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MODULE TITLE: Erecting of brick and block structures NOMINAL DURATION: 95 Hours MODULE DESCRIPTION: This module contains the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude required setting out of brickwork and blocks work and the construction of the base of the brick and block work. LO1: Prepare for work LO2: Set out brick/ block work LO3: Construct base brick/ block work LO4: Position door and window frames LO5: Construct brick/block walls LO6: Rake joints LO7: Cleaning up work area, tools and equipments MODULE CONTENTS: LO2. Set out brick/ block work 2.1 identifying brick/ block 2.2 erecting work platform 2.3. Identification of structural details & location 2.4 setting out of base brick work, load bearing work, cavity brick wall LO 3. Construct base brick/ block work 3.1 preparing mortar mix 3.2 laying bricks 3.3 Constructing base work for cavity wall LO4.Positioning door and window frames 4.1 locating and fixing window frames to cavity and single leaf walls 4.2 locating and fix door jambs/ frames, for cavity and single leaf walls LO 5. Construct brick/block walls 5.1 constructing brick walls, gables and parapets. 5.2 lying of damp proof courses and flashings. 5.3. checking straightness of wall 5.4.positioning wall ties 5. 5 constructing openings 5.6 .installing flashing and lintel. 5.7 Forming control joints 5.8 Cutting and laying sill bricks 5.12 installing Tie down and lateral support systems LO6. rake joints 6.1 Raking joints techniques 6.2 brushing brick/block work LO7. Cleaning up 7.1 Disposing, recycling and re-using waste materials 7.2 Maintaining Plant, tools and equipments 7.3 Performing good housekeeping 1

Training teaching and learning material Sector: construction OCCUPATION: masonry UNIT OF COMPETENCE: Erecting of brick and block structures LEVEL: II

CONTENT TITLE PAGE INRODUCTION---------------------------------------------------------------------------3 SUMMARY OF LEARNINIG OUT COMES-----------------------------------------3 HOW TO USE THIS TTLM---------------------------- -------------------------------3 LEARNING GUIDE-----------------------------------------------------------------------3 INFORMATION SHEET =1--------------------------------------------------------------4 OPERATION SHEET=1------------------------------------------------------------------5 Self- check= 1--------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 Model ANSWER=1--------------------------------------------------- ----------------------5 INFORMATION SHEET =2-------------------------------------- -------------------------6 OPERATION SHEET=2--------------------------------------------------------------------7 Self- check= 2---------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 Model ANSWER=2--------------------------------------------------------------------------8 INFORMATION SHEET=3-----------------------------------------------------------------8 OPERATION SHEET=3-------------------------------------------------------------------13 Self- check= 3-------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 Model ANSWER=3------------------------------------------------------------------------13 INFORMATION SHEET=4----------------------------------------------------------------14 OPERATION SHEET=4-------------------------------------------------------------------15 Self- check= 4-------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 Model ANSWER=4------------------------------------------------------------------------15 INFORMATION SHEET=5----------------------------------------------------------------16 OPERATION SHEET=5-------------------------------------------------------------------16 Self- check =5-------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 Model ANSWER=5------------------------------------------------------------------------16 INFORMATION SHEET=6----------------------------------------------------------------17 OPERATION SHEET=6-------------------------------------------------------------------17 Self- check =6-------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 Model ANSWER=6------------------------------------------------------------------------17 INFORMATION SHEET=7----------------------------------------------------------------17 OPERATION SHEET=7------------------------------------------------------------------18 Self- check =7------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 Model ANSWER=7-----------------------------------------------------------------------20 LAP TEST-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------21

This course aims to provide the learners with the knowledge, skill & right attitudes. SUMMARY OF LEARNINIG OUT COMES After completing this training guide you should be to ;
LO1: LO2: LO3: LO4: LO5: LO6: LO7: Prepare for work Set out brick/ block work Construct base brick/ block work Position door and window frames Construct brick/block walls Rake joints Cleaning up work area, tools and equipments

HOW TO USE THIS TTLM Read through the learning guide carefully. It is divided into sections that cover all the skills & knowledge that you need. Read information sheets &complete the self- check at the end of each section to check your progress. Read &make sure to practice the activities in the operation sheets. Ask your trainer to show you the correct way to do things or talk to more experienced person for guidance. when you are ready ask your trainer for instructional assessment and provide you with feed- back from your performance. LEARNING GUIDE Learning activities Special activities Read topic plan & prepare for work Refer to I formation sheet# 1 Compare your answer with model Answer self- check 1 answer# 1 Refer to information sheet# 2 Read topic: Set out brick/ block work Read topic: Construct base brick/ block

Refer to information sheet #3 Compare your answer with model answer#3 Refer to information sheet #4 Refer to information sheet# 5 Refer to information sheet# 6 Refer to information sheet# 7 Refer to lap test

Answer self- check 3 Read topic: Position door and window


Read topic- Construct brick/block walls Read topic- Rake joints Read topic- Cleaning up work area, tools and

Performance lap test: production of brick and blocks

INFORMATION SHEET # 1 plan and Prepare for work

Purpose: in this chapter you learn about how to plans &prepares Plan and prepare: - Work instructions, including plans, specifications, quality requirements and operational details are obtained, confirmed and applied. OHS requirements are followed in accordance with safety plans and policies. Plant, tools and equipment selected to carry out tasks are consistent with the requirements of the job, checked for serviceability and any faults are rectified or reported prior to commencement. Material quantity requirements are calculated in accordance with plans and/or specifications. Materials appropriate to the work application are identified, obtained, prepared, safely handled and located ready for use. Environmental protection requirements are identified for the project in accordance with environmental plans and regulatory obligations and applied Tools and equipment selected to carry out tasks are consistent with the requirements of the job. Material quantity requirements are calculated in accordance with plans and specifications .materials appropriate to the work application are identified. The work man site preparation begins before you starting any work, 1. Building has been designed 2. Constriction documents have been approved 3. Main contractor has been appointed by the client to construct the building. This chapter describes the plan and prepare is detailed from the worker view point. THE WORK MAN INCLUDES THAT: *the worker expected to carry out the building work. * Using appropriate knowledge, skill, and attitude. *using the most appropriate materials. *Ensuring the health and safety regulations are observed Materials handling & storage There are several type tools used by a Mason. Hand tools, in general, ease the work and accelerates the process, improves quality of work significantly and they are very important for everybody who wants to do decent work so that keep tools in perfect order. In addition tools and equipment also represents highly valued assets. For this reasons

it is crucial necessary to handle tools and equipment with extra care. That means cleaning after use, storing neatly, slightly greasing if necessary and regular maintenance. E.g.1 sprit level requires always to be handled with care and needs to be checked from time to time weather it is still working accurate or not. . 2 measuring tape when long horizontal measurements are needed, care should be taken to avoid sag on the tape meters. Storing materials Proper way of storing material should be considered in schoolwork shops and training area and this has to be adopted in the real work of construction sites. It is use full to keep materials in a proper manner, to preserve materials long lasting, to secure chemical character of the material, for easy access and handling etc. In general proper way of storing material saves time and money. OPERATION SHEET# 1 OPERATIONTITLE: PLAN AND PREPARING PURPOSE: to know more about plans and how is prepared Conditions of situation: trainees how to make plan &prepares TOOLS AND MTERIALS TOOLS: MATERIAL: -Fixer, -T. Square - paper -Drawing board, -Set square - Lead PROCEDURE: * Prepare drawing board Prepare tools used to draw plans that are paper, fixer, lead, drawing board, set square, T-square. Prepare leads size by size 0.3,0.5,0.7 PRECAUTION: *use safety tools and materials. *put drawing table on the level surface. *care from sharp materials of drawing. QUALITY CRITERIA: the students can evaluate his success in performing the operation. SELF CHECK # 1 CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER 1. Which one of the following isnt used to prepare plan? A, fixer B .drawing board C, builder square D, none 2. The site worker man preparation of begins: A, building has been designed B, construction documents have been approved C, main contractor has been appointed by the client to construct the building. D, all

3. In the preparation of plane workers concludes that; A, using appropriate knowledge, skill, and attitude B. Efficiently and without delay. C. Using the most appropriate materials. D ALL, E, none Model answer 1 1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______ Your trainer will check your answer after you complete this information sheet.

INFORMATION SHEET # 2 Set out brick/ block work

2.1 identifying brick/ block 2.2 erecting work platform 2.3. Identification of structural details & location 2.4. Setting out of base brick work, load bearing work, cavity brick wall

Scaffolding is temporary framework of timber or steel elements, having platforms at different levels, to enable the masons to work at different heights of a building. A mason standing on ground can work up to a height of about 1.5m.When construction is to be done more than this height, masons and labor required a temporarily platform. This a temporarily plat form provided with necessary supports close to the work to provided a limited space for the workers building materials, tolls, etc. is termed as scaffolding. Types of scaffolding based on materials Scaffolding can be divided in to two groups depending on the material they construct. These are: 1. Timber/ Wooden scaffold Wood is commonly used for scaffolds in Ethiopia the logs are obtained from young straight trees, which are cut for about 4.0 m length. The branches are trimmed of and the barks are cleaned away. 2. steel/Tubular scaffolds Steel and light weight tubes are the commonest material used for this type, because of its weight and costs of maintenance the scaffold is erected using a series of fittings.

Setting out works

2.1. Terminology used in setting out work The following terminology is used in setting out in civil engineering work and the trainee are advised to learn the terminology thoroughly as he/she across the terms while studying this chapter.

Setting out: - is the process on operation of laying out engineering projects by placing pegs on the site of works. Setting out is the opposite of levelling that is data are transferred from plans to the ground. Pegs:- are short pointed wooden rods driving in to the ground to mark an excavation, construction, etc .line or a level. A nail driven in top of the peg usually shows the position of the point. Batten boards (profile board) :- A horizontal board 150mm by 25mmcut to varying length. They are nailed to 100mmx50mmx50mm square post which have been pointed and driven into the ground. Batten board or profile board located about 0.5-1.0m out side the limits of foundation wall. The lines defined by nails in the top of the profile boards are the out side faces. There are three methods of settingout 1. The 3,4,5 method 2. The builders square method 3. Levelling instruments

OPERATION SHEET# 1 OPERATIONTITLE: PLAN AND PREPARING PURPOSE: to know more about plans and how is prepared Conditions of situation: trainees how to make plan &prepares TOOLS AND MTERIALS TOOLS: MATERIAL: - Measuring tape & string - timber for making profile board - Try square - steel - Claw hammer - nail - Bow saw - equilaptes for making peg - hose level - Crow bar - axe - Pick exe PROCEDURE: * Prepare tools and materials Prepare tools and materials with their types PRECAUTION: *use safety tools and materials. * put the tools and materials on the level surface. * Care from sharp materials. QUALITY CRITERIA: the students can evaluate his success in performing the operation.

SELF CHECK # 2 CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER 1. what are the tools for setting out and erecting platforms 2. Write scaffolding by functions with their advantages Model answer # 2 1. _______ 2._______ Your trainer will check your answer after you complete this information sheet.

INFORMATION SHEET # 3 Set out brick/ block work

LO 3. Construct base brick/ block work 3.1 preparing mortar mix 3.2 laying bricks 3.3 Constructing base work for cavity wall

INFORMATION SHEET # 4 Positioning door and window frames

Door and Window Frames

The door frame provides a secure attachment for the door. Depending on the type of door, its function, and its location, different types of door frames can be constructed. The most common door frame consists of three members (Fig. 1): Two vertical members called posts (a) One horizontal member called a head (b).

When it is necessary for the door to fit tightly in the frame, it consists of four members (Fig. 2): Two posts (a) One head (b) One member on the floor, called the threshold (c). When additional light or ventilation is needed for a room, a fanlight is added to the frame structure by adding one more member between the posts, called a transom (Fig. 3, d). Note that since the threshold is in direct contact with the floor, or even partly embedded in the floor, it is in special danger from attack by termites or fungus (Reference Book, pages 141 to 144).



Each of the above door frames can be made either with beads (Fig. 4) or a rebated construction (Fig. 5). Beads are preferred over a rebate for two reasons: the construction is easier, and it is possible to adjust the beads after the door is hung. Beads are always fixed into place after the frame is installed and the door is hung. Rebates, however, do have a better appearance than beads, and no extra wood is required to make a rebated frame.


The joints for a door frame made with beads can be common mortice and tenon joints for box-like constructions. They may be either pegged, wedged or nailed (Basic Knowledge, pages 104 to 106, and 124; also Drawing Book page 43 and pages 67 to 71). If a transom is required, it should be installed using a stub tenon joint to prevent water from penetrating the mortice (Basic Knowledge, page 122). If a threshold is installed, a common mortice and tenon joint is used for it, but wedges should not be used since they might fall out. Pegs cannot be used either, because the threshold is too thin. This joint should be nailed.


If the door frame is made with a rebate, take care that the shoulders of the tenons are set out and cut correctly. One shoulder of the tenon is cut longer to fit the rebate (Drawing Book, pages 67 & 68).


The thickness of the tenon is affected by the size of the rebate. If the rebate is 1/3rd or less of the width of the member, the tenon will not be reduced in size (Fig. 1). If the rebate is wider than 1/3rd of the member, the thickness of the tenon (and accordingly the mortice width) is reduced by the depth of the rebate (Fig. 2).

Besides these considerations, the construction of these joints will be the same as for any common mortice and tenon joints for box-like constructions.


HORNS: in order to provide an additional attachment to the wall, the ends of the head and the threshold can project beyond the posts into the wall. This is especially necessary in mud walls.


These projecting parts can be shaped like horns (Fig. 1), or else the front corners can be cut off at an angle (Fig. 2). These shapes give a good appearance to the frame head when the frame is built into the wall.

The function of a window frame is to admit light and air into the building. The most common frame used is the solid window type, consisting of an outer frame into which a casement or louvres are fitted.

The most common window frame consists of four parts (Fig. 1): Two posts (a) One head (b) One cill (c)


When additional light and ventilation are needed, a fanlight can be added. The extra piece is called a transom (Fig. 2, d).

If wider windows are required, a mullion (Fig. 3, e) can be added.

Any of these frames can be made with a rebate or with beads, or with a combination of the two (Figs. 4 & 5).

For a list of the advantages and disadvantages of beads or rebates, see the section on door frames. If beads are used, they are fixed after the casement is installed, so they can be adjusted.



When the block work has reached window cill level, the frames can be set and aligned in the same way as a door frame. The chief difference is that in the window frame the horizontal members are usually longer than the vertical members, and for that reason more attention is given to leveling the head and cill of a window frame than to levelling the head of the door frame (Fig. 1).

If more than one frame is installed, check them by comparing from a distance to see if they are aligned, as with door frames.


This second method is not so commonly used, but It also has Its advantages. in order to keep the frames clean, square and dry, they are kept in a store ua+il the building is roofed.


Openings are left in the blockwork to receive the frames, horns, and steel cramps. The frame is set into this opening and the steel cramps and horns are secured with mortar. Sometimes hard wood or plastic plugs are used to secure the frame in the wall. - NOTE: The window frame does not rest directly on the landcrete wall; this would provide a path for moisture to get into the landcrete and weaken or damage it. The window frame is set upon a bed of concrete or cement mortar (Fig. 1, A).


Erection of Brick Structures

The art of brick laying consists in arranging and bedding bricks in mortar in such a manner as to form a well-united mass known as bricks work or bricks masonry. Such a mass can withstand forces without disintegration of the structure. In other wards an assemblage of bricks properly bounded together in mortar is called bricks masonry or brick work. The mortar to be used in brick masonry may be cement mortar, lime mortar or cement-lime mortar, depending upon the class and strength of work desired. At this level some of the important topics concerning Bricks Masonry have been discussed in order to provide adequate knowledge to the student about the principles and use of this type of masonry used in building construction. Brick masonry is commonly used for the construction of ordinary as well as important buildings and other structures in areas where natural stone is not obtainable cheaply and abundantly but there is plenty of suitable clay for the manufacture of bricks.

Technical terms used in brick masonry

Some important technical terms concerning brick masonry are discussed below: Arises: - The edge formed by the intersection of plane surfaces Frog: - the depression provided on the face of a brick. Course: - A complete layer of bricks laid on the same bed. 16

Bed: - The bottom surface of the brick when it is laid flat. Stretcher: - The side surface of a brick visible in elevation when the brick is laid flat brick face exposed showing (250 x 60) mm (full brick). Header: - The end surface of the brick when the brick is laid flat & end of brick exposed showing (120x 60) mm. Perpends: -These are vertical joints between bricks either in longitudinal or cross directions. Bed joint: -The horizontal mortar joint between two successive courses. Lap: - The horizontal distance between two perpends in two successive courses. Quoins: - The external corner of walls.

Bat: - portion of brick greater than a quarter

Closer: - The portions made by cutting standard bricks along their length usually one

quarter of stretcher
Queen closer: - A portion of bricks with the widths half of full brick, but the length equal to full brick. Facing: - the external surface of brick wall. Backing: - the internal surface of brick wall. Hearting: - The inner portion between the facing and backing of brick wall.


Rules of bonding
Most of the following rules are applied to brick masonry work o Length of the brick is twice of the width plus one mortar joint, so that it will give us a uniform lap. o The vertical joints in the alternate courses should be along the same perpend. o Centerline of stretcher should coincide centerline of header. o As much as possible the use of brick portions has to be avoided. o The lap should be one-fourth of the brick length.

Factors governing the strength of brick masonry

The following three factors greatly affect the strength of brick masonry work - Quality of the brick - Quality of the mortar - Type of bonding

Identification of methods of Bond

Bonding is a process of arranging bricks with mortar to tie them together in a mass of brickwork. It is the method of arranging bricks in courses so that individual are tied together and the vertical joints of the successive courses due not lie in the same vertical line. It should have a minimum of vertical joints in any part of the work. A wall having continuous vertical joints shall act as independent column. Hence, in such cases, load on wall shall not be uniformly distributed and there are chances of load settlement. A more strong and durable brick masonry construction must not have continuous vertical joints. It shall distribute load on a wider area and thereby minimize the tendency to settlement and other horizontal forces. Brick bonds are of various types but at this level we are going to discus on the following some important bond types in brick masonry wall.

Purpose of Bonding
To make the wall as a single unit with more strength & stability To distribute the load over a large area
To improve the appearance

The following are types of bonds commonly used in brick masonry 1. Stretcher bond 2. Header bond 3. English bond 4. Flemish bond (Single and double) & Other bond types


Erection of Concrete block structures Concrete Block masonry Introduction

The term concrete block is applied to various kinds and sizes of hollow or solid blocks, which can be made in either hand moulds, steel hand machines or pressed hydraulically in concrete factories and laid by mason. Concrete block masonry can be defined as the construction of structures in concrete blocks with suitable type of mortar. Concrete block can be used successfully for a wide variety of construction purposes, including the erection of buildings, fences, and other similar structure.

Advantages of concrete block masonry

Low cost construction Very good Sound and heat insulation Easy and rapid for erection Uniform in size Laying concrete block walls The following steps are recommended for the laying of concrete block walls: Step 1: check the designers dimension to determine an accurate block layout Step 2: Set one course of block on the foundation without the use of mortar. This helps to determine if any cutting of blocks will be necessary. Steps 3: To lay the first course of blocks with mortar follow the following steps. i. ii. iii. iv. Mix the mortar with the proportion of 1:3; for superstructure, and 1:4 for substructure. Spread the mortar with trowel to ensure complete bedding. Lay corner block, and great care should be taken in positioning it correctly as the block will act as a guide for the entire work. Lay other blocks in the middle in each course, and it is carefully checked for the level and alignment. 19 Structurally strong Saves mortar Great durability High weather and fire resistance

v. vi.

Take great care in aligning, leveling and plumbing the first course, as it is essential in building straight and true wall. In laying block for the wall between corners, a mason line is stretched from corner for each course. The outside top of each block is then laid to this line.

vii. viii. ix.

If the block must be cut, care should be taken that the cut is accurate. Excess mortar squeezed from the block joints as it is laid is removed with a trowel. All final adjustment to a block must be made while the mortar is wet. For steps stated above refer, figures below.


Introduction Walls are left invariably open for the provision of windows, doors, etc so that, a structural member is needed to bridge over those openings and to carry the lead coming from the wall just above the openings. A lintel is a horizontal structural members (beam) crossing over an opening. It is a small beam having a width equal to the width of the wall. The ends of the lintel are built into the wall to be monolithic so as to carry the load of the above masonry wall. The depth of a lintel depends on the amount of load expected to be carried by. Classification of lintel & their construction Based on the types of materials used for construction, lintels can be classified into:1. Timber lintels Timber lintels are the oldest type of lintel which are not commonly used now-a-days except in hilly areas. They are structurally weak and highly susceptible for fire catch. They are also liable to decay if not properly ventilated.

Fig 7.1 Timber lintel Timber lintel can be constructed by joining two members together keeping their distance constant with the help of a third wooden piece, so as to make its width equal to the width of the wall by using a bolt (nail).


2. Stone lintels These are the most common types of lintels where stones are abundantly available. A stone lintel consists of a simple stone slab in the form of one piece or more than one piece along the width of the wall. Since stones are very weak in tension they should not be used in the place where shock & vibrations are very common without caution.

Fig 7.2 Stone lintel 3. Brick lintels Brick lintels are not this mush & structurally strong. Because of this they are used only for small openings (less than 1m) and small loads. To increase their strength, sometimes they may be reinforced.

Fig 7.3 Brick lintel 4. Steel lintels These are used when openings are large and loads are very heavy. One or more rolled steel I-section may be used based on the length of the span & the amount of the super imposed load. When a single RS (rolled steel) member is used, either it should be embedded in concrete or cladded with stone in order to increase its width to fit with the wall width When two or more members are used, their distance should be kept constant by using a tube separator like shown in the figure below.

(a )



Fig 7.4 I-SECTION STEEL LINTEL :(a) Single I-section embedded with concrete, (b) Single I-section cladded with stone, (c) Triple I-section connected by a tube separator.


5. Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) lintel These are the most common & widely used types of lintel. Now a day, they have been replacing all other lintels b/se of their strength, rigidity, fire resistance, economy and ease in construction. The width of RCC lintels is kept equal to the width of the wall, while the depth depends on the amount of the super imposed load. For construction, two types reinforcement bars are used, namely bars & stirrups. Main bars are placed at the bottom of the lintel to take over the tensile stresses, how over, half of them may be cranked up near the ends. Shear strings are also provided at some interval to resist shear stresses.

Fig 7.5 RC lintel

Joints in Stone Masonry

The gap b/n two masonry units (stones) should be filled with a cementing material to prevent lateral/relative displacement & to distribute the load uniformly down to the next course. So, different types of joints can be used. Those are: Butt joint simple joint (see fig-h) Rebate joint (lap joint) to prevent movement of a stone over the other. (see fig-i) Table joint to prevent lateral movement. (see fig-j) Tongued & grooved joint to prevent sliding of stones. (see fig-k) Dowel joint ordinary joint (see fig-l) Cramped joint using metal cramp (see fig-m) Plugged joint by pouring molten lead. (see fig-n)


Fig 4.2. Sketch showing joints 1. Brick sills Te purpose of providing windows sill is to give a suitable finish to the window opening and to project the external wall below such openings. The following factors are considered at the time of construction of a brick sill. A. Suitable slope is provided to the top of the sill and it is properly throated to throw off the water outside. The projection of sill, if given, should not be less than 50mm. B. The top surface of the windowsill is smoothly finished. C. It should be constructed in suitable courses. D. Damp-proof course may be provided below windowsills to prevent the entry of moisture inside the main wall. For the construction of brick sills, bricks are placed on edge with suitable slope. Sometimes slightly projected tiles are inserted below them to have a better appearance. Specially molded bricks with throating are also used for the construction of brick sills.