# CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

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Reinforced Concrete Beams
Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

Concrete as a material Concrete in a structure Stress distribution in a reinforced concrete beam

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

Blast failure of a reinforced concrete wall Geometric model a reinforced concrete bridge

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Mathematical model for failure in an unreinforced concrete beam

Blast failure of a reinforced concrete wall

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

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Reinforced Concrete Beams
In the reinforced concrete beam project, there are three different failure mode we need to investigate

Reinforced Concrete Beams
First, lets consider the loading of the beam

P

P

P/2

P/2

Reinforced Concrete Beams
The purpose of RC is the reinforcement of areas in concrete that are weak in tension

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Let’s look at the internal forces acting on the beam and locate the tension zones

P

P

∑F
V

=

P
2

−V

⇒ V =

P
2

P/2

P/2

P/2

P/2

Reinforced Concrete Beams
The shear between the applied load and the support is constant V = P/2

Reinforced Concrete Beams
The shear between the applied load and the support is constant V = P/2

P/2

P/2

P/2

P/2

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

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Reinforced Concrete Beams
The shear between the applied load and the support is constant V = P/2 The shear force V = P/2 is constant between the applied load and the support

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Let’s look at the internal moment at section between the supports and applied load

P M

∑M = 2 x
X max = 8 inches

P

P/2

P/2

P/2

x

P/2

M = P/2 4P

(in lbs )

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Let’s look at the internal moment at section between the supports and applied load The bending moment is the internal reaction to forces g which cause a beam to bend. Bending moment can also be referred to as torque

Reinforced Concrete Beams
The top of the beam is in compression and the bottom of the beam is in tension

M the cut surface C

Compression force on the upper Bending moment distributed on part of the concrete beam

P
2

T

Tension force on the lower part of the concrete beam

Reinforced Concrete Beams
To model the behavior of a reinforced concrete beam we will need to understand three distinct regions in the beam. Two are illustrated below; the third is called shear shear.
cut surface M the Compression C Bending moment distributed on

Reinforced Concrete Beams
We need models to help us with compression, tension, and shear failures in concrete

P

P
2

T

Tension

Tension

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

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Reinforced Concrete Beams
We need models to help us with compression, tension, and shear failures in concrete

Reinforced Concrete Beams
We need models to help us with compression, tension, and shear failures in concrete

P

P

Compression

Shear

Shear

Reinforced Concrete Beams
We need models to help us with compression, tension, and shear failures in concrete

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Compression and tension failures in a reinforced concrete beam

P

Shear

Compression Tension

Shear

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Compression and tension failures in a reinforced concrete beam

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Shear failure in a reinforced concrete beam

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

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Reinforced Concrete Beams
Shear failure in a reinforced concrete beam

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
In the 1930s, Whitney proposed the use of a rectangular compressive stress distribution

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
In the 1930s, Whitney proposed the use of a rectangular compressive stress distribution
k3f’c

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
Assume that the concrete contributes nothing to the tensile strength of the beam
k3f’c

b c h d

k2 x

0.85f’c a

0.5a

b c h

P

k2 x

0.85f’c a

0.5a

C

C

C

C

As

As

Shear

d

Compression Tension
T

Shear
T

T

T

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
Assume that the complex distribution of compressive stress in the concrete can be approximated by a rectangle
b c h k3f’c

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
The height of the stress box, a, is defined as a percentage of the depth to the neural axis

P

k2 x

0.85f’c a

0.5a

0.85f’c a

0.5a

C

C

c

C

a = β1c

As

Shear

d

Compression Tension
T

Shear
T
T

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

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Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
The height of the stress box, a, is defined as a percentage of the depth to the neural axis

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
The values of the tension and compression forces are:
0.85f’c a

f ' ≤ 4000 psi c

β1 = 0.85
d

0.5a

C

C = 0.85f ' ba c

f ' ≥ 4000 psi c
β1 = 0.85 − 0.05⎜
⎛ f ' −4000 ⎞ c ⎟ ≥ 0.65 ⎝ 1000 ⎠

T = Asfy
T

∑F

=0

a =

Asfy 0.85f ' b c

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
If the tension force capacity of the steel is too high, than the value of a is large
0.85f’c a d 0.5a

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
The internal moment is the value of either the tension or compression force multiplied the distance between them
0.85f’c 0.5a

C

a =

Asfy 0.85f ' b c

a d

C

⎜ ∑ M =T ⎛ d ⎝

a⎞
⎟ 2⎠

T

If a > d, then you have too much steel

T

M = Asfy ⎛d − ⎜

a⎞
⎟ 2⎠

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
The internal moment is the value of either the tension or compression force multiplied the distance between them
0.85f’c a d 0.5a

Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
The internal moment is the value of either the tension or compression force multiplied the distance between them

C

a M = Asfy ⎛d − ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝
Substitute the value for a

M = Asfy ⎜d − 0.59 ⎜

Asfy ⎞ ⎟ f' b ⎟ c ⎠

We know that the moment in our reinforced concrete beans is

M = 4P

M = 4P

T

M = Asfy ⎜d − 0.59 ⎜

Asfy ⎞ ⎟ f' b ⎟ c ⎠

P tension =

Asfy 4

Asfy ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ d - 0.59 ⎟ f'c b ⎠ ⎝

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

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Reinforced Concrete Beams
There is a “balanced” condition where the stress in the steel reinforcement and the stress in the concrete are both at their yield points The amount of steel required to reach the balanced strain condition is defined in terms of the reinforcement ratio:

Reinforced Concrete Beams
The limits of the reinforcement ratio are established as:

P

A ρ= s bd

c > 0.600 d c < 0.375 d

Beam failure is controlled by

compr ss on compression

0.375 <

Compression

c < 0.600 Transition between tension d and compression control
Beam failure is controlled by

tension

Reinforced Concrete Beams
The limits of the reinforcement ratio are established as:
Reinforcement ratio definition

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Lets consider shear failure in unreinforced concrete

ρ =

As bd

Vcr = 2 f ' bd cP
V = P
Shear

ρ as function of c/d

c f' c ρ = 0.85 β1 d fy

2

P = 4 f ' bd Shear c

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Lets consider shear failure in reinforced concrete

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Lets consider compression failure in over reinforced concrete First, let define an equation that given the stress in the tensile steel when concrete reaches its ultimate strain

P

Vs −Vcr =
V = P
Shear

Afy d v s

Shear

2

⎛d −c ⎞ fsteel = 87, 000 psi ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ c ⎠
If fsteel < fy then or
c > 0.600 d

Pshear = 2 ⎜

⎛ Afy d v ⎝ s

⎞ + 2 f ' bd ⎟ c ⎠

Mcompression = As ⎜

a⎞ ⎛d − c ⎞⎛ ⎟ ⎜ d − 2 ⎟ 87, 000 psi ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠⎝

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

8/10

Reinforced Concrete Beams
Lets consider compression failure in over reinforced concrete First, let define an equation that given the stress in the tensile steel when concrete reaches its ultimate strain

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
Let’s use the failure models to predict the ultimate strength-to-weight (SWR) of one of our reinforced concrete beams from lab Consider a beam with the following characteristics:
Concrete strength f’c = 5,000 psi Steel strength fy = 60,000 psi The tension reinforcement will be 2 #4 rebars The shear reinforcement will be #3 rebars bent in a U-shape spaced at 4 inches. Use the minimum width to accommodate the reinforcement

P

M = 4P
Shear
Pcompression A ⎛d −c = s ⎜ 4 ⎝ c

only if fs < fy
a⎞ ⎞⎛ ⎟ ⎜ d − 2 ⎟ 87, 000 psi ⎠ ⎠⎝

Shear

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
Reinforcing bars are denoted by the bar number. The diameter and area of standard rebars are shown below.
Bar # 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Diameter (in) As (in 2 ) 0.375 0.500 0 500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.128 1.270 1.410 0.11 0.20 0 20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
Based on the choice of reinforcement we can compute an estimate of b and d
#4 rebar diameter Minimum cover
#3 rebar diameter

b

b ≥ 2(0.5 in ) + 2(0.75 in ) + 2(0.375 in )

+ 0.75 in =
6”
#4

4.0 in

d

Space between bars

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
If we allow a minimum cover under the rebars were can estimate d
Half of #4 bar diameter Minimum cover

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
We now have values for b, d, and As

b

d =6−
6”
#4

0.5 05 −0.75 −0.375 2
#3 rebar diameter

b

M = Asfy ⎜d − 0.59 ⎜

d

Asfy ⎞ ⎟ f' b ⎟ c ⎠

d

6”
#4

The As for two #4 rebars is:

d =

4.625 in

As = 2(0.20 in 2 ) = 0.40 in 2

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

9/10

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
Compute the moment capacity

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
Let’s check the shear model

Asfy ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ M = Asfy ⎜d − 0.59 ⎜ f' b ⎟ c ⎝ ⎠
⎛ 0.4in 2 (60ksi ) ⎞ = 0.4in 2 (60ksi ) ⎜ 4.625in − 0.59 ⎟ 5ksi (4in ) ⎠ ⎝

Pshear = 2 ⎜

⎛ Afy d v

s

⎞ + 2 f ' bd ⎟ c ⎠

Area of two #3 rebars

⎛ 2 ( 0.11in 2 ) ( 60, 000 psi ) 4.625 in ⎞ = 2⎜ + 2 5, 000 psi ( 4 in )( 4.625 in ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 4 in ⎝ ⎠
Shear reinforcement spacing

= 94.0 k ⋅ in

⇒P =

M
4

= 23.5 kips

= 35,757 lbs = 35.76 kips
Since Ptension < Pshear therefore Ptension controls

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
Let’s check the reinforcement ratio

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
An β1 estimate is given as:

ρ =

As bd

Reinforcement ratio definition

f ' ≤ 4000 psi c
ρ as function of c/d

β1 = 0.85

ρ = 0.85 β1

c f' c d fy

f ' ≥ 4000 psi c
β1 = 0.85 − 0.05⎜
⎛ f ' −4000 ⎞ c ⎟ ≥ 0.65 ⎝ 1000 ⎠

To compute ρ, first we need to estimate β1

β1 = 0.85 − 0.05 ⎜

⎛ 5, 000 − 4, 000 ⎞ ⎟ = 0.80 1, 000 ⎝ ⎠

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
Check the reinforcement ratio for the maximum steel allowed for tension controlled behavior or c/d = 0.375

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
However, the maximum about of steel where compression is in control is c/d = 0.600

ρ = 0.85 β1

5 ksi c f' c = 0.85(0.80)0.375 d fy 60 ksi

ρ = 0.85 β1

5 ksi c f' c = 0.85(0.80)0.600 d fy 60 ksi

= 0.021
ρ=
0.4 in 2 As = = 0.022 bd 4in (4.625in )

= 0.034
ρ=
0.4 in 2 As = = 0.022 bd 4in (4.625in )

The amount of steel in this beam is just a bit over the allowable for tension controlled behavior.

Therefore, the beam is in the lower part of the transition zone and for our purposes is OK.

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

10/10

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
An estimate of the weight of the beam can be made as:
Size of concrete beam Unit weight of concrete

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
In summary, this reinforced concrete beam will fail in tension
4”

W =

(4in )(6in )(30in ) ⎛ 145lb ⎞ 1728in 3 /ft 3 ⎜ ft 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
Unit weight of steel

Additional weight of rebars

⇒ P = 23 5 kips 23.5
6” 4.625”

(0.4in 2 )(30in ) ⎛ 490lb − 145lb ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ 1728in 3 /ft 3 ⎝ ft 3 ⎠

SWR =
As = 0.4 in2

= 60.42lb + 2.39lb = 62.81lb

23,500lb = 62.81lb

374.2

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis

Questions?