1orceE behavior focuses on fighting to defend the interests or goals of their own, regardless of the involvement of the other party, or the relations between them (1ulford, Doutroumanis, ;othman, !!G#. $t the other e&treme, the style of E=ivingE is used by people who value the relationships that EpressureE to get the results themselves (Choi, .ickson, !"!#.

+eople in which, as a trend, the prevailing style of E$voiding (bypass# try to avoid, postpone, or even unaware of the conflict. %n general, they fear the possible conse6uences of dealing with conflict, do not feel prepared to address it, or feel should be decided by others more likely. %n style ECommitE, it comes to finding a solution EcompromiseE on each side give in something, it is common to Esplit the differenceE. +eople in the prevailing style of ECollaborateE tend to work with the other party, to find solutions that meet the interests of both, which re6uires e&ploring the issues in dispute to find solutions to Ewin0win: ($ndrews, !!G#. $lthough this might be the preferred style for dealing with conflict is only possible when both parties are willing to share (.%T;, !!3#. Fach of these styles has its advantages and disadvantages. +eople are likely to EmoveE in the five styles ($ndrews, !!G#. 'owever, research shows that everyone has their preferences, which ultimately are what determine their behavior. 1or these reasons, it is useful to know the situations in which it is most effective a particular style, and with this information, namely the EstrategyE (style# that organization must apply. $ccording to e&perts, the situations which are more effective each of these styles can be summarized as followsC %t is recommend to use the strategy (style# E1orceE whenC need a 6uick decision, there are important issues on which decisions are unpopular or against individual behaviors that can take advantage of more Efle&ibleE, and considered a weakness ($ndrews, !!G#. The strategy of E$ssignE, it is recommended thatC organizations should understand that they are wrong or made a mistake (this gives us more authority in the future#, the matter is more important to the other party for us and the EcostE that pay is not significant, and to gain acceptance in subse6uent issues most important to us (.%T;, !!3#.

The strategy of EcompromiseE may be appropriate when the two EopponentsE have e6ual power and seeking mutually e&clusive goals, to make temporary fi&es on comple& issues, or when competition and collaboration are not successful. The strategy of E)orkingE is recommended toC integrate interests and opinions of people with different points of view whose satisfaction is only possible with the cooperation of both, to achieve accession to incorporate interest in consensus, solve problems of feelings that have hampered a relationship, or when the ob(ective is to secure an agreement that lasts. This strategy is only possible when both parties share (/ai, 7aw, )en, !!,#.

The 'unctions of %uman &esource (anager to Avoid Conflicts of the %ospitality Industry There are several functions and procedures implemented by the human resource manager in the hospitality industry that assists the growth and development of the organization. These measures are effective to ease the regulation of work in the organization and offers ade6uate remedies for the conflicts in the workplace (Dandasamy, $ncheri, !!2#.

Recruitment an$ Retention of "eople The fair recruitment and employee retention are the most comple& tasks that ';4 has to perform. .ue to the globalization the competition in the hospitality industry has become intense. 'ence, the ';4 strives to retain their workforce by fulfilling their needs and re6uirements. This process also facilitates the practices in the workplace and the conflicts can be avoided. %n case of unfair the labor union of the organization can agitate (/ai, 7aw, )en, !!,#. This would results in ineffective completions of the assigned tasks and provides several reasons for the conflicts in the workplace (7ashley, !!2#. Similarly, a satisfied employee would not participate in any

agitation or the conflicting situation in the workplaceA hence, the strategies proposed in employee retention process minimize the possibilities of conflicts in the workplace. %n assessing the skills and motivation to the recruitment, we make sure to have ade6uate staff in number and 6ualification (7ashley, !!2#. $c6uisition of 'uman ;esources is defined as the management of employment and recruitment programs, plans, careers, change and advancement, (ob analysis and evaluation of individuals (/ai, 7aw, )en, !!,#. %ts ob(ective is to provide the association and availability of skilled human resources and placement of workers to the position which best suits them. %t facilitates the organization to ma&imize the use of human resources. %t includes the role of identifying, recruiting, recruit and retains members of a team. ';4 $ctivities also includes the observation of the performance of each employee and find out capabilities of the employees and utilize them wherever need and the re6uirement (/aum, !!G#. %t is a very important step in the 6uest for efficiency and performance in any organization since the conse6uences of poor recruitment are enormous and can be probably fatal to the company. )hen an employee is at work, his5her abilities should be fully utilized in order to increased productivity. <tilization of human resource can include activities such asA identification of the work, mission employment situation in the structure, description of activities, initial and additional information, work plan etc, and margin autonomy.

Training &ncentives This approach is used by organizations in the hospitality industry to carry out the work0 based or behavior0based counseling of the employees (/aum, !!G#. This approach is considered effective to avoid the workplace conflicts as the employees are either engaged in their work or

training. %n this scenario, the employees are not left with enough time to participate in the conflicting activities in the workplace. %n addition, these incentives are intended to convey to the employee that his interest is to do the best (ob possible.

Compensation an$ Re*ar$s Compensation is always a sensitive issue, closely linked to the issue of motivation and employee satisfaction (Choeng, 4orrison, !!,#. The human resource department in the hospitality industry contribute their ma&imum efforts to improve their reward systemA because, it plays a ma(or role in employee satisfaction. $ccording to diverse studies, a motivated and satisfied employee is a significant asset to an organization, and refrains from the unethical practices in the workplace. 4oney is a motivator when people are at the bottom of 4aslowHs hierarchy. The special recognitions and awards may be monetary or not, formal or informal, individual or group (Choeng, 4orrison, !!,#. The awards are a visible means to promote 6uality efforts and employees that the organization values their efforts, which stimulates their motivation to improve.

"erformance Evaluation This is the system incorporated by the ';4 to evaluate an employee of timely basis. This system assists the organizations in the hospitality industry to analyze the employee that is their asset and the one that is their liability. The employees categorized as liabilities to the company are often separated from the organizationsA because, these employees often engage in the unethical practices and play a significant part in the conflicts of the organizations. 4oreover, these employees influence the effective employees through labor union and deteriorate their

e&pertise. 'ence, the appropriate approach would be to separate such employees from the organization and compensate the ones that perform e&ceptionally (Choeng, 4orrison, !!,#. +erformance evaluation is an e&tremely difficult activity of human resource management.

Communication an$ Transparency Communication plays a significant role to minimize the conflicting situations in the workplace. There are series of workplace conflicts that occur due to the miscommunication or the lack of communication in the workforce. $ccording to diverse studies, communication is the most significant tactic to cater the issues in the workplace. The conflicts in the hospitality industry often result in agitation against the organization (Choeng, 4orrison, !!,#. %n this scenario, communication plays an active role as the agitations against the company can be resolved through appropriate negotiation. The most difficult task for the '; professionals is to maintain a win0win situation in the organization as it is the perfect remedy for the conflicts in the workplace. %t is essential that the employee has the information to accomplish its task, and have a clear idea of evolution and goals of the company itself and its environment. >owadays, the abundance of information has necessitated the establishment of systems of information management, systems such as knowledge management (.ohertyb, =reenidgec, !!3#.

Measuring an$ Monitoring "erformance %n today9s world, the role of a human resource manger has been diversified and dynamic. +eople have different e&pectations from their workplace. )hile they feel their bad performances should go unnoticed, they re6uire reinforcement and recognition for e&emplary work. Their productivity should certainly not be denied. %n this case, the management finds hard to devise

strategies and systems that offer such mechanisms of recognition and management of impressive performance (.ohertyb, =reenidgec, !!3#. The company has to come up with new and modified systems of appraisal, compensation management and performance management. +erformance management has been put in the most important place in ';4, as well as in the strategic management. 'owever, performance appraisal, the core of ';4, has become a deep gap between performance appraisers and employees.

Recognition of the +igher Rate "erformances $ proper employee appraisal system should be implemented in any organization so that it represents true and fair picture of employee performance. There should be a uniform system of performance appraisal all over the world (?anta, 7ugosi, !""#. %n order to implement the performance appraisal system in any organization, the organization must lay down a set of value called mission statement and goal system. Deeping in mind the mission and goal, the organization must implement an appraisal system. The organization should manage resources that make use of both internal and e&ternal environments. The recognition of the employees fulfills their self0fulfillment needs. $ccording to the 4aslow9s hierarchy of needs, the self0fulfillment need is the most crucial want to be fulfilled by the organization (?anta, 7ugosi, !""#. %f this need of an employee is fulfilled, the employee regards himself as a part of an organization. 'ence, it would minimize the possibility of an employee engaging in the conflicting situations in the workplace. The eight areas are related to issues of 6uality e&cellence in the recruitment and retention, internal performance, customer service and continuous improvement, five of them, however, involve issues of human resource

management. Therefore, to achieve the goal of superior service company, it needs to ensure that human resource strategies are supportive of this goal (+iso, !!2#.

+ealth an$ Safety The '; professional along with the higher authorities of the organizations operating in the hospitality industry must effectively design their health and safety measures. The accidents are inevitable in the workplaceA however, the ade6uate measures can minimize their occurrence. %f the employees of an organization are not provided a safe and healthy environment to work, they will agitate against the company and the flow of work would be affected. 'ealth and safety have always been priorities in most companies, but working conditions are now going beyond the basics of keeping the work area safe and clean (+iso, !!2#. 4ost companies have many opportunities to contribute to the 6uality of life in work can give personal advice and professional career development and (ob placement services, recreation and cultural activities, child care, special permits responsibilities unrelated to work or community service fle&ible working hours and higher health care for retirees. 4eet and e&ceed customer e&pectations begin with the recruitment of appropriate staff skills and attitudes which support and enhance the ob(ectives of the organization. Therefore, organizations design and adapt effective health and safety measures in order to avoid the conflicting situations in the organization (/aum, !!3#.

Conclusion $ccording to the in0depth analysis of the data accumulated through different sources, it can be concluded that the conflicts in the hospitality industry are inclining with the passage of

time. These conflicts are often categorized as the workplace conflictsA in addition, ma(ority of these conflicts result in agitation against the organization. There may be several reasons behind the workplace conflicts. The conflicts can occur due to the inade6uate dispersion of salaries, weak health and safety measures in organization, inade6uate performance appraisal system and lack of communication etc. The conflicts in the workplace are not always between the company and its employeesA but, the conflicts can also take place between the employees. %n both scenarios the organization is affected. %n order to minimize or diminish the conflict in the workplace the '; professionals propose diverse remedies to the organization in the hospitality industry. The core ob(ective of the '; professionals is to maintain a win0win situation in the organization and avoid the conflicting situations in the workplace. $ccording to the diverse studies, an efficient employee is an asset to an organization and an ineffective employee is a liability. The role of '; professionals is to retain their asset and separate their liability in order to avoid workplace conflicts.

;eferences

$ndrews, 4. ( !!G#, %ntroduction to Tourism and 'ospitality %ndustry, Tata 4c=raw0'ill /ai, /. 7aw, ;. )en, %. ( !!,#, The %mpact Of )ebsite @uality On Customer Satisfaction $nd +urchase %ntentionsC Fvidence 1rom Chinese Online Iisitors, %nternational ?ournal of 'ospitality 4anagement, G(J# /aum, T. ( !!3#, ;eflections on the nature of skills in the F&perience FconomyC Challenging traditional skills models in hospitality. ?ournal of 'ospitality and Tourism 4anagement, " ( # /aum, T. ( !!G# 'uman ;esources in TourismC Still )aiting for Change, Tourism 4anagement ( ,# /ruc, S. ( !!G#, Select 4en of Sober and %ndustrious 'abitsC $lcohol ;eform and Social Conflict in $ntebellum $ppalachia, ?ournal of Southern 'istory, Iol. GJ Choeng, '. 4orrison, $. ( !!,# Consumers9 ;eliance On +roduct %nformation $nd ;ecommendations 1ound %n <=C, ?ournal of %nteractive $dvertising. ,( # Choi, B. .ickson, .. ;. ( !"!#, $ case study into the benefits of management training programsC %mpacts on hotel employee turnover and satisfaction level. ?ournal of 'uman ;esources in 'ospitality * Tourism, 2("# .avidson, 4. Ding, /. ( !!,#, The purchasing e&periences of Chinese tourism and hospitality students in $ustralia. ?ournal of 'ospitality * Tourism Fducation, ! ("# .%T;. ( !!3#. >ational Tourism %nvestment StrategyC %nvesting in our future. CanberraC .epartment of %ndustry Tourism and ;esources

.ohertyb, 7. =reenidgec, .. ( !!3# 'uman ;esource 4anagement $nd +erformance %n The /arbados 'otel %ndustry +hilmore $lleynea, 'ospitality 4anagement 1ulford, 4. ;othman, ;. ( !!G#, Fffective 'r Strategies for Fnhancing the Organizational Commitment of 'iv0positive Fmployees, ?ournal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, Iol. "" ?anta, '. 7ugosi, +. ( !""# Fmployment F&periences of +olish 4igrant )orkers in the <D 'ospitality Sector, tourism management J Dandasamy, %. $ncheri, S. ( !!2#. 'otel employees9 e&pectations of @)7C $ 6ualitative study. %nternational ?ournal of 'ospitality 4anagement, , Doutroumanis, .. $le&akis, =. ( !!2#, Organizational Culture in the ;estaurant %ndustryC %mplications for Change, ?ournal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, Iol. "J 7ashley, C. ( !!2#. The right answers to the wrong 6uestionsK Observations on skill development and training in the <nited Dingdom9s hospitality sector Tourism and 'ospitality ;esearch, 2(L# +iso, $. ( !!2#, 4igrant workers in the Borkshire .ales tourism industryC a temporary solution, 4anaging ;egional TourismC $ case study of Borkshire, =reat >orthernC %lkley

Team /uilding F&ercise towards Conflict ;esolution Team building in a multicultural environment

/uilding a team of people from different cultural backgrounds presents a variety of challenges. So, too, is the re6uirement for effective performance and appropriate professional behaviours in an international conte&t e6ually challenging. The re6uirement to participate in multicultural workgroups in international settings is increasing, and re6uires assessment and support for the development of appropriate competencies. $ J 0page interpretive report additionally provides te&tual and pictorial descriptions of each dimension, detailed summaries of

high and low scores, and a cultural competency action planner. Separate group profiles and reports can also be generated to indicate overall team strengths and areas for development. 1eedback by the accredited consultant is usually given by telephone, and involves an in0 depth discussion of the individual9s report in relation to the opportunities and challenges of his or her present or future international or multicultural role and responsibilities. The purpose is to identify three or four dimensions which would benefit from better, greater and more fre6uent energy, emphasis and attention. The feedback enables the subse6uent production of a personal development plan (Symonette, !!G#.

%ealthy Conflict $s one can witness from the graph mentioned above, it is clear that in the midst of creating a healthy team, healthy conflict must prevail for the purpose and ob(ective of understanding and comprehending the true essence of work, thus delivering effective and outstanding performance. This failure to build trust is damaging because it leads to a fear of conflict. Teams that lack trust are incapable of engaging in unfiltered and passionate debates. %nstead, they resort to veiled discussions and guarded comments. They are unable to ,$iscuss the un$iscussa(leH. Contrary to the notion that teams waste time and energy arguingA those that smooth over or avoid die real issues doom themselves to revisiting them again and again without successful resolution. The team knows when this is happening and they will know that die team is simply not working. One of the most natural responses of a leader is to try to protect members from harmful conflict by intervening or allowing issues to be escalated too readily. This prevents

members developing their own conflict management skills and thus diminishes the very things that need to be brought out into the open. Therefore it is vital that leaders show restraint when their people engage in conflict and allow resolution to occur as naturally as possible. $ leaderHs ability to model appropriate conflict behaviour is essential 0 by avoiding or clumsily intervening, a team leader will simply encourage this dysfunction to derive. /y engaging in productive conflict, a team can more readily buy into a decision knowing that they have heard, and benefited from, everyoneHs ideas. Who is it forThe %nternational +rofiler is aimed at managers and professionals who need and want to develop adaptive skills for working in an international or multicultural environment. Typical candidates includeC ". . J. L. -. 3. G. ,. 4anagers involved in e&patriation or mobilizationA 7ocal managers with international rolesA 4anagers leading international teamsA 4anagers integrating operations across national boundariesA 4anagers operating in multicultural workplacesA %nternational pro(ect managersA +rofessionals with international business careersA and Specialists on international committees

%usiness !pplications The %nternational +rofiler enablesC

". /etter selection of candidates for international or multicultural appointments ;eduction of inappropriate appointmentsA . Ialid measurement of intercultural competencies for preparation and evaluation of training of individuals and teamsA J. %dentification of intercultural development needs of individuals or teams at any particular point in timeA and L. $cceleration of business0critical relationship development

(ulti Culture) Ally or Obstacle towards effective team development# The beliefs, vision, ob(ectives and business approaches and practices underpinning a company9s strategy towards team development may be compatible with its culture or they may not. )hen they are, the culture becomes a valuable ally in strategy implementation and e&ecution. )hen the culture, conversely, pertains to contradict some aspect of the company9s direction, performance targets, operations or strategy, the culture, undoubtedly, becomes a stumbling block that implies successful strategy implementation and e&ecution (Symonette, !!,#. (ulticultural Teams In an increasingly global economy, multicultural work teams are becoming more commonplace, and fostering teamwork in multicultural teams is a growing challenge. The growing body of intercultural research suggests important cultures and points to the complexity of culturally diverse teams. Studies have shown that the composition of the team

determines the success of the group and may prevent the group from reaching its performance potential (Tesluk & athieu, !""#$.

Studies on culturally diverse teams demonstrate that moderately heterogeneous groups experience significant communication problems, relational conflict, and low team identity that have a dysfunctional impact on team effectiveness. %s a rule, heterogeneous teams report reduced satisfaction with the team, which, in turn, negatively affects team performance. %lthough previous studies suggest important differences in teamwork across cultures, they do not ade&uately address the complexity of issues affecting culturally diverse teams and do not identify the specific factors that contribute to these differences (Symonette, !""'$. % recurring criticism of existing research on intercultural teams and intercultural communication is of the methodology used. Intercultural differences arise as a result of differences in cognitive styles and cultural values that have not been ade&uately examined in the current literature. (u)*abcock (!""+$ points out that although most group communication research has been conducted by psychologists, little research has been done by communication researchers. In addition, some researchers critici,e the attitudinal research methods and self)report that are typically used for studies in this area (Tushman, !""-$. The main criticisms of these methods are their sub.ectivity and the assumption that the sub.ects have great self) understanding and accurate self)perceptions and that they report honestly to the &uestions. /ogelberg and /umery (#''0$ specifically recommend the use

of videotaped data analysis for investigating group interactions to overcome some of these problems. The field of intercultural communication has been critici,ed for failing to produce studies that focus on actual practices of communication, especially of intercultural encounters. 1arbaugh (!""2$ suggests that discourse analysis is one solution to this problem in that it brings together two important insights3 (a$ the cultural shaping of communication practices, including its nonverbal features, competence and (b$ the interactional dynamics that occur among culturally shaped communication practices (4rrieta, !""0$. Impact of theories of management and leadership on team development >ow that we have discussed the effects of management and leadership over individual and organizational performance, we shall now discuss the ma(or theories that aim towards employee self0recognition and identification of organizational direction. $mongst the entire forms of leadership, the most prominent theories that have been highlighted are the trait theory and the very popular situational theory (Symonette, !!G#. Trait theory implies that all management decisions and verdicts that are obtained with reference to conte&t of the organizational performance only improves and develops due to traits and capabilities of individuals that the employee candidates and individuals have and display in their routine work. Situational theory, on the other hand and somewhat contrary to the trait theory, pressures and brings forward the concept that different situations call for different characteristics, provided they are being properly given and also prove fruitful at the situation (Symonette, !!,#.

1or instance, under pressure, some individuals might face or display an anger management issue or fury stroke, whereas the most important and crucial phase is the display of calm and controlled behaviour that spans over a lengthy and given time interval. There shall be several instances where internal and e&ternal factors shall attempt to hinder the proper e&ecution and delivery of managerial functions. %nternal factors that affect the functioning of the organization include ethical standards, workload and environment. F&ternal factors include globalization, advances and e&tension in technological patterns and development and even innovation diversity can easily and greatly impact the functioning of the organization. /y imposing these T4/O standards on teams as they develop whilst controlling for threats to internal and e&ternal validity, researchers can confirm or disconfirm the strengths of the new model. Our work also has value for managers, especially those leading or seeking to lead teams. 1irst, our work reminds managers that while older concepts can be and are valuable by themselvesA these perspectives can also be combined to provide additional insights about management topics. Second, we provide managers with guidance on how to enhance the performance of teams that they lead by intervening at each stage in the teamHs life. )ith the specific guidance that we have presented in the previous section, managers can approach team leadership with a potentially more effective method for encouraging team performance.

;eferences

Symonette, '. ( !!G#. Making evaluation *ork for the greater goo$: Supporting provocative possi(ility an$ responsive praxis in lea$ership $evelopment. %n D. 4. 'annum, ?. ). 4artineau, * C. ;einelt (Fds.#, Symonette, '. ( !!,#. Cultivating self as responsive instrument: Working the (oun$aries an$ (or$erlan$s for ethical (or$er crossings. %n .. 4. 4ertens * +. F. =insberg (Fds.#, The handbook of social research ethics (pp. G20 2L#. Thousand Oaks, C$C Sage. Symonette, '. ( !!2#. Cultivating self as responsive instrument: Working the (oun$aries an$ (or$erlan$s for ethical (or$er crossings. %n .. 4. 4ertens * +. F. =insberg (Fds.#, The handbook of social research ethics (pp. G20 2L#. Thousand Oaks, C$C Sage. Tesluk, +. F., * 4athieu, ?. F. ( !!"#. .vercoming roa$(locks to effectiveness: &ncorporating management of performance (arriers into mo$els of *ork group effectiveness. ?ournal of $pplied +sychology, ,LC !!0 "G. Tushman, 4. 7. ( !!L#. Special (oun$ary roles in the innovation process. $dministrative Science @uarterly, C -,G03!-.

<rrieta, ?. 7. ( !!3#. Community i$entity $iscourse an$ the heritage aca$emy: Color(lin$ e$ucational policy an$ White supremacy. %nternational ?ournal of @ualitative Studies in Fducation, "2, L--0LG3.

%nterpersonal Conflict and ;esolution Strategies Introduction Conflict is not a simple difference of opinion, or feelings. %t is a total or partial incompatibility between one or more individuals on ob(ectives, intentions and interests. Conflicts between workers and employers are typical disputes because they include face to face factors of the production process, labor and capital in response to this situation. F&amplesC disputes arising from unfair dismissal, the breach of the collective agreement, and so on. The conflict is both an e&pression of need and the sign of an obstacle to the satisfaction of it (4asters, $lbright, !! #. Only by finding a new balance between these two components that allow the conflict to play it is the most pivotal roleC lead us to a fulfilling change. %n this paper, we will consider the study of $licia S.4. 7eung, and relate established understanding in different dimensions of practicality. Sources and Types of conflicts in Workplace $mong the sources of conflicts that arise in organizations are disagreements with the way they are distributed resources (e6uipment, budget, authority#, poor communication, differences in e&pectations (on tasks, goals, hierarchy#, the organizational structure with inaccuracies, tasks and the interdependence of work, as well as interpersonal differences in values, positions, interests, personalities. %n order to suggest possible interventions that can managers do to manage conflict, e&perts classified the possible causes of conflict in an organization as followsC ". %nterest0/ased Conflict, which can be about actual or perceived competition, by different people or groups have conflicted interests over the content or procedures of work, the way it evaluates the work and people. . Structural ConflictC the perception of authority and une6ual distribution Efair shareE of resources, environmental factors that hinder cooperation. J. Conflicts of valuesC using different criteria to evaluate ideas and decisions, different perceptions of the same things different goals and values. L. Conflict in relationshipsC by poor communications, repeated negative behaviors between the parties, strong emotions, stereotypes and misunderstandings. -. Conflicts of informationC the absence or limitations of information, different views on what is most important, differences in assessment procedures, decisions and situations. Chinese Settings in American Workplace nvironments

%n this study, we found cultures involved which see the world from different cultural windows. %f this situation we add that the culture of the ;epublic of China has evolved steadily over the past years, the situation is complicated. The prevailing custom of treatment is determined by the Ecommitment of the wordE rather than by contract. 7eung identified two ma(or forms of harmonyC EgenuineE and EsurfaceE. The former refers to holistic and sincere harmonious relationships, while the latter indicates that, although surface relationships may appear smooth, conflicts remain underneath. The usual treatment is gentle and delicate, even if they seem tough and pragmatic. %t is noted that when dealing with people who are in the same hierarchical level or within commercial negotiation attitudes of this kind take, for which the worst mistake you can make is to adopt a foreign employer rude language or attitudes, as well as threats evenings. 'owever, when dealing with subordinates tend to use a strong voice and assume arrogant attitudes, especially in their orders to the female employees. %n general, avoid having overt conflict. Organizational practices in China are seen to be highly respectful of hierarchy, so much so they have a different status on wages, benefits, even in kitchens for management level employees, customarily speak Chinese. The dimensions of culture are multiple and often are responsible for organizations to crown with success or failure of their interactions, which are increasingly global market. Cultural forms can cause misunderstandings, disagreements and conflicts, or a comprehension and understanding of the other party. %mportantly, one of the findings is to be detected is that the organizational climate and stress defense, for which the work environment becomes very heavy, as people of Fastern origin only focus on results, unmotivated the staff. There is interest in establishing communication between them in areas other than work0related (7eung, !!,#. Conflict &esolution !voi$ance $voidance is sometimes the best course of action. Sometimes the EtimeE alone will fi& the problem, and any attempt to solve alone can only worsen the situation. 'owever, avoidance only works sometimes, unfortunately, rare. $voidance is often a manifestation of the lack of conflict management skills. !$aptation $daptation is a strategy that rarely leads to solve the problem. $t the beginning, of adaptation leads to a better understanding of the problem, and conse6uently did not seek any solutions to the crisis situation. Sometimes it is better to sail on top of a conflict than to continue in secret. /ighting 1ighting is the opposition to adapt. 1orces the parties to the conflict manager to develop solutions and resolve the dispute. This method can even be aggressive. This way, unfortunately, rarely solves the problemA instead, it leads to a deepening of the conflict, increases aggression and frustration. Compromise Compromise is often referred to as the best way of resolving conflict. /ringing both parties to the agreement we seek the best way out of the situation. The compromise, however, also associated with the fact that both sides need of something important for them to resign.

Solving the pro(lem To solve the problem of success must agree to the following beliefsC ". Cooperation is better than the competition. . The parties can trust each other. J. .ifferences and disagreements can be minimized. L. %t is possible to find mutually acceptable solutions. On the basis, of these convictions manager should strive together with the parties to try to find a way to resolve the conflict. +robability of achieving a satisfactory solution is higher when the manager will lead parties to the conflict only to a certain point, and conse6uently they do indicate possible ways out of crisis (Collins, OH;ourke, !!,#. )orkers who are in conflict can only come to an agreement, when they realize that finding a solution is in their interest.

;eferences Collins, S, OH;ourke, ?. ( !!,#, 0Managing Conflict an$ Workplace Relationships, Cengage 7earning. 7eung, $. ( !!,#, 0&nterpersonal conflict an$ resolution strategies1 !n examination of +ong 2ong employees, Team +erformance 4anagement. /radford. Iol. "L, %ss. J5LA pp. "3-. 4asters, 4, $lbright, ;. ( !! #, 0The complete gui$e to conflict resolution in the *orkplace, $4$CO4 .iv $merican 4gmt $ssn.