- Beam Detailing
- reinforced concrete
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Structure Volume 1
- Interaction Diagram for Concrete Columns
- reinforced concrete structures
- Unit 3 ( DESIGN THEORY: LIMIT STATES AND BENDING )
- Simplified Design Reinforced Concrete Buildings of Moderate Size and Height
- Doubly Reinforced Beams – Theory
- Fm
- Design of Reinforced Concrete Aci 318-05 - Jack c. Mccormac
- Slab Design
- BCA - Worked Examples Design of Concrete Building
- Concrete Beams With Openings Analysis Design
- Building-Structures-and-Technology
- Corbel Design Paper
- Slices and Shear
- NISTIR 5634 Prediction of Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Structures
- Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beam
- Informal Settlements in Metro Manila
- Impact of Fire on Steel Reinforcement of r.c.c Structures
- MATLAB Project Assembling the Global Stiffness Matrix
- Tensile Strength
- UFC 3-310-05A Masonry Structural Design for Buildings (03!01!2005)
- Unit 7 ( DESIGN DETAILS OF BEAMS )
- Expansion Joints - When Where and How
- Unit 4 ( DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR BEAM SECTIONS )
- Chapter 4 - Ethics
- Construction Loads and Cracking
- Calculation of Beam Deflection
- Rod Work
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Yes Please
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- John Adams
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- Steve Jobs
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- How To Win Friends and Influence People
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel
- The Incarnations: A Novel
- The Light Between Oceans: A Novel
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
- Leaving Berlin: A Novel
- Bel Canto
- The Master
- A Man Called Ove: A Novel
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- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- Life of Pi
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel
- The Cider House Rules
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel
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Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

1/10

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

Concrete as a material Concrete in a structure Stress distribution in a reinforced concrete beam

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

Blast failure of a reinforced concrete wall Geometric model a reinforced concrete bridge

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Mathematical modeling of reinforced concrete is essential to civil engineering

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Mathematical model for failure in an unreinforced concrete beam

Blast failure of a reinforced concrete wall

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

2/10

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

In the reinforced concrete beam project, there are three different failure mode we need to investigate

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

First, lets consider the loading of the beam

P

P

P/2

P/2

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

The purpose of RC is the reinforcement of areas in concrete that are weak in tension

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Let’s look at the internal forces acting on the beam and locate the tension zones

P

P

∑F

V

=

P

2

−V

⇒ V =

P

2

P/2

P/2

P/2

P/2

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

The shear between the applied load and the support is constant V = P/2

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

The shear between the applied load and the support is constant V = P/2

P/2

P/2

P/2

P/2

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

3/10

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

The shear between the applied load and the support is constant V = P/2 The shear force V = P/2 is constant between the applied load and the support

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Let’s look at the internal moment at section between the supports and applied load

P M

∑M = 2 x

X max = 8 inches

P

P/2

P/2

P/2

x

P/2

M = P/2 4P

(in lbs )

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Let’s look at the internal moment at section between the supports and applied load The bending moment is the internal reaction to forces g which cause a beam to bend. Bending moment can also be referred to as torque

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

The top of the beam is in compression and the bottom of the beam is in tension

M the cut surface C

Compression force on the upper Bending moment distributed on part of the concrete beam

P

2

T

Tension force on the lower part of the concrete beam

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

To model the behavior of a reinforced concrete beam we will need to understand three distinct regions in the beam. Two are illustrated below; the third is called shear shear.

cut surface M the Compression C Bending moment distributed on

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

We need models to help us with compression, tension, and shear failures in concrete

P

P

2

T

Tension

Tension

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

4/10

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

We need models to help us with compression, tension, and shear failures in concrete

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

We need models to help us with compression, tension, and shear failures in concrete

P

P

Compression

Shear

Shear

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

We need models to help us with compression, tension, and shear failures in concrete

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Compression and tension failures in a reinforced concrete beam

P

Shear

Compression Tension

Shear

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Compression and tension failures in a reinforced concrete beam

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Shear failure in a reinforced concrete beam

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

5/10

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Shear failure in a reinforced concrete beam

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

In the 1930s, Whitney proposed the use of a rectangular compressive stress distribution

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

In the 1930s, Whitney proposed the use of a rectangular compressive stress distribution

k3f’c

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

Assume that the concrete contributes nothing to the tensile strength of the beam

k3f’c

b c h d

k2 x

0.85f’c a

0.5a

b c h

P

k2 x

0.85f’c a

0.5a

C

C

C

C

As

As

Shear

d

Compression Tension

T

Shear

T

T

T

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

Assume that the complex distribution of compressive stress in the concrete can be approximated by a rectangle

b c h k3f’c

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

The height of the stress box, a, is defined as a percentage of the depth to the neural axis

P

k2 x

0.85f’c a

0.5a

0.85f’c a

0.5a

C

C

c

C

a = β1c

As

Shear

d

Compression Tension

T

Shear

T

T

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

6/10

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

The height of the stress box, a, is defined as a percentage of the depth to the neural axis

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

The values of the tension and compression forces are:

0.85f’c a

f ' ≤ 4000 psi c

⇒

β1 = 0.85

d

0.5a

C

C = 0.85f ' ba c

f ' ≥ 4000 psi c

β1 = 0.85 − 0.05⎜

⎛ f ' −4000 ⎞ c ⎟ ≥ 0.65 ⎝ 1000 ⎠

T = Asfy

T

∑F

=0

a =

Asfy 0.85f ' b c

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

If the tension force capacity of the steel is too high, than the value of a is large

0.85f’c a d 0.5a

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

The internal moment is the value of either the tension or compression force multiplied the distance between them

0.85f’c 0.5a

C

a =

Asfy 0.85f ' b c

a d

C

⎜ ∑ M =T ⎛ d ⎝

−

a⎞

⎟ 2⎠

T

If a > d, then you have too much steel

T

M = Asfy ⎛d − ⎜

⎝

a⎞

⎟ 2⎠

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

The internal moment is the value of either the tension or compression force multiplied the distance between them

0.85f’c a d 0.5a

**Whitney Rectangular Stress Distribution
**

The internal moment is the value of either the tension or compression force multiplied the distance between them

C

a M = Asfy ⎛d − ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝

Substitute the value for a

M = Asfy ⎜d − 0.59 ⎜

⎝

⎛

Asfy ⎞ ⎟ f' b ⎟ c ⎠

We know that the moment in our reinforced concrete beans is

M = 4P

M = 4P

T

M = Asfy ⎜d − 0.59 ⎜

⎝

⎛

Asfy ⎞ ⎟ f' b ⎟ c ⎠

P tension =

Asfy 4

Asfy ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ d - 0.59 ⎟ f'c b ⎠ ⎝

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

7/10

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

There is a “balanced” condition where the stress in the steel reinforcement and the stress in the concrete are both at their yield points The amount of steel required to reach the balanced strain condition is defined in terms of the reinforcement ratio:

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

The limits of the reinforcement ratio are established as:

P

A ρ= s bd

c > 0.600 d c < 0.375 d

Beam failure is controlled by

compr ss on compression

0.375 <

Compression

**c < 0.600 Transition between tension d and compression control
**

Beam failure is controlled by

tension

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

The limits of the reinforcement ratio are established as:

Reinforcement ratio definition

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Lets consider shear failure in unreinforced concrete

ρ =

As bd

Vcr = 2 f ' bd cP

V = P

Shear

ρ as function of c/d

c f' c ρ = 0.85 β1 d fy

2

P = 4 f ' bd Shear c

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Lets consider shear failure in reinforced concrete

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Lets consider compression failure in over reinforced concrete First, let define an equation that given the stress in the tensile steel when concrete reaches its ultimate strain

P

Vs −Vcr =

V = P

Shear

Afy d v s

Shear

2

**⎛d −c ⎞ fsteel = 87, 000 psi ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ c ⎠
**

If fsteel < fy then or

c > 0.600 d

Pshear = 2 ⎜

⎛ Afy d v ⎝ s

⎞ + 2 f ' bd ⎟ c ⎠

Mcompression = As ⎜

a⎞ ⎛d − c ⎞⎛ ⎟ ⎜ d − 2 ⎟ 87, 000 psi ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠⎝

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

8/10

**Reinforced Concrete Beams
**

Lets consider compression failure in over reinforced concrete First, let define an equation that given the stress in the tensile steel when concrete reaches its ultimate strain

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

Let’s use the failure models to predict the ultimate strength-to-weight (SWR) of one of our reinforced concrete beams from lab Consider a beam with the following characteristics:

Concrete strength f’c = 5,000 psi Steel strength fy = 60,000 psi The tension reinforcement will be 2 #4 rebars The shear reinforcement will be #3 rebars bent in a U-shape spaced at 4 inches. Use the minimum width to accommodate the reinforcement

P

M = 4P

Shear

Pcompression A ⎛d −c = s ⎜ 4 ⎝ c

only if fs < fy

a⎞ ⎞⎛ ⎟ ⎜ d − 2 ⎟ 87, 000 psi ⎠ ⎠⎝

Shear

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

Reinforcing bars are denoted by the bar number. The diameter and area of standard rebars are shown below.

Bar # 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Diameter (in) As (in 2 ) 0.375 0.500 0 500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.128 1.270 1.410 0.11 0.20 0 20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

Based on the choice of reinforcement we can compute an estimate of b and d

#4 rebar diameter Minimum cover

#3 rebar diameter

b

b ≥ 2(0.5 in ) + 2(0.75 in ) + 2(0.375 in )

+ 0.75 in =

6”

#4

4.0 in

d

Space between bars

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

If we allow a minimum cover under the rebars were can estimate d

Half of #4 bar diameter Minimum cover

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

We now have values for b, d, and As

b

d =6−

6”

#4

0.5 05 −0.75 −0.375 2

#3 rebar diameter

b

M = Asfy ⎜d − 0.59 ⎜

⎝

d

⎛

Asfy ⎞ ⎟ f' b ⎟ c ⎠

d

6”

#4

The As for two #4 rebars is:

d =

4.625 in

As = 2(0.20 in 2 ) = 0.40 in 2

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

9/10

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

Compute the moment capacity

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

Let’s check the shear model

Asfy ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ M = Asfy ⎜d − 0.59 ⎜ f' b ⎟ c ⎝ ⎠

⎛ 0.4in 2 (60ksi ) ⎞ = 0.4in 2 (60ksi ) ⎜ 4.625in − 0.59 ⎟ 5ksi (4in ) ⎠ ⎝

Pshear = 2 ⎜

⎝

⎛ Afy d v

s

⎞ + 2 f ' bd ⎟ c ⎠

Area of two #3 rebars

**⎛ 2 ( 0.11in 2 ) ( 60, 000 psi ) 4.625 in ⎞ = 2⎜ + 2 5, 000 psi ( 4 in )( 4.625 in ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 4 in ⎝ ⎠
**

Shear reinforcement spacing

= 94.0 k ⋅ in

⇒P =

M

4

= 23.5 kips

**= 35,757 lbs = 35.76 kips
**

Since Ptension < Pshear therefore Ptension controls

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

Let’s check the reinforcement ratio

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

An β1 estimate is given as:

ρ =

As bd

Reinforcement ratio definition

f ' ≤ 4000 psi c

ρ as function of c/d

⇒

β1 = 0.85

ρ = 0.85 β1

c f' c d fy

f ' ≥ 4000 psi c

β1 = 0.85 − 0.05⎜

⎛ f ' −4000 ⎞ c ⎟ ≥ 0.65 ⎝ 1000 ⎠

To compute ρ, first we need to estimate β1

β1 = 0.85 − 0.05 ⎜

⎛ 5, 000 − 4, 000 ⎞ ⎟ = 0.80 1, 000 ⎝ ⎠

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

Check the reinforcement ratio for the maximum steel allowed for tension controlled behavior or c/d = 0.375

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

However, the maximum about of steel where compression is in control is c/d = 0.600

ρ = 0.85 β1

5 ksi c f' c = 0.85(0.80)0.375 d fy 60 ksi

ρ = 0.85 β1

5 ksi c f' c = 0.85(0.80)0.600 d fy 60 ksi

= 0.021

ρ=

0.4 in 2 As = = 0.022 bd 4in (4.625in )

= 0.034

ρ=

0.4 in 2 As = = 0.022 bd 4in (4.625in )

The amount of steel in this beam is just a bit over the allowable for tension controlled behavior.

Therefore, the beam is in the lower part of the transition zone and for our purposes is OK.

CIVL 1112

Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Beams

10/10

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

An estimate of the weight of the beam can be made as:

Size of concrete beam Unit weight of concrete

**Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis
**

In summary, this reinforced concrete beam will fail in tension

4”

W =

**(4in )(6in )(30in ) ⎛ 145lb ⎞ 1728in 3 /ft 3 ⎜ ft 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
**

Unit weight of steel

Additional weight of rebars

⇒ P = 23 5 kips 23.5

6” 4.625”

(0.4in 2 )(30in ) ⎛ 490lb − 145lb ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ 1728in 3 /ft 3 ⎝ ft 3 ⎠

SWR =

As = 0.4 in2

= 60.42lb + 2.39lb = 62.81lb

23,500lb = 62.81lb

374.2

Reinforced Concrete Beam Analysis

Questions?

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